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Direct current stimulation

Aline Iannone, Antonio Pedro de Mello Cruz, Joaquim Pereira Brasil-Neto, Raphael Boechat-Barros
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has recently been investigated as a possible adjuvant treatment for many neuropsychiatric disorders, and has already been approved for the treatment of drug-resistant depression in the United States and in Brazil, among other countries. Although its use in other neuropsychiatric disorders is still largely experimental, many physicians have been using it as an off-label add-on therapy for various disorders. More recently, another technique, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has also become available as a much cheaper and portable alternative to TMS, although its mechanisms of action are different from those of TMS...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
L Angius, B Pageaux, J Hopker, S M Marcora, A R Mauger
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can increase cortical excitability of a targeted brain area, which may affect endurance exercise performance. However, optimal electrode placement for tDCS remains unclear. We tested the effect of two different tDCS electrode montages for improving exercise performance. Nine subjects underwent a control (CON), placebo (SHAM) and two different tDCS montage sessions in a randomised design. In one tDCS session, the anodal electrode was placed over the left motor cortex and the cathodal on contralateral forehead (HEAD), while for the other montage the anodal electrode was placed over the left motor cortex and cathodal electrode above the shoulder (SHOULDER)...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
Christian Adam, Jonas Wohlfarth, Maike Haußmann, Helga Sennefelder, Annette Rodin, Mareike Maler, Stefan F Martin, Matthias Goebeler, Marc Schmidt
Chromium allergy is a common occupational skin disease mediated by chromium (VI)-specific T cells that induce delayed-type hypersensitivity in sensitized individuals. Additionally, chromium (VI) can act as irritant. Both responses critically require innate immune activation, but if and how chromium (VI) elicits this signal is currently unclear.Using human monocytes, primary human keratinocytes and murine dendritic cells we show that chromium (VI) compounds fail to trigger direct proinflammatory activation but potently induce processing and secretion of IL-1β...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Xu Shi, Ying Tang, Xiguang Sun, Yufei Liu, Ying Sun, Munan Sun, Yanfang Jiang, Yulin Li
The current study aimed to investigate the distribution of memory and naïve T cell (TN) subsets in hepatitis B virus (HBV)‑infected patients at different immune stages and investigate the effect of interleukin 33 (IL‑33) on the regulation of the T‑cell subsets. The distributions of memory and naïve T cells were detected by flow cytometry. ELISA was conducted to assess the levels of IL‑4, IL‑5, IL‑10, IL‑12, interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α. The expression levels of IL‑33 and HBV x protein (HBx) were measured by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Katarzyna Osipowicz, Agnieszka Kalinska-Bienias, Cezary Kowalewski, Katarzyna Wozniak
Haemodialysis is the most frequent form of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in patients with end-stage renal disorder (ESRD). Patients with ESRD frequently develop skin problems, mainly xerosis, pruritus and hyperpigmentation, as well as bullous diseases, mainly porphyria or pseudoporphyria and, in some cases, bullous pemphigoid (BP). BP is the most common autoimmune sub-epidermal blistering disease, and it predominantly affects elderly people. Clinically, BP is characterised by generalised pruritic, bullous eruptions and urticaria-like lesions...
October 17, 2016: International Wound Journal
Ellen Collisson, Lisa Griggs, Yvonne Drechsler
Resistance to respiratory pathogens, including coronavirus-induced infection and clinical illness in chickens has been correlated with the B (MHC) complex and differential ex vivo macrophage responses. In the current study, in vitro T lymphocyte activation measured by IFNγ release was significantly higher in B2 versus B19 haplotypes. AIV infection of macrophages was required to activate T lymphocytes and prior in vivo exposure of chickens to NP AIV plasmid enhanced responses to infected macrophages. This study suggests that the demonstrated T lymphocyte activation is in part due to antigen presentation by the macrophages as well as cytokine release by the infected macrophages, with B2 haplotypes showing stronger activation...
