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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910320/differential-gene-expression-following-tlr-stimulation-in-rag1-mutant-zebrafish-tissues-and-morphological-descriptions-of-lymphocyte-like-cell-populations
#1
Preeti J Muire, Larry A Hanson, Robert Wills, Lora Petrie-Hanson
In the absence of lymphocytes, rag1-/- mutant zebrafish develop protective immunity to bacteria. In mammals, induction of protection by innate immunity can be mediated by macrophages or natural killer (NK) cells. To elucidate potential responsive cell populations, we morphologically characterized lymphocyte-like cells (LLCs) from liver, spleen and kidney hematopoietic tissues. In fish, these cells include NK cells and Non-specific cytotoxic cells (NCCs). We also evaluated the transcriptional expression response of select genes that are important indicators of NK and macrophage activation after exposure to specific TLR ligands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900156/dual-roles-of-two-isoforms-of-autophagy-related-gene-atg10-in-hcv-subgenomic-replicon-mediated-autophagy-flux-and-innate-immunity
#2
Qiong Zhao, Zhan-Ying Hu, Jing-Pu Zhang, Jian-Dong Jiang, Yuan-Yuan Ma, Jian-Rui Li, Zong-Gen Peng, Jin-Hua Chen
Autophagy and immune response are two defense systems that human-body uses against viral infection. Previous studies documented that some viral mechanisms circumvented host immunity mechanisms and hijacked autophagy for its replication and survival. Here, we focus on interactions between autophagy mechanism and innate-immune-response in HCV-subgenomic replicon cells to find a mechanism linking the two pathways. We report distinct effects of two autophagy-related protein ATG10s on HCV-subgenomic replication...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888110/association-of-toll-like-receptor-polymorphisms-with-susceptibility-to-chikungunya-virus-infection
#3
Sudip Kumar Dutta, Anusri Tripathi
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection leads to activation of innate immune response by triggering Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways resulting in elevated cytokines and type-I interferon levels. Genetic variations of these genes may influence human CHIKV-susceptibility and disease progression. Present study aimed to identify role of TLR polymorphisms in CHIKV-susceptibility and their association with cytokines and clinical symptoms. This is the first study illustrating certain genotypes of TLR-7 and TLR-8 SNPs viz...
September 6, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882806/modulatory-effect-of-different-doses-of-%C3%AE-1-3-1-6-glucan-on-the-expression-of-antioxidant-inflammatory-stress-and-immune-related-genes-of-oreochromis-niloticus-challenged-with-streptococcus-iniae
#4
Abdallah S Salah, Abeer F El Nahas, Shawky Mahmoud
β-glucans are widely-known immunostimulants that are profusely used in aquaculture industry. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different in-feed doses of β-1,3/1,6-glucans on the expression of antioxidant and stress-related genes (GST, HSP-70, Vtg), inflammation related genes (Il-8, TNFα, CXC-chemokine and CAS) and adaptive immune-related genes (MHC-IIβ, TLR-7, IgM-H, and Mx) of Oreochromis niloticus challenged and non-challenged with Streptococcus iniae. Six experimental groups were established: non-challenged control (non-supplemented diet), challenged control (non-supplemented diet), non-challenged supplemented with 0...
September 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871935/topical-imiquimod-is-an-effective-and-safe-drug-for-molluscum-contagiosum-in-children
#5
George Badavanis, Efstathia Pasmatzi, Alexandra Monastirli, Sophia Georgiou, Dionysios Tsambaos
Dear Editor, Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a very common skin infection caused by a molluscipox virus gene of the poxvirus family. It usually occurs in young children, sexually active adults, and immunocompromised individuals. The typical clinical picture of this infection is characterized by asymptomatic flesh-colored, single or multiple papules, measuring 2-6 mm in diameter with a central umbilication that occur on the skin and the mucous membranes. In adults, the skin lesions are predominantly located in the genital region, whereas in children they are found on the trunk, the extremities, and the face...
