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Direct current stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436038/direct-current-stimulation-boosts-synaptic-gain-and-cooperativity-in-vitro
#1
Asif Rahman, Belen Lafon, Lucas C Parra, Marom Bikson
KEY POINTS: Direct current stimulation (DCS) polarity specifically modulates synaptic efficacy during a continuous train of presynaptic inputs, despite synaptic depression. DCS polarizes afferent axons and postsynaptic neurons, boosting cooperativity between synaptic inputs. Polarization of afferent neurons in upstream brain regions may modulate activity in the target brain region during transcranial DCS (tDCS). A statistical theory of coincident activity predicts that the diffuse and weak profile of current flow can be advantageous in enhancing connectivity between co-active brain regions...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435045/current-direction-dependent-modulation-of-human-hand-motor-function-by-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-itbs
#2
Yuichiro Shirota, Suman Dhaka, Walter Paulus, Martin Sommer
BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with different current directions can activate different sets of neurons. Current direction can also affect the results of repetitive TMS. OBJECTIVE: To test the influence of uni-directional intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) using different current directions, namely posteroanterior (PA) and anteroposterior (AP), on motor behaviour. METHODS: In a cross-over design, PA- and AP-iTBS was applied over the left primary motor cortex in 19 healthy, right-handed volunteers...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433830/spasticity-management-the-current-state-of-transcranial-neuromodulation
#3
REVIEW
Antonino Leo, Antonino Naro, Francesco Molonia, Provvidenza Tomasello, Ileana Saccà, Alessia Bramanti, Margherita Russo, Placido Bramanti, Angelo Quartarone, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
This narrative review aims to provide an objective view of the non-invasive neuromodulation (NINM) protocols available for treating spasticity, including repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). On the basis of the relevant randomized controlled trials, we infer that NINM is more effective in reducing spasticity when combined with the conventional therapies than used as a stand-alone treatment. However, the magnitude of NINM aftereffects depends significantly on the applied hemisphere and the underlying pathology...
April 19, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432349/augmentation-of-working-memory-training-by-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#4
Steffen Philipp Ruf, Andreas J Fallgatter, Christian Plewnia
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) can modulate working memory (WM) performance. However, evidence regarding the enhancement of WM training, its sustainability and transferability is ambiguous. Since WM functioning appears to be lateralized in respect to stimulus characteristics, this study examined the difference between task-congruent (spatial-right, verbal-left), task-incongruent (spatial-left, verbal-right) and sham tDCS in regards to the efficacy of WM training...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430533/new-directions-in-the-rational-design-of-electrical-and-magnetic-seizure-therapies-individualized-low-amplitude-seizure-therapy-ilast-and-magnetic-seizure-therapy-mst
#5
Thomas Radman, Sarah H Lisanby
Electroconvulsive therapy remains a key treatment option for severe cases of depression, but undesirable side-effects continue to limit its use. Innovations in the design of novel seizure therapies seek to improve its risk benefit ratio through enhanced control of the focality of stimulation. The design of seizure therapies with increased spatial precision is motivated by avoiding stimulation of deep brain structures implicated in memory retention, including the hippocampus. The development of two innovations in seizure therapy-individualized low-amplitude seizure therapy (iLAST) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST), are detailed...
April 21, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427911/safety-parameter-considerations-of-anodal-transcranial-directcurrentstimulation-in-rats
#6
Mark P Jackson, Dennis Truong, Milene L Brownlow, Jessica A Wagner, R Andy McKinley, Marom Bikson, Ryan Jankord
A commonly referenced transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) safety threshold derives from tDCS lesion studies in the rat and relies on electrode current density (and related electrode charge density) to support clinical guidelines. Concerns about the role of polarity (e.g. anodal tDCS), sub-lesion threshold injury (e.g. neuroinflammatory processes), and role of electrode montage across rodent and human studies support further investigation into animal models of tDCS safety. Thirty-two anesthetized rats received anodal tDCS between 0-5 mA for 60 minutes through one of three epicranial electrode montages...
April 17, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427306/prefrontal-tdcs-and-sertraline-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Ulrich Palm, Bianka Leitner, Beatrice Kirsch, Nora Behler, Ulrike Kumpf, Linda Wulf, Frank Padberg, Alkomiet Hasan
Obsessive-compulsive (OC) disorder is a disabling disorder resulting in tremendous individual and social burden. It has a large overlap with depression and anxiety disorders and shows treatment resistance in a relevant proportion of patients. Since a couple of years, different noninvasive brain stimulation methods have been investigated to improve OC symptoms. The application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown inconsistent results which can probably be attributed to a lack in randomized controlled trials with adequate sample size...
