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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168457/newer-direct-acting-antivirals-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-perspectives-for-india
#1
REVIEW
Varun Gupta, Ashish Kumar, Praveen Sharma, Anil Arora
Approximately three per cent of the world's population (170-200 million people) is chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and almost 500,000 people die each year (mostly in lower middle-income countries) from complications secondary to HCV infection. In India, HCV infection imposes a considerable burden of mortality, morbidity and healthcare costs. In the last two decades, the treatment of HCV has evolved from interferon (IFN)-based therapies with or without ribavirin (RBV) to pegylated-IFN (PEG-IFN) and RBV-based therapies that were better tolerated by patients...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166305/botulinum-toxin-therapy-is-syringe-type-related-to-cost-effectiveness
#2
Mark Anthony Foglietti, Lauren Wright, Alanna Foglietti-Fostyk
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium botulinum toxin is effective through cleaving presynaptic proteins at the neuromuscular junction, which prevents the release of acetylcholine and inhibits muscle contraction. Several serotypes of botulinum toxin (BT) exist; however, only 2 types have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for commercial and medical use, A and B. Both types of BT must be administered intramuscularly with a syringe, but the type of syringe is the injector's preference...
November 21, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163976/availability-prices-and-affordability-of-un-commission-s-lifesaving-medicines-for-reproductive-and-maternal-health-in-uganda
#3
Denis Kibira, Freddy Eric Kitutu, Gemma Buckland Merrett, Aukje K Mantel-Teeuwisse
Background: Uganda was one of seven countries in which the United Nations Commission on Life Saving Commodities (UNCoLSC) initiative was implemented starting from 2013. A nationwide survey was conducted in 2015 to determine availability, prices and affordability of essential UNCoLSC maternal and reproductive health (MRH) commodities. Methods: The survey at health facilities in Uganda was conducted using an adapted version of the standardized methodology co-developed by World Health Organisation (WHO) and Health Action International (HAI)...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163151/ongoing-initiatives-to-improve-the-quality-and-efficiency-of-medicine-use-within-the-public-healthcare-system-in-south-africa-a-preliminary-study
#4
Johanna C Meyer, Natalie Schellack, Jacobus Stokes, Ruth Lancaster, Helecine Zeeman, Douglas Defty, Brian Godman, Gavin Steel
Introduction: South Africa has an appreciable burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases as well as high maternal, neonatal, and child morbidity. In recent years there have been significant strides with improving the public health system, and addressing current inequalities, with the right to health a constitutional provision in South Africa. Initiatives include the introduction of National Health Insurance, programmes to enhance access to medicines for patients with chronic diseases, as well as activities to improve care in hospitals, including improving pharmacovigilance...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162617/nhs-was-overcharged-for-thyroid-drug-after-company-raised-price-by-6000
#5
Nigel Hawkes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161390/thiopental-to-desflurane-an-anaesthetic-journey-where-are-we-going-next
#6
J R Sneyd
Development targets in anaesthetic pharmacology have evolved from minimizing harm caused by unwanted effects through an era in which rapid onset and offset of drug effect were prioritised. Today's anaesthetists have access to a library of effective drugs whose characteristics offer controllable hypnosis, analgesia and paralysis with manageable off-target effects. The availability of these agents at generic prices inhibits commercial interest and this is reflected in the limited number of current anaesthetic drug development projects...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156310/context-and-characteristics-of-illicit-drug-use-in-coastal-and-interior-tanzania
#7
Jenny Tiberio, Yovin Ivo Laurent, Joel Ndayongeje, Amani Msami, Susie Welty, Alois Ngonyani, Syangu Mwankemwa, Moza Makumbuli, Willi McFarland, Meghan D Morris
BACKGROUND: An increase in heroin seizures in East Africa may signal wider local consumption of illicit drugs. Most information about drug use in Tanzania is from the economic capital, Dar es Salaam, and well-travelled Zanzibar. More data are needed on the extent, trends, and characteristics of illicit drug use in the vast coast and interior of the country. METHODS: The study was a rapid assessment, triangulating data from in-depth interviews of primary key informants (people who use drugs [PWUD]), secondary informants (police, community members, service providers), and ethnographic mapping of hotspots in 12 regions of Tanzania...
