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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215038/variable-selection-and-prediction-in-biased-samples-with-censored-outcomes
#1
Ying Wu, Richard J Cook
With the increasing availability of large prospective disease registries, scientists studying the course of chronic conditions often have access to multiple data sources, with each source generated based on its own entry conditions. The different entry conditions of the various registries may be explicitly based on the response process of interest, in which case the statistical analysis must recognize the unique truncation schemes. Moreover, intermittent assessment of individuals in the registries can lead to interval-censored times of interest...
February 18, 2017: Lifetime Data Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215019/goose-management-in-scotland-an-overview
#2
Ian Bainbridge
This paper reviews the changing status of goose populations in Scotland since the 1940s, and the changing policies and management activities employed over that time. The size of all goose populations has risen since the 1940s due to protection measures, changes in agriculture and levels of shooting, in the UK and elsewhere. The development of goose policies in response to public interest and pressures is described. Some changes in goose populations since 2000 can be linked to this policy development. Policy is now split between protective measures for some species and adaptive management approaches encompassing control measures for others...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215015/goose-management-schemes-to-resolve-conflicts-with-agriculture-theory-practice-and-effects
#3
Einar Eythórsson, Ingunn M Tombre, Jesper Madsen
In 2012, the four countries hosting the Svalbard population of pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus along its flyway launched an International Species Management Plan for the population. One of the aims was to reduce conflicts between geese and agriculture to an acceptable level. Since 2006, Norway has offered subsidies to farmers that provide refuge areas for geese on their land. We evaluate the mid-Norwegian goose management subsidy scheme, with a view to its adjustment to prevailing ecological and socio-economic parameters...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215011/implementation-of-the-first-adaptive-management-plan-for-a-european-migratory-waterbird-population-the-case-of-the-svalbard-pink-footed-goose-anser-brachyrhynchus
#4
Jesper Madsen, James Henty Williams, Fred A Johnson, Ingunn M Tombre, Sergey Dereliev, Eckhart Kuijken
An International Species Management Plan for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose was adopted under the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds in 2012, the first case of adaptive management of a migratory waterbird population in Europe. An international working group (including statutory agencies, NGO representatives and experts) agreed on objectives and actions to maintain the population in favourable conservation status, while accounting for biodiversity, economic and recreational interests...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215003/improved-electromagnetic-tracking-for-catheter-path-reconstruction-with-application-in-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy
#5
Elodie Lugez, Hossein Sadjadi, Chandra P Joshi, Selim G Akl, Gabor Fichtinger
PURPOSE: Electromagnetic (EM) catheter tracking has recently been introduced in order to enable prompt and uncomplicated reconstruction of catheter paths in various clinical interventions. However, EM tracking is prone to measurement errors which can compromise the outcome of the procedure. Minimizing catheter tracking errors is therefore paramount to improve the path reconstruction accuracy. METHODS: An extended Kalman filter (EKF) was employed to combine the nonlinear kinematic model of an EM sensor inside the catheter, with both its position and orientation measurements...
February 18, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214990/interactions-between-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-the-immune-system
#6
REVIEW
Na Li, Jinlian Hua
In addition to being multi-potent, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory functions that have been investigated as potential treatments in various immune disorders. MSCs can robustly interact with cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems, either through direct cell-cell contact or through their secretome. In this review, we discuss current findings regarding the interplay between MSCs and different immune cell subsets. We also draw attention to the mechanisms involved.
February 18, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214857/epigenetic-alterations-in-cellular-immunity-new-insights-into-autoimmune-diseases
#7
Zijun Wang, Qianjin Lu, Zhihui Wang
Epigenetic modification is an additional regulator in immune responses as the genome-wide profiling somehow fails to explain the sophisticated mechanisms in autoimmune diseases. The effect of epigenetic modifications on adaptive immunity derives from their regulations to induce a permissive or negative gene expression. Epigenetic events, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs (miRNAs) are often found in T cell activation, differentiation and commitment which are the major parts in cellular immunity...
