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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326081/the-smac-mimetic-bv6-improves-nk-cell-mediated-killing-of-rhabdomyosarcoma-cells-by-simultaneously-targeting-tumor-and-effector-cells
#1
Kyra Fischer, Sara Tognarelli, Stefanie Roesler, Cathinka Boedicker, Ralf Schubert, Alexander Steinle, Thomas Klingebiel, Peter Bader, Simone Fulda, Evelyn Ullrich
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common cancer of connective tissues in pediatrics, is often resistant to conventional therapies. One underlying mechanism of this resistance is the overexpression of Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins, leading to a dysfunctional cell death program within tumor cells. Smac mimetics (SM) are small molecules that can reactivate the cell death program by antagonizing IAP proteins and thereby compensating their overexpression. Here, we report that SM sensitize two RMS cell lines (RD and RH30) toward natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing on the one hand, and increase the cytotoxic potential of NK cells on the other...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320236/prevention-of-early-onset-group-b-streptococcal-disease-by-universal-antenatal-culture-based-screening-in-all-public-hospitals-in-hong-kong
#2
Teresa W L Ma, Viola Chan, C H So, Annie S Y Hui, C N Lee, Amelia P W Hui, P L So, C W Kong, Barbara Fung, K Y Leung
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), and early onset GBS disease (EOGBSD) after implementation of universal screening. METHODS: This was a three-year retrospective cohort study on universal antenatal rectovaginal culture-based screening and intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis (IAP) to colonized women in the public sector in Hong Kong. Routinely collected data including maternal colonization and EOGBSD were retrieved...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319817/indoor-air-quality-of-low-and-middle-income-urban-households-in-durban-south-africa
#3
Nkosana Jafta, Lars Barregard, Prakash M Jeena, Rajen N Naidoo
INTRODUCTION: Elevated levels of indoor air pollutants may cause cardiopulmonary disease such as lower respiratory infection, chronic obstructive lung disease and lung cancer, but the association with tuberculosis (TB) is unclear. So far the risk estimates of TB infection or/and disease due to indoor air pollution (IAP) exposure are based on self-reported exposures rather than direct measurements of IAP, and these exposures have not been validated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to characterize and develop predictive models for concentrations of three air pollutants (PM10, NO2 and SO2) in homes of children participating in a childhood TB study...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319728/modulation-of-host-cell-apoptotic-pathways-by-intracellular-pathogens
#4
REVIEW
Anja Friedrich, Julian Pechstein, Christian Berens, Anja Lührmann
Nearly all steps of the host cell apoptotic cascade can be subverted by intracellular microorganisms. Some pathogens modulate early steps and interfere with sensing of extracellular signals, cellular stress or signal transduction; others target Bcl-2 proteins, caspases, or inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). In many cases the exact molecular mechanisms leading to interference with the host cell apoptotic cascade are still unknown. However, there are some examples where bacterial factors that modulate host cell death have been identified...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319412/un-methylation-of-the-survivin-gene-has-no-effect-on-immunohistochemical-expression-of-survivin-protein-in-lung-cancer-patients-with-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#5
O Yalcin, M Budak
Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family. The function of the survivin protein is to inhibit caspase activation, thereby leading to negative regulation of apoptosis or programmed cell death. This has been shown by the disruption of survivin induction pathways leading to an increased apoptosis and decreased tumour growth. These data suggest that survivin may provide a new target for cancer treatment, which would distinguish transformed cells from normal cells. In the present study, we aimed to investigate exon 1 of the survivin gene by means of methylation-specific PCR and evaluate its impact on survivin protein expression following DNA isolation and bisulphite modification in paraffin-embedded normal and tumour tissues of lung cancer patients with squamous cell carcinoma...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316376/the-role-of-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-in-inflammatory-disorders-of-gastrointestinal-tract
#6
REVIEW
Jan Bilski, Agnieszka Mazur-Bialy, Dagmara Wojcik, Janina Zahradnik-Bilska, Bartosz Brzozowski, Marcin Magierowski, Tomasz Mach, Katarzyna Magierowska, Tomasz Brzozowski
Over the past few years, the role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) as a crucial mucosal defence factor essential for maintaining gut homeostasis has been established. IAP is an important apical brush border enzyme expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and secreted both into the intestinal lumen and into the bloodstream. IAP exerts its effects through dephosphorylation of proinflammatory molecules including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagellin, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from cells during stressful events...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315432/splicing-factors-of-sr-and-hnrnp-families-as-regulators-of-apoptosis-in-cancer
#7
Hanna Kędzierska, Agnieszka Piekiełko-Witkowska
SR and hnRNP proteins were initially discovered as regulators of alternative splicing: the process of controlled removal of introns and selective joining of exons through which multiple transcripts and, subsequently, proteins can be expressed from a single gene. Alternative splicing affects genes involved in all crucial cellular processes, including apoptosis. During cancerogenesis impaired apoptotic control facilitates survival of cells bearing molecular aberrations, contributing to their unrestricted proliferation and chemoresistance...
