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Direct current stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646016/tshb-mrna-is-linked-to-cholesterol-metabolism-in-adipose-tissue
#1
José María Moreno-Navarrete, María Moreno, Francisco Ortega, Gemma Xifra, Shangyu Hong, John M Asara, José C E Serrano, Mariona Jové, Pavlos Pissios, Matthias Blüher, Wifredo Ricart, Manuel Portero-Otin, José Manuel Fernández-Real
Subclinical hypothyroidism is known to be associated with increased serum cholesterol. Since thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) exerts an inductor effect on cholesterol biosynthesis, we aimed to investigate the relationship between TSH mRNA and cholesterol metabolism in human adipose tissue (AT). Cross-sectionally, AT TSH-β (TSHB) mRNA was evaluated in 4 independent cohorts in association with serum total and LDL cholesterol, and AT lipidomics. Longitudinally, the effects of statins and of diet and exercise on AT TSHB mRNA were also examined...
June 23, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645931/a-potential-role-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-post-transplant-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Sandra Bodeau, Chloé Sauzay, Olivier Pluquet, Gabriel Choukroun, Antoine Galmiche
Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality in organ transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive regimen based on Cyclosporin A (CsA). Organ transplantation and chronic immunosuppression are typically associated with skin cancers (both squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Recent studies have shown that in addition to its immunosuppressive effects, accounted for by the inhibition of calcineurin and the modulation of the transcriptional programme of lymphocytes, CsA also directly stimulates the growth and aggressive behaviour of various cancer cells...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645841/how-do-self-interest-and-other-need-interact-in-the-brain-to-determine-altruistic-behavior
#3
Jie Hu, Yue Li, Yunlu Yin, Philip R Blue, Hongbo Yu, Xiaolin Zhou
Altruistic behavior, i.e., promoting the welfare of others at a cost to oneself, is subserved by the integration of various social, affective, and economic factors represented in extensive brain regions. However, it is unclear how different regions interact to process/integrate information regarding the helper's interest and recipient's need when deciding whether to behave altruistically. Here we combined an interactive game with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to characterize the neural network underlying the processing/integration of self-interest and other-need...
June 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644737/circulatory-cnp-rescues-craniofacial-hypoplasia-in-achondroplasia
#4
S Yamanaka, Kazumasa Nakao, N Koyama, Y Isobe, Y Ueda, Y Kanai, E Kondo, T Fujii, M Miura, A Yasoda, Kazuwa Nakao, K Bessho
Achondroplasia is the most common genetic form of human dwarfism, characterized by midfacial hypoplasia resulting in occlusal abnormality and foramen magnum stenosis, leading to serious neurologic complications and hydrocephalus. Currently, surgery is the only way to manage jaw deformity, neurologic complications, and hydrocephalus in patients with achondroplasia. We previously showed that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a potent stimulator of endochondral bone growth of long bones and vertebrae and is also a potent stimulator in the craniofacial region, which is crucial for midfacial skeletogenesis...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643827/anti-oxidant-and-immune-modulatory-properties-of-sulfated-alginate-derivatives-on-human-chondrocytes-and-macrophages
#5
Anne Kerschenmeyer, Øystein Arlov, Vera Malheiro, Matthias Steinwachs, Markus Rottmar, Katharina Maniura-Weber, Gemma Palazzolo, Marcy Zenobi-Wong
Degeneration of articular cartilage represents one of the most common causes of pain and disability in our aging society. Current treatments only address the symptoms of joint disease, but not their underlying causes which include oxidative stress and inflammation in cartilage and surrounding tissues. Sulfated biopolymers that mimic aspects of the native extracellular environment of cartilage are recently gaining interest as a means to slow the inflammatory events responsible for tissue degeneration. Here we show that the natural polysaccharide alginate and particularly its sulfated derivatives have potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-immunogenic properties in vitro...
June 23, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642729/inconsistent-effects-of-parietal-%C3%AE-tacs-on-pseudoneglect-across-two-experiments-a-failed-internal-replication
#6
Domenica Veniero, Christopher S Y Benwell, Merle M Ahrens, Gregor Thut
Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is being investigated as an experimental and clinical interventional technique in human participants. While promising, important limitations have been identified, including weak effect sizes and high inter- and intra-individual variability of outcomes. Here, we compared two "inhibitory" tES-techniques with supposedly different mechanisms of action as to their effects on performance in a visuospatial attention task, and report on a direct replication attempt. In two experiments, 2 × 20 healthy participants underwent tES in three separate sessions testing different protocols (10 min stimulation each) with a montage targeting right parietal cortex (right parietal-left frontal, electrode-sizes: 3cm × 3cm-7 cm × 5 cm), while performing a perceptual line bisection (landmark) task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642698/enhanced-working-memory-binding-by-direct-electrical-stimulation-of-the-parietal-cortex
#7
Agustina Birba, Eugenia Hesse, Lucas Sedeño, Ezequiel P Mikulan, María Del C García, Juan Ávalos, Federico Adolfi, Agustina Legaz, Tristán A Bekinschtein, Máximo Zimerman, Mario Parra, Adolfo M García, Agustín Ibáñez
Recent works evince the critical role of visual short-term memory (STM) binding deficits as a clinical and preclinical marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These studies suggest a potential role of posterior brain regions in both the neurocognitive deficits of Alzheimer's patients and STM binding in general. Thereupon, we surmised that stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) might be a successful approach to tackle working memory deficits in this condition, especially at early stages. To date, no causal evidence exists of the role of the parietal cortex in STM binding...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641161/postural-control-in-blind-individuals-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Rodolfo Borges Parreira, Luanda André Collange Grecco, Claudia Santos Oliveira
Postural control (PC) requires the interaction of the three sensory systems for a good maintenance of the balance, and in blind people, lack of visual input can harm your PC. Thus the objective is to perform a literature review concerning role of sight in the maintenance of PC and the adaptation of brain structures when vision is absent. Studies were searched from Pubmed, and EMBASE that included individuals with congenital blindness. Articles studying person with acquired blindness or low vision was excluded from this review...
