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Sara J Czaja, Chin Chin Lee, Dolores Perdomo, David Loewenstein, Marina Bravo, Jerad H Moxley PhD, Richard Schulz
Background and Objectives: Family caregivers (CGs) are critical to the provision of long-term services and support for older adults. Numerous intervention programs to alleviate CG distress have been developed and evaluated yet few have been implemented in community settings. This paper describes and presents outcomes from Community REACH, a community implementation of the evidence-based Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) II program. Research Design and Methods: Community REACH involved a partnership between REACH II investigators and United HomeCare Services (UHCS), a nonprofit home health organization that provides home health, personal care, companion, and respite services...
March 19, 2018: Gerontologist
Graham M Hughes, Emma M Boston, John A Finarelli, William J Murphy, Desmond G Higgins, Emma C Teeling
The olfactory receptor (OR) gene families, which govern mammalian olfaction, have undergone extensive expansion and contraction through duplication and pseudogenization. Previous studies have shown that broadly-defined environmental adaptations (e.g terrestrial vs aquatic) are correlated with the number of functional and non-functional OR genes retained. However, to date, no study has examined species-specific gene duplications in multiple phylogenetically divergent mammals to elucidate OR evolution and adaptation...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Arthur Aronson
The spore coat of Bacilli is a relatively complex structure comprised of about 70 species of proteins in 2 or 3 layers. While some are involved in assembly or protection, the regulation of many are not well defined so lacZ transcriptional fusions were constructed to six Bacillus anthracis spore coat genes in order to gain insight into their possible functions. The genes were selected on the basis of the location of the encoded proteins within the coat and distribution among spore forming species. Conditions tested were temperature and media either as solid or liquid...
March 17, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Helga Ochagavía, Paula Prieto, Roxana Savin, Simon Griffiths, Gustavo A Slafer
Wheat adaptation is affected by Ppd genes, but the role of these alleles on the rates of leaf and spikelet initiation has not been properly analysed. Twelve near isogenic lines (NILs) combining Ppd-1a alleles from different donors introgressed in A, B and/or D genomes were tested under field conditions during two growing seasons together with the wild type, Paragon. Leaf initiation rate was unaffected by Ppd-1a alleles so final leaf number (FLN) was reduced in parallel with reductions in the duration of vegetative phase...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Misty R Riddle, Ariel C Aspiras, Karin Gaudenz, Robert Peuß, Jenny Y Sung, Brian Martineau, Megan Peavey, Andrew C Box, Julius A Tabin, Suzanne McGaugh, Richard Borowsky, Clifford J Tabin, Nicolas Rohner
Periodic food shortages are a major challenge faced by organisms in natural habitats. Cave-dwelling animals must withstand long periods of nutrient deprivation, as-in the absence of photosynthesis-caves depend on external energy sources such as seasonal floods. Here we show that cave-adapted populations of the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, have dysregulated blood glucose homeostasis and are insulin-resistant compared to river-adapted populations. We found that multiple cave populations carry a mutation in the insulin receptor that leads to decreased insulin binding in vitro and contributes to hyperglycaemia...
March 21, 2018: Nature
György Abrusán, Joseph A Marsh
It has been suggested that the evolution of protein complexes is significantly influenced by stochastic, non-adaptive processes. Using ligand binding as a proxy of function, we show that the structure of ligand-binding sites significantly influences the evolution of protein complexes. We show that homomers with multi-chain binding sites (MBSs) evolve new functions slower than monomers or other homomers, and those binding cofactors and metals have more conserved quaternary structure than other homomers. Moreover, the ligands and ligand-binding pockets of homologous MBS homomers are more similar than monomers and other homomers...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Amanda C Carroll, Alex Wong
Plasmids are extrachromosomal DNA elements that can be found throughout bacteria, as well as in other domains of life. Nonetheless, the evolutionary processes underlying the persistence of plasmids are incompletely understood. Bacterial plasmids may encode genes for traits which are sometimes beneficial to their hosts, such as antimicrobial resistance, virulence, heavy metal tolerance, and the catabolism of unique nutrient sources. In the absence of selection for these traits, however, plasmids generally impose a fitness cost on their hosts...