March 14, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302176/association-of-lymph-node-involvement-with-the-prognosis-of-pathological-t1-invasive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
Yong-Kui Zhang, Zheng-da Chai, Lin-Lin Tan, Zhao-Yu Wang, Zhi-Jun Chen, Han-Bo Le, Wang-Yu Zhu
BACKGROUND: Lymph node involvement could help to predict the prognosis of pathological T1 (pT1, diameters of ≤3 cm) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study assessed the clinicopathological factors and associated lymph node involvement in invasive lung adenocarcinoma (IAC) and squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) and the overall and disease-free survival associated with these factors. METHODS: Three hundred and twenty-five patients with pathological T1 NSCLC (253 IAC and 72 SCC) were retrospectively analyzed from a pool of 1094 primary lung cancer patients...
March 17, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300832/deletion-of-xiap-reduces-the-severity-of-acute-pancreatitis-via-regulation-of-cell-death-and-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity
#9
Yong Liu, Xiao-Dong Chen, Jiang Yu, Jun-Lin Chi, Fei-Wu Long, Hong-Wei Yang, Ke-Ling Chen, Zhao-Ying Lv, Bin Zhou, Zhi-Hai Peng, Xiao-Feng Sun, Yuan Li, Zong-Guang Zhou
Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) still remains a clinical challenge, not only for its high mortality but the uncontrolled inflammatory progression from acute pancreatitis (AP) to SAP. Cell death, including apoptosis and necrosis are critical pathology of AP, since the severity of pancreatitis correlates directly with necrosis and inversely with apoptosis Therefore, regulation of cell death from necrosis to apoptosis may have practicably therapeutic value. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is the best characterized member of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP) family, but its function in AP remains unclear...
March 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300775/protective-effects-of-fucoidan-on-a%C3%AE-25-35-and-d-gal-induced-neurotoxicity-in-pc12-cells-and-d-gal-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-in-mice
#10
Hengyun Wei, Zixiang Gao, Luping Zheng, Cuili Zhang, Zundong Liu, Yazong Yang, Hongming Teng, Lin Hou, Yuling Yin, Xiangyang Zou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease which contributes to memory loss and cognitive decline in the elderly. Fucoidan, extracted from brown algae, is a complex sulfated polysaccharide and potential bioactive compound. In this study, we investigated whether fucoidan protects PC12 cells from apoptosis induced by a combination of beta-amyloid 25-35 (Aβ25-35) and d-galactose (d-Gal), and improves learning and memory impairment in AD model mice. The results indicated that fucoidan could inhibit the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to cytosol and activation of caspases, and increase the expression of apoptosis inhibitor proteins (IAPs), including livin and X-linked IAP (XIAP) in PC12 cells damaged by Aβ25-35 and d-Gal-induction...
