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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433000/elastic-moduli-of-electrospun-mats-importance-of-fiber-curvature-and-specimen-dimensions
#1
Vijay Kumar, Amit Rawal
Success of tissue engineering relies on the architecture and properties of porous scaffolds. Electrospun nonwoven scaffolds in the form of mats are unique materials due to large surface area to volume ratio, high porosity, versatility in surface functionalities and excellent mechanical properties. Maneuvering the mechanical behavior of the electrospun mat is a major challenge both from theoretical and experimental perspectives. Herein, we report a two-dimensional (2D) analytical model of normalized elastic moduli of electrospun mats by formulating a relationship with the governing fiber and structural parameters...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432991/characteristics-of-adapted-hydrogenotrophic-community-during-biomethanation
#2
Lydia Rachbauer, Reinhard Beyer, Günther Bochmann, Werner Fuchs
The results presented in this study were carried out as concomitant experiments during the start-up and operation of a biomethanation unit to evaluate the effect of process parameters on carbon conversion, product formation (methane and acetate) and community composition. For that, two different samples were withdrawn from a trickle-bed reactor with immobilized enrichment culture of hydrogenotrophic methanogens adapted from sewage sludge. One sample was taken from the recirculation liquid during start-up phase while the other was withdrawn directly from the carrier material in the reactor...
April 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432984/cigarette-smoke-extract-counteracts-atheroprotective-effects-of-high-laminar-flow-on-endothelial-function
#3
Sindy Giebe, Natalia Cockcroft, Katherine Hewitt, Melanie Brux, Anja Hofmann, Henning Morawietz, Coy Brunssen
Tobacco smoking and hemodynamic forces are key stimuli in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. High laminar flow has an atheroprotective effect on the endothelium and leads to a reduced response of endothelial cells to cardiovascular risk factors compared to regions with disturbed or low laminar flow. We hypothesize that the atheroprotective effect of high laminar flow could delay the development of endothelial dysfunction caused by cigarette smoking. Primary human endothelial cells were stimulated with increasing dosages of aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSEaq)...
April 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432967/friendliness-functionality-and-freedom-design-characteristics-that-support-midwifery-practice-in-the-hospital-setting
#4
Athena Hammond, Caroline S E Homer, Maralyn Foureur
OBJECTIVE: to identify and describe the design characteristics of hospital birth rooms that support midwives and their practice. DESIGN: this study used a qualitative exploratory descriptive methodology underpinned by the theoretical approach of critical realism. Data was collected through 21 in-depth, face-to-face photo-elicitation interviews and a thematic analysis guided by study objectives and the aims of exploratory research was undertaken. SETTING: the study was set at a recently renovated tertiary hospital in a large Australian city...
April 4, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432914/adaptive-optimization-of-ultrasound-beamforming-sound-velocity-using-sub-aperture-differential-phase-gradient
#5
Che-Chou Shen, Hsiao-Chi Yang
Ultrasound array imaging systems rely on a presumed beamforming sound velocity to calculate the time compensation of each element for receive focusing. The mismatch between the tissue sound velocity and the beamforming sound velocity can degrade the focusing quality due to loss of phase coherence. Since the tissue sound velocity cannot be known in prior, an adaptive optimization of beamforming sound velocity is required to improve the image quality. Differential phase gradient of channel data is proposed to estimate the optimal sound velocity for beamforming...
April 12, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432902/ayahuasca-s-entwined-efficacy-an-ethnographic-study-of-ritual-healing-from-addiction
#6
Piera Talin, Emilia Sanabria
BACKGROUND: A range of studies has demonstrated the efficacy of the psychoactive Amazonian brew ayahuasca in addressing substance addiction. These have revealed that physiological and psychological mechanisms are deeply enmeshed. This article focuses on how interactive ritual contexts support the healing effort. The study of psychedelic-assisted treatments for addiction has much to gain from ethnographic analyses of healing experiences within the particular ecologies of use and care, where these interventions are rendered efficacious...
