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Prescription drug pricing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240864/patient-awareness-of-local-drug-price-variation-and-the-factors-that-influence-pharmacy-choice-a-cross-sectional-survey-study
#1
Spencer D Brodsky, Olabola D Awosika, Misty G Eleryan, Monica Rengifo-Pardo, Xiangyu Kuang, Richard L Amdur, Alison Ehrlich
<p>Background: High out-of-pocket drug expenditures are increasingly common in dermatology. Patients may not be aware that prices vary among pharmacies and consequently may not shop for the lowest cost.</p> <p>Objective: To determine what factors influence pharmacy choice and the effect of providing local prescription prices on pharmacy selection. We hypothesized that patients do not "shop around" due to lack of knowledge of price variation and would choose a pharmacy based on costs if educated on price disparity...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205856/use-and-effectiveness-of-a-fixed-ratio-combination-of-insulin-degludec-liraglutide-ideglira-in-a-real-world-population-with-type-2-diabetes-results-from-a-european-multicentre-retrospective-chart-review-study
#2
Hermione Price, Matthias Blüher, Rudolf Prager, Tra-Mi Phan, Brian Larsen Thorsted, Bernd Schultes
AIMS: EXTRA aimed to describe real-world use and effectiveness of IDegLira, a fixed-ratio combination of the basal insulin degludec, and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) liraglutide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This European, multicentre, retrospective chart review comprised adults (n=611) with type 2 diabetes, who started IDegLira ≥6 months before data collection. Clinical characteristics were assessed at baseline (defined as the most recent recording during the 6 months before the first IDegLira prescription) and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months (± 45 days for each time point) after commencing IDegLira, where data available...
December 5, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190135/aace-ace-position-statement-on-the-use-of-follow-on-biologics-and-biosimilars-for-endocrine-diseases
#3
Vivian A Fonseca, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Samuel Dagogo-Jack, George Grunberger, Daniel Einhorn, Alan J Garber, Yehuda Handelsman, Irl B Hirsch, Guillermo E Umpierrez
This document represents the official position of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology. Where there were no randomized controlled trials or specific U.S. FDA labeling for issues in clinical practice, the participating clinical experts utilized their judgment and experience. Every effort was made to achieve consensus among the committee members. Position and consensus statements are meant to provide guidance, but they are not to be considered prescriptive for any individual patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician...
November 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178855/prices-of-over-the-counter-drugs-used-by-15-year-old-adolescents-in-germany-and-their-association-with-socioeconomic-background
#4
Salvatore Italia, Silke B Wolfenstetter, Irene Brüske, Joachim Heinrich, Dietrich Berdel, Andrea von Berg, Irina Lehmann, Marie Standl, Christina M Teuner
BACKGROUND: In Germany, over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are normally reimbursed up to the age of 12 years only. The aim of this study was to analyse prices of over-the-counter drugs used by adolescents in Germany and their association with socioeconomic factors. METHODS: Based on the German GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts, data on drug utilization among 15-year-old adolescents (n = 4677) were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The reported drugs were subdivided into prescription drugs and OTC drugs...
November 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148350/economic-conditions-and-drug-and-opioid-overdose-deaths
#5
Ezequiel Brown, George L Wehby
We examine the effects of state-level economic conditions including unemployment rates, median house price, median household income, insurance coverage, and annual and weekly work time on deaths on drug overdose deaths including from opioids and prescription opioids between 1999 and 2014. We employ difference-in-differences estimation controlling for state and year fixed effects, state-specific time trends, and demographic characteristics. Drug overdose deaths significantly declined with higher house prices, an effect driven by reduction in prescription-opioid mortality, by nearly 0...
July 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140658/killing-u-s-slowly-curing-the-epidemic-rise-of-cancer-drug-prices
#6
Emily K White
In August 2015, more than 110 U.S. oncologists published an article detailing the deleterious effects of rising cancer drugs prices and calling for numerous reforms to our prescription drug system. These prices are the result of decades of political maneuvering; they reflect the way our country has chosen to pay for healthcare, to foster and reward innovation, and to promote a national free market system. While these choices have resulted in immense profits for pharmaceutical companies—and subsidized the development of prescription drugs globally—they have also left many cancer patients unable to afford their medications...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132361/the-impacts-of-implementation-of-national-essential-medicines-policies-on-primary-healthcare-institutions-a-cross-sectional-study-in-china
#7
Zhigang Guo, Xiaodong Guan, Luwen Shi
BACKGROUND: In 2009, China implemented the National Essential Medicines Policies (NEMPs) as part of a new round of medical system reforms. This study aims to evaluate the impacts of the NEMPs on primary healthcare institutions and discuss the roles of the policies in the new healthcare reforms of China. METHODS: The study selected a total of six representative provinces of China, generating a sample of 261 primary healthcare institutions from August to December in 2010...