April 21, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426515/can-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-improve-muscle-power-in-individuals-with-advanced-resistance-training-experience
#8
Eduardo Lattari, Carlos Campos, Murilo Khede Lamego, Sandro Legey Passos de Souza, Geraldo M Neto, Nuno B Rocha, Aldair José de Oliveira, Sandro Carpenter, Sérgio Machado
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on countermovement jump performance (CMJ) in men with advanced strength training experience. Ten healthy male subjects, with advanced strength training and squatting exercise experience, were included. Participants took part in an initial visit to the laboratory to complete anthropometric measurements and CMJ kinematic test-retest reliability. Participants then completed three experimental conditions, 48-72 hours apart, in a randomized, double-blinded crossover design: anodal, cathodal and sham tDCS (2 mA for 20 minutes targeting the motor cortex bilaterally)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425486/lamin-b1-is-required-for-mature-neuron-specific-gene-expression-during-olfactory-sensory-neuron-differentiation
#9
Crystal M Gigante, Michele Dibattista, Frederick N Dong, Xiaobin Zheng, Sibiao Yue, Stephen G Young, Johannes Reisert, Yixian Zheng, Haiqing Zhao
B-type lamins are major constituents of the nuclear lamina in all metazoan cells, yet have specific roles in the development of certain cell types. Although they are speculated to regulate gene expression in developmental contexts, a direct link between B-type lamins and developmental gene expression in an in vivo system is currently lacking. Here, we identify lamin B1 as a key regulator of gene expression required for the formation of functional olfactory sensory neurons. By using targeted knockout in olfactory epithelial stem cells in adult mice, we show that lamin B1 deficient neurons exhibit attenuated response to odour stimulation...
April 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424953/treatment-update-of-chronic-migraine
#10
REVIEW
Soo-Jin Cho, Tae-Jin Song, Min Kyung Chu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although chronic migraine (CM) is a common disorder that severely impacts patient functioning and quality of life, it is usually underdiagnosed, and treatment responses often remain poor even after diagnosis. In addition, effective treatment options are limited due to the rarity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving patients with CM. In the present review, we discuss updated pharmacological, non-pharmacological, and neurostimulation treatment options for CM...
June 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424657/magnetic-vestibular-stimulation-mvs-as-a-technique-for-understanding-the-normal-and-diseased-labyrinth
#11
REVIEW
Bryan K Ward, Jorge Otero-Millan, Prem Jareonsettasin, Michael C Schubert, Dale C Roberts, David S Zee
Humans often experience dizziness and vertigo around strong static magnetic fields such as those present in an MRI scanner. Recent evidence supports the idea that this effect is the result of inner ear vestibular stimulation and that the mechanism is a magnetohydrodynamic force (Lorentz force) that is generated by the interactions between normal ionic currents in the inner ear endolymph and the strong static magnetic field of MRI machines. While in the MRI, the Lorentz force displaces the cupula of the lateral and anterior semicircular canals, as if the head was rotating with a constant acceleration...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424645/cerebellar-tdcs-does-not-enhance-performance-in-an-implicit-categorization-learning-task
#12
Marie C Verhage, Eric O Avila, Maarten A Frens, Opher Donchin, Jos N van der Geest
Background: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a form of non-invasive electrical stimulation that changes neuronal excitability in a polarity and site-specific manner. In cognitive tasks related to prefrontal and cerebellar learning, cortical tDCS arguably facilitates learning, but the few studies investigating cerebellar tDCS, however, are inconsistent. Objective: We investigate the effect of cerebellar tDCS on performance of an implicit categorization learning task. Methods: Forty participants performed a computerized version of an implicit categorization learning task where squares had to be sorted into two categories, according to an unknown but fixed rule that integrated both the size and luminance of the square...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422784/b-cell-abnormalities-and-impact-on-antibody-response-in-hiv-infection
#13
Alessandra Noto, Giuseppe Pantaleo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the present review is to provide an update on the current development in the field of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNabs) and their potential use in the prevention and therapeutic settings, and an evaluation of the B-cell abnormalities that may impair antibody responses in HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Major advances have been achieved in the characterization of bNabs directed against different vulnerable regions of HIV Envelope (Env)...