June 12, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640159/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-effects-on-menopausal-vasomotor-symptoms
#9
Mônia Steigleder Bianchi, Charles Francisco Ferreira, Felipe Fregni, Pedro Schestatsky, Wolnei Caumo, Maria Celeste Osório Wender
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) compared with tDCS-sham on vasomotor symptoms of postmenopausal women. METHODS: Postmenopausal women (N = 30), aged between 45 and 68 years, with at least four episodes of vasomotor symptoms per day, were recruited from a specialized outpatient clinic at a tertiary hospital in the south of Brazil and through a media call after inclusion and exclusion criteria were ensured. Active and tDCS-sham were administered over the motor cortex position (anode electrode) and contralateral supraorbital region (cathode electrode) for 10 consecutive days, except weekends...
June 19, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639387/determining-the-orientation-angle-of-directional-leads-for-deep-brain-stimulation-using-computed-tomography-and-digital-x-ray-imaging-a-phantom-study
#10
Alexander Sitz, Mauritius Hoevels, Alexandra Hellerbach, Andreas Gierich, Klaus Luyken, Till A Dembek, Martin Klehr, Jochen Wirths, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Harald Treuer
PURPOSE: Orientating the angle of directional leads for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in an axial plane introduces a new degree of freedom that is indicated by embedded anisotropic directional markers. Our aim was to develop algorithms to determine lead orientation angles from computed tomography (CT) and stereotactic x-ray imaging using standard clinical protocols, and subsequently assess the accuracy of both methods. METHODS: In CT the anisotropic marker artifact was taken as a signature of the lead orientation angle and analyzed using discrete Fourier transform of circular intensity profiles...
June 22, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638351/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-considerations-for-research-in-adolescent-depression
#11
REVIEW
Jonathan C Lee, Charles P Lewis, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Paul E Croarkin
Adolescent depression is a prevalent disorder with substantial morbidity and mortality. Current treatment interventions do not target relevant pathophysiology and are frequently ineffective, thereby leading to a substantial burden for individuals, families, and society. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex undergoes extensive structural and functional changes. Recent work suggests that frontolimbic development in depressed adolescents is delayed or aberrant. The judicious application of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques to the prefrontal cortex may present a promising opportunity for durable interventions in adolescent depression...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638205/effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-for-auditory-hallucinations-a-systematic-review
#12
Haibin Li, Yiran Wang, Jiangling Jiang, Wei Li, Chunbo Li
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasion brain stimulation, which has been suggested as a safe and promising treatment for auditory hallucinations, however, no systematic review has been conducted to evaluate the effects of tDCS on auditory hallucinations (AH). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of tDCS for auditory hallucinations among patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: We searched relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chongqing VIP database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, WANFANG DATA, Chinese Biological Medical Literature Database, and Taiwan Electronic Periodical Services (TEPS) before February 13, 2016...