November 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124745/medication-access-in-america-and-medicare-part-d-rx-shopping-saves-but-may-be-costly
#8
Gina Upchurch, Marilyn E Disco, Jessica L Visco, Katie F Huffman
This article is a reflection of some of the changes we have witnessed in pharmacy over the years, including the rise in medication usage and prices and the transformation of how medicines are paid for in the U.S., with growing concern over pricing transparency. We discuss the complex Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit, how enrollees can save by comparing plans annually, and the influence of preferred pharmacies. We review options for medication assistance other than Part D and share our belief that while Medicare Part D has dramatically improved access to medicines, more needs to be done to decrease Medicare's and individuals' out-of-pocket spending, and as importantly, to ensure that medicines are doing more good than harm...
November 9, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096701/assessment-of-utilization-pattern-of-fixed-dose-drug-combinations-in-primary-secondary-and-tertiary-healthcare-centers-in-nepal-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Arjun Poudel, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim, Pranaya Mishra, Subish Palaian
BACKGROUND: Prescription practices, especially in South Asian countries, have come under investigation for quality. Although there have been no studies in Nepal that have analyzed the prescription pattern of FDCs for different levels of health care centers, several studies from Nepal and other countries in the region have revealed poor medicine use practices, including irrational use of fixed-dose drug combinations (FDCs). This research aimed at assessing the utilization pattern of FDCs among primary (PHC), secondary (SHC) and tertiary health care (THC) centers in Western region of Nepal...
November 2, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073988/drug-policy-in-bulgaria
#10
Antoniya Dimova, Maria Rohova, Elka Atanasova, Paweł Kawalec, Katarzyna Czok
Bulgaria has a mixed public-private health care financing system. Health care is financed mainly from compulsory health insurance contributions and out-of-pocket payments. Out-of-pocket payments constitute a large share of the total health care expenditure (44.14% in 2014). The share of drugs expenditure for outpatient treatment was 42.3% of the total health care expenditure in 2014, covered mainly by private payments (78.6% of the total pharmaceutical expenditure). The drug policy is run by the Ministry of Health (MoH), the National Council on Prices and Reimbursement of Medicinal Products, and the Health Technology Assessment Commission...
September 2017: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068301/to-dent-soaring-drug-costs-states-turn-to-price-gouging-laws
#11
Richard Mark Kirkner
States are facing unsustainable health care costs, and prescription drugs for Medicaid beneficiaries and state employees are the reason. From 2009 to 2013, the consumer price index (CPI) for prescription drugs increased about 11% vs. 8% for the overall CPI.
September 2017: Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990747/paying-for-prescription-drugs-around-the-world-why-is-the-u-s-an-outlier
#12
Dana O Sarnak, David Squires, Greg Kuzmak, Shawn Bishop
Issue: Compared with other high-income countries, the United States spends the most per capita on prescription drugs. Goal: To compare drug spending levels and trends in the U.S. and nine other high-income countries — Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom; consider potential explanations for higher U.S. spending; and explore patients’ exposure to pharmaceutical costs. Method: Analysis of health data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the 2016 Commonwealth Fund International Health Policy Survey, and other sources...
October 1, 2017: Issue Brief of the Commonwealth Fund
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975217/strategies-that-delay-market-entry-of-generic-drugs
#13
Kerstin Noëlle Vokinger, Aaron S Kesselheim, Jerry Avorn, Ameet Sarpatwari
Increasing prescription drug expenditures in the United States are primarily driven by high brand-name drug prices. Although generic competition helps lower drug prices, manufacturers of brand-name drugs often work to delay the availability of generic versions of their products. Strategies to forestall generic competition include patenting peripheral aspects of a drug or modified formulations that do not add clinical value, paying generic manufacturers to settle lawsuits challenging the validity of patents on brand-name drugs ("reverse payment" settlements), denying generic manufacturers access to drug samples necessary for bioequivalence testing, misusing risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, and filing citizen petitions with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...
November 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953345/outcomes-based-pharmaceutical-contracts-an-answer-to-high-u-s-drug-spending
#14
Elizabeth Seeley, Aaron S Kesselheim
Issue: Brand-name prescription drug prices are increasing in the United States, putting pressure on payers and patients. Some manufacturers have responded by offering outcomes-based contracts, in which rebate levels are tied to a specified outcome in the target population. Goal: To assess the expected benefits and limitations of outcomes-based pharmaceutical contracts in the U.S., including their potential impact on prescription drug spending. Methods: Semistructured interviews with payers, manufacturers, and policy experts...
