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Prescription drug pricing

Cheryl K Altice, Matthew P Banegas, Reginald D Tucker-Seeley, K Robin Yabroff
BACKGROUND: With rising cancer care costs, including high-priced cancer drugs, financial hardship is increasingly documented among cancer survivors in the United States; research findings have not been synthesized. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of articles published between 1990 and 2015 describing the financial hardship experienced by cancer survivors using PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and CINAHL databases. We categorized measures of financial hardship into: material conditions (eg, out-of-pocket costs, productivity loss, medical debt, or bankruptcy), psychological responses (eg, distress or worry), and coping behaviors (eg, skipped medications)...
February 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Stevan Geoffrey Severtson, Matthew S Ellis, Steven P Kurtz, Andrew Rosenblum, Theodore J Cicero, Mark W Parrino, Michael K Gilbert, Mance E Buttram, Nabarun Dasgupta, Becki BucherBartelson, Jody L Green, Richard C Dart
BACKGROUND: The development of abuse deterrent formulations is one strategy for reducing prescription opioid misuse and abuse. A putative abuse deterrent formulation of oxycodone extended release (OxyContin(®)) was introduced in 2010. Early reports demonstrated reduced abuse and diversion, however, an analysis of social media found 32 feasible methods to circumvent the abuse deterrent mechanism. We measured trends of diversion, abuse and street price of OxyContin to assess the durability of the initial reduction in abuse...
October 3, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Omer Ben-Aharon, Oren Shavit, Racheli Magnezi
BACKGROUND: Increasing health costs in developed countries are a major concern for decision makers. A variety of cost containment tools are used to control this trend, including maximum price regulation and reimbursement methods for health technologies. Information regarding expenditure-related outcomes of these tools is not available. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between different cost-regulating mechanisms and national health expenditures in selected countries...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
Kelly Cleland, Jamie Bass, Florida Doci, Angel M Foster
INTRODUCTION: After years of complex regulatory changes, levonorgestrel (LNG) emergency contraception (EC) is now approved for unrestricted sale in the United States. Timely access to EC pills is critical because they are more likely to work the sooner they are taken. This study assesses whether LNG EC is sold in accordance with current Food and Drug Administration regulations. METHODS: We distributed an online questionnaire through an EC-focused listserv for reproductive health professionals, asking data collectors to visit local stores and document product names, price, over-the-counter shelf availability, and misinformation about age restrictions...
September 24, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Pin Jiang, Yan Lu, Daofeng Chen
Authentication of species is crucial for ensuring the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. The fruits of Schisandra chinensis and S. sphenanthera have been used for the same traditional Chinese drug, Wuweizi, but are found to be quite different according to their constituents, pharmacological effects, and qualities. These two fruits have been recorded as Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus (Wuweizi) and Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus (Nan-wuweizi), respectively, by Chinese Pharmacopoeia, 2000 edition. However, Nan-wuweizi is often found to be taken as Wuweizi in some Chinese patent drugs intentionally or by mistake because of its lower price and similar characteristics to Wuweizi...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Murray Aitken, Ernst R Berndt, David Cutler, Michael Kleinrock, Luca Maini
In the period 2005-13 the US prescription drug market grew at an average annual pace of only 1.8 percent in real terms on an invoice price basis (that is, in constant dollars and before manufacturers' rebates and discounts). But the growth rate increased dramatically in 2014, when the market expanded by 11.5 percent-which raised questions about future trends. We determined the impact of manufacturers' rebates and discounts on prices and identified the underlying factors likely to influence prescription spending over the next decade...
September 1, 2016: Health Affairs
Monica Bidwal, Kajua Lor, Junhua Yu, Eric Ip
BACKGROUND: Adherence with asthma medications is less than optimal, measuring approximately 30-50%. Several factors have been shown to contribute to medication non-adherence including low-socioeconomic status, low literacy, medication cost, access to care, and language barriers. Community Health Clinic Ole has attempted to reduce medication adherence barriers associated with cost, access to care, and language by 1) allowing medications to be obtained from the clinic at a reduced cost via the 340B drug pricing program and patient assistance programs, and 2) providing one-on-one consultations from bilingual Spanish-speaking clinicians...
August 3, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Aaron S Kesselheim, Jerry Avorn, Ameet Sarpatwari
IMPORTANCE: The increasing cost of prescription drugs in the United States has become a source of concern for patients, prescribers, payers, and policy makers. OBJECTIVES: To review the origins and effects of high drug prices in the US market and to consider policy options that could contain the cost of prescription drugs. EVIDENCE: We reviewed the peer-reviewed medical and health policy literature from January 2005 to July 2016 for articles addressing the sources of drug prices in the United States, the justifications and consequences of high prices, and possible solutions...
August 23, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Gary J Young, Nathaniel M Rickles, Justin K Benzer, Ankit Dangi
BACKGROUND: Although contractors that offer prescription drug plans through the Medicare Part D program are evaluated in part on enrollees' medication adherence scores, little evidence addresses contractors' ability to influence these scores. OBJECTIVE: We used data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and US Census to investigate contractors' ability to influence their medication adherence scores. In accordance with a conceptual model, we hypothesized that contractors can directly and indirectly influence their medication adherence scores based on how effectively they manage prescription drug benefits for enrollees...