July 2017: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856441/toll-like-receptor-5-and-7-expression-may-impact-prognosis-of-hpv-positive-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-patients
#6
Lauri Jouhi, Hesham Mohamed, Antti Mäkitie, Satu Maria Remes, Caj Haglund, Timo Atula, Jaana Hagström
A large subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) is associated with HPV infection and has better outcome than non-viral-related tumors. Various malignancies also carry a role for TLRs, key activators of inflammation and innate immunity. We examined the expression of TLRs in OPSCC, and their association with HPV status and treatment outcome. TLR 5, 7, 9, and p16 were studied by immunohistochemistry and HPV status was detected with in situ hybridization in 202 tumors of consecutively treated OPSCC patients using tissue microarray method...
August 30, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806745/persistent-mycobacteria-evade-an-antibacterial-program-mediated-by-phagolysosomal-tlr7-8-myd88-in-human-primary-macrophages
#7
Alexandre Gidon, Signe Elisabeth Åsberg, Claire Louet, Liv Ryan, Markus Haug, Trude Helen Flo
Pathogenic mycobacteria reside in macrophages where they avoid lysosomal targeting and degradation through poorly understood mechanisms proposed to involve arrest of phagosomal maturation at an early endosomal stage. A clear understanding of how this relates to host defenses elicited from various intracellular compartments is also missing and can only be studied using techniques allowing single cell and subcellular analyses. Using confocal imaging of human primary macrophages infected with Mycobacterium avium (Mav) we show evidence that Mav phagosomes are not arrested at an early endosomal stage, but mature to a (LAMP1+/LAMP2+/CD63+) late endosomal/phagolysosomal stage where inflammatory signaling and Mav growth restriction is initiated through a mechanism involving Toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 8, the adaptor MyD88 and transcription factors NF-κB and IRF-1...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804955/3m-052-as-an-adjuvant-for-a-plga-microparticle-based-leishmania-donovani-recombinant-protein-vaccine
#8
Qian Wang, Meagan A Barry, Christopher A Seid, Elissa M Hudspeth, C Patrick McAtee, Michael J Heffernan
It is believed that an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis will require a T helper type 1 (TH 1) immune response. In this study, we investigated the adjuvanticity of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonist 3M-052 in combination with the Leishmania donovani 36-kDa nucleoside hydrolase recombinant protein antigen (NH36). NH36 and 3M-052 were encapsulated in separate batches of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles (MPs). The loading efficiency for NH36 was 83% and for 3M-052 was above 95%. In vitro stimulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, measured by IL-12 secretion, demonstrated that 3M-052 (free or MP-formulated) had a concentration-dependent immunostimulatory effect with an optimum concentration of 2 µg/mL...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698123/identification-molecular-evolution-of-toll-like-receptors-in-a-tibetan-schizothoracine-fish-gymnocypris-eckloni-and-their-expression-profiles-in-response-to-acute-hypoxia
#9
Delin Qi, Mingzhe Xia, Yan Chao, Yongli Zhao, Rongrong Wu
Hypoxia plays an important role in regulating a variety of physiological responses as well as in pathological situations, but to date the roles of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in fish in response to hypoxia are still poorly understood. Here, we sequenced the transcriptome of G. eckloni and identified the members of TLR family by scanning transcriptome, and then investigated the expression profiles of a complete set of TLRs in G. eckloni in response to acute hypoxia (4 h at DO = 0.3 ± 0.1 mg/L). The de novo-assembled transcriptome consisted of a total of 162,235 transcripts, further clustered into 110,231 unigenes...
July 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665921/rhododendrin-inhibits-toll-like-receptor-7-mediated-psoriasis-like-skin-inflammation-in-mice
#10
Yoon-Jae Jeon, Shyam Kishor Sah, Hee Seung Yang, Ji Hae Lee, Jongheon Shin, Tae-Yoon Kim
Many active compounds present in Rhododendron brachycarpum have been used in traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of various skin diseases. However, the precise mechanism of action of the compounds isolated from R. brachycarpum and their relevance as therapeutics for the treatment of psoriasis remain elusive. In this study, we report that rhododendrin isolated from R. brachycarpum strongly inhibits imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation in mice. We showed that topical treatment with rhododendrin reduces IMQ-induced skin hyperplasia, inflammatory mononuclear cell infiltration and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in mouse skin...
