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Prescription drug pricing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990747/paying-for-prescription-drugs-around-the-world-why-is-the-u-s-an-outlier
#1
Dana O Sarnak, David Squires, Greg Kuzmak, Shawn Bishop
Issue: Compared with other high-income countries, the United States spends the most per capita on prescription drugs. Goal: To compare drug spending levels and trends in the U.S. and nine other high-income countries — Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom; consider potential explanations for higher U.S. spending; and explore patients’ exposure to pharmaceutical costs. Method: Analysis of health data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the 2016 Commonwealth Fund International Health Policy Survey, and other sources...
October 2017: Issue Brief of the Commonwealth Fund
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975217/strategies-that-delay-market-entry-of-generic-drugs
#2
Kerstin Noëlle Vokinger, Aaron S Kesselheim, Jerry Avorn, Ameet Sarpatwari
Increasing prescription drug expenditures in the United States are primarily driven by high brand-name drug prices. Although generic competition helps lower drug prices, manufacturers of brand-name drugs often work to delay the availability of generic versions of their products. Strategies to forestall generic competition include patenting peripheral aspects of a drug or modified formulations that do not add clinical value, paying generic manufacturers to settle lawsuits challenging the validity of patents on brand-name drugs ("reverse payment" settlements), denying generic manufacturers access to drug samples necessary for bioequivalence testing, misusing risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, and filing citizen petitions with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...
September 18, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953345/outcomes-based-pharmaceutical-contracts-an-answer-to-high-u-s-drug-spending
#3
Elizabeth Seeley, Aaron S Kesselheim
Issue: Brand-name prescription drug prices are increasing in the United States, putting pressure on payers and patients. Some manufacturers have responded by offering outcomes-based contracts, in which rebate levels are tied to a specified outcome in the target population. Goal: To assess the expected benefits and limitations of outcomes-based pharmaceutical contracts in the U.S., including their potential impact on prescription drug spending. Methods: Semistructured interviews with payers, manufacturers, and policy experts...
September 2017: Issue Brief of the Commonwealth Fund
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944731/the-fda-unapproved-drugs-initiative-an-observational-study-of-the-consequences-for-drug-prices-and-shortages-in-the-united-states
#4
Ravi Gupta, Sanket S Dhruva, Erin R Fox, Joseph S Ross
BACKGROUND: Hundreds of drug products are currently marketed in the United States without approval from the FDA. The 2006 Unapproved Drugs Initiative (UDI) requires manufacturers to remove these drug products from the market or obtain FDA approval by demonstrating evidence of safety and efficacy. Once the FDA acts against an unapproved drug, fewer manufacturers remain in the market, potentially enabling drug price increases and greater susceptibility to drug shortages. There is a need for systematic study of the UDI's effect on prices and shortages of all targeted drugs...
October 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944726/paying-for-cures-how-can-we-afford-it-managed-care-pharmacy-stakeholder-perceptions-of-policy-options-to-address-affordability-of-prescription-drugs
#5
Kai Yeung, Kangho Suh, Anirban Basu, Louis P Garrison, Aasthaa Bansal, Josh J Carlson
BACKGROUND: High-priced medications with curative potential, such as the newer hepatitis C therapies, have contributed to the recent growth in pharmaceutical expenditure. Despite the obvious benefits, health care decision makers are just beginning to grapple with questions of how to value and pay for curative therapies that may feature large upfront cost, followed by health benefits that are reaped over a patient's lifespan. Alternative policy options have been proposed to promote high value and financially sustainable use of these therapies...
October 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929323/what-type-and-dose-of-antidepressants-are-cancer-and-non-cancer-inpatients-being-prescribed-a-retrospective-case-control-study-at-an-australian-tertiary-hospital
#6
Saira Sanjida, Kelly Mulvogue, Joanne Shaw, Jeremy Couper, David Kissane, Sallie-Anne Pearson, Melanie A Price, Monika Janda
PURPOSE: Cancer patients are often prescribed antidepressants, but little data is available about whether the type and dose are similar to prescriptions to patients with other chronic diseases. This study compared the prescription practices of antidepressants to cancer and non-cancer inpatients at a major Australian tertiary hospital and assessed side effects and potential drug-drug interactions. METHODS: Inpatients diagnosed with cancer within the past 12 months and prescribed antidepressants were age and gender matched to inpatients with other chronic disease conditions...