May 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422634/functional-brain-stimulation-in-a-chronic-stroke-survivor-with-moderate-impairment
#14
Heather T Peters, Janell Pisegna, Julie Faieta, Stephen J Page
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with repetitive, task-specific training (RTP) on upper-extremity (UE) impairment in a chronic stroke survivor with moderate impairment. METHOD: The participant was a 54-yr-old woman with chronic, moderate UE hemiparesis after a single stroke that had occurred 10 yr before study enrollment. She participated in 45-min RTP sessions 3 days/wk for 8 wk. tDCS was administered concurrent to the first 20 min of each RTP session...
May 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422073/chemopreventive-strategies-for-inflammation-related-carcinogenesis-current-status-and-future-direction
#15
REVIEW
Yusuke Kanda, Mitsuhiko Osaki, Futoshi Okada
A sustained and chronically-inflamed environment is characterized by the presence of heterogeneous inflammatory cellular components, including neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes and fibroblasts. These infiltrated cells produce growth stimulating mediators (inflammatory cytokines and growth factors), chemotactic factors (chemokines) and genotoxic substances (reactive oxygen species and nitrogen oxide) and induce DNA damage and methylation. Therefore, chronic inflammation serves as an intrinsic niche for carcinogenesis and tumor progression...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420970/single-session-anodal-tdcs-with-small-size-stimulating-electrodes-over-frontoparietal-superficial-sites-does-not-affect-motor-sequence-learning
#16
Fahimeh Hashemirad, Paul B Fitzgerald, Maryam Zoghi, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Due to the potential of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) for enhancement of fine sequenced movements and increasing interest in achieving high level of fine movements in the trained and untrained hands especially at initial stage of learning, we designed this study to investigate whether the application of single-session a-tDCS with small-size stimulating electrodes over FPN sites, such as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), primary motor cortex (M1) or posterior parietal cortex (PPC) could enhance sequence learning with the trained hand and these effects are transferred into the untrained hand or not...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420959/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-does-not-affect-lower-extremity-muscle-strength-training-in-healthy-individuals-a-triple-blind-sham-controlled-study
#17
Kazuhei Maeda, Tomofumi Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi Tatemoto, Kunitsugu Kondo, Yohei Otaka, Satoshi Tanaka
The present study investigated the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on lower extremity muscle strength training in 24 healthy participants. In this triple-blind, sham-controlled study, participants were randomly allocated to the anodal tDCS plus muscle strength training (anodal tDCS) group or sham tDCS plus muscle strength training (sham tDCS) group. Anodal tDCS (2 mA) was applied to the primary motor cortex of the lower extremity during muscle strength training of the knee extensors and flexors...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420581/response-variability-of-different-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-intensities-across-multiple-sessions
#18
Claudia Ammann, Martin A Lindquist, Pablo A Celnik
BACKGROUND: It is well known that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is capable of modulating corticomotor excitability. However, a source of growing concern has been the observed inter- and intra-individual variability of tDCS-responses. Recent studies have assessed whether individuals respond in a predictable manner across repeated sessions of anodal tDCS (atDCS). The findings of these investigations have been inconsistent, and their methods have some limitations (i.e. lack of sham condition or testing only one tDCS intensity)...
April 10, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420382/effect-of-tdcs-stimulation-of-motor-cortex-and-cerebellum-on-eeg-classification-of-motor-imagery-and-sensorimotor-band-power
#19
Irma N Angulo-Sherman, Marisol Rodríguez-Ugarte, Nadia Sciacca, Eduardo Iáñez, José M Azorín
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique for brain modulation that has potential to be used in motor neurorehabilitation. Considering that the cerebellum and motor cortex exert influence on the motor network, their stimulation could enhance motor functions, such as motor imagery, and be utilized for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) during motor neurorehabilitation. METHODS: A new tDCS montage that influences cerebellum and either right-hand or feet motor area is proposed and validated with a simulation of electric field...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419862/the-effect-of-tdcs-over-the-right-temporo-parietal-junction-on-pain-empathy
#20
Michel-Pierre Coll, Marie-Pier B Tremblay, Philip L Jackson
Empathy is a complex psychological phenomenon crucial for social perception and interactions. Several lines of evidence suggest that the right temporo-parietal junction is involved in self-other control mechanisms that play an important role in empathic responses. However, limited direct evidence of the involvement of this region in empathic responses is currently available. In this study, inhibitory transcranial direct current stimulation over this region influenced empathic responses to others' pain. It was found that compared to participants that received anodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation, participants who received cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the right temporo-parietal junction perceived the pain of others as less intense compared to sham stimulation and showed decreased late event related potentials to facial expressions of pain...
April 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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