June 30, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637878/cd4-t-cell-and-nk-cell-interplay-key-to-regression-of-mhc-class-i-low-tumors-upon-tlr7-8-agonist-therapy
#11
Elien M Doorduijn, Marjolein Sluijter, Daniela C Salvatori, Serenella Silvestri, Saskia Maas, Ramon Arens, Ferry Ossendorp, Sjoerd H van der Burg, Thorbald van Hall
One of the next challenges in cancer immunotherapy is the resistance of tumors to T-cell-based treatments through loss of MHC class I. Here, we show that under these circumstances, the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7/8 ligand imiquimod, but not the TLR3 ligand poly I:C or TLR9 ligand CpG, mediated an effective antitumor response. The rejection of these immune-escaped cancers was mediated by NK cells and CD4(+) T cells, whereas activated CD8(+) T cells were dispensable. Application of the innate immune stimulator at a distant site activated NK cells and thereby elicited tumor-specific T-cell responses in tumor-bearing mice...
June 21, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635072/plgf-enhances-tlr-dependent-inflammatory-responses-in-human-mononuclear-phagocytes
#12
Laura F Newell, Shernan G Holtan, Jane E Yates, Leonardo Pereira, Jeffrey W Tyner, Irina Burd, Grover C Bagby
PROBLEM: Levels of placental growth factor (PlGF) peak during third trimester of pregnancy, a time when women are at increased risk of virus-induced morbidity. We hypothesized PlGF might contribute to an exaggerated inflammatory response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. METHOD OF STUDY: Primary human adult and cord blood CD14(+) cells were cultured in the presence of TLR ligands and/or PlGF. RESULTS: PlGF significantly enhanced the magnitude and duration of TNF messenger RNA and protein production by TLR-7/8-activated monocytes, and increased subsequent production of TNF-independent inflammatory cytokines...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609762/increased-toll-like-receptor-myeloid-differentiation-factor-88-expression-at-the-maternal-fetal-interface-is-associated-with-spontaneous-abortion
#13
Mengzhou He, Yuan Zhou, Min Jiang, Fanfan Li, Meitao Yang, Yao Fan, Dongrui Deng
AIMS: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) form a group of pattern recognition receptors that play a major role in maintaining innate host immunity. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an adaptor molecule that is essential for signaling via the TLR family. To analyze the mechanism of the imbalance in the innate immune system mediated by TLRs-MyD88 in spontaneous abortion, we detected the expression of TLR-2, TLR-4, TLR-7, and MyD88 in placentae and deciduas. METHODS: The expression of TLR-2, TLR-4, TLR-7, and MyD88 in the placentae and deciduas of abortion-prone mice (n = 10) and normal pregnant mice (n = 10) were analyzed by immunochemistry, western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction...
June 14, 2017: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601430/imiquimod-induced-autophagy-is-regulated-by-er-stress-mediated-pkr-activation-in-cancer-cells
#14
Shu-Hao Chang, Shi-Wei Huang, Sin-Ting Wang, Kai-Cheng Chung, Chia-Wei Hsieh, Jun-Kai Kao, Yi-Ju Chen, Chun-Ying Wu, Jeng-Jer Shieh
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular catabolic pathway for degradation and recycling of intracellular components in response to nutrient starvation or environmental stress. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis can be disturbed by physiological and pathological influences, resulting in accumulation of misfolded and unfolded proteins in the ER lumen, a condition referred to as ER stress. Imiquimod (IMQ), a Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 ligand, possesses anti-tumor and anti-viral activities in vitro and in vivo...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591543/influence-of-polyphenol-rich-diet-on-exercise-induced-immunomodulation-in-male-endurance-athletes
#15
Korbinian Lackermair, Johannes Scherr, Georg Waidhauser, Heiko Methe, Eva Hoster, David C Nieman, Alan Hanley, Sebastian Clauss, Martin Halle, Thomas Nickel
Stress is associated with increased susceptibility to infection. We investigated if the mechanism involves immunomodulation of dendritic cells and whether this can be inhibited by a polyphenol-rich diet. Blood samples were taken from a total of 100 male endurance athletes at 5 time points around a marathon run: 4 weeks before; 1 week before; and immediately, 24 h, and 72 h after. Participants were randomized into 2 double-blinded groups. One group received a polyphenol-rich beverage during a 3-week training phase before marathon while the other group received a placebo beverage...
