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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351053/macular-edema-rationale-for-therapy
#1
Thomas J Wolfensberger
Macular edema represents the end-stage of multiple pathophysiological pathways in a multitude of ocular vascular, inflammatory, and other diseases. The rationale for clinical treatment of macular edema is based on the understanding and the inhibition of these pathophysiological mechanisms. When macular edema is caused by a generalized health problem such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or generalized inflammatory conditions, treatment of these generalized diseases can in many cases cure macular edema directly...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350884/impacts-of-representing-sea-level-rise-uncertainty-on-future-flood-risks-an-example-from-san-francisco-bay
#2
Kelsey L Ruckert, Perry C Oddo, Klaus Keller
Rising sea levels increase the probability of future coastal flooding. Many decision-makers use risk analyses to inform the design of sea-level rise (SLR) adaptation strategies. These analyses are often silent on potentially relevant uncertainties. For example, some previous risk analyses use the expected, best, or large quantile (i.e., 90%) estimate of future SLR. Here, we use a case study to quantify and illustrate how neglecting SLR uncertainties can bias risk projections. Specifically, we focus on the future 100-yr (1% annual exceedance probability) coastal flood height (storm surge including SLR) in the year 2100 in the San Francisco Bay area...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350876/mipe-a-metagenome-based-community-structure-explorer-and-ssu-primer-evaluation-tool
#3
Bin Zou, JieFu Li, Quan Zhou, Zhe-Xue Quan
An understanding of microbial community structure is an important issue in the field of molecular ecology. The traditional molecular method involves amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, PCR-based amplicon approaches are affected by primer bias and chimeras. With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology, unbiased SSU rRNA gene sequences can be mined from shotgun sequencing-based metagenomic or metatranscriptomic datasets to obtain a reflection of the microbial community structure in specific types of environment and to evaluate SSU primers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350831/post-term-growth-and-cognitive-development-at-5-years-of-age-in-preterm-children-evidence-from-a-prospective-population-based-cohort
#4
Laure Simon, Simon Nusinovici, Cyril Flamant, Bertrand Cariou, Valérie Rouger, Géraldine Gascoin, Dominique Darmaun, Jean-Christophe Rozé, Matthieu Hanf
While the effects of growth from birth to expected term on the subsequent development of preterm children has attracted plentiful attention, less is known about the effects of post-term growth. We aimed to delineate distinct patterns of post-term growth and to determine their association with the cognitive development of preterm children. Data from a prospective population-based cohort of 3,850 surviving infants born at less than 35 weeks of gestational age were used. Growth was assessed as the Body Mass Index (BMI) Z-scores at 3, 9, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350809/the-impact-of-a-family-skills-training-intervention-among-burmese-migrant-families-in-thailand-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Eve S Puffer, Jeannie Annan, Amanda L Sim, Carmel Salhi, Theresa S Betancourt
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a randomized controlled trial assessing the impact of a family-based intervention delivered to Burmese migrant families displaced in Thailand on parenting and family functioning. PARTICIPANTS AND PROCEDURES: Participants included 479 Burmese migrant families from 20 communities in Thailand. Families, including 513 caregivers and 479 children aged 7 to 15 years, were randomized to treatment and waitlist control groups. The treatment group received a 12-session family-based intervention delivered to groups of families by lay facilitators...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350730/pas-in-orthopedics-in-the-vha-s-community-based-outpatient-clinics
#6
Daniel O Reed, Roderick S Hooker
In the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system, most orthopedic care takes place in the VA medical centers (VAMCs). Because most patients receiving orthopedic care were referred by adult medicine providers, more widely deploying physician assistants (PAs) in orthopedic medicine might help offset this workload. An orthopedic medicine demonstration project recruited, trained, and positioned PAs in community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) to improve access to care. The project involved surgeons at the Houston VAMC instructing five newly employed PAs in a wide range of orthopedic evaluation and management strategies before their assignment to a CBOC...
April 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350716/movement-strategies-among-groups-of-chronic-ankle-instability-coper-and-control
#7
S Jun Son, Hyunsoo Kim, Mattew K Seeley, J Ty Hopkins
INTRODUCTION: Comprehensive evaluation of movement strategies during functional movement is a difficult undertaking. Because of this challenge, studied movements have been over simplified. Furthermore, evaluating movement strategies at only a discrete time point(s) provide limited insight into how movement strategies may change or adapt in chronic ankle instability (CAI) patients. This study aimed to identify abnormal movement strategies in individuals with a history of ankle sprain injury during a sports maneuver compared to healthy controls...
