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Direct current stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352826/the-in-vitro-antileishmanial-activity-of-essential-oil-from-aloysia-gratissima-and-guaiol-its-major-sesquiterpene-against-leishmania-amazonensis
#1
Maria Carolina Freitas Garcia, Deivid Costa Soares, Raissa Couto Santana, Elvira Maria Saraiva, Antonio Carlos Siani, Mônica Freiman S Ramos, Maria das Graças Miranda Danelli, Thaïs Cristina Souto-Padron, Lucia H Pinto-da-Silva
Leishmaniases is a tropical disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania for which the current treatment is expensive, besides increasing reports of parasite resistance. This study investigated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of the essential oil from Aloysia gratissima (AgEO) and guaiol, the major sesquiterpene constituent in the oil. Our results showed that AgEO killed promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes at an IC50 of 25 and 0·16 µg mL-1, respectively, while guaiol killed amastigotes at an IC50 of 0·01 µg mL-1...
January 21, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352669/tms-of-primary-motor-cortex-with-a-biphasic-pulse-activates-two-independent-sets-of-excitable-neurones
#2
Martin Sommer, Matteo Ciocca, Raffaella Chieffo, Paul Hammond, Andreas Neef, Walter Paulus, John C Rothwell, Ricci Hannah
BACKGROUND: Biphasic pulses produced by most commercially available TMS machines have a cosine waveform, which makes it difficult to study the interaction between the two phases of stimulation. OBJECTIVE: We used a controllable pulse TMS (cTMS) device delivering quasi-rectangular pulse outputs to investigate whether monophasic are more effective than biphasic pulses. METHODS: Temporally symmetric ("biphasic") or highly asymmetric ("monophasic") charge-balanced biphasic stimuli were used to target the hand area of motor cortex in the anterior-posterior (AP) or posterior-anterior (PA) initial current direction...
January 5, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351405/acute-down-regulation-of-mir-199a-attenuates-sepsis-induced-acute-lung-injury-by-targeting-sirt1
#3
Yang Liu, Hao Guan, Ju-Lei Zhang, Zhao Zheng, Hong-Tao Wang, Ke Tao, Shi-Chao Han, Lin-Lin Su, Dahai Hu
MiR-199a is a novel gene regulator with an important role in inflammation and lung injury. However, its role in the pathogenesis of sepsis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is currently unknown. Our study explored the role of miR-199a in sepsis-induced ARDS and its mechanism of action. First, we found that LPS could up-regulate miR-199a in alveolar macrophages. Down-regulation of miR-199a inhibited the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines in alveolar macrophages and induced the remission of histopathologic changes, the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the up-regulation of apoptosis protein expression in an ARDS lung, showing a protective role for miR-199a...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350775/randomized-trial-of-transcranial-dc-stimulation-for-post-stroke-dysphagia
#4
Sonja Suntrup-Krueger, Corinna Ringmaier, Paul Muhle, Andreas Wollbrink, Andre Kemmling, Uta Hanning, Inga Claus, Tobias Warnecke, Inga Teismann, Christo Pantev, Rainer Dziewas
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is able to enhance dysphagia rehabilitation following stroke. Besides relating clinical effects with neuroplastic changes in cortical swallowing processing we aimed to identify factors influencing treatment success. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized study 60 acute dysphagic stroke patients received contralesional anodal (1 mA, 20 min) or sham tDCS on four consecutive days. Swallowing function was thoroughly assessed before and after the intervention using the validated Fiberoptic Endoscopic Dysphagia Severity Scale (FEDSS) and clinical assessment...