April 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432889/reducing-domestic-heating-demand-managing-the-impact-of-behavior-changing-feedback-devices-via-marketing
#7
Thorben Jensen, Émile J L Chappin
Feedback devices can be used to inform households about their energy-consumption behavior. This may persuade them to practice energy conservation. The use of feedback devices can also-via word of mouth-spread among households and thereby support the spread of the incentivized behavior, e.g. energy-efficient heating behavior. This study investigates how to manage the impact of these environmental innovations via marketing. Marketing activities can support the diffusion of devices. This study aims to identify the most effective strategies of marketing feedback devices...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432872/human-effector-memory-t-helper-cells-engage-with-mouse-macrophages-and-cause-graft-versus-host-like-pathology-in-skin-of-humanized-mice-used-in-a-nonclinical-immunization-study
#8
Bala S Sundarasetty, Valery Volk, Sebastian J Theobald, Susanne Rittinghausen, Dirk Schaudien, Vanessa Neuhaus, Constanca Figueiredo, Andreas Schneider, Laura Gerasch, Adele Mucci, Thomas Moritz, Constantin von Kaisenberg, Loukia M Spineli, Katherina Sewald, Armin Braun, Henning Weigt, Arnold Ganser, Renata Stripecke
Humanized mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells and developing functional human T-cell adaptive responses are in critical demand to test human-specific therapeutics. We previously showed that humanized mice immunized with long-lived induced-dendritic cells loaded with the pp65 viral antigen (iDCpp65) exhibited a faster development and maturation of T cells. Herein, we evaluated these effects in a long-term (36 weeks) nonclinical model using two stem cell donors to assess efficacy and safety. Relative to baseline, iDCpp65 immunization boosted the output of effector memory CD4(+) T cells in peripheral blood and lymph nodes...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432781/cognitive-functioning-and-emotion-processing-in-breast-cancer-survivors-and-controls-an-erp-pilot-study
#9
Janine Wirkner, Mathias Weymar, Andreas Löw, Carmen Hamm, Anne-Marie Struck, Clemens Kirschbaum, Alfons O Hamm
Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer is a very emotionally aversive and stressful life event, which can lead to impaired cognitive functioning and mental health. Breast cancer survivors responding with repressive emotion regulation strategies often show less adaptive coping and adverse outcomes. We investigated cognitive functioning and neural correlates of emotion processing using ERPs. Self-report measures of depression, anxiety, and fatigue, as well as hair cortisol as an index of chronic stress, were assessed...
April 22, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432711/vdr-gene-methylation-as-a-molecular-adaption-to-light-exposure-historic-recent-and-genetic-influences
#10
Emma L Beckett, Patrice Jones, Martin Veysey, Konsta Duesing, Charlotte Martin, John Furst, Zoe Yates, Nina G Jablonski, George Chaplin, Mark Lucock
OBJECTIVES: The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. We examined whether degree of VDR gene methylation acts as a molecular adaptation to light exposure. We explored this in the context of photoperiod at conception, recent UV irradiance at 305 nm, and gene-latitude effects. METHODS: Eighty subjects were examined for VDR gene-CpG island methylation density. VDR gene variants were also examined by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: Photoperiod at conception was significantly positively related to VDR methylation density, explaining 17% of the variance in methylation (r(2)  = 0...
April 22, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432664/human-perinatal-immunity-in-physiological-conditions-and-during-infection
#11
REVIEW
Gijs T J van Well, Leonie A Daalderop, Tim Wolfs, Boris W Kramer
The intrauterine environment was long considered sterile. However, several infectious threats are already present during fetal life. This review focuses on the postnatal immunological consequences of prenatal exposure to microorganisms and related inflammatory stimuli. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems of the fetus and neonate are immature, which makes them highly susceptible to infections. There is good evidence that prenatal infections are a primary cause of preterm births. Additionally, the association between antenatal inflammation and adverse neonatal outcomes has been well established...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432648/rationale-for-new-checkpoint-inhibitor-combinations-in-melanoma-therapy
#12
Mario Mandalà, Carlo Tondini, Barbara Merelli, Daniela Massi
The use of monoclonal antibodies that block immunologic checkpoints, which mediate adaptive immune resistance, has revolutionized the treatment of metastatic melanoma patients. Specifically, targeting single immune suppressive molecules such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), or programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expressed on T cells or its primary ligand, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), resulted in pronounced clinical benefit for a subset of melanoma patients. Although single-agent immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy has demonstrated promising clinical activity in metastatic melanoma patients, there is still a significant proportion of patients who show primary resistance to these therapies...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432622/diversity-shift-in-bacterial-phenol-hydroxylases-driven-by-alkyl-phenols-in-oil-refinery-wastewaters
#13
Besma Harzallah, Hacène Bousseboua, Yves Jouanneau
Phenol hydroxylases (PHs) play a primary role in the bacterial degradation of phenol and alkylphenols. They are divided into two main classes, single-component and multi-component PHs, having distinctive catalytic subunits designated as PheA1 and LmPH, respectively. The diversity of these enzymes is still largely unexplored. Here, both LmPH and pheA1 gene sequences were examined in activated sludge from oil refinery wastewaters. Phenol, p-cresol, or 3,4-dimethylphenol (3,4-DMP) supplied as extra carbon sources were rapidly mineralized by the microbial community...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432578/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-rise-a-community-based-culturally-congruent-adherence-intervention-for-black-americans-living-with-hiv
#14
Laura M Bogart, Matt G Mutchler, Bryce McDavitt, David J Klein, William E Cunningham, Kathy J Goggin, Bonnie Ghosh-Dastidar, Nikki Rachal, Kelsey A Nogg, Glenn J Wagner
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based HIV treatment adherence interventions have typically shown medium-sized effects on adherence. Prior evidence-based HIV treatment adherence interventions have not been culturally adapted specifically for Black/African Americans, the population most affected by HIV disparities in the USA, who exhibit lower adherence than do members of other racial/ethnic groups. PURPOSE: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of Rise, a 6-month culturally congruent adherence counseling intervention for HIV-positive Black men and women...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432557/proteomic-analysis-of-mitochondrial-proteins-in-the-guinea-pig-heart-following-long-term-normobaric-hyperoxia
#15
Lucia Lichardusova, Zuzana Tatarkova, Andrea Calkovska, Daniela Mokra, Ivan Engler, Peter Racay, Jan Lehotsky, Peter Kaplan
Normobaric hyperoxia is applied for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases and clinical conditions related to ischemia or hypoxia, but it can increase the risk of tissue damage and its efficiency is controversial. In the present study, we analyzed cardiac mitochondrial proteome derived from guinea pigs after 60 h exposure to 100% molecular oxygen (NBO) or O2 enriched with oxygen cation (NBO+). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry identified twenty-two different proteins (among them ten nonmitochondrial) that were overexpressed in NBO and/or NBO+ group...