March 27, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350659/first-female-to-male-facial-confirmation-surgery-with-description-of-a-new-procedure-for-masculinization-of-the-thyroid-cartilage-adam-s-apple
#8
Jordan C Deschamps-Braly, Caitlin L Sacher, Jennifer Fick, Douglas K Ousterhout
Although male-to-female transgender patients commonly seek facial feminization surgery, facial masculinization surgery in the female-to-male transgender population is unreported in the literature. This report documents the first known female-to-male facial masculinization surgery, including a new technique for creating an "Adam's apple" to enhance the facial masculine appearance of a natal female. The authors "reversed" the methods typically used to feminize male facial features, and modified the forehead, nose, and chin to masculinize the patient's natal female facial features...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350540/construction-of-a-biomechanical-head-and-neck-motion-model-as-a-guide-to-evaluation-of-deformable-image-registration
#9
Hendrik Teske, Kathrin Bartelheimer, Jan Meis, Rolf Bendl, Eva Stoiber, Kristina Giske
The use of deformable image registration methods in the context of adaptive radiotherapy leads to uncertainties in the simulation of the administered dose distributions during the treatment course. Evaluation of these methods is a prerequisite to decide if a plan adaptation will improve the individual treatment. Current approaches using manual references limit the validity of evaluation, especially for low contrast regions. In particular for the head and neck region, the highly flexible anatomy and the low soft tissue contrast in control images pose a challenge to image registration and its evaluation...
March 28, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350526/exploring-types-of-play-in-an-adapted-robotics-program-for-children-with-disabilities
#10
Sally Lindsay, Ashley Lam
PURPOSE: Play is an important occupation in a child's development. Children with disabilities often have fewer opportunities to engage in meaningful play than typically developing children. The purpose of this study was to explore the types of play (i.e., solitary, parallel and co-operative) within an adapted robotics program for children with disabilities aged 6-8 years. METHOD: This study draws on detailed observations of each of the six robotics workshops and interviews with 53 participants (21 children, 21 parents and 11 programme staff)...
March 28, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350505/maladaptation-to-acute-metal-exposure-in-resurrected-daphnia-ambigua-clones-after-decades-of-increasing-contamination
#11
Mary Alta Rogalski
Human environmental impacts have driven some of the strongest and fastest phenotypic changes recorded in wild animal populations. Across populations, this variation is often adaptive, because populations evolve fitness advantages in response to human-modified environments. Yet some populations fail to adapt to changing environments. Evidenced by declines in relative fitness, such seemingly maladaptive outcomes are less common but may be more likely in human-modified contexts. Further, our ability to investigate the dynamics of these adaptive and maladaptive responses over time is typically limited in natural systems...
April 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350500/local-adaptation-interacts-with-expansion-load-during-range-expansion-maladaptation-reduces-expansion-load
#12
Kimberly J Gilbert, Nathaniel P Sharp, Amy L Angert, Gina L Conte, Jeremy A Draghi, Frédéric Guillaume, Anna L Hargreaves, Remi Matthey-Doret, Michael C Whitlock
The biotic and abiotic factors that facilitate or hinder species range expansions are many and complex. We examine the impact of two genetic processes and their interaction on fitness at expanding range edges: local maladaptation resulting from the presence of an environmental gradient and expansion load resulting from increased genetic drift at the range edge. Results from spatially explicit simulations indicate that the presence of an environmental gradient during range expansion reduces expansion load; conversely, increasing expansion load allows only locally adapted populations to persist at the range edge...
April 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350499/determining-selection-across-heterogeneous-landscapes-a-perturbation-based-method-and-its-application-to-modeling-evolution-in-space
#13
Jonas Wickman, Sebastian Diehl, Bernd Blasius, Christopher A Klausmeier, Alexey B Ryabov, Åke Brännström
Spatial structure can decisively influence the way evolutionary processes unfold. To date, several methods have been used to study evolution in spatial systems, including population genetics, quantitative genetics, moment-closure approximations, and individual-based models. Here we extend the study of spatial evolutionary dynamics to eco-evolutionary models based on reaction-diffusion equations and adaptive dynamics. Specifically, we derive expressions for the strength of directional and stabilizing/disruptive selection that apply both in continuous space and to metacommunities with symmetrical dispersal between patches...