January 19, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345428/traf3-regulation-of-inhibitory-signaling-pathways-in-b-and-t-lymphocytes-by-kinase-and-phosphatase-localization
#5
REVIEW
Alicia M Wallis, Gail A Bishop
This brief review presents current understanding of how the signaling adapter protein TRAF3 can both induce and block inhibitory signaling pathways in B and T lymphocytes, via association with kinases and phosphatases, and subsequent regulation of their localization within the cell. In B lymphocytes, signaling through the interleukin 6 receptor (IL-6R) induces association of TRAF3 with IL-6R-associated JAK1, to which TRAF3 recruits the phosphatase PTPN22 (protein tyrosine phosphatase number 22) to dephosphorylate JAK1 and STAT3, inhibiting IL-6R signaling...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344315/a-topical-anti-inflammatory-healing-regimen-utilizing-conjugated-linolenic-acid-for-use-post-ablative-laser-resurfacing-of-the-face-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Douglas C Wu, Mitchel P Goldman
Background: Fractionated, ablative lasers are usually associated with post-treatment erythema, edema, and crusting, which can last from 5 to 14 days. Conjugated linolenic acid, an omega-5 fatty acid, has significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and has been shown to stimulate keratinocyte proliferation and epidermal regeneration. By modulating the early inflammatory milieu and directly affecting skin structure and function, conjugated linolenic acid might therefore shorten downtime following fractionated ablative laser resurfacing of the face...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343462/a-tailored-web-based-advice-tool-for-skiers-and-snowboarders-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Ellen Kemler, Vincent Gouttebarge
BACKGROUND: Being active in sports has many positive health effects. The direct effects of engaging in regular physical activity are particularly apparent in the prevention of several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, hypertension, obesity, depression, and osteoporosis. Besides the beneficial health effects of being active, sports participation is unfortunately also associated with a risk of injuries. In the case of many sports injuries (eg, winter sports) preventive measures are not compulsory, which means that a behavioral change in sports participants is necessary to increase the use of effective measures, and subsequently prevent or reduce injuries in sports...
January 17, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342871/interferons-reprogramming-the-metabolic-network-against-viral-infection
#8
REVIEW
Kavita Raniga, Chen Liang
Viruses exploit the host and induce drastic metabolic changes to ensure an optimal environment for replication and the production of viral progenies. In response, the host has developed diverse countermeasures to sense and limit these alterations to combat viral infection. One such host mechanism is through interferon signaling. Interferons are cytokines that enhances the transcription of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) whose products are key players in the innate immune response to viral infection...
January 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339724/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-controls-neural-and-behavioral-plasticity-in-response-to-cocaine
#9
Erin S Calipari, Arthur Godino, Emily G Peck, Marine Salery, Nicholas L Mervosh, Joseph A Landry, Scott J Russo, Yasmin L Hurd, Eric J Nestler, Drew D Kiraly
Cocaine addiction is characterized by dysfunction in reward-related brain circuits, leading to maladaptive motivation to seek and take the drug. There are currently no clinically available pharmacotherapies to treat cocaine addiction. Through a broad screen of innate immune mediators, we identify granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) as a potent mediator of cocaine-induced adaptations. Here we report that G-CSF potentiates cocaine-induced increases in neural activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339438/quantifying-exosome-secretion-from-single-cells-reveals-a-modulatory-role-for-gpcr-signaling
#10
Frederik Johannes Verweij, Maarten P Bebelman, Connie R Jimenez, Juan J Garcia-Vallejo, Hans Janssen, Jacques Neefjes, Jaco C Knol, Richard de Goeij-de Haas, Sander R Piersma, S Rubina Baglio, Matthijs Verhage, Jaap M Middeldorp, Anoek Zomer, Jacco van Rheenen, Marc G Coppolino, Ilse Hurbain, Graça Raposo, Martine J Smit, Ruud F G Toonen, Guillaume van Niel, D Michiel Pegtel
Exosomes are small endosome-derived extracellular vesicles implicated in cell-cell communication and are secreted by living cells when multivesicular bodies (MVBs) fuse with the plasma membrane (PM). Current techniques to study exosome physiology are based on isolation procedures after secretion, precluding direct and dynamic insight into the mechanics of exosome biogenesis and the regulation of their release. In this study, we propose real-time visualization of MVB-PM fusion to overcome these limitations. We designed tetraspanin-based pH-sensitive optical reporters that detect MVB-PM fusion using live total internal reflection fluorescence and dynamic correlative light-electron microscopy...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338674/would-you-be-willing-to-zap-your-child-s-brain-public-perspectives-on-parental-responsibilities-and-the-ethics-of-enhancing-children-with-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#11
Katy Wagner, Hannah Maslen, Justin Oakley, Julian Savulescu
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an experimental brain stimulation technology that may one day be used to enhance the cognitive capacities of children. Discussion about the ethical issues that this would raise has rarely moved beyond expert circles. However, the opinions of the wider public can lead to more democratic policy decisions and broaden academic discussion of this issue. METHODS: We performed a quantitative survey of members of the US public...