April 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432507/study-of-the-potential-of-barnyard-grass-for-the-remediation-of-cd-and-pb-contaminated-soil
#16
Jianling Xu, Qiongyao Cai, Hanxi Wang, Xuejun Liu, Jing Lv, Difu Yao, Yue Lu, Wei Li, Yuanyuan Liu
In this study, the microwave digestion method was used to determine total cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations, the BCR method was used to determine different states of Cd and Pb, and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) were used to determine Cd and Pb concentrations in simulated soil and barnyard grass before and after planting barnyard grass to provide a theoretical basis for the remediation of Cd- and Pb-contaminated soil. The results showed that the bioconcentration factor changes with different Cd concentrations are relatively complex and that the removal rate increases regularly...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432493/effect-of-pharmacological-modulation-of-activity-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-on-their-gene-expression-after-excitotoxic-damage-in-hippocampal-neurons
#17
E V Pershina, M V Kapralova, V I Arkhipov
Microinjection of kainic acid into rat hippocampus causes excitotoxic neuronal damage predominantly in the CA3 and CA1 fields. These lesions can be significantly reduced by simultaneous administration of MPEP, a negative allosteric modulator of type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors, and LY354740, an agonist of type 2 metabotropic glutamate receptors. The decrease in neuronal death in the hippocampus during pharmacological modulation was paralleled by adaptive changes in gene expression. In the hippocampus, gene expression of type 5 postsynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptor was close to the control level, and in the frontal cortex expression of the gene of α1-subunit of the GABAA receptor returned to normal...
April 22, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432447/twofold-minimum-variance-beamforming-for-enhanced-ultrasound-imaging
#18
Sayed Mahmoud Sakhaei, Seyede Elham Shamsian
PURPOSE: To calculate the optimal weights of a minimum variance (MV) beamformer, the covariance matrix of the received data should be estimated. In ultrasound imaging, it is done through spatial smoothing. However, this technique reduces the effective aperture and consequently limits the attainable resolution. To mitigate this effect, we propose a new configuration for applying an adaptive beamforming method. METHODS: The method is based on applying MV in a twofold configuration such that the outputs of the subarrays are combined through an adaptive MV-like beamformer, instead of simply summing them...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432400/-the-intestinal-microbiome-and-metabolic-diseases-from-obesity-to-diabetes-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#19
S C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiome consists of about 10 million genes, many of which encode digestive enzymes. This explains why animal and human experiments revealed that the intestinal microbiome adapts to food intake and optimizes energy harvest from food. This function is considered beneficial in states of lack of food, but following overnutrition, it might support the development of obesity. OBJECTIVES: The relevance of the intestinal microbiome for the pathogenesis of obesity and associated metabolic diseases such as fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and for the clinical management of such diseases shall be discussed...
April 21, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432393/more-functions-of-torpor-and-their-roles-in-a-changing-world
#20
Julia Nowack, Clare Stawski, Fritz Geiser
Increased winter survival by reducing energy expenditure in adult animals is often viewed as the primary function of torpor. However, torpor has many other functions that ultimately increase the survival of heterothermic mammals and birds. In this review, we summarize new findings revealing that animals use torpor to cope with the conditions during and after natural disasters, including fires, storms, and heat waves. Furthermore, we suggest that torpor, which also prolongs longevity and was likely crucial for survival of mammals during the time of the dinosaur extinctions, will be advantageous in a changing world...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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