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Cognitive and d vitamin

Lewis O J Killin, John M Starr, Ivy J Shiue, Tom C Russ
BACKGROUND: Dementia risk reduction is a major and growing public health priority. While certain modifiable risk factors for dementia have been identified, there remains a substantial proportion of unexplained risk. There is evidence that environmental risk factors may explain some of this risk. Thus, we present the first comprehensive systematic review of environmental risk factors for dementia. METHODS: We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases from their inception to January 2016, bibliographies of review articles, and articles related to publically available environmental data...
October 12, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
Ingun Ulstein, Thomas Bøhmer
Evidence supports an association between vitamin deficiencies and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). If vitamin deficiencies are causative for AD development, they should be detectable during very early stages of AD. Here we investigated nutritional factors among home-living patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia due to AD, compared to healthy controls. Our study included 73 patients with AD (25 with MCI, 48 with dementia) and 63 cognitively intact age-matched controls...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
K Chaudhari, N Sumien, L Johnson, D D'Agostino, M Edwards, R J Paxton, J R Hall, S O'Bryant
OBJECTIVE: Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) genotype has been implicated as a moderating factor in cognitive function studies. Although prior studies have suggested that vitamin C is associated with better cognitive function in elders, link between the two has been mixed. Limited data exist as to whether the APOE4 genotype influences these associations. Therefore, this study sought to determine whether the association between vitamin C and cognition in a rural community dwelling cohort differs by the APOE4 genotype...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Cédric Annweiler, Erdinç Dursun, Francois Féron, Duygu Gezen-Ak, Allan V Kalueff, Thomas Littlejohns, David Llewellyn, Pascal Millet, Tammy Scott, Katherine L Tucker, Selma Yilmazer, Olivier Beauchet
Hypovitaminosis D, a common condition in older adults, is associated with brain changes and dementia. Given the fast growing contribution of literature in this research field, clear guidance is needed for clinicians and researchers. International experts met at the invitational summit on "Vitamin D and cognition in older adults" in Boston, MA, July 2013. Based upon literature and expert opinion, the task force focused on key questions on the role of vitamin D in Alzheimer disease and related disorders. Each question was discussed and voted using a Delphi-like approach...
September 1, 2016: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
Peter A Ljubenkov, Michael D Geschwind
Dementia often is defined as a progressive cognitive disturbance leading to a loss of independent function. Most clinicians are familiar with the typical pattern of amnestic Alzheimer's disease, the most common neurodegenerative presentation of dementia. Atypical dementia presentations, including atypical Alzheimer's variants, however, may pose a diagnostic challenge for even experienced clinicians. In this article the authors discuss clinical "pearls" for the diagnosis of various neurodegenerative dementia syndromes...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
Eun Kyeung Song, Seok-Min Kang
BACKGROUND: Low vitamin D and depressive symptoms are associated with inflammation activation that predicts cardiovascular disease. Little is known about the relationships among vitamin D intake, depressive symptoms, and cardiac events in heart failure (HF). PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to determine the relationships among vitamin D deficiency, depressive symptoms, and cardiac events. METHODS: A total of 204 HF patients completed a 3-day food diary to determine average daily intake of vitamin D...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
M G Pavlatou, A T Remaley, P W Gold
Klotho is a hormone secreted into human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma and urine that promotes longevity and influences the onset of several premature senescent phenotypes in mice and humans, including atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, stroke and osteoporosis. Preliminary studies also suggest that Klotho possesses tumor suppressor properties. Klotho's roles in these phenomena were first suggested by studies demonstrating that a defect in the Klotho gene in mice results in a significant decrease in lifespan...
August 30, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Evangeline Wassmer, Tanuja Chitnis, Daniela Pohl, Maria Pia Amato, Brenda Banwell, Angelo Ghezzi, Rogier Q Hintzen, Lauren B Krupp, Naila Makhani, Kevin Rostásy, Marc Tardieu, Silvia Tenembaum, Amy Waldman, Emmanuelle Waubant, Andrew J Kornberg
The International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group held its inaugural educational program, "The World of Pediatric MS: A Global Update," in September 2014 to discuss advances and challenges in the diagnosis and management of pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neuroinflammatory CNS disorders. Highlights included a discussion on the revised diagnostic criteria, which enable the differentiation of MS, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and other neuroinflammatory disorders...
August 30, 2016: Neurology
Jacqueline F Gould, Amanda J Anderson, Lisa N Yelland, Lisa G Smithers, C Murray Skeaff, Shao J Zhou, Robert A Gibson, Maria Makrides
AIM: The association between foetal vitamin D [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)] exposure and early child growth and neurodevelopment is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cord blood 25(OH)D and birth size, childhood growth and neurodevelopment. METHODS: Cord blood samples from 1040 Australian women enrolled in a randomised trial of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy were analysed for 25(OH)D using mass spectroscopy...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Sargoor R Veena, Catharine R Gale, Ghattu V Krishnaveni, Sarah H Kehoe, Krishnamachari Srinivasan, Caroline Hd Fall
BACKGROUND: The mother is the only source of nutrition for fetal growth including brain development. Maternal nutritional status (anthropometry, macro- and micro-nutrients) before and/or during pregnancy is therefore a potential predictor of offspring cognitive function. The relationship of maternal nutrition to offspring cognitive function is unclear. This review aims to assess existing evidence linking maternal nutritional status with offspring cognitive function. METHODS: Exposures considered were maternal BMI, height and weight, micronutrient status (vitamins D, B12, folate and iron) and macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein and fat)...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Steven Bradburn, Jamie S McPhee, Liam Bagley, Sarianna Sipila, Lauri Stenroth, Marco Vincenzo Narici, Mati Pääsuke, Helena Gapeyeva, Gabrielle Osborne, Lorraine Sassano, Carel G M Meskers, Andrea B Maier, Jean-Yves Hogrel, Yoann Barnouin, Gillian Butler-Browne, Chris Murgatroyd
INTRODUCTION: cognitive deterioration and reductions of bone health coincide with increasing age. We examine the relationship between bone composition and plasma markers of bone remodelling with measures of cognitive performance in healthy adults. METHODS: this cross-sectional study included 225 old (52% women, mean age: 74.4 ± 3.3 years) and 134 young (52% women, mean age: 23.4 ± 2.7 years) adult participants from the MyoAge project. Whole body bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
August 11, 2016: Age and Ageing
R Gunathilake, E Epstein, S McNeill, B Walsh
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate factors that were associated with receiving anti-osteoporosis treatment (AOT) among patients with minimal trauma hip fracture admitted to an Australian tertiary trauma centre under the Acute Orthogeriatric Service (AOS) over a 6 month period. DESIGN: Observational study using prospectively collected data. METHODS: Demographic and clinical characteristics of 211 patients were extracted from the local hip fracture registry and electronic medical records...