February 8, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214736/breaking-the-population-barrier-by-single-cell-analysis-one-host-against-one-pathogen
#8
REVIEW
Erez Mills, Roi Avraham
Most of our understanding of the host-bacterium interaction has come from studies of bulk populations. In reality, highly adaptable and dynamic host cells and bacteria engage in complex, diverse interactions. This complexity necessarily limits the depth of understanding that can be gained with bulk population measurements. Here, we will review the merit of single cell analysis to characterize this diversity that can trigger heterogeneous outcomes. We will discuss heterogeneity of bacterial and host populations, differences in host microenvironments, technological advances that facilitate the analysis of rare subpopulations, and the potential relevance of these subpopulations to infection outcomes...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214728/lipid-signalling-mediated-by-pld-pa-modulates-proline-and-h2o2-levels-in-barley-seedlings-exposed-to-short-and-long-term-chilling-stress
#9
Micaela Peppino Margutti, Matias Reyna, María Verónica Meringer, Graciela E Racagni, Ana Laura Villasuso
Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyses phospholipids to yield phosphatidic acid (PA) and a head group, and is involved in responses to a variety of environmental stresses, including chilling and freezing stress. Barley responses to chilling stress (induced by incubating seedlings at 4 °C) are dynamic and the duration of stress, either short (0-180 min) or long-term (24-36 h) had a significant impact on the response. We investigated the roles of PLD/PA in responses of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings to short and long-term chilling stress, based on regulation of proline and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels...
February 10, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214706/influence-of-oxygen-partial-pressure-on-the-characteristics-of-human-hepatocarcinoma-cells
#10
Jenifer Trepiana, Susana Meijide, Rosaura Navarro, M Luisa Hernández, José Ignacio Ruiz-Sanz, M Begoña Ruiz-Larrea
Most of the in vitro studies using liver cell lines have been performed under atmospheric oxygen partial pressure (21% O2). However, the oxygen concentrations in the liver and cancer cells are far from this value. In the present study, we have evaluated the influence of oxygen on 1) the tumor cell lines features (growth, steady-state ROS levels, GSH content, activities of antioxidant enzymes, p66 Shc and SOD expressions, metalloproteinases secretion, migration, invasion, and adhesion) of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, and b) the response of the cells to an oxidant stimulus (aqueous leaf extract of the V...
February 13, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214610/virosome-bound-antigen-enhances-dc-dependent-specific-cd4-t-cell-stimulation-inducing-a-th1-and-treg-profile-in-vitro
#11
Rebecca A M Blom, Mario Amacker, Christian Moser, R Maarten van Dijk, Raffaela Bonetti, Emilie Seydoux, Sean R R Hall, Christophe von Garnier, Fabian Blank
There is considerable interest to develop antigen-carriers for immune-modulatory clinical applications, but insufficient information is available on their effects on antigen-presenting cells. We employed virosomes coupled to ovalbumin (OVA) to study their interaction with murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and modulation of downstream T cell responses. BMDCs were treated in vitro with virosomes or liposomes prior to determining BMDC phenotype, viability, and intra-cellular trafficking. Antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell activation was measured by co-culture of BMDCs with DO11...
February 15, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214594/association-between-light-at-night-melatonin-secretion-sleep-deprivation-and-the-internal-clock-health-impacts-and-mechanisms-of-circadian-disruption
#12
REVIEW
Yvan Touitou, Alain Reinberg, David Touitou
Exposure to Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) results in a disruption of the circadian system, which is deleterious to health. In industrialized countries, 75% of the total workforce is estimated to have been involved in shift work and night work. Epidemiologic studies, mainly of nurses, have revealed an association between sustained night work and a 50-100% higher incidence of breast cancer.The potential and multifactorial mechanisms of the effects include the suppression of melatonin secretion by ALAN, sleep deprivation, and circadian disruption...
February 15, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214583/remediation-of-fluoride-from-drinking-water-using-magnetic-iron-oxide-coated-hydrotalcite-chitosan-composite
#13
Kalimuthu Pandi, Soodamani Periyasamy, Natrayasamy Viswanathan
The present study was performed to examine the probability of magnetic iron oxide fabricated hydrotalcite/chitosan (Fe3O4@HTCS) composite for the removal of excess fluoride content from drinking water. The developed Fe3O4@HTCS composite not only demonstrate the good separation ability but also display an extreme enhanced defluoridation capacity (DC) when compared to other base components and composite. The DCs of Fe3O4@HTCS composite, Fe3O4@HT composite, Fe3O4, HT and CS was found to be 5032, 3041, 1050, 1030 and 52 mgF(-)/kg respectively...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214555/identification-of-a-fatty-acid-binding-protein4-ucp2-axis-regulating-microglial-mediated-neuroinflammation
#14
Cayla M Duffy, Hongliang Xu, Joshua P Nixon, David A Bernlohr, Tammy A Butterick
Hypothalamic inflammation contributes to metabolic dysregulation and the onset of obesity. Dietary saturated fats activate microglia via a nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) mediated pathway to release pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in dysfunction or death of surrounding neurons. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are lipid chaperones regulating metabolic and inflammatory pathways in response to fatty acids. Loss of FABP4 in peripheral macrophages via either molecular or pharmacologic mechanisms results in reduced obesity-induced inflammation via a UCP2-redox based mechanism...