September 19, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921667/polysubstance-use-among-adolescents-in-a-low-income-rural-community-latent-classes-for-middle-and-high-school-students
#7
Roderick A Rose, Caroline B R Evans, Paul R Smokowski, Matthew O Howard, Katie L Stalker
PURPOSE: Rural communities are currently being impacted by a nationwide epidemic of prescription opioid misuse. Rural adolescent substance users may be at substantial risk for later addiction to these and other drugs. METHODS: This study uses Latent Class Analysis to identify subtypes of polysubstance users among a sample of 7,074 rural adolescents. Separate models were estimated for middle- and high-school youth. Predictive validity was estimated using cumulative ordinal logistic regression of the classes on a set of youth and family characteristics...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918400/healthcare-resource-use-and-costs-of-severe-uncontrolled-eosinophilic-asthma-in-the-uk-general-population
#8
Marjan Kerkhof, Trung N Tran, Joan B Soriano, Sarowar Golam, Danny Gibson, Elizabeth V Hillyer, David B Price
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of severe, uncontrolled eosinophilic asthma (SUEA) and associated costs. AIMS: We sought to determine the prevalence of SUEA and compare asthma-related healthcare resource use (HCRU) and associated costs with overall means for a general asthma population. METHODS: This cohort study evaluated anonymised medical record data (December 1989 through June 2015) from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and the Optimum Patient Care Research Database to study UK patients with active asthma (diagnostic code and one or more drug prescriptions in the baseline year), aged 5 years and older, without concomitant COPD, and with recorded eosinophil count...
September 16, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895227/comparing-generic-drug-markets-in-europe-and-the-united-states-prices-volumes-and-spending
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Olivier J Wouters, Panos G Kanavos, Martin McKEE
Policy Points: Our study indicates that there are opportunities for cost savings in generic drug markets in Europe and the United States. Regulators should make it easier for generic drugs to reach the market. Regulators and payers should apply measures to stimulate price competition among generic drugmakers and to increase generic drug use. To meaningfully evaluate policy options, it is important to analyze historical context and understand why similar initiatives failed previously. CONTEXT: Rising drug prices are putting pressure on health care budgets...
September 2017: Milbank Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892528/determinants-of-market-exclusivity-for-prescription-drugs-in-the-united-states
#10
Aaron S Kesselheim, Michael S Sinha, Jerry Avorn
The high prices of brand-name prescription drugs are a growing source of controversy in the United States. Manufacturers of brand-name drugs can command high prices because they are protected from generic competition by two types of government-granted monopoly rights. The first are patents on the drugs that generally define the basic period of brand-name-only sales. The second is awarded at the time of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and usually defines the minimum time until a generic can be sold...
September 11, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887771/antimalarial-drugs-available-in-the-city-cabinda-angola-in-2016
#11
M Muila, P Gazin
Antimalarial drug offerings in the city of Cabinda (Angola) were assessed during the fourth quarter of 2016. Combinations of artemisinin with other effective antimalarial drugs were available free of charge in public health centres, theoretically after a biological validation of the diagnosis of a malaria attack. Private pharmacies offered many products without medical prescription, most of them being ACT (Artemisinin Combined Therapy) but some being Artemisia derivatives alone. The cost of treatment for a presumptive attack varied from 14 to 44 €...
October 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851368/perception-and-attitude-of-korean-physicians-towards-generic-drugs
#12
Mikyung Ryu, Juyoung Kim
BACKGROUND: In 2012, a new pharmaceutical policy was introduced in Korea. According to the new policy, off-patent brand-name drugs (original drugs) and generic drugs must be priced the same. METHODS: This study aims to investigate the perception and attitude of Korean physicians towards generic drugs before and after the policy reform. Surveys were conducted with registered doctors at the Health Insurance Review Agency (HIRA) twice, in 2011 and 2013, by means of email and HIRA online survey systems...
August 29, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851358/treatment-seeking-patterns-for-malaria-in-pharmacies-in-five-sub-saharan-african-countries
#13
Joël Ladner, Ben Davis, Etienne Audureau, Joseph Saba
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended as the first-line anti-malarial treatment strategy in sub-Saharan African countries. WHO policy recommends parasitological confirmation by microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT) in all cases of suspected malaria prior to treatment. Gaps remain in understanding the factors that influence patient treatment-seeking behaviour and anti-malarial drug purchase decisions in the private sector. The objective of this study was to identify patient treatment-seeking behaviour in Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda...