October 13, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Janet C Tait, Evan W Mercer, Lucie Gerber, George N Robertson, William S Marshall
In eurythermic vertebrates, acclimation to the cold may produce changes in physiological control systems. We hypothesize that relatively direct osmosensitive control will operate better than adrenergic receptor mediated control of ion transport in cold vs. warm conditions. Fish were acclimated to full strength seawater (SW) at 21°C and 5°C for four weeks, gill samples and blood were taken and opercular epithelia mounted in Ussing style chambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) at 21°C and 5°C (measured at acclimation temperature), was significantly inhibited by the α2-adrenergic agonist clonidine but the ED50 dose was significantly higher in cold conditions (93...
October 13, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
K W Miskowiak, C V Ott, J Z Petersen, L V Kessing
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) but treatments targeting cognition are lacking. Numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies have investigated potential cognition treatments, but overall the evidence is conflicting. We conducted a systematic search following the PRISMA guidelines on PubMed and PsychInfo to evaluate the extant evidence and methodological challenges in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of biological, psychological and behavioural candidate treatments targeting cognition in MDD...
October 13, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Giuseppe Lanza, Cornelius G Bachmann, Imad Ghorayeb, Yuping Wang, Raffale Ferri, Walter Paulus
Neurophysiological techniques have been applied in restless legs syndrome (RLS) to obtain direct and indirect measures of central and peripheral nervous system excitability, as well as to probe different neurotransmission pathways. Data converge on the hypothesis that, from a pure electrophysiological perspective, RLS should be regarded as a complex sensorimotor disorder in which cortical, subcortical, spinal cord, and peripheral nerve generators are all involved in a network disorder, resulting in an enhanced excitability and/or decreased inhibition...
August 27, 2016: Sleep Medicine
L Brandejsky, J-A Micoulaud Franchi, R Lopez, S Bioulac, D Da Fonseca, C Daudet, L Boyer, R Richieri, C Lançon
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to summarize the available data in the literature about the therapeutic applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: The scientific literature search of international articles was performed in February 2016 using the PubMed electronic database. The following MeSH terms were employed: "attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity" AND "transcranial magnetic stimulation", "attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity" AND "transcranial direct current stimulation"...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Bryan R Haugen
Thyroid nodules are very common, and thyroid cancer is currently the fifth leading cancer diagnosis in women. The American Thyroid Association has led the development and revision of guidelines for the management of patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The most current revision was published in the January 2016 issue of the journal Thyroid. The current guidelines have 101 recommendations, with 8 figures and 17 tables that are hopefully helpful to those treating patients with thyroid nodules and cancer...
October 14, 2016: Cancer
David E Vance, Pariya L Fazeli, Shameka L Cody, Tyler R Bell, Caitlin Northcutt Pope
For centuries, since the advent of harnessing magnetic and electrical energies, humans have been applying such energies to various body parts, including the brain, with the goal of improving health. Advancements over the past two decades in the production and affordability of such devices that precisely deliver such energies have resulted in novel therapeutic uses. One technique in particular, transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), uses electrodes placed on the scalp to deliver a low electrical current to various areas on the surface of the neocortex...
2016: Nursing: Research and Reviews
Sangeetha Madhavan, James W Stinear, Neeta Kanekar
Objective. High intensity interval treadmill training (HIITT) has been gaining popularity for gait rehabilitation after stroke. In this study, we examined the changes in excitability of the lower limb motor cortical representation (M1) in chronic stroke survivors following a single session of HIITT. We also determined whether exercise-induced changes in excitability could be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) enhanced with a paretic ankle skill acquisition task. Methods. Eleven individuals with chronic stroke participated in two 40-minute treadmill-training sessions: HIITT alone and HITT preceded by anodal tDCS enhanced with a skill acquisition task (e-tDCS+HIITT)...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Pedro Shiozawa, July Silveira Gomes, Daniella Valverde Ducos, Henrique Teruo Akiba, Álvaro Machado Dias, Alisson Paulino Trevizol, Ricardo R Uchida, Natasza Orlov, Quirino Cordeiro
Introduction: We report a transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) combined with cognitive training in schizophrenia. Method: We assessed psychotic symptoms in nine patients using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). All evaluations were scored at baseline, at the end of the intervention protocol, and during a 4-week follow-up. The tDCS protocol consisted of 10 consecutive sessions over 5-day periods...