January 17, 2018: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337260/modelling-and-simulation-of-biased-agonism-dynamics-at-a-g%C3%A2-protein-coupled-receptor
#12
L J Bridge, J Mead, E Frattini, I Winfield, G Ladds
Theoretical models of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) concentration-response relationships often assume an agonist producing a single functional response via a single active state of the receptor. These models have largely been analysed assuming steady-state conditions. There is now much experimental evidence to suggest that many GPCRs can exist in multiple receptor conformations and elicit numerous functional responses, with ligands having the potential to activate different signalling pathways to varying extents - a concept referred to as biased agonism, functional selectivity or pluri-dimensional efficacy...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337133/cathodal-tdcs-of-the-bilateral-anterior-temporal-lobes-facilitates-semantically-driven-verbal-fluency
#13
Richard J Binney, Bonnie M Zuckerman, Hilary N Waller, Jinyi Hung, Sameer A Ashaie, Jamie Reilly
In a verbal fluency task, a person is required to produce as many exemplars of a given category (e.g., 'animals', or words starting with 'f') as possible within a fixed duration. Successful verbal fluency performance relies both on the depth of search within semantic/phonological neighborhoods ('clustering') and the ability to flexibly disengage between exhausted clusters ('switching'). Convergent evidence from functional imaging and neuropsychology suggests that cluster-switch behaviors engage dissociable brain regions...
January 11, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336898/effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-short-term-and-long-term-treatment-of-chronic-tinnitus
#14
Hamidreza Abtahi, Ahmadreza Okhovvat, Somaiie Heidari, Azar Gharagazarloo, Motahare Mirdamadi, Mohammad Hossein Nilforoush, Hossein Ghazavi
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of anodal and cathodal methods in reducing the intensity of tinnitus and to compare them with the control. METHODOLOGY: This randomized double-blind clinical trial with case and control groups was conducted in Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan between 2015 and 2016. In this trial, 51 patients with tinnitus, for at least one year, were selected among those outpatients visiting the throat, nose and ear clinic within this period...
January 6, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336564/benzophenone-4-promotes-the-growth-of-a-pseudomonas-sp-and-biogenic-oxidation-of-mn-ii
#15
Yangyang Chang, Yaohui Bai, Yang Huo, Jiuhui Qu
Interactions between microbes and micropollutants (MPs) play a crucial role in water purification or treatment. Current studies have generally focused on the direct degradation or co-metabolism of MPs. Considering the increasing interest in and importance of the roles of MPs in microbial metabolism, we adopted a Mn(II)-oxidizing Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1 using tyrosine (Tyr) as the sole carbon and nitrogen source to investigate the effects of seven MPs on its growth and function. Six MPs exhibited an inhibition effect on bacterial growth and Mn(II) oxidation...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336129/somatic-tinnitus
#16
REVIEW
Massimo Ralli, Antonio Greco, Fabrizio Cialente, Arianna Di Stadio, Lucia Longo, Andrea Ciofalo, Rosaria Turchetta, Giancarlo Cianfrone, Marco de Vincentiis
Modulation of tinnitus characteristics such as pitch and loudness has been extensively described following movements of the head, neck and limbs, vertical or horizontal eye gaze, pressure on myofascial trigger points, cutaneous stimulation of the hands, electrical stimulation of the median nerve, and transcranial direct current stimulation. Modulation of tinnitus follows complex interactions between auditory and somatosensory afferents and can be favored by underlying somatic disorders. When tinnitus appears to be preceded or strictly linked to a somatic disorder, and therefore related to problems of the musculoskeletal system rather than of the ear, it is defined somatic tinnitus...