August 29, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817781/availability-and-variation-of-publicly-reported-prescription-drug-prices
#14
Jeffrey T Kullgren, Joel E Segel, Timothy A Peterson, A Mark Fendrick, Simone Singh
OBJECTIVES: To examine how often retail prices for prescription drugs are available on state public reporting websites, the variability of these reported prices, and zip code characteristics associated with greater price variation. STUDY DESIGN: Searches of state government-operated websites in Michigan, Missouri, New York, and Pennsylvania for retail prices for Advair Diskus (250/50 fluticasone propionate/salmeterol), Lyrica (pregabalin 50 mg), Nasonex (mometasone 50 mcg nasal spray), Spiriva (tiotropium 18 mcg cp-handihaler), Zetia (ezetimibe 10 mg), atorvastatin 20 mg, and metoprolol 50 mg...
July 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817779/the-price-may-not-be-right-the-value-of-comparison-shopping-for-prescription-drugs
#15
Sanjay Arora, Neeraj Sood, Sophie Terp, Geoffrey Joyce
OBJECTIVES: To measure variations in drug prices across and within zip codes that may reveal simple strategies to improve patients' access to prescribed medications. STUDY DESIGN: We compared drug prices at different types of pharmacies across and within local markets. In-store prices were compared with a Web-based service providing discount coupons for prescription medications. Prices were collected for 2 generic antibiotics because most patients have limited experience with them and are less likely to know the price ranges for them...
July 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813502/addressing-the-challenge-of-high-priced-prescription-drugs-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine-a-systematic-review-of-drug-life-cycles-therapeutic-drug-markets-and-regulatory-frameworks
#16
Toon van der Gronde, Carin A Uyl-de Groot, Toine Pieters
CONTEXT: Recent public outcry has highlighted the rising cost of prescription drugs worldwide, which in several disease areas outpaces other health care expenditures and results in a suboptimal global availability of essential medicines. METHOD: A systematic review of Pubmed, the Financial Times, the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal and the Guardian was performed to identify articles related to the pricing of medicines. FINDINGS: Changes in drug life cycles have dramatically affected patent medicine markets, which have long been considered a self-evident and self-sustainable source of income for highly profitable drug companies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813219/association-of-reference-pricing-with-drug-selection-and-spending
#17
James C Robinson, Christopher M Whaley, Timothy T Brown
Background In the United States, prices for therapeutically similar drugs vary widely, which has prompted efforts by public and private insurers to steer patients toward the lower-priced options. Under reference pricing, the insurer or employer establishes a maximum contribution it will make toward the price of a drug or procedure, and the patient pays the remainder. Methods We used difference-in-differences multivariable regression methods to analyze changes in prescriptions and pricing for 1302 drugs in 78 therapeutic classes in the United States, before and after implementation of reference pricing by an alliance of private employers...
August 17, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812229/economics-and-cost-effectiveness-of-multiple-sclerosis-therapies-in-the-usa
#18
REVIEW
Daniel M Hartung
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disabling, chronic disease that imposes a significant economic burden on patients and the US healthcare system. The largest cost component for individuals with MS are prescription drugs, specifically disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). Despite an increase in the number and diversity of DMTs over the past 10 years, acquisition costs for all DMTs have escalated dramatically at rates substantially higher than medical inflation. Currently, costs for most DMTs exceed $70,000 a year. Recent cost-effectiveness studies suggest the cost for nearly all DMTs exceeds generally accepted thresholds for what is considered a good value in the USA, even after factoring expected rebates...
August 15, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805961/reducing-branded-prescription-drug-prices-a-review-of-policy-options
#19
G Caleb Alexander, Jeromie Ballreich, Mariana P Socal, Taruja Karmarkar, Antonio Trujillo, Jeremy Greene, Joshua Sharfstein, Gerard Anderson
The high prices of specialty pharmaceuticals are causing some public programs to ration care and many private insurers, including Medicare drug plans, to place specialty drugs on high cost sharing tiers. As a result, access to these drugs is severely restricted, and only a small portion of the population with the disease is receiving treatment. This concern has generated a wide range of proposed solutions. We conducted a literature review and identified fifty-two solutions in the peer reviewed literature that we classified into five broad categories: revising the patent system; encouraging research to increase development of new drugs; altering pharmaceutical regulation; decreasing market demand; and developing innovative pricing strategies...
August 14, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790510/fear-and-loathing-on-the-campaign-trail-what-the-election-means-for-u-s-health-care-and-the-health-of-american-democracy
#20
Robert B Doherty
This paper analyzes four trends that are affecting the 2016 election: changing US demographics and the reaction to them, a growing distrust of government, increased polarization and government gridlock, and the rise of populism. It compares the views of candidates Hillary Rodham Clinton and Donald S. Trump on the Affordable Care Act, climate change, prescription drug pricing, prevention of injuries and deaths from firearms, and the opioids epidemic; and offers perspectives on the potential impact of the election not only on U...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
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