April 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350462/automated-design-framework-for-synthetic-biology-exploiting-pareto-optimality
#14
Irene Otero-Muras, Julio R Banga
In this work we consider Pareto optimality for automated design in synthetic biology. We present a generalized framework based on a mixed-integer dynamic optimization formulation that, given design specifications, allows the computation of Pareto optimal sets of designs, i.e. the set of best trade-offs for the metrics of interest. We show how this framework can be used for (i) forward design, i.e., fnding the Pareto optimal set of synthetic designs for implementation, and (ii) reverse design i.e. analyzing and inferring motifs and/or design principles of gene regulatory networks from the Pareto set of optimal circuits...
March 28, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346927/microbiota-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-infancy-implications-for-management
#15
Thomas R Abrahamsson, Richard Y Wu, Philip M Sherman
The complex and diverse intestinal microbiome is recognized as important in promoting human health. An altered gut microflora, referred to as dysbiosis, is increasingly recognized as having an etiologic role in a variety of conditions, including functional gastrointestinal disorders: colic in infants and irritable bowel syndrome in older children. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, if ingested in sufficient amounts, restore microbial homeostasis and have a benefit on health. Randomized controlled trials indicate that probiotics can be effective in a variety of intestinal conditions, including colic and irritable bowel syndrome...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346921/bacterial-colonization-of-the-newborn-gut-immune-development-and-prevention-of-disease
#16
W Allan Walker
We now know that the fetus does not reside in a sterile intrauterine environment but is exposed to commensal bacteria from the maternal gut which cross the placenta and infiltrate the amniotic fluid. This exposure to colonizing bacteria continues at birth and during the first year of life, and it has a profound influence on lifelong health. Why is this important? Cross talk with colonizing bacteria in the developing neonatal intestine helps in the initial adaptation of the infant to extrauterine life, particularly in acquiring immune homeostasis, and provides protection against disease expression (e...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346901/boundary-work-for-implementing-adaptive-management-a-water-sector-application
#17
Blal Adem Esmail, Davide Geneletti, Christian Albert
Boundary work, defined as effort to mediate between knowledge and action, is a promising approach for facilitating knowledge co-production for sustainable development. Here, we investigate a case study of knowledge co-production, to assess the applicability of boundary work as a conceptual framework to support implementing adaptive management in the water sector. We refer to a boundary work classification recently proposed by Clark et al., (2016), based on three types of knowledge uses, i.e. enlightenment, decision-, and negotiation-support, and three types of sources, i...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346823/design-and-monitoring-of-multi-arm-multi-stage-clinical-trials
#18
Pranab Ghosh, Lingyun Liu, P Senchaudhuri, Ping Gao, Cyrus Mehta
Two-arm group sequential designs have been widely used for over 40 years, especially for studies with mortality endpoints. The natural generalization of such designs to trials with multiple treatment arms and a common control (MAMS designs) has, however, been implemented rarely. While the statistical methodology for this extension is clear, the main limitation has been an efficient way to perform the computations. Past efforts were hampered by algorithms that were computationally explosive. With the increasing interest in adaptive designs, platform designs, and other innovative designs that involve multiple comparisons over multiple stages, the importance of MAMS designs is growing rapidly...
March 27, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346813/protein-supplementation-does-not-affect-myogenic-adaptations-to-resistance-training
#19
Paul T Reidy, Christopher S Fry, Sherry Igbinigie, Rachel R Deer, Kristofer Jennings, Mark B Cope, Ratna Mukherjea, Elena Volpi, Blake B Rasmussen
It has been proposed that protein supplementation during resistance exercise training enhances muscle hypertrophy. The degree of hypertrophy during training is controlled in part through activation of satellite cells and myonuclear accretion. PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of protein supplementation (and the type of protein) during traditional resistance training on myofiber cross-sectional-area, satellite cell content and myonuclear addition. METHODS: Healthy young men participated in supervised whole body progressive resistance training 3d/wk for 12 weeks...
February 14, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346793/early-immune-responses-to-marek-s-disease-vaccines
#20
Mohammad Heidari, Dan Wang, Shuhong Sun
Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated lymphotropic α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD) in domestic chickens. MDV replicates in chicken cells and establishes a latent infection within CD4(+) T cells. Although MD vaccines have been in use for several decades, the exact mechanism of vaccine-induced protection is unclear. It is believed that the innate immune system plays a role in vaccine-induced immunity against pathogenic strains of MDV. To shed light on the possible function of the innate immunity in vaccine-mediated protection, we investigated the effect of vaccination, Rispens/CVI988, on the activation of cellular components of the innate immune system by analyzing the expression pattern of select immune-related genes in the cecal tonsils (CT) and duodenum of two MD-susceptible and MD-resistant chicken lines at 3, 5, and 10 days postvaccination (dpv)...
March 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
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