December 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638028/-main-directions-of-differential-diagnosis-optimization-and-rational-treatment-of-an-acute-vertigo-attack
#13
I N Samartsev, S A Zhyvolupov, V V Ponomarev, Yu S Butakova, T V Bodrova
AIM: To develop and assess the validity of the clinical algorithm VERTIGO for the differential diagnosis of central and peripheral vertigo and optimization of treatment of patients with vertigo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-five patients with an acute attack of vertigo, aged from 18 to 75 years (53±6.7 years), were studied. All patients underwent standard neurological examination. In case of signs of central vertigo, patients underwent neuroimaging. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the VERTIGO algorithm as well as its positive and negative prognostic values were calculated...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637840/promoting-sleep-oscillations-and-their-functional-coupling-by-transcranial-stimulation-enhances-memory-consolidation-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#14
Julia Ladenbauer, Josef Ladenbauer, Nadine Külzow, Rebecca de Boor, Elena Avramova, Ulrike Grittner, Agnes Flöel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) not only involves loss of memory functions but also prominent deterioration of sleep physiology, already evident in the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cortical slow oscillations (SO, 0.5-1 Hz) and thalamo-cortical spindle activity (12-15 Hz) during sleep, and their temporal coordination, are considered critical for memory formation. We investigated the potential of slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS), applied during a daytime nap in a sleep state-dependent manner, to modulate these activity patterns and sleep-related memory consolidation in 9 male and 7 female human patients with MCI...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637411/venom-peptides-and-toxins-a-prospective-spearhead-in-cancer-treatment
#15
Janet Pik Ching Wong, Bin Li, Hang Fai Kwok
Cancer is a condition of genetically or environmentally mutated, uncontrollable cell growth that directly affects human morbidity and mortality. Many treatments have been adopted to reduce cancer cell proliferation; however, new mutated developments of some cancer cells have started to show resistance towards current therapies and treatments that cause some drugs to lose their efficacy. Additionally, deleterious side-effects of some hard application methods like radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery are less favorable...
June 21, 2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634847/carbon-nanotubes-embedded-in-embryoid-bodies-direct-cardiac-differentiation
#16
Samad Ahadian, Shukuyo Yamada, Mehdi Estili, Xiaobin Liang, Ramin Banan Sadeghian, Ken Nakajima, Hitoshi Shiku, Tomokazu Matsue, Ali Khademhosseini
We embedded carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) for modulating mechanical and electrical cues of the stem cell niche. The CNTs increased the mechanical integrity and electrical conductivity of the EBs. Measured currents for the unmodified EBs (hereafter, EBs) and the EBs-0.25 mg/mL CNTs were 0.79 and 26.3 mA, respectively, at voltage of 5 V. The EBs had a Young's modulus of 20.9 ± 6.5 kPa, whereas the Young's modulus of the EB-0.1 mg/mL CNTs was 35.2 ± 5.6 kPa. The EB-CNTs also showed lower proliferation and greater differentiation rates compared with the EBs as determined by the expression of pluripotency genes and the analysis of EB sizes...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633645/generation-of-populations-of-antigen-specific-cytotoxic-t-cells-using-dcs-transfected-with-dna-construct-encoding-her2-neu-tumor-antigen-epitopes
#17
Maria Kuznetsova, Julia Lopatnikova, Julia Khantakova, Rinat Maksyutov, Amir Maksyutov, Sergey Sennikov
BACKGROUND: Recent fundamental and clinical studies have confirmed the effectiveness of utilizing the potential of the immune system to remove tumor cells disseminated in a patient's body. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are considered the main effectors in cell-mediated antitumor immunity. Approaches based on antigen presentation to CTLs by dendritic cells (DCs) are currently being intensively studied, because DCs are more efficient in tumor antigen presentation to T cells through their initiation of strong specific antitumor immune responses than other types of antigen-presenting cells...
June 20, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632508/combined-dextroamphetamine-and-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-poststroke-aphasia
#18
Zafer Keser, Michelle Weber Dehgan, Shaparak Shadravan, Nuray Yozbatiran, Lynn M Maher, Gerard E Francisco
There is a growing need for various effective adjunctive treatment options for speech recovery after stroke. A pharmacological agent combined with noninvasive brain stimulation has not been previously reported for poststroke aphasia recovery. In this "proof of concept" study, we aimed to test the safety of a combined intervention consisting of dextroamphetamine, transcranial direct current stimulation, and speech and language therapy in subjects with nonfluent aphasia. Ten subjects with chronic nonfluent aphasia underwent two experiments where they received dextroamphetamine or placebo along with transcranial direct current stimulation and speech and language therapy on two separate days...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632467/effects-of-a-single-session-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-upper-limb-movements-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-randomized-sham-controlled-study
#19
Renata Calhes Franco Moura, Cibele Santos, Luanda Collange Grecco, Giorgio Albertini, Veronica Cimolin, Manuela Galli, Claudia Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Motor impairment in children with spastic hemiparetic cerebral palsy (CP) is generally more prominent in the affected upper limb, leading to limitations in hand function stemming from deficiencies in motor coordination and selective motor control as well as muscle weakness, slower execution of movements and deficient integration of sensory-motor information. OBJECTIVE: Determine the effect of a single session of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with functional training on the spatiotemporal variables of upper arm movements in children with spastic hemiparesis...
February 25, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631619/modeling-trans-spinal-direct-current-stimulation-for-the-modulation-of-the-lumbar-spinal-motor-pathways
#20
Alexander Kuck, Dick Stegeman, Edwin van Asseldonk
OBJECTIVE: Trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a potential new technique for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). TsDCS aims to facilitate plastic changes in the neural pathways of the spinal cord with a positive effect on SCI recovery. To establish tsDCS as a possible treatment option for SCI, it is essential to gain a better understanding of its cause and effects. We seek to understand the acute effect of tsDCS, including the generated electric field (EF) and its polarization effect on the spinal circuits, to determine a cellular target...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
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