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March 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
George Fein, Mathew Price, Valerie A Cardenas
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often a complicating comorbid factor in alcohol use disorders and substance use disorders. Previous work showed that abstinent alcoholics endorsed lifetime and current symptoms of most of the BPD criteria at much higher rates than controls, with much higher symptom counts for short-term abstinent alcoholic (STAA) women than men, which is consistent with such symptoms negatively affecting female alcoholics' ability to maintain abstinence. Because prior work has also shown that treatment-naïve alcoholics (TNA) are not the same as treated alcoholics observed earlier in their alcohol dependence, but rather are a different population with potentially lower psychiatric comorbidity, in this study we compared BPD symptom criteria between TNA samples of comparable age to the control and STAA samples, including both men and women and individuals dependent on alcohol only or with lifetime dependence on both alcohol and drugs...
October 31, 2017: Alcohol
Kadri Mägi, Marika Lepaste, Monika Szkultecka-Dębek
The aim of this article was to present a general overview of the health care system as well as pricing and reimbursement environment in Estonia. In Estonia the main stakeholders in the pharmaceutical sector are the Ministry of Social Affairs, the State Agency of Medicine, and the Estonian Health Insurance Fund. The national health insurance scheme is public, and approximately 95% of the population is covered by it. It is a social insurance, and universal and equal access to health care based on national health insurance is granted...
March 9, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Marta Rychert, Chris Wilkins
BACKGROUND: In July 2013 New Zealand passed the Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA) to establish the world's first regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) ("legal highs"). AIM: To critically analyse the implementation of the PSA. METHODS: Synthesis of findings from interviews with 30 key informants (i.e. politicians, civil servants, legal high industry actors, toxicologists, NGO representatives and drug policy academics), analysis of relevant laws and policy documents, and a review of academic and grey literature on the PSA...
March 7, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Rebecca Thomson, Boniface Johanes, Charles Festo, Admirabilis Kalolella, Mark Taylor, Sarah Tougher, Yazoume Ye, Andrea Mann, Ruilin Ren, Katia Bruxvoort, Barbara Willey, Fred Arnold, Kara Hanson, Catherine Goodman
BACKGROUND: Since 2003 Tanzania has upgraded its approximately 7000 drug stores to Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs), involving dispenser training, introduction of record keeping and enhanced regulation. Prior to accreditation, drug stores could officially stock over-the-counter medicines only, though many stocked prescription-only antimalarials. ADDOs are permitted to stock 49 prescription-only medicines, including artemisinin combination therapies and one form of quinine injectable...
March 9, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Geraint Price
Many tests are available for the assessment of cognitive function. This chapter describes the common features and practical requirements of test administration, key considerations in the selection and interpretation of tests, and their application in Alzheimer's disease drug development.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Nicola Singleton, Andrew Cunningham, Teodora Groshkova, Luis Royuela, Roumen Sedefov
Interventions to tackle the supply of drugs are seen as standard components of illicit drug policies. Therefore drug market-related administrative data, such as seizures, price, purity and drug-related offending, are used in most countries for policy monitoring and assessment of the drug situation. International agencies, such as the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and the UN Office of Drugs and Crime, also monitor and report on the drug situation cross-nationally and therefore seek to collect and make available key data in a uniform manner from the countries they cover...
March 3, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Iain Brassington
The lack of sleep is a significant problem in the modern world. The structure of the economy means that 24 hour working is required from some of us, sometimes because we are expected to be able to respond to share-price fluctuations on the other side of the planet, sometimes because we are expected to serve kebabs to people leaving nightclubs, and sometimes because lives depend on it. The immediate effect is that we feel groggy; but there may be much more sinister long-term effects of persistent sleep deprivation and disruption, the evidence for which is significant, and worth taking seriously...
April 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Sergio I Prada, Victoria E Soto, Tatiana S Andia, Claudia P Vaca, Álvaro A Morales, Sergio R Márquez, Alejandro Gaviria
Background: High pharmaceutical expenditure is one of the main concerns for policymakers worldwide. In Colombia, a middle-income country, outpatient prescription represents over 10% of total health expenditure in the mandatory benefits package (POS), and close to 90% in the complementary government fund (No POS). In order to control expenditure, since 2011, the Ministry of Health introduced price caps on inpatient drugs reimbursements by active ingredient. By 2013, more than 400 different products, covering 80% of public pharmaceutical expenditure were controlled...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Eva Pagano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Sharon Elad, Kevin Zinchuk, Shuli Li, Corey Cutler, Jane Liesveld, Nathaniel Treister
BACKGROUND: Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) frequently affects the oral mucosa and is generally responsive to topical immunomodulatory therapies. Clinicians may benefit from guidance in choosing the most appropriate therapy with respect to practicality and cost. OBJECTIVE: To assess the economic considerations related to topical immunomodulatory treatments for management of oral mucosal cGVHD and their practical implications. METHOD: Topical treatments used for management of oral cGVHD were obtained from the NIH Consensus document for ancillary and supportive care...