February 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214528/adaptive-independent-vector-analysis-for-multi-subject-complex-valued-fmri-data
#15
Li-Dan Kuang, Qiu-Hua Lin, Xiao-Feng Gong, Fengyu Cong, Vince D Calhoun
BACKGROUND: Complex-valued fMRI data can provide additional insights beyond magnitude-only data. However, independent vector analysis (IVA), which has exhibited great potential for group analysis of magnitude-only fMRI data, has rarely been applied to complex-valued fMRI data. The main challenges in this application include the extremely noisy nature and large variability of the source component vector (SCV) distribution. NEW METHOD: To address these challenges, we propose an adaptive fixed-point IVA algorithm for analyzing multiple-subject complex-valued fMRI data...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214525/-is-there-an-optimal-diet-for-weight-management-and-metabolic-health
#16
George Thom, Mike Lean
Individuals can lose body weight and improve health status on a wide range of energy (calorie) restricted dietary interventions. In this paper, we have reviewed the effectiveness of the most commonly utilized diets, including low-fat, low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean approaches in addition to commercial slimming programmes, meal replacements and newly-popularized intermittent fasting diets. We also consider the role of artificial sweeteners in weight management. Low-fat diets tend to improve LDL-cholesterol most, whilst lower-carbohydrate diets may preferentially improve triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol, however differences between diets are marginal...
February 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214471/che-1-sustains-hypoxic-response-of-colorectal-cancer-cells-by-affecting-hif-1%C3%AE-stabilization
#17
Tiziana Bruno, Mariacristina Valerio, Luca Casadei, Francesca De Nicola, Frauke Goeman, Matteo Pallocca, Valeria Catena, Simona Iezzi, Cristina Sorino, Agata Desantis, Cesare Manetti, Giovanni Blandino, Aristide Floridi, Maurizio Fanciulli
BACKGROUND: Solid tumours are less oxygenated than normal tissues. Consequently, cancer cells acquire to be adapted to a hypoxic environment. The poor oxygenation of solid tumours is also a major indicator of an adverse cancer prognosis and leads to resistance to conventional anticancer treatments. We previously showed the involvement of Che-1/AATF (Che-1) in cancer cell survival under stress conditions. Herein we hypothesized that Che-1 plays a role in the response of cancer cells to hypoxia...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214467/paxillin-a-crossroad-in-pathological-cell-migration
#18
REVIEW
Ana María López-Colomé, Irene Lee-Rivera, Regina Benavides-Hidalgo, Edith López
Paxilllin is a multifunctional and multidomain focal adhesion adapter protein which serves an important scaffolding role at focal adhesions by recruiting structural and signaling molecules involved in cell movement and migration, when phosphorylated on specific Tyr and Ser residues. Upon integrin engagement with extracellular matrix, paxillin is phosphorylated at Tyr31, Tyr118, Ser188, and Ser190, activating numerous signaling cascades which promote cell migration, indicating that the regulation of adhesion dynamics is under the control of a complex display of signaling mechanisms...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214420/prevention-of-radiotherapy-induced-neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-survivors-of-paediatric-brain-tumours-the-potential-role-of-modern-imaging-and-radiotherapy-techniques
#19
REVIEW
Thankamma Ajithkumar, Stephen Price, Gail Horan, Amos Burke, Sarah Jefferies
Neurocognitive dysfunction is the leading cause of reduced quality of life in long-term survivors of paediatric brain tumours. Radiotherapy is one of the main contributors to neurocognitive sequelae. Current approaches for prevention and reduction of neurocognitive dysfunction include avoidance of radiotherapy in young children and reduction of the radiotherapy dose and volume of brain irradiated. Substantial advances have been made in brain imaging, especially with functional imaging and fibre tracking with the use of diffusion tensor imaging...
February 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214385/temporal-changes-in-physiology-and-haematology-in-response-to-high-and-micro-doses-of-recombinant-human-erythropoietin
#20
Brad Clark, Sarah M Woolford, Annette Eastwood, Ken Sharpe, Peter G Barnes, Christopher J Gore
There is evidence to suggest athletes have adopted recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) dosing regimens that diminish the likelihood they will be caught by direct detection techniques. However, the temporal response in physiology, performance and athlete biological passport (ABP) parameters to such regimens is not clearly understood. Participants were assigned to a high dose only group (HIGH, n = 8, six rHuEPO doses of 250 IU/kg over two weeks), a combined high micro-dose group (COMB, n = 8, high dose plus nine rHuEPO micro-doses over a further three weeks), or one of two placebo control groups who received saline in the same pattern as the HIGH (HIGH-PLACEBO, n = 4) or COMB (COMB-PLACEBO, n = 4) groups...
February 18, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
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