November 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152721/perspectives-on-the-current-state-of-the-biosimilar-regulatory-pathway-in-the-united-states
#8
Michele K Dougherty, Issam Zineh, Leah Christl
The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 (BPCI Act) created an abbreviated licensure pathway in the United States that allows for the development and approval of biologic products shown to be biosimilar to or interchangeable with a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-licensed reference product (Table 1). Here we discuss implementation of the US biosimilar approval pathway and the role of various types of data, including clinical pharmacology data, in biosimilar development.
November 20, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148854/comparative-effectiveness-of-lipid-lowering-treatments-to-reduce-cardiovascular-disease
#9
Dong-Churl Suh, Scott K Griggs, Emmett R Henderson, Seung-Mi Lee, Taehwan Park
With the advent of a new drug class - the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, patients have another treatment option for lowering their high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in recent years. The objective of this study was to systematically review the cost-effectiveness of lipid-lowering agents such as statins, ezetimibe, and PCSK9 inhibitors. Areas covered: Based on PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, we identified a total of 29 relevant articles...
November 17, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148350/economic-conditions-and-drug-and-opioid-overdose-deaths
#10
Ezequiel Brown, George L Wehby
We examine the effects of state-level economic conditions including unemployment rates, median house price, median household income, insurance coverage, and annual and weekly work time on deaths on drug overdose deaths including from opioids and prescription opioids between 1999 and 2014. We employ difference-in-differences estimation controlling for state and year fixed effects, state-specific time trends, and demographic characteristics. Drug overdose deaths significantly declined with higher house prices, an effect driven by reduction in prescription-opioid mortality, by nearly 0...
July 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144866/challenges-in-the-clinical-application-of-the-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-value-framework-a-medicare-cost-benefit-analysis-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#11
Erlene K Seymour, Charles A Schiffer, Jonas A de Souza
PURPOSE: The ASCO Value Framework calculates the value of cancer therapies. Given costly novel therapeutics for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, we used the framework to compare net health benefit (NHB) and cost within Medicare of all regimens listed in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. METHODS: The current NCCN guidelines for chronic lymphocytic leukemia were reviewed. All referenced studies were screened, and only randomized controlled prospective trials were included...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144742/successful-identification-of-cardiac-troponin-calcium-sensitizers-using-a-combination-of-virtual-screening-and-roc-analysis-of-known-troponin-c-binders
#12
Melanie L Aprahamian, Svetlana B Tikunova, Morgan V Price, Andres F Cuesta, Jonathan P Davis, Steffen Lindert
Calcium-dependent cardiac muscle contraction is regulated by the protein complex troponin. Calcium binds to the N-terminal domain of troponin C (cNTnC) which initiates the process of contraction. Heart failure is a consequence of a disruption of this process. With the prevalence of this condition, a strong need exists to find novel compounds to increase the calcium sensitivity of cNTnC. Desirable are small chemical molecules that bind to the interface between cTnC and the cTnI switch peptide and exhibit calcium sensitizing properties by possibly stabilizing cTnC in an open conformation...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140658/killing-u-s-slowly-curing-the-epidemic-rise-of-cancer-drug-prices
#13
Emily K White
In August 2015, more than 110 U.S. oncologists published an article detailing the deleterious effects of rising cancer drugs prices and calling for numerous reforms to our prescription drug system. These prices are the result of decades of political maneuvering; they reflect the way our country has chosen to pay for healthcare, to foster and reward innovation, and to promote a national free market system. While these choices have resulted in immense profits for pharmaceutical companies—and subsidized the development of prescription drugs globally—they have also left many cancer patients unable to afford their medications...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139303/effects-of-chinese-urban-public-hospitals-reform-on-revenue-and-compensation-after-removing-drug-markups-case-of-nanjing
#14
Wenxi Tang, Jing Xie, Yijuan Lu, Qizhi Liu, Daniel Malone, Aixia Ma
AIMS: The State Council of China requires that all urban public hospitals must eliminate drug markups by September 2017, and that hospital drugs must be sold at the purchase price. Nanjing-the first city to implement the reform-is studied to evaluate the effects of the comprehensive reform on drug prices in public hospitals and to explore differential compensation plans. METHODS: Sixteen hospitals were selected and financial data were collected over the 48-month period before the reform and for 12 months after the reform...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135306/a-calculation-tool-and-process-to-pre-position-pharmaceuticals-for-anthrax-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#15
Gary D Peksa, Michael J Robbins, Alexis R Beyer, Elisabeth K Weber, Keneatha Johnson
Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is considered a severe bioterrorism threat because of its high mortality rate. The Chicago Healthcare System Coalition for Preparedness and Response (CHSCPR) aims to pre-position antibiotic medical countermeasures (MCMs) at healthcare facilities in order to provide on-site anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis. Pharmacists proposed moving toward a new process that involved the development of a standardized calculation methodology for acquiring supply drugs. This was an interventional quality improvement project aimed at optimizing inventory, acquisition, and distribution of antibiotic MCMs for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis at Chicago hospitals for hospital personnel, associated first responders, and their families...