March 1, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Irina A Tikhonova, Nicola Huxley, Tristan Snowsill, Louise Crathorne, Jo Varley-Campbell, Mark Napier, Martin Hoyle
BACKGROUND: Combination therapies with cetuximab (Erbitux® ; Merck Serono UK Ltd) and panitumumab (Vectibix® ; Amgen UK Ltd) are shown to be less effective in adults with metastatic colorectal cancer who have mutations in exons 2, 3 and 4 of KRAS and NRAS oncogenes from the rat sarcoma (RAS) family. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of these drugs in patients with previously untreated RAS wild-type (i.e. non-mutated) metastatic colorectal cancer, not eligible for liver resection at baseline, from the UK National Health Service and Personal Social Services perspective...
March 1, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Cristina Lois, Ivan Gonzalez, Keith A Johnson, Julie C Price
The two neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are amyloid-[Formula: see text] plaques and neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein. Fifteen years ago, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with Pittsburgh Compound B (11 C-PiB) enabled selective in-vivo visualization of amyloid-[Formula: see text] plaque deposits and has since provided valuable information about the role of amyloid-[Formula: see text] deposition in AD. The progression of tau deposition has been shown to be highly associated with neuronal loss, neurodegeneration, and cognitive decline...
March 1, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Patrick Rose, Gregory Cwikla, Christopher Miller, Luke Probst, Robert Seabury
Background: Vitamin K compounded oral solution costs significantly less on a per-milligram basis compared with tablet formulations. Current literature has shown that international normalized ratio (INR) lowering in the reversal of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) occurs to a similar degree when using vitamin K oral solution compared with tablet formulations. Objective: To compare drug spending on vitamin K oral solution versus tablet using a price-performance ratio (PPR)...
March 2018: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
Hagop M Kantarjian, Shilpa Paul
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2018: Cancer
Hilary Aroke, Ashley Buchanan, Xuerong Wen, Peter Ragosta, Jennifer Koziol, Stephen Kogut
BACKGROUND: Overuse and misuse of prescription opioids is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and places a significant cost burden on health systems. OBJECTIVE: To estimate annual statewide spending for prescription opioids in Rhode Island. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of opioids dispensed from retail pharmacies using data from the Rhode Island Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) was performed. The study sample consisted of 651,227 opioid prescriptions dispensed to 197,062 patients between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2015...
March 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Ghazala Khan, Patrick Karabon, Sarah Lerchenfeldt
BACKGROUND: Insurance coverage in the United States seems to be in a state of unrest. The 2010 passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Health Care Act (ACA) extended health insurance coverage to roughly 32 million people. An increase in the number of people with health insurance benefits raised the question of whether prescription assistance programs (PAPs) would still be used after ACA implementation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of PAPs following the implementation of the ACA insurance mandate...
March 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Kalsi Juhani, Selander Tuomas, Tervo Timo
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between annual alcohol consumption per capita/alcohol price index and the number of alcohol-related fatal motor vehicle accidents (AFMVAs). We were particularly interested in whether a tax reduction in 2004 increased the number of alcohol-related accidents. METHOD: The data consisted of all fatal motor vehicle accidents (FMVAs) during the years 2000-2016 obtained from a database maintained by the Finnish Crash Data Institute (OTI)...
February 27, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Francisco J Esteva, Toshiaki Saeki, HoUng Kim, Justin Stebbing
Trastuzumab is an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody indicated for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast and gastric cancers. Despite its clinical efficacy, access to the biological drug can be limited due to its relatively high price, especially in low-income countries. CT-P6 (Herzuma® ) is a biosimilar candidate of originator or 'reference' trastuzumab, which may offer an alternative, more cost-effective treatment option. This article reviews the unmet needs of patients eligible to receive reference trastuzumab and the potential place of a trastuzumab biosimilar within the market...
February 27, 2018: Future Oncology
Joseph G L Lee, Paige E Averett, Tiffany Blanchflower, Kyle R Gregory
Purpose: In the U.S., tobacco products are now regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Litigation has quickly followed. One area of controversy is when a change to the design of the cigarette pack requires approval through FDA's rigorous premarket review process. In this paper, we examine how adult U.S. smokers view the connection between the design of cigarette packs and the characteristics of the cigarettes within. Methods: Data for this qualitative study came from six focus groups conducted in March 2017 with adult smokers...
March 2018: Journal of Cancer Policy
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