July 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Linda J Fothergill, Brid Callaghan, Leni R Rivera, TinaMarie Lieu, Daniel P Poole, Hyun-Jung Cho, David M Bravo, John B Furness
TRPA1 is a ligand-activated cation channel found in the intestine and other tissues. Components of food that stimulate TRPA1 receptors (phytonutrients) include allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde and linalool, but these may also act at other receptors. Cells lining the intestinal mucosa are immunoreactive for TRPA1 and Trpa1 mRNA occurs in mucosal extracts, suggesting that the TRPA1 receptor is the target for these agonists. However, in situ hybridisation reveals Trpa1 expression in 5-HT containing enteroendocrine cells, not enterocytes...
October 10, 2016: Nutrients
Yi-Jen Wu, Philip Tseng, Han-Wei Huang, Jon-Fan Hu, Chi-Hung Juan, Kuei-Sen Hsu, Chou-Ching Lin
Diabetes mellitus can lead to diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and cognitive deficits that manifest as peripheral and central neuropathy, respectively. In this study we investigated the relationship between visuospatial working memory (VSWM) capacity and DPN severity, and attempted to improve VSWM in DPN patients via the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Sixteen DPN patients and 16 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects received Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) for baseline cognitive assessment...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Xiao-Su Hu, Clayton A Fisher, Stephanie M Munz, Rebecca L Toback, Thiago D Nascimento, Emily L Bellile, Laura Rozek, Avraham Eisbruch, Francis P Worden, Theodora E Danciu, Alexandre F DaSilva
Patients with head and neck cancer often experience a significant decrease in their quality of life during chemoradiotherapy (CRT) due to treatment-related pain, which is frequently classified as severe. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a method of non-invasive brain stimulation that has been frequently used in experimental and clinical pain studies. In this pilot study, we investigated the clinical impact and central mechanisms of twenty primary motor cortex (M1) stimulation sessions with tDCS during 7 weeks of CRT for head and neck cancer...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Madelon M E Riem, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Pietro De Carli, Ad J J M Vingerhoets, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
The current fMRI study examines brain activity during the perception of infant and adult tears. Infant tears evoke stronger responses in the visual cortex than adult tears, indicating that infant tears are highly salient. In addition, our study shows that infant tears uniquely activate somatosensory pain regions, which could stimulate actions directed at the elimination of the source of pain. Shedding tears may be a strong means to elicit the parent's sharing of the infant's feelings,, thereby strengthening caregiver-infant bonding and securing infant survival...
October 11, 2016: Social Neuroscience
R Abend, I Jalon, G Gurevitch, R Sar-El, T Shechner, D S Pine, T Hendler, Y Bar-Haim
Research associates processes of fear conditioning and extinction with treatment of anxiety and stress-related disorders. Manipulation of these processes may therefore be beneficial for such treatment. The current study examines the effects of electrical brain stimulation on fear extinction processes in healthy humans in order to assess its potential relevance for treatment enhancement. Forty-five participants underwent a 3-day fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. Electrical stimulation targeting the medial prefrontal cortex was applied during the extinction-learning phase (Day 2)...
October 11, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Chiaki Itami, Fumitaka Kimura
Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) has been demonstrated in a variety of neural circuits. Recent studies reveal that it plays a fundamental role in the formation and remodeling of neuronal circuits. We show here an interaction of two distinct forms of STDP in the mouse barrel cortex causing concurrent, plastic changes, potentially a novel mechanism underlying network remodeling. We previously demonstrated that during the second postnatal week, when layer four (L4) cells are forming synapses onto L2/3 cells, L4-L2/3 synapses exhibit STDP with only long-term potentiation (t-LTP)...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
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