October 2016: Injury
Tzu-Chia Lin, Yen-Chi Liao
Appropriate exposure to sunlight not only contributes to the production of vitamin D, which has been associated with enhanced bone health, mood, and cognitive functions, but also regulates the secretion of melatonin, which has been associated with the mediation of circadian rhythms, improved sleep quality, and optimized physical and social activity in the elderly. However, damage to the skin, eyes, and immune system has also been widely associated with long-term exposure to sunlight. Several studies have shown that many elderly, especially those that reside in institutions, do not receive sufficient sunlight exposure...
August 2016: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
William B Grant, Spyridon N Karras, Heike A Bischoff-Ferrari, Cedric Annweiler, Barbara J Boucher, Asta Juzeniene, Cedric F Garland, Michael F Holick
Several reports describe U-shaped 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration-health outcomes, including musculo-skeletal disorders such as falls and fractures, several cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cognitive function, all-cause mortality rates, birth outcomes, allergic reactions, frailty, and some other disorders. This paper reviews reports of U-shaped outcome associations with vitamin D status for evidence of underlying pathophysiological processes, or of confounding, finding that some U-shaped associations appear to be biologically meaningful, but that many could well reflect confounding by factors such as lifestyle, or hypovitaminosis D-related disease onset being masked by self-supplementation that was begun too late to correct developing health problems but before baseline vitamin D status assessment...
January 2016: Dermato-endocrinology
Sabrina Hofmeister, Seth Bodden
Premenstrual disorders affect up to 12% of women. The subspecialties of psychiatry and gynecology have developed overlapping but distinct diagnoses that qualify as a premenstrual disorder; these include premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. These conditions encompass psychological and physical symptoms that cause significant impairment during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, but resolve shortly after menstruation. Patientdirected prospective recording of symptoms is helpful to establish the cyclical nature of symptoms that differentiate premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder from other psychiatric and physical disorders...
August 1, 2016: American Family Physician
Kaitlin A Hagan, Kassandra L Munger, Alberto Ascherio, Francine Grodstein
OBJECTIVES: To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) to identifying the role of lifestyle, diet, and genetic or biological factors in several neurodegenerative diseases, including cognitive decline, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. METHODS: We completed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS and NHS II between 1976 and 2016. RESULTS: In primary findings for cognitive function, higher intake of nuts, moderate alcohol consumption, and higher physical activity levels were associated with better cognitive function...
September 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Eun Young Lee, Su Jin Lee, Kyoung Min Kim, Young Mi Yun, Bo Mi Song, Jong Eun Kim, Hyeon Chang Kim, Yumie Rhee, Yoosik Youm, Chang Oh Kim
AIM: Metabolic syndrome and vitamin D deficiency are prevalent in older adults, and are considered risk factors for cognitive impairment. We investigated the combined effects of MetS and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels on cognitive function in older adults. METHODS: We studied 2940 participants aged ≥65 years from the Korean Urban Rural Elderly cohort study. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the updated Adult Treatment Panel III criteria...
July 22, 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Milou A Pet, Elske M Brouwer-Brolsma
Various studies have examined associations between maternal vitamin D (VD) deficiency and offspring health, including offspring brain health. The purpose of this review was to summarize current evidence concerning the impact of maternal VD deficiency on brain development and function in offspring. A systematic search was conducted within Medline (on Ovid) for studies published through 7 May 2015. Animal and human studies that examined associations between maternal VD status or developmental VD deficiency and offspring brain development and function were included...
July 2016: Advances in Nutrition
David B Matchar, Choy-Lye Chei, Zhao-Xue Yin, Victoria Koh, Bibhas Chakraborty, Xiao-Ming Shi, Yi Zeng
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has a neuroprotective function, potentially important for the prevention of cognitive decline. Prospective studies from Western countries support an association between lower vitamin D level and future cognitive decline in elderly people. No prospective study has examined this association in Asia. METHODS: This community-based cohort study of elderly people in China follows 1,202 cognitively intact adults aged ≥60 years for a mean duration of 2 years...
October 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Michael J Berridge
Vitamin D is a hormone that maintains healthy cells. It functions by regulating the low resting levels of cell signalling components such as Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Its role in maintaining phenotypic stability of these signalling pathways depends on the ability of vitamin D to control the expression of those components that act to reduce the levels of both Ca(2+) and ROS. This regulatory role of vitamin D is supported by both Klotho and Nrf2. A decline in the vitamin D/Klotho/Nrf2 regulatory network may enhance the ageing process, and this is well illustrated by the age-related decline in cognition in rats that can be reversed by administering vitamin D...
August 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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