September 2017: Issue Brief of the Commonwealth Fund
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944731/the-fda-unapproved-drugs-initiative-an-observational-study-of-the-consequences-for-drug-prices-and-shortages-in-the-united-states
#15
Ravi Gupta, Sanket S Dhruva, Erin R Fox, Joseph S Ross
BACKGROUND: Hundreds of drug products are currently marketed in the United States without approval from the FDA. The 2006 Unapproved Drugs Initiative (UDI) requires manufacturers to remove these drug products from the market or obtain FDA approval by demonstrating evidence of safety and efficacy. Once the FDA acts against an unapproved drug, fewer manufacturers remain in the market, potentially enabling drug price increases and greater susceptibility to drug shortages. There is a need for systematic study of the UDI's effect on prices and shortages of all targeted drugs...
October 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944726/paying-for-cures-how-can-we-afford-it-managed-care-pharmacy-stakeholder-perceptions-of-policy-options-to-address-affordability-of-prescription-drugs
#16
Kai Yeung, Kangho Suh, Anirban Basu, Louis P Garrison, Aasthaa Bansal, Josh J Carlson
BACKGROUND: High-priced medications with curative potential, such as the newer hepatitis C therapies, have contributed to the recent growth in pharmaceutical expenditure. Despite the obvious benefits, health care decision makers are just beginning to grapple with questions of how to value and pay for curative therapies that may feature large upfront cost, followed by health benefits that are reaped over a patient's lifespan. Alternative policy options have been proposed to promote high value and financially sustainable use of these therapies...
October 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929323/what-type-and-dose-of-antidepressants-are-cancer-and-non-cancer-inpatients-being-prescribed-a-retrospective-case-control-study-at-an-australian-tertiary-hospital
#17
Saira Sanjida, Kelly Mulvogue, Joanne Shaw, Jeremy Couper, David Kissane, Sallie-Anne Pearson, Melanie A Price, Monika Janda
PURPOSE: Cancer patients are often prescribed antidepressants, but little data is available about whether the type and dose are similar to prescriptions to patients with other chronic diseases. This study compared the prescription practices of antidepressants to cancer and non-cancer inpatients at a major Australian tertiary hospital and assessed side effects and potential drug-drug interactions. METHODS: Inpatients diagnosed with cancer within the past 12 months and prescribed antidepressants were age and gender matched to inpatients with other chronic disease conditions...
September 19, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921667/polysubstance-use-among-adolescents-in-a-low-income-rural-community-latent-classes-for-middle-and-high-school-students
#18
Roderick A Rose, Caroline B R Evans, Paul R Smokowski, Matthew O Howard, Katie L Stalker
PURPOSE: Rural communities are currently being impacted by a nationwide epidemic of prescription opioid misuse. Rural adolescent substance users may be at substantial risk for later addiction to these and other drugs. METHODS: This study uses Latent Class Analysis to identify subtypes of polysubstance users among a sample of 7,074 rural adolescents. Separate models were estimated for middle- and high-school youth. Predictive validity was estimated using cumulative ordinal logistic regression of the classes on a set of youth and family characteristics...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918400/healthcare-resource-use-and-costs-of-severe-uncontrolled-eosinophilic-asthma-in-the-uk-general-population
#19
Marjan Kerkhof, Trung N Tran, Joan B Soriano, Sarowar Golam, Danny Gibson, Elizabeth V Hillyer, David B Price
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of severe, uncontrolled eosinophilic asthma (SUEA) and associated costs. AIMS: We sought to determine the prevalence of SUEA and compare asthma-related healthcare resource use (HCRU) and associated costs with overall means for a general asthma population. METHODS: This cohort study evaluated anonymised medical record data (December 1989 through June 2015) from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and the Optimum Patient Care Research Database to study UK patients with active asthma (diagnostic code and one or more drug prescriptions in the baseline year), aged 5 years and older, without concomitant COPD, and with recorded eosinophil count...
September 16, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895227/comparing-generic-drug-markets-in-europe-and-the-united-states-prices-volumes-and-spending
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Olivier J Wouters, Panos G Kanavos, Martin McKEE
Policy Points: Our study indicates that there are opportunities for cost savings in generic drug markets in Europe and the United States. Regulators should make it easier for generic drugs to reach the market. Regulators and payers should apply measures to stimulate price competition among generic drugmakers and to increase generic drug use. To meaningfully evaluate policy options, it is important to analyze historical context and understand why similar initiatives failed previously. CONTEXT: Rising drug prices are putting pressure on health care budgets...
September 2017: Milbank Quarterly
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