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alpha adrenergic blockers side effects

Stéphane Laurent
Successful treatment of hypertension is possible with limited side effects given the availability of multiple antihypertensive drug classes. This review describes the various pharmacological classes of antihypertensive drugs, under two major aspects: their mechanisms of action and side effects. The mechanism of action is analysed through a pharmacological approach, i.e. the molecular receptor targets, the various sites along the arterial system, and the extra-arterial sites of action, in order to better understand in which type of hypertension a given pharmacological class of antihypertensive drug is most indicated...
October 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Jia-Wei Zheng, Xu-Kai Wang, Zhong-Ping Qin, Xin-Dong Fan, Kai Li, Yao-Wu Yang, Ran Huo, Shao-Hua Liu, Ji-Hong Zhao, Xiao-Yong Wang, De-Kai Zhou
Infantile hemangioma (IH) is one of the most common benign vascular tumors in children. A variety of treatment methods have been documented for the management of IH over the past years, including pharmacotherapy via oral administration or injection of corticosteroids, vincristine, alpha interferon and bleomycin; laser therapy, radionuclide therapy, cryotherapy and excisional surgery. The therapeutic efficacy of each treatment modality is variable, while adverse effects or complications are common and sometimes serious...
June 2016: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
Joshua A Cohn, Elizabeth T Brown, W Stuart Reynolds, Melissa R Kaufman, Roger R Dmochowski
INTRODUCTION: Impaired bladder emptying in women without neurologic disease may be related to urethral obstruction and/or impaired bladder contractility. Mechanical obstruction generally requires surgical management and options are limited for impaired bladder contractility. However, functional obstruction from voiding dysfunction or primary bladder neck obstruction may present an opportunity for pharmacologic intervention. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors extensively reviewed available literature regarding the use of off-label medications for functional bladder outlet obstruction in women...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Antonio Alcaraz, Joaquín Carballido-Rodríguez, Miguel Unda-Urzaiz, Rafael Medina-López, José L Ruiz-Cerdá, Federico Rodríguez-Rubio, Darío García-Rojo, Francisco J Brenes-Bermúdez, José M Cózar-Olmo, Víctor Baena-González, José Manasanch
PURPOSE: To evaluate change in quality of life (QoL) and symptoms in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) in conditions of current clinical practice. METHODS: Prospective, longitudinal, multicenter open-label study was carried out in urology outpatient clinics. Patients were ≥40 years of age with an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) score ≥ 8. QoL and symptoms were measured at baseline and 6 months using the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index (BII) and the IPSS...
May 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
A La Torre, G Giupponi, D Duffy, A Conca, T Cai, A Scardigli
UNLABELLED: Sexual dysfunction is a potential side effect of BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia) and LUTS (lower urinary tract symptoms) drugs: this article is a critical review of the current literature. Many studies have been published on this topic. Methodological flaws limit the conclusions of these studies, mainly because of the lack of diagnostic criteria for ejaculatory and sexual desire dysfunction. Few of these studies are RCTs. The α-blocker (also called α1-adrenergic antagonist, alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist, alpha-blocker or AB) and 5-ARI (also called 5α-reductase inhibitor or testosterone-5-alpha reductase inhibitor) drugs can in particular cause erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory disorders and reduction of sexual desire...
January 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
Nebojša Stojanović, Ivan Ignjatović, Nebojša Djenić, Dragan Bogdanović
INTRODUCTION: The development of effective medications makes pharmacological therapy of BPH the dominant mode of treatment today. It improves urinary symptoms and prevents disease progression while producing side effects on male sexual function. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to present the effects of BPH pharmacological treatment on the occurrence of sexually adverse effects in men: changes in sexual desire, erectile, ejaculatory and the orgasmic function. METHODS: A prospective study involving 156 BPH patients...
