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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334549/cost-effectiveness-of-alternative-strategies-for-provision-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-people-who-inject-drugs
#1
Rui Fu, Douglas K Owens, Margaret L Brandeau
BACKGROUND: Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been recommended as a means of HIV prevention among people who inject drugs (PWID) but, at current prices, is unlikely to be cost-effective for all PWID. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for enrolling PWID in PrEP. DESIGN: Dynamic network model that captures HIV transmission and progression among PWID in a representative US urban center. OUTCOME MEASURES: HIV infections averted, discounted costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs)...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333684/biocatalytic-synthesis-of-nitriles-through-dehydration-of-aldoximes-the-substrate-scope-of-aldoxime-dehydratases
#2
Tobias Betke, Jun Higuchi, Philipp Rommelmann, Keiko Oike, Taiji Nomura, Yasuo Kato, Yasuhisa Asano, Harald Gröger
Nitriles belong to the product classes, which are mostly needed and produced by the chemical industry, playing a major role in various industry segments ranging from high-volume low-price sectors such as polymers to low-volume high-price sectors such as the chiral pharma drugs. A common industrial technology for nitrile production is ammonoxidation as a gas phase reaction at high temperature. A further popular approach are substitution or addition reactions with hydrogen cyanide or derivatives thereof. A major drawback, however, is the very high toxicity of cyanide...
January 14, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330682/life-threatening-reaction-with-topical-5-fluorouracil
#3
Patrick Kishi, Cynthia J Price
A 67-year-old man developed a suspected adverse drug reaction during treatment with topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for multiple actinic keratosis of the face, neck, and forearms. The man received topical 5-FU at a dosage of 0.5% for the actinic keratoses. After 1 week, he developed extreme lethargy, fatigue, fever, and mouth erosions. Several days later, and after discontinuation of 5-FU, painful mucositis and systemic side effects occurred, meeting criteria for hospitalization because of dehydration and a 6...
January 12, 2018: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330211/olanzapine-based-triple-regimens-versus-neurokinin-1-receptor-antagonist-based-triple-regimens-in-preventing-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-associated-with-highly-emetogenic-chemotherapy-a-network-meta-analysis
#4
Zhonghan Zhang, Yaxiong Zhang, Gang Chen, Shaodong Hong, Yunpeng Yang, Wenfeng Fang, Fan Luo, Xi Chen, Yuxiang Ma, Yuanyuan Zhao, Jianhua Zhan, Cong Xue, Xue Hou, Ting Zhou, Shuxiang Ma, Fangfang Gao, Yan Huang, Likun Chen, Ningning Zhou, Hongyun Zhao, Li Zhang
BACKGROUND: The current antiemetic prophylaxis for patients treated with highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) included the olanzapine-based triplet and neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK-1RAs)-based triplet. However, which one shows better antiemetic effect remained unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically reviewed 43 trials, involving 16,609 patients with HEC, which compared the following antiemetics at therapeutic dose range for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: olanzapine, aprepitant, casopitant, fosaprepitant, netupitant, and rolapitant...
January 12, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317388/consensus-report-calls-for-action-on-high-drug-prices
#5
Kate Traynor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315859/medical-and-economic-factors-influencing-generic-drug-use-in-the-japanese-public-health-system-influencing-factors-in-different-populations
#6
Tomoya Tachi, Kosuke Saito, Hiroki Esaki, Yuta Kanematsu, Aki Yoshida, Ikuto Sugita, Yoshihiro Noguchi, Teppei Makino, Michi Umeda, Masahiro Yasuda, Takashi Mizui, Chitoshi Goto, Hitomi Teramachi
Factors influencing generic drug use must be considered when new drug policies are established and initiatives are implemented to promote generic drug use. This study was conducted to elucidate medical and economic factors that influence generic drug use in the Japanese public health system by evaluating the degree of generic drug use via a multivariate analysis. We conducted a retrospective study of medications administered to inpatients at Gifu Municipal Hospital (Japan) from November 1 to 14, 2014. Details of inpatients (age, sex, and type of medical insurance) and the drugs administered (prescribing institution, dispensing pharmacy, price, and class) were assessed...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311435/preparative-separation-of-high-purity-dihydroartemisinic-acid-from-artemisinin-production-waste-by-combined-chromatography
#7
Shuoqian Liu, Jorge Freire da Silva Ferreira, Dongming Tian, Yuwei Tang, Liping Liu, Wei Yang, Zhonghua Liu, Na Tian
In order to make full use of artemisinin production waste and thus to reduce the production cost of artemisinin, we developed an efficient and scalable method to isolate high-purity dihydroartemisinic acid from artemisinin production waste by combining anion-exchange resin with silica-gel column chromatography. The adsorption and desorption characteristics of dihydroartemisinic acid on 10 types of anion-exchange resin were investigated, and the results showed that the 717 anion-exchange resin exhibited the highest capacity of adsorption and desorption to dihydroartemisinic acid...