March 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295868/ciap2-promotes-gallbladder-cancer-invasion-and-lymphangiogenesis-by-activating-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#11
Xiaojie Jiang, Chengzong Li, Bin Lin, Haijie Hong, Lei Jiang, Siyuan Zhu, Xiaoqian Wang, Nanhong Tang, Xiujin Li, Feifei She, Chen Yanling
Several studies have produced contradictory findings about the prognostic implications for inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) in different types of cancer. Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (cIAP2/BIRC) is one of the most extensively characterized human IAPs. To date no studies have focused on the expression level of cIAP2 in human gallbladder cancer (GBC), and the mechanism of cIAP2 in GBC invasion and lymphangiogenesis remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study, cIAP2 expression in GBC was detected using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, and the relationship between cIAP2 levels in cancer tissues and the clinicopathological characteristics of patients was analysed...
March 15, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294340/neuroprotective-effects-of-artemisinin-against-isoflurane-induced-cognitive-impairments-and-neuronal-cell-death-involve-jnk-erk1-2-signalling-and-improved-hippocampal-histone-acetylation-in-neonatal-rats
#12
Guang Xu, Yun-Li Huang, Ping-le Li, Hai-Ming Guo, Xue-Ping Han
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to assess the effect of artemisinin against isoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis and cognitive impairment in neonatal rats. METHODS: Artemisinin (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg b.wt/day; oral gavage) was administered to separate groups of neonatal rats starting from postnatal day 3 (P3) to postnatal day 21 (P21). On postnatal day 7 (P7), animals were exposed to inhalation anaesthetic isoflurane (0.75%) for 6 h. KEY FINDINGS: Neuronal apoptosis following anaesthetic exposure was significantly reduced by artemisinin...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288533/attentional-bias-during-emotional-processing-evidence-from-an-emotional-flanker-task-using-iaps
#13
Mario A Parra, Manuel Guillermo Sánchez, Stella Valencia, Natalia Trujillo
Attention is biased towards threat-related stimuli. In three experiments, we investigated the mechanisms, processes, and time course of this processing bias. An emotional flanker task simultaneously presented affective or neutral pictures from the international affective picture system database either as central response-relevant stimuli or surrounding response-uninformative flankers. Participants' response times to central stimuli was measured. The attentional bias was observed when stimuli were presented either for 1500 ms (Experiment 1) or 500 ms (Experiment 2)...
March 14, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288130/parl-mediates-smac-proteolytic-maturation-in-mitochondria-to-promote-apoptosis
#14
Shotaro Saita, Hendrik Nolte, Kai Uwe Fiedler, Hamid Kashkar, A Saskia Venne, René P Zahedi, Marcus Krüger, Thomas Langer
Mitochondria drive apoptosis by releasing pro-apoptotic proteins that promote caspase activation in the cytosol. The rhomboid protease PARL, an intramembrane cleaving peptidase in the inner membrane, regulates mitophagy and plays an ill-defined role in apoptosis. Here, we employed PARL-based proteomics to define its substrate spectrum. Our data identified the mitochondrial pro-apoptotic protein Smac (also known as DIABLO) as a PARL substrate. In apoptotic cells, Smac is released into the cytosol and promotes caspase activity by inhibiting inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs)...
March 13, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286874/investigation-of-the-adaptor-protein-plic-2-in-multiple-pathways
#15
Khiem Nguyen, Robbins Puthenveetil, Olga Vinogradova
PLIC, Protein Linking IAP (CD47) to Cytoskeleton, have long since been implicated in connecting the extracellular membrane to the intracellular cell cytoskeleton. This phenomenon is supposedly achieved by bridging a receptor protein CD47 to vimentin, an intermediate filament, which in turn regulates integrin dependent cell spreading. Since the discovery of these proteins, the molecular details of the above-mentioned interactions and the underlying complexes are yet to be characterized. Several independent studies have together emphasized PLIC/Ubiquilin's role in the proteasomal degradation pathway...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285964/survivin-and-gynaecological-tumours
#16
REVIEW
Dušan Braný, Dana Dvorská, Pavol Slávik, Richard Školka, Marián Adamkov
Survivin is the smallest member of the inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) family. However, participation in inhibition of apoptosis is not the only function of this molecule. Survivin can also affect the proper process of mitosis and even promoting of angiogenesis or DNA repair. High levels of survivin expression are connected with foetal tissues during intrauterine development. In the overwhelming majority of healthy, differentiated adult tissues, amounts of survivin are markedly reduced. On the other hand, survivin is also often abundantly expressed in cases of various types of cancer...