December 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335751/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-enhances-foot-sole-somatosensation-when-standing-in-older-adults
#17
Junhong Zhou, On-Yee Lo, Lewis A Lipsitz, Jue Zhang, Jing Fang, Brad Manor
Foot-sole somatosensation is critical for safe mobility in older adults. Somatosensation arises when afferent input activates a neural network that includes the primary somatosensory cortex. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), as a strategy to increase somatosensory cortical excitability, may, therefore, enhance foot-sole somatosensation. We hypothesized that a single session of tDCS would improve foot-sole somatosensation, and thus mobility, in older adults. Twenty healthy older adults completed this randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of two visits separated by one week...
January 15, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335430/transspinal-direct-current-stimulation-produces-persistent-plasticity-in-human-motor-pathways
#18
Lynda M Murray, Behdad Tahayori, Maria Knikou
The spinal cord is an integration center for descending, ascending, and segmental neural signals. Noninvasive transspinal stimulation may thus constitute an effective method for concomitant modulation of local and distal neural circuits. In this study, we established changes in cortical excitability and input/output function of corticospinal and spinal neural circuits before, at 0-15 and at 30-45 minutes after cathodal, anodal, and sham transspinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) to the thoracic region in healthy individuals...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333591/differential-inhibition-of-nav1-7-and-neuropathic-pain-by-hybridoma-produced-and-recombinant-monoclonal-antibodies-that-target-nav1-7-differential-activities-of-nav1-7-targeting-monoclonal-antibodies
#19
Sangsu Bang, Jiho Yoo, Xingrui Gong, Di Liu, Qingjian Han, Xin Luo, Wonseok Chang, Gang Chen, Sang-Taek Im, Yong Ho Kim, Judith A Strong, Ma-Zhong Zhang, Jun-Ming Zhang, Seok-Yong Lee, Ru-Rong Ji
The voltage-gated Na+ channel subtype Nav1.7 is important for pain and itch in rodents and humans. We previously showed that a Nav1.7-targeting monoclonal antibody (SVmab) reduces Na+ currents and pain and itch responses in mice. Here, we investigated whether recombinant SVmab (rSVmab) binds to and blocks Nav1.7 similar to SVmab. ELISA tests revealed that SVmab was capable of binding to Nav1.7-expressing HEK293 cells, mouse DRG neurons, human nerve tissue, and the voltage-sensor domain II of Nav1.7. In contrast, rSVmab showed no or weak binding to Nav1...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331508/compartmentalized-crosstalk-of-cftr-and-tmem16a-ano1-through-epac1-and-adcy1
#20
Joana Lérias, Madalena Pinto, Roberta Benedetto, Rainer Schreiber, Margarida Amaral, Massimo Aureli, Karl Kunzelmann
Airway epithelial cells express both Ca2+ activated TMEM16A/ANO1 and cAMP activated CFTR anion channels. Previous work suggested a significant crosstalk of intracellular Ca2+ and cAMP signaling pathways, leading to activation of both chloride channels. We demonstrate that in airway epithelial cells, stimulation of purinergic or muscarinic G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) activates TMEM16A and CFTR. Additional expression of Gq/11 and phospholipase C coupled GPCRs strongly enhanced the crosstalk between Ca2+- and cAMP-dependent signaling...
January 10, 2018: Cellular Signalling
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