December 28, 2017: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311107/considering-transparency-and-value-for-fairer-drug-prices
#8
Paul Webster
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306457/cost-effectiveness-of-pcsk9-inhibition-in-addition-to-standard-lipid-lowering-therapy-in-patients-at-high-risk-for-vascular-disease
#9
Manon C Stam-Slob, Yolanda van der Graaf, Anthonius de Boer, Jacoba P Greving, Frank L J Visseren
BACKGROUND: As proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies are entering the market, we assessed the cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibition added to standard lipid-lowering therapy in patient groups at high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). METHODS: A lifetime Markov Model was designed to estimate healthcare costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for PCSK9 inhibition added to standard therapy in patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH), patients with vascular disease at high MACE recurrence risk, and patients with vascular disease with diabetes mellitus...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305255/comparative-analysis-of-gene-expression-in-maternal-peripheral-blood-and-monocytes-during-spontaneous-preterm-labor
#10
Alison G Paquette, Oksana Shynlova, Mark Kibschull, Nathan D Price, Stephen J Lye
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the leading cause of newborn death worldwide, and is associated with significant cognitive and physiological challenges in later life. There is a pressing need to define the mechanisms that initiate spontaneous preterm labor , and for development of novel clinical biomarkers to identify high-risk pregnancies. Most preterm birth studies utilize fetal tissues, and there is limited understanding of the transcriptional changes that occur in mothers undergoing spontaneous preterm labor...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290673/vertical-integration-heats-up-in-drug-industry-will-medication-price-hikes-cool-down-as-a-result
#11
Stephen Barlas
Is industry consolidation a response to President Donald Trump's repeated denunciation of high drug prices and congressional hearings on the issue? The author considers whether any of this corporate collaboration will get at some of the significant, underlying problems in the drug-pricing space.
January 2018: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290168/the-economic-burden-of-acpa-positive-status-among-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#12
Jason Shafrin, Mahlet Gizaw Tebeka, Kwanza Price, Chad Patel, Kaleb Michaud
BACKGROUND: Anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) are serological biomarkers associated with early, rapidly progressing rheumatoid arthritis (RA), including more severe disease and joint damage. ACPA testing has become a routine tool for RA diagnosis and prognosis. Furthermore, treatment efficacy has been shown to vary by ACPA-positive status. However, it is not clear if the economic burden of patients with RA varies by ACPA status. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the economic burden of RA varies by patient ACPA status...
January 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284760/the-concept-of-biosimilars-from-characterization-to-evolution-a-narrative-review
#13
REVIEW
Fadi Farhat, Alfredo Torres, Wungki Park, Gilberto de Lima Lopes, Raja Mudad, Chukwuemeka Ikpeazu, Simon Abi Aad
Biologic agents are currently the fastest emerging segment of drug expenditure. Unlike chemically synthesized small-molecule drugs, biologics are more complex, medicinal products produced by a living organism. They have become part of the standard of care in the treatment of a large variety of diseases, such as growth disorders, autoimmune diseases, cancer, cardiovascular illnesses, hemophilia, and rare genetic conditions, to name a few. Biosimilars, which are copies of biologics that are highly similar, were introduced in the market with an aim to offer efficacy that is not clinically different from the originator or reference product, at lower prices...
December 28, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284380/potential-cost-savings-by-dose-down-rounding-of-monoclonal-antibodies-in-a-community-cancer-center
#14
Mehmet S Copur, Curtis Gnewuch, Megan Schriner, Mark Tharnish, Mithat Gonen, Monica McDonald, Jami Kezeor, Ryan C Ramaekers, Dron Gauchan, Douglas Clark, Lois Greenwalt, Mary Mickey, Max Norvell
Purpose Increasing new cancer cases and approval of effective but expensive new drugs extending survival have led to unsustainable cancer care costs. Potential cost savings by a hypothetical dose down-rounding project of monoclonal antibodies at a community-based cancer center is presented. Methods From October 2014 through October 2015, metastatic cancer patients receiving monoclonal antibodies at CHI-Health St Francis Cancer Treatment Center in Grand Island, Nebraska, were identified through electronic health records...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282008/pricing-appraisal-of-anti-cancer-drugs-in-the-south-east-asian-western-pacific-and-east-mediterranean-region
#15
Shahrzad Salmasi, Kah Seng Lee, Long Chiau Ming, Chin Fen Neoh, Mahmoud E Elrggal, Zaheer-Ud- Din Babar, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Muhammad Abdul Hadi
BACKGROUND: Globally, cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality. High treatment cost, partly owing to higher prices of anti-cancer drugs, presents a significant burden on patients and healthcare systems. The aim of the present study was to survey and compare retail prices of anti-cancer drugs between high, middle and low income countries in the South-East Asia, Western Pacific and Eastern Mediterranean regions. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey design was used for the present study...