May 2015: Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo
Nermarie Velázquez, Daniel Zapata, Hsin-Hsiao S Wang, John S Wiener, Michael E Lipkin, Jonathan C Routh
OBJECTIVE: Kidney stone disease has become more common among children and young adults. Despite its well-documented success in adults, published success rates of medical expulsive therapy (MET) for pediatric urolithiasis vary widely. Our objective was to determine whether the aggregated evidence supports the use of MET in children. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register,, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases, and recently presented meeting abstracts for reports in any language...
December 2015: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Aleš Škorjanc, Gregor Belušič
In the present study, a preparation of frog skin was presented, which can be used to demonstrate the basic concepts of blood flow regulation in a very clear and attractive way to high school and university students. In a freshly euthanized Xenopus, a patch of abdominal skin was exposed from the internal side and viewed with a USB microscope while it remained connected to a functioning circulatory system. In this way, it was possible to obtain sharp images of arteries and veins and to visualize blood flow. This allows students to learn about the functional differences between arteries and veins and about the complexity of hemodynamics as well as the particularities of the amphibian pulmocutaneous circulation...
June 2015: Advances in Physiology Education
Mingchao Li, Zhengyun Wang, Jun Yang, Xiaolin Guo, Tao Wang, Shaogang Wang, Chunping Yin, Jihong Liu, Zhangqun Ye
BACKGROUND: Although some trials assessed the efficacy and safety of the α-blocker in facilitating renal and ureteral stones expulsion after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), the role of the α-blocker in facilitating upper urinary calculi expulsion after ESWL remain controversial. AIMS: To determine the efficacy and safety of the α-blocker in facilitating renal and ureteral stones expulsion after ESWL. METHODS: A literature search was carried out using the PubMed database, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library database to identify relevant studies...
2015: PloS One
R Dufrane, A Ehongo
Glaucoma is a group of chronic and evolutive optic neuropathies. It is caracterised by a progressive loss of optic nerve cells with specific modifications of the optic nerve head and of the visual field. A high intraocular pressure is one of the main risk factors. Thereby, the aim of glaucoma treatment is to reduce the intraocular pressure by medical, physical and/or surgical means. Eyedrops are used as initial treatment. As the most effective drops, prostaglandin analogs are the first-line therapy and have only few systemic side effects...
September 2014: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Gregory M Dodson, William E Bentley, Ahmed Awad, Muhammed Muntazar, Michael E Goldberg
Perioperative hypertension has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of perioperative morbidity and mortality. The time spent outside acceptable blood pressure ranges, in a state of hypertension or hypotension, is correlated with the incidence of stroke, acute coronary syndrome, renal dysfunction, and death. The ideal perioperative treatment of hypertension would include an easily titratable agent, with fast onset and offset and minimal side effects. Several medication classes are routinely used in the operating room, including, but not limited to, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, nitrates, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors...
2014: Current Hypertension Reviews
C Gelmetti, R Cavalli
Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common tumors in infancy. Their typical natural history is characterized by an early rapid growth in the first months of life and by a slow spontaneous involution in the first years of life. Even though spontaneous regression of IHs could suggest therapeutic abstention, systemic treatment is the therapy of choice in many patients in which these situations occur: 1) rapid growth of IHs; 2) location of IHs in aesthetically critic areas; 3) recurrent hemorrhages, ulcerations or infections of IHs; 3) IHs interfering with important physiological functions (breathing, feeding, vision, hearing, etc...
December 2014: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Charles Welliver, Michael Butcher, Yogitha Potini, Kevin T McVary
Medical treatments for lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia are frequently associated with changes in sexual function. While these medications are generally well-tolerated and have both reduced and delayed more invasive surgical options, the ramifications of long-term chronic use are largely unknown. Sexual side effects of these medications are frequently either reported as part of a short-term initial drug study or have inflexible endpoints that are not able to gauge more subtle changes in sexual performance...
October 2014: Current Urology Reports
Onder Kara, Merve Yazici
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and safety of single (tamsulosin) and double dose (tamsulosin + alfuzosin) alpha-blocker therapy for treating catheterized patients with acute urinary retention (AUR) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy patients with AUR due to BPH were catheterized and randomized into two groups: the single dose group (0.4 mg tamsulosin, 35 patients) and the double dose group (0.4 mg tamsulosin + 10 mg alfuzosin, 35 patients)...