February 24, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283789/cerebral-metabolic-changes-related-to-clinical-parameters-in-idiopathic-anosmic-patients-during-olfactory-stimulation-a-pilot-investigation
#17
Alessandro Micarelli, Agostino Chiaravalloti, Roberta Danieli, Orazio Schillaci, Marco Alessandrini
Idiopathic olfactory loss neural consequences have been studied especially by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Since other functional neuroimaging technique findings are lacking in the literature, present study used a validated (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) functional positron emission tomography procedure under olfactory stimulation (OS) to assess brain changes in idiopathic anosmic patients (IAPs) in comparison with healthy subjects (HS). A voxel-based analysis between these groups was used to evaluate FDG uptake in the brain and perform a correlation analysis between metabolic responses and the Sniffin' stick test as well as intensity visuo-analogue scores and disease duration (DD)...
March 10, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282605/variations-of-renal-tissue-oxygenation-during-abdominal-compartment-syndrome-and-sepsis
#18
Stavros Kalfadis, Vaia Nalbanti, Orestis Ioannidis, George Porfiriou, Dimitrios Botsios, Konstantinos Tsalis
PURPOSE: This experimental study was designed to evaluate the renal tissue oxygenation under the coexistence of abdominal compartment syndrome and sepsis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen non-breed dogs were divided into two groups: the control group (8) and the study group (6). Sepsis was established with intravenous endotoxin infusion at 100μg/kg for over 30min. Insufflation of CO2 in the peritoneal cavity was used for the increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP)...
March 7, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272920/genetic-characterization-of-listeria-monocytogenes-isolates-from-industrial-and-retail-ready-to-eat-meat-based-foods-and-their-relationship-with-clinical-strains-from-human-listeriosis-in-portugal
#19
A R Henriques, J Melo Cristino, M J Fraqueza
Listeria monocytogenes isolates (n = 81) recovered from ready-to-eat meat-based food products (RTEMP) collected in industrial processing plants and retail establishments were genetically characterized for comparison with those from human clinical cases of listeriosis (n = 49). The aim was to assess RTEMP as a possible food source for human infection. L. monocytogenes was detected in 12.5% of the RTEMP samples, and in some cases, counts were above the European food safety criteria. All isolates were assessed by multiplex PCR for serogroup determination and detection of virulence-associated genes inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, plcA, hlyA, actA, and iap...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272325/c-myc-induced%C3%A2-survivin%C3%A2-is%C3%A2-essential%C3%A2-for%C3%A2-promoting%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-notch-dependent%C3%A2-t%C3%A2-cell%C3%A2-differentiation%C3%A2-from%C3%A2-hematopoietic%C3%A2-stem%C3%A2-cells
#20
Rizwanul Haque, Jianyong Song, Mohammad Haque, Fengyang Lei, Praneet Sandhu, Bing Ni, Songguo Zheng, Deyu Fang, Jin-Ming Yang, Jianxun Song
Notch is indispensable for T cell lineage commitment, and is needed for thymocyte differentiation at early phases. During early stages of T cell development, active Notch prevents other lineage potentials including B cell lineage and myeloid cell (e.g., dendritic cell) lineage. Nevertheless, the precise intracellular signaling pathways by which Notch promotes T cell differentiation remain unclear. Here we report that the transcription factor c-Myc is a key mediator of the Notch signaling-regulated T cell differentiation...
March 6, 2017: Genes
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