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Prescription drug pricing

Brandon L Clubb, Jennifer Alvey, Jennifer Reddan
Continual price increases of pharmaceutical products have taken a great toll on pharmacy expenditures. Cost of prescription drugs for the health-care system increased by an average of 11.7% in 2015. In today's market with ever-increasing drug costs, it is important to focus on using medications in a manner that optimizes patient care, as well as being fiscally responsible for the health-care system. There are many reports, services, and analytics available that help identify areas for improvement and optimization...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Ameet Sarpatwari, Jerry Avorn, Aaron S Kesselheim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Leslie Wilson, Fatema A Turkistani, Wei Huang, Dang M Tran, Tracy Kuo Lin
INTRODUCTION: California's Workers' Compensation System (CAWCS) Department of Industrial Relations questioned the adequacy of the current Medi-Cal fee-schedule pricing and requested analysis of alternatives that maximize price availability and maintain budget neutrality. OBJECTIVES: To compare CAWCS pharmacy-dispensed (PD) drug prices under alternative fee schedules, and identify combinations of alternative benchmarks that have prices available for the largest percentage of PD drugs and that best reach budget neutrality...
2018: PloS One
Lisa S Rotenstein, Stacie B Dusetzina, Nancy L Keating
BACKGROUND: With total and out-of-pocket spending for oral oncolytics rising, there is increased interest in choosing oncology treatments based on their clinical value relative to cost. OBJECTIVE: To determine if out-of-pocket spending varied for higher versus lower benefit oral oncology drugs reimbursed by commercial insurers. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of commercial insurer prescription drug claims filed between 2007 and 2014 for 13 oral oncolytics approved before 2009...
June 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Shin-On Kang, Seung Ju Kim, Sohee Park, Sung-In Jang, Eun-Cheol Park
Objective: We evaluate the effects of drug price reduction policy on pharmaceutical expenditure and prescription patterns in diabetes medication. Design: An interrupted time series study design using generalized estimating equations. Setting: This study used National Health Insurance claim data from 2010 to 2013. Participants: A total of 68 127 diabetes patients and 12 465 hospitals. Intervention(s): The drug price reduction policy...
May 17, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Jacob A Lebin, David L Murphy, Stevan Geoffrey Severtson, Gabrielle E Bau, Nabarun Dasgupta, Richard C Dart
BACKGROUND: Diverted prescription opioids are significant contributors to drug overdose mortality. Street price has been suggested as an economic metric of the diverted prescription opioid black market. This study examined variables that may influence the street price of diverted oxycodone and oxymorphone. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted utilizing data from the previously validated, crowdsourcing website StreetRx. Street price reports of selected oxycodone and oxymorphone products, between August 22, 2014 and June 30, 2016, were considered for analysis...
May 15, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Ashley L Cole, Stacie B Dusetzina
The case of generic imatinib demonstrates several potential barriers to effective generic price competition for specialty prescription drugs, including fewer market entrants, smaller-than-expected price reductions, shifts in prescribing toward more expensive brand-name treatments, and limited uptake of the generic product.
May 2018: Health Affairs
Karen Colorafi, Shannon Panther, Kimberly McKeirnan, Daryl Potyk, John McCarthy, Sarah Temple
OBJECTIVE: Vaccines are a low-cost, high-impact interventions that effectively and efficiently reduce the burden of infectious diseases. Many rural populations have vaccination rates well below nationally recommended levels. Community pharmacies may offer a solution to this problem. Under a collaborative drug therapy agreement (CDTA), pharmacists can prescribe and administer immunizations. The purpose of this study was to examine pneumococcal vaccine access in rural pharmacies in Eastern Washington state...
March 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Gabriel Sanfélix-Gimeno, Julián Librero-López, Gracia Modroño-Riaño, Salvador Peiró, Clara L Rodríguez-Bernal
Introduction: Evidence has shown that utilization of antiosteoporotic medications does not correspond with risk, and studies on other therapies have shown that adequacy of pharmaceutical prescribing might vary between regions. Nevertheless, very few studies have addressed the variability in osteoporotic drug consumption. We aimed to describe variations in pharmaceutical utilization and spending on osteoporotic drugs between Health Areas (HA) in Spain. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional ecological study of expenditure and utilization of the five therapeutic groups marketed for osteoporosis treatment in Spain in 2009...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jennifer Price Wolf
Prescription drug misuse is increasingly common in the United States. To date, little is known about how prescription drug misuse relates to negative parenting behaviors like child maltreatment, even though use of illicit drugs increases rates of both child neglect and physical abuse. This study used secondary data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS), a clustered national sample of families at high risk for both prescription drug misuse and child maltreatment ( n = 2,917). Data from mothers who participated in the 9-year follow-up of this study were used to create logistic regression models examining prescription drug misuse and physically aggressive and neglectful parenting, while controlling for demographic and psychosocial variables...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar, Todd Gammie, Ali Seyfoddin, Syed Shahzad Hasan, Louise E Curley
BACKGROUND: Countries with similar health systems but different medicines policies might result in substantial medicines usage differences and resultant outcomes. The literature is sparse in this area. OBJECTIVE: To review pharmaceutical policy research in New Zealand and Australia and discuss differences between the two countries and the impact these differences may have on subsequent medicine access. METHODS: A review of the literature (2008-2016) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles...