July 8, 2014: Urology Journal
Matthieu Roustit, Charles Khouri, Sophie Blaise, Céline Villier, Patrick Carpentier, Jean-Luc Cracowski
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is characterised by transient ischaemia in the extremities in response to cold or emotions. It can be primary (idiopathic) or secondary to an underlying disease. The pathophysiology of RP is multifactorial and complex. Microvascular impairment is a hallmark of the disease. The objective of this work is to review the different pharmacological treatments currently used in the management of RP, from their mechanism of action to the available evidence regarding their efficacy. We also propose to discuss potential pharmacological targets such as the potentiation of the nitric oxide pathway, or the inhibition of the RhoA-Rho kinase pathway...
March 2014: Thérapie
Yujiao Zhou, Ming Xu, Yuan Zhang, Yang Guo, Youyi Zhang, Bei He
Beta-blockers, especially selective β1 -adrenoceptor antagonists, are often used to treat cardiovascular disease, even when complicated by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The association of beta-blocker selectivity and treatment effects is disputed, and the curative effects and side-effects of various antagonists may differ. Herein we investigated the effects of 1 months treatment with the selective β1 -adrenoceptor antagonist metoprolol and the non-selective β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol on pulmonary function and pathology in a 4-month rat model of passive cigarette smoke exposure and explored potential mechanisms of action...
September 2014: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
P A van der Zee, A de Boer
BACKGROUND: During surgical treatment of pheochromocytoma,`haemodynamic instability may occur. To prevent this, patients receive preoperative treatment with an alpha-blocker. Nowadays, some centres use phenoxybenzamine, while others use doxazosin. The purpose of this review is to analyse the current evidence of the benefits and risks of phenoxybenzamine and doxazosin in the preoperative treatment of pheochromocytoma. METHODS: The literature was reviewed by searching PubMed using the following search terms: pheochromocytoma, phenoxybenzamine, doxazosin and alpha-blockade...
May 2014: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Ulrich H Frey, Jochen D Muehlschlegel, Christoph Ochterbeck, Amanda A Fox, Stanton K Shernan, Charles D Collard, Peter Lichtner, Jürgen Peters, Simon Body
BACKGROUND: Cardiac overexpression of the β-adrenoreceptor (βAR)-coupled stimulatory G-protein subunit Gαs enhances inotropic responses to adrenergic stimulation and improves survival in mice under βAR blockade. The authors recently identified three common haplotypes in the GNAS gene encoding Gαs, with the greatest Gαs protein expression and signal transduction in haplotype *3 carriers and less in haplotype *2 and *1 carriers. The authors tested the hypothesis that these GNAS variants result in altered mortality in patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery, particularly in those receiving βAR blockade...
May 2014: Anesthesiology
Lisette A Rodriguez-Cabezas, Betty Y Kong, Gaurava Agarwal
Priapism is a known side effect of antipsychotics. The causal mechanism seems to be mediated through α1-adrenergic receptor blockade which many antipsychotics are known to possess. We present the first detailed case of iloperidone-induced priapism in a patient with bipolar disorder with psychotic features. His case highlights some of the important risk factors clinicians should consider when using iloperidone, as it may be the highest-risk antipsychotic for causing priapism given it is a very potent blocker of the alpha-adrenergic receptor...
July 2014: General Hospital Psychiatry
J Doufik, Y Otheman, L Khalili, J Ghanmi, A Ouanass
INTRODUCTION: Priapism is a persistent, and often painful, penile erection, lasting more than 3 hours, not usually associated with sexual stimuli. It is a urological emergency that can cause serious complications. Drugs are responsible of the onset of 25 to 40% of cases of priapism. Several classes of medication are involved: antidepressants, antihypertensives, anticoagulants, alpha-blockers and some psychoactive substances (alcohol, cocaine, cannabis...). However, about 50% of drug related priapism is due to antipsychotics (AP)...
December 2014: L'Encéphale
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