June 7, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580131/recent-insights-into-the-implications-of-metabolism-in-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-innate-functions-potential-ways-to-control-these-functions
#16
REVIEW
Philippe Saas, Alexis Varin, Sylvain Perruche, Adam Ceroi
There are more and more data concerning the role of cellular metabolism in innate immune cells, such as macrophages or conventional dendritic cells. However, few data are available currently concerning plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC), another type of innate immune cells. These cells are the main type I interferon (IFN) producing cells, but they also secrete other pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor or interleukin [IL]-6) or immunomodulatory factors (e.g., IL-10 or transforming growth factor-β)...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572564/plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-appear-inactive-during-sub-microscopic-plasmodium-falciparum-blood-stage-infection-yet-retain-their-ability-to-respond-to-tlr-stimulation
#17
Jessica R Loughland, Gabriela Minigo, Derek S Sarovich, Matt Field, Peta E Tipping, Marcela Montes de Oca, Kim A Piera, Fiona H Amante, Bridget E Barber, Matthew J Grigg, Timothy William, Michael F Good, Denise L Doolan, Christian R Engwerda, Nicholas M Anstey, James S McCarthy, Tonia Woodberry
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are activators of innate and adaptive immune responses that express HLA-DR, toll-like receptor (TLR) 7, TLR9 and produce type I interferons. The role of human pDC in malaria remains poorly characterised. pDC activation and cytokine production were assessed in 59 malaria-naive volunteers during experimental infection with 150 or 1,800 P. falciparum-parasitized red blood cells. Using RNA sequencing, longitudinal changes in pDC gene expression were examined in five adults before and at peak-infection...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555259/in-vitro-differentiated-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-as-a-tool-to-induce-anti-leukemia-activity-of-natural-killer-cells
#18
Yildian Díaz-Rodríguez, Paulo Cordeiro, Assila Belounis, Sabine Herblot, Michel Duval
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is believed to be resistant to NK cell-mediated killing. To overcome this resistance, we developed an innovative approach based on NK cell stimulation with Toll-like receptor (TLR)-activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC). The translation of this approach into the clinic requires the production of high numbers of human pDC. Herein, we show that in vitro differentiation of cord blood CD34(+) progenitors in the presence of aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonists gives rise to clinically relevant numbers of pDC, as about 10(8) pDC can be produced from a typical cord blood unit...
May 29, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543613/comparative-pharmacokinetics-of-acteoside-from-total-glycoside-extracted-from-leaves-of-rehmannia-and-dihuangye-total-glycoside-capsule-in-normal-and-diabetic-nephropathy-rats
#19
Xin-Xin Dai, Shu-Lan Su, Hong-Die Cai, Dan-Dan Wei, Tian-Yao Zheng, Zhen-Hua Zhu, Hui Yan, Er-Xin Shang, Sheng Guo, Da-Wei Qian, Jin-Ao Duan
Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch (RG), is officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and is widely used in China. In this paper, a sensitive and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method including multiple-reaction monitoring mode was developed and applied to study the pharmacokinetic effect of acteoside from total glycoside extracted from the leaves of Rehmannia (TLR) and Dihuangye total glycoside capsule (DTG) in normal and diabetic nephropathy rats. The diabetic nephropathy rat model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of a small dose of streptozotocin and high-fat diet and plus 5% glucose drinking water...
May 23, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539639/the-absence-of-interferon-%C3%AE-promotor-stimulator-1-ips-1-predisposes-to-bronchiolitis-and-asthma-like-pathology-in-response-to-pneumoviral-infection-in-mice
#20
Jennifer Simpson, Jason P Lynch, Zhixuan Loh, Vivian Zhang, Rhiannon B Werder, Kirsten Spann, Simon Phipps
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-bronchiolitis is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality and a risk factor for subsequent asthma. We showed previously that toll-like receptor (TLR)7 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) is critical for protection against bronchiolitis and asthma in mice infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), the mouse homolog of RSV. This lack of redundancy was unexpected as interferon-β promotor stimulator-1 (IPS-1) signalling, downstream of RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and not TLR7 activation, contributes to host defence in hRSV-inoculated adult mice...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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