March 21, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Jie Gao, Jun Li, Wen-Chao Geng, Fang-Yuan Chen, Xingchen Duan, Zhe Zheng, Dan Ding, Dong-Sheng Guo
Activatable phototheranostics is highly appealing to meet the demand of precision medicine. However, although displaying the efficacy in construction of activatable photosensitizers (PSs), direct covalent decoration still shows some inevitable issues, such as complex molecular design, tedious synthesis, possible photoactivity changes and potential toxicity. Herein, we propose a novel concept of biomarker displacement activation (BDA) using host-guest strategy. To exemplify BDA, we engineered a PS-loaded nanocarrier by utilizing a macrocyclic amphiphile, where the fluorescence and photoactivity of PS were completely annihilated by the complexation of macrocyclic receptor (OFF state)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Mihaela Skrt, Polona Jamnik, Nataša Poklar Ulrih
The hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix has adapted to optimal growth under high temperatures in saline environments and under oxidizing conditions. In the present study, we focused on the antioxidative activity of proteins from A. pernix K1. Following high temperature methanol and water extractions of the protein from the biomass of A. pernix K1, the total sulphydryl groups and radical scavenging activities were investigated. The total protein in the methanolic extract was 36% lower and showed 10% fewer sulphydryl groups than that from the water extract...
March 2018: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Marcela Gonçalves, Michely Aline Rodrigues do Prado, Simone Santana da Silva, Karen da Silva Santos, Priscila Norié de Araujo, Cinira Magali Fortuna
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the interference of leprosy in women's life regarding work and daily life activities. METHOD: Exploratory qualitative study developed from semi-structured interviews and with the use of field diaries. The strategy of the organization of data was a thematic analysis of content and referential of the work process in health and gender. RESULTS: The themes presented are: "The leprosy pains", "Changes with the disease and adaptation at work and activities" and "Being a woman with leprosy"...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Paula Finatto, Edson Soares Da Silva, Alexandre B Okamura, Bruna P Almada, Henrique B Oliveira, Leonardo A Peyré-Tartaruga
PURPOSE: Strength training improves distance running economy and performance. This finding is based predominantly on maximal and explosive strength programmes applied to locomotor muscles, particularly on the lower limbs. It is not certain whether a minimization of metabolic cost (Cmet) and an improvement in running performance is feasible with strength training of the postural and trunk muscles. METHODS: Using kinematic, neuromuscular and metabolic measurements of running at two different speeds before and after a 12-week Pilates training programme, we tested the hypothesis that core training might improve the running Cmet and performance of trained runners...
2018: PloS One
Delphine Grynberg, Belén López-Pérez
Previous research has linked the use of certain emotion regulation strategies to the vicarious experience of personal distress (PD) and empathic concern (EC). However, it has not yet been tested whether (1) vicarious PD is positively associated with maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, (2) vicarious EC is positively associated with adaptive emotion regulation strategies or whether (3) PD and EC mediate the link between emotion regulation and reports of approach/avoidance in response to a person in distress...
2018: PloS One
Cheng-Te Chen, Yu-Lan Chen, Yu-Ching Lin, Ching-Lin Hsieh, Jeng-Yi Tzeng, Kuan-Lin Chen
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to construct a computerized adaptive test (CAT) for measuring self-care performance (the CAT-SC) in children with developmental disabilities (DD) aged from 6 months to 12 years in a content-inclusive, precise, and efficient fashion. METHODS: The study was divided into 3 phases: (1) item bank development, (2) item testing, and (3) a simulation study to determine the stopping rules for the administration of the CAT-SC. A total of 215 caregivers of children with DD were interviewed with the 73-item CAT-SC item bank...