August 19, 2016: Medical Care
Kevin J Friesen, Jamie Falk, Silvia Alessi-Severini, Dan Chateau, Shawn Bugden
BACKGROUND: Pain is a main symptom of herpes zoster (HZ), and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a frequent complication occurring in 5% to 15% of cases, causing moderate to severe neuropathic pain. A population-based observational study was conducted to evaluate the treatment patterns and economic burden of prescription drug treatment of HZ and PHN pain in the province of Manitoba (Canada) over a period of 15 years. METHODS: Administrative health care data, including medical and hospital separation records, were examined to identify episodes of HZ using International Classification of Diseases-9/10 codes between April 1, 1997 and March 31, 2014...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
Dhruv S Kazi, Andrew E Moran, Pamela G Coxson, Joanne Penko, Daniel A Ollendorf, Steven D Pearson, Jeffrey A Tice, David Guzman, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo
IMPORTANCE: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors were recently approved for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and have potential for broad ASCVD prevention. Their long-term cost-effectiveness and effect on total health care spending are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors and their potential effect on US health care spending...
August 16, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Ana Tomas, Zdenko Tomić, Boris Milijasević, Milica Ban, Olga Horvat, Sasa Vukmirović, Ana Sabo
BACKGROUND/AIM: Hypertension is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and more than a half of all health insurance expenditures for reimbursed medicines are allocated to antihypertensive drugs in Serbia. The aim of this study was to identify the antihypertensive drug utilization patterns among hypertensive outpatients in the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, determine the adherence to clinical guidelines and address the economic aspects of current prescribing practices...
June 2016: Vojnosanitetski Pregled. Military-medical and Pharmaceutical Review
Humayun Riaz, Brian Godman, Sajid Bashir, Shahzad Hussain, Sidra Mahmood, Durdana Waseem, Farnaz Malik, Syed Atif Raza
Irrational drug use practices are a burden to healthcare facilities. Poor prescribing practices affect the overall management and cost of treatment of non-communicable diseases that are the major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In an effort to improve prescribing practices, this study was designed to assess prescribing, consultation and facility indicators in healthcare facilities of Punjab and Sindh provinces of Pakistan from December 2012 to December 2013. In this cross-sectional study, random and convenient sampling were used to collected data from both private and public healthcare facilities...
May 2016: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
Louis Jacob, Christian von Vultee, Karel Kostev
AIMS: The goals were to analyze prescription patterns and the cost of antihyperglycemic drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) treated in Germany in 2015. METHODS: This study included 36382 patients aged 40 years or over treated in general practices (GPs) and diabetologist practices who were diagnosed with T2DM in 2015. Nine different families of antihyperglycemic therapy were included in the analysis. Demographic data included age, gender, and type of health insurance coverage...
July 10, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Nitin Agarwal, Prateek Agarwal, Anna Mazurkiewicz, Daniel A Wecht, Robert M Friedlander
INTRODUCTION: Several studies in the literature have demonstrated that physicians are often unaware of prescription drug, laboratory, diagnostic, and surgical supply costs. Other studies have suggested that increased physician awareness of supply cost contributes to reduced overall cost. In this study, we investigated the effects of such increased awareness on neurosurgical cost containment. METHODS: Within the Department of Neurological Surgery at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, physicians were informed of the prices of various ventricular shunt brands, such as the more expensive Medtronic shunts vs the more economic fixed Integra shunt...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
Abby Alpert
While health care policies are frequently signed into law well before they are implemented, such lags are ignored in most empirical work. This paper demonstrates the importance of implementation lags in the context of Medicare Part D, the prescription drug benefit that took effect two years after it was signed into law. Exploiting the differential responses of chronic and acute drugs to anticipated future prices, I show that individuals reduced drug utilization for chronic but not acute drugs in anticipation of Part D's implementation...
September 2016: Journal of Health Economics
A Sicras-Mainar, R Navarro-Artieda, A Ruiz-Torrejón, M Saez, G Coll-de Tuero, L Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate therapeutic persistence, healthcare resources, medical costs and adverse events of oxybutynin and mirabegron treatments in patients with overactive bladder in routine medical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational, retrospective, multicentre study was carried out using the records of patients attended to in 3 different geographic locations (Barcelona, Girona, Asturias). An analysis was made on the 2 study groups (oxybutynin and mirabegron)...
June 28, 2016: Semergen
Ameet Sarpatwari, Jerry Avorn, Aaron S Kesselheim
Spending on prescription drugs has risen sharply in the United States over the past 2 years. Although thousandfold price increases for a few generic products in limited use have attracted much attention, overall spending growth has been driven more by the widespread use of costly new agents such as..
June 16, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Ana D Vega, Paul P Meola, Ramon Julio Barcelo, Heidi M Perez Ruiz, Stephanie A Oh, Taeho Oh
PURPOSE: To quantify prescription drug price increases over a span of 3 years (2012-2015), as well as extrapolate current reimbursement rates expected by independent retail pharmacies. In addition, we investigate potential reasons for these increasing drug costs. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis. METHODOLOGY: National average drug acquisition costs (NADAC) data published by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services were examined. Specifically, December 2012, 2013, and 2014, and July 2015 NADAC files were analyzed to identify generic and branded products with the highest percentage price increases...
April 2016: Managed Care
Margaux M Price, Jessica J Crumley-Branyon, William R Leidheiser, Richard Pak
BACKGROUND: Technology gains have improved tools for evaluating complex tasks by providing environmental supports (ES) that increase ease of use and improve performance outcomes through the use of information visualizations (info-vis). Complex info-vis emphasize the need to understand individual differences in abilities of target users, the key cognitive abilities needed to execute a decision task, and the graphical elements that can serve as the most effective ES. Older adults may be one such target user group that would benefit from increased ES to mitigate specific declines in cognitive abilities...
2016: JMIR Human Factors
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