December 28, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280424/treatment-seeking-behavior-after-the-implementation-of-a-unified-policy-of-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-malaria-in-papua-indonesia
#16
Angela Devine, Enny Kenangalem, Lenny Burdarm, Nicholas M Anstey, Jeanne Rini Poespoprodjo, Ric N Price, Shunmay Yeung
Artemisinin combination therapy is recommended for the treatment of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. In March 2006, antimalarial policy in Indonesia was changed to a unified treatment with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for all species of malaria because of the low efficacy of previous drug treatments. In 2013, a randomized cross-sectional household survey in Papua was used to collect data on demographics, parasite positivity, treatment-seeking behavior, diagnosis and treatment of malaria, and household costs...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261502/-a-pragmatic-approach-to-managing-expensive-therapies
#17
Bertrand Jordan
Inflated drug prices necessarily raise the issue of rational allocation of health care resources. The system operated by the NICE agency in the UK attempts to do this by calculating the cost per quality-adjusted life year gained (QALY) and recommending funding only for drugs whose cost per QALY falls under a certain threshold. The whole process is documented in detail and easily accessible, and often results in significant discounts on drug prices. Given that some kind of rationing of health care is inevitable, the rational and transparent process followed by NICE has a number of positive features...
December 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261249/real-world-economic-value-of-a-21-gene-assay-in-early-stage-breast-cancer
#18
Stanley E Waintraub, Donna McNamara, Deena Mary Atieh Graham, Andrew L Pecora, John Min, Tommy Wu, Hyun Gi Noh, Jacqueline Connors, Ruth Pe Benito, Kelly Choi, Eric Schultz, Stuart L Goldberg
OBJECTIVES: Value-based payment reforms shift cost-containment responsibilities to the physician. Although gene expression profiling (GEP) utilizing a 21-gene panel among patients with early-stage, axillary lymph node-negative, hormone receptor-positive, HER2/neu oncogene-negative breast cancer is able to identify a cohort that may achieve excellent outcomes without adjuvant chemotherapy, high up-front costs (list price, $4175) could dissuade usage. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of consecutive patients with breast cancer treated at a single cancer center...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251257/evaluation-of-the-dosing-strategies-of-biologic-agents-and-the-theoretical-impact-of-dose-rounding
#19
Savannah Lindsey, Laura Beth Parsons, Lindsay Rosenbeck Figg, Jill Rhodes
Introduction Monoclonal antibodies possess unique pharmacokinetic properties that permit flexible dosing. Increased use and high costs of these medications have led to the development of cost-containing strategies. This study aims to quantify the cost savings and clinical impact associated with dose rounding monoclonal antibodies to the nearest vial size. Methods This study was a single-arm, retrospective chart review assessing all monoclonal antibody doses dispensed at an outpatient community infusion center associated with an academic medical center between August 2014 and August 2015...
January 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249276/adjunctive-rifampicin-for-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia-arrest-a-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#20
Guy E Thwaites, Matthew Scarborough, Alexander Szubert, Emmanuel Nsutebu, Robert Tilley, Julia Greig, Sarah A Wyllie, Peter Wilson, Cressida Auckland, Janet Cairns, Denise Ward, Pankaj Lal, Achyut Guleri, Neil Jenkins, Julian Sutton, Martin Wiselka, Gonzalez-Ruiz Armando, Clive Graham, Paul R Chadwick, Gavin Barlow, N Claire Gordon, Bernadette Young, Sarah Meisner, Paul McWhinney, David A Price, David Harvey, Deepa Nayar, Dakshika Jeyaratnam, Tim Planche, Jane Minton, Fleur Hudson, Susan Hopkins, John Williams, M Estee Török, Martin J Llewelyn, Jonathan D Edgeworth, A Sarah Walker
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a common cause of severe community-acquired and hospital-acquired infection worldwide. We tested the hypothesis that adjunctive rifampicin would reduce bacteriologically confirmed treatment failure or disease recurrence, or death, by enhancing early S aureus killing, sterilising infected foci and blood faster, and reducing risks of dissemination and metastatic infection. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adults (≥18 years) with S aureus bacteraemia who had received ≤96 h of active antibiotic therapy were recruited from 29 UK hospitals...
December 14, 2017: Lancet
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