2018: PloS One
Zengrong Zhang, Huarui Du, Lijun Bai, Chaowu Yang, Qingyun Li, Xiaocheng Li, Mohan Qiu, Chunlin Yu, Zongrong Jiang, Xiaoyu Jiang, Lan Liu, Chenming Hu, Bo Xia, Xia Xiong, Xiaoyan Song, Xiaosong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Tibetan chickens living at high altitudes show specific adaptations to high-altitude conditions, but the epigenetic modifications associated with these adaptations have not been characterized. RESULTS: We investigated the genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in Tibetan chicken blood by using whole genome bisulfite sequencing. Generally, Tibetan chickens exhibited analogous methylation patterns to that of lowland chickens. A total of 3.92% of genomic cytosines were methylcytosines and 51...
2018: PloS One
Meagen M Rosenthal, Erin R Holmes
The integration of advanced pharmacy services into community pharmacy practice is not complete. According to implementation research understanding professional culture, as a part of context, may provide insights for accelerating this process. There are three objectives in this study. The first objective of this study was to validate an adapted version of an organizational culture measure in a sample of United States' (US) community pharmacists. The second objective was to examine potential relationships between the cultural factors identified using the validated instrument and a number of socialization and education variables...
March 21, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
Peter G Bittar, Anna R Carlson, Ann Mabie-DeRuyter, Jeffrey R Marcus, Alexander C Allori
OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to describe the process of adapting a conceptual framework into a practical toolkit for one cleft team. DESIGN: This is a single-arm implementation study in a single institution. SETTING: Implementation took place at a mid-sized multidisciplinary clinic for patients with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) from urban/suburban and rural areas across North Carolina and neighboring states. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible participants were patients with CL/P from English-speaking families...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Robert Galinsky, Simerdeep K Dhillon, Christopher A Lear, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Guido Wassink, Alistair J Gunn, Laura Bennet
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 ) is recommended for preterm neuroprotection, preeclampsia and preterm labor prophylaxis. There is an important unmet need to carefully test clinical interventions in both sexes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate cardiovascular and neurophysiological adaptations to MgSO4 during normoxia and asphyxia in preterm male and female fetal sheep. Fetuses were instrumented at 98{plus minus}1 days of gestation (d; term=147 d). At 104 d, unanaesthetised fetuses were randomly assigned to intravenous MgSO4 (n=12 F, 10 M) or saline (n=13 F, 10 M)...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Bonnie A Sturrock, Gwyneth Rees, Ecosse L Lamoureux, Tien Y Wong, Edith Holloway, Eva K Fenwick
SIGNIFICANCE: People with vision loss from diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) use problem-focused and emotion-regulation strategies that may influence their short- and longer-term adaptation and psychological outcomes. Our findings can assist the development of models of adjustment to DR/DME-related vision loss and treatments focused on adaptation. PURPOSE: To qualitatively determine the coping strategies used by participants with vision loss resulting from DR/DME...
March 21, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Cui Feng, Di Zhu, Xianlun Zou, Anqin Li, Xuemei Hu, Zhen Li, Daoyu Hu
To investigate the subjective and quantitative image quality and radiation exposure of CT enterography (CTE) examination performed at low tube voltage and low concentration of contrast agent with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm, compared with conventional CTE.One hundred thirty-seven patients with suspected or proved gastrointestinal diseases underwent contrast enhanced CTE in a multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanner. All cases were assigned to 2 groups. Group A (n = 79) underwent CT with low tube voltage based on patient body mass index (BMI) (BMI < 23 kg/m, 80 kVp; BMI ≥ 23 kg/m, 100 kVp) and low concentration of contrast agent (270 mg I/mL), the images were reconstructed with standard filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and 50% ASIR algorithm...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Susanna Esposito, Manuel E Soto-Martinez, Wojciech Feleszko, Marcus H Jones, Kun-Ling Shen, Urs B Schaad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of the mechanistic and clinical evidence for the use of nonspecific immunomodulators in paediatric respiratory tract infection (RTI) and wheezing/asthma prophylaxis. RECENT FINDINGS: Nonspecific immunomodulators have a long history of empirical use for the prevention of RTIs in vulnerable populations, such as children. The past decade has seen an increase in both the number and quality of studies providing mechanistic and clinical evidence for the prophylactic potential of nonspecific immunomodulators against both respiratory infections and wheezing/asthma in the paediatric population...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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