November 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132361/the-impacts-of-implementation-of-national-essential-medicines-policies-on-primary-healthcare-institutions-a-cross-sectional-study-in-china
#16
Zhigang Guo, Xiaodong Guan, Luwen Shi
BACKGROUND: In 2009, China implemented the National Essential Medicines Policies (NEMPs) as part of a new round of medical system reforms. This study aims to evaluate the impacts of the NEMPs on primary healthcare institutions and discuss the roles of the policies in the new healthcare reforms of China. METHODS: The study selected a total of six representative provinces of China, generating a sample of 261 primary healthcare institutions from August to December in 2010...
November 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127626/impact-of-infliximab-and-etanercept-biosimilars-on-biological-disease-modifying-antirheumatic-drugs-utilisation-and-nhs-budget-in-the-uk
#17
Mohammed I Aladul, Raymond W Fitzpatrick, Stephen R Chapman
OBJECTIVE: Biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) are effective but expensive options for treating rheumatoid arthritis. The introduction of infliximab and etanercept biosimilars presents a significant potential cost saving in a financially constrained health system such as the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK. This study examines the impact of the introduction of infliximab and etanercept biosimilars on the utilisation of bDMARDs and subsequent budget impact...
November 10, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124745/medication-access-in-america-and-medicare-part-d-rx-shopping-saves-but-may-be-costly
#18
Gina Upchurch, Marilyn E Disco, Jessica L Visco, Katie F Huffman
This article is a reflection of some of the changes we have witnessed in pharmacy over the years, including the rise in medication usage and prices and the transformation of how medicines are paid for in the U.S., with growing concern over pricing transparency. We discuss the complex Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit, how enrollees can save by comparing plans annually, and the influence of preferred pharmacies. We review options for medication assistance other than Part D and share our belief that while Medicare Part D has dramatically improved access to medicines, more needs to be done to decrease Medicare's and individuals' out-of-pocket spending, and as importantly, to ensure that medicines are doing more good than harm...
November 9, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122813/american-heart-association-principles-on-the-accessibility-and-affordability-of-drugs-and-biologics-a-presidential-advisory-from-the-american-heart-association
#19
REVIEW
Elliott M Antman, Mark A Creager, Steven R Houser, John J Warner, Madeleine Konig
Net US spending on pharmaceuticals reached $309.5 billion in 2015, an 8.5% increase from the year before, and is expected to reach between $370 and $400 billion by 2020. These current and projected levels have raised serious concerns by policy makers, providers, payers, and patient groups that they are unsustainable and threaten the affordability of and accessibility to much-needed therapies for patients. Two trends related to drugs/biologics and generic drugs/biosimilars underlie this overall increase in spending...
November 9, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120958/best-antihypertensive-strategies-to-improve-blood-pressure-control-in-latin-america-position-of-the-latin-american-society-of-hypertension
#20
Antonio Coca, Patricio López-Jaramillo, Costas Thomopoulos, Alberto Zanchetti
: Evidence from randomized trials has shown that effective treatment with blood pressure (BP)-lowering medications reduces the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with hypertension. Therefore, hypertension control and prevention of subsequent morbidity and mortality should be achievable for all patients worldwide. However, many people in Latin America remain undiagnosed, untreated or have inadequately controlled BP, even where this is access to health systems. Barriers to hypertension control in low-income countries include difficulties in transportation to health services; inappropriate opening hours; difficulties in making clinic appointments; inaccessible healthcare facilities, lack of insurance and high treatment costs...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
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