April 13, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Barbara de Graaff, Kwang Chien Yee, Philip Clarke, Andrew Palmer
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have revolutionised treatment for the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Currently, treatment costs between 20,000 and 80,000 Australian dollars ($A) per patient. The Australian Federal Government provided $A1 billion over 5 years to subsidise these drugs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the uptake and financial impact of DAA prescribing in Australia. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective analysis of Medicare prescription and expenditure data for March 2016 to August 2017...
April 19, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Rachelle Abouchedid, Thea Gilks, Paul I Dargan, John R H Archer, David M Wood
INTRODUCTION: There has been increasing interest in the availability of non-prescription benzodiazepines and their sale as new psychoactive substances. We wanted to determine UK availability from Internet suppliers and motivations for use of three benzodiazepines (diclazepam, flubromazepam, and pyrazolam). METHODS: In November 2014 and March 2016, using the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction Snapshot Methodology, Internet search engines ( google...
June 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Alex J Walker, Richard Croker, Seb Bacon, Edzard Ernst, Helen J Curtis, Ben Goldacre
Objectives Prescribing of homeopathy still occurs in a small minority of English general practices. We hypothesised that practices that prescribe any homeopathic preparations might differ in their prescribing of other drugs. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting English primary care. Participants English general practices. Main outcome measures We identified practices that made any homeopathy prescriptions over six months of data. We measured associations with four prescribing and two practice quality indicators using multivariable logistic regression...
May 2018: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
Jane Learmount, Mike J Glover, Mike A Taylor
UK guidelines for the sustainable control of parasites in sheep (SCOPS) were formulated with the primary aim of delaying development of anthelmintic resistance (AR) on UK sheep farms. Promoting their use requires the engagement and commitment of stakeholders. An important driver for behavioural change in sheep farmers is evidence of economic benefits. A recent evaluation of SCOPS guidance in practice demonstrated a significant reduction in anthelmintic use, suggesting economic benefits through a direct reduction in product and labour costs...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Lizheng Shi, M Kristina Wharton, Alisha Monnette
OBJECTIVES: Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) are essential to underinsured populations in the safety net by offering them several means of access to reduced cost medications. This study employed a 2-pronged approach to evaluate FQHCs' role, estimating both the need for patient assistance and the impact of the safety net. STUDY DESIGN: A multiyear panel data study for post-Affordable Care Act (ACA) years 2012 to 2016 and a 2016 cross-sectional analysis design were utilized to analyze FQHCs, their patient populations, and prescription assistance programs...
March 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
C L Bekker, E J Melis, A C G Egberts, M L Bouvy, H Gardarsdottir, B J F van den Bemt
BACKGROUND: Patients sometimes discontinue the use of expensive oral anti-cancer drug (OACD) or biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (bDMARD) therapies early, leading to medication waste if the patient has not used all dispensed medication. OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of patients who have unused OACDs or bDMARDs after therapy discontinuation, and the quantity and economic value of these unused medications. Furthermore, patients' reasons for therapy discontinuation and their disposal method for unused medications were determined...
March 24, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Jonathan H Watanabe, Terry McInnis, Jan D Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Public attention and recent US Congressional activity has intensified focus on escalating medication prices. However, the actual cost of medication use extends beyond the up-front cost of purchasing medicines. It also encompasses the additional medical costs of morbidity and mortality resulting from nonoptimized medication regimens, including medication nonadherence. OBJECTIVES: Applying the most current nationally representative data sources, our goal was to estimate the cost of prescription drug-related morbidity and mortality in the United States...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Varun Monga, Chenise Meyer, Brandon Vakiner, Gerald Clamon
Background Targeted oral agents are now increasingly being utilized in cancer treatment, but are expensive. Changing the dose of these medications due to toxicity or discontinuation secondary to disease progression or death causes waste from unused medication. Limiting waste is an important goal, as waste has a substantial financial impact on patients and insurance companies. Methods Patients started on oral targeted agents' sunitinib, everolimus, axitinib, or vemurafenib between January 2012 and February 2015 who obtained their medications at Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center specialty pharmacy were included in the analysis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Eboni G Price-Haywood, Wanda Robinson, Jewel Harden-Barrios, Jeffrey Burton, Todd Burstain
Background: Opioid prescription drug abuse is a major public health concern. Healthcare provider prescribing patterns, especially among non-pain management specialists, are a major factor. Practice guidelines recommend what to do for safe opioid prescribing but do not provide guidance on how to implement best practices. Methods: We describe the implementation of electronic medical record clinical decision support (EMR CDS) for opioid management of chronic noncancer pain in an integrated delivery system...
2018: Ochsner Journal
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