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Loukas Zagkos, Mark Mc Auley, Jason Roberts, Nikos I Kavallaris
DNA methylation is a key epigenetic process which has been intimately associated with gene regulation. In recent years growing evidence has associated DNA methylation status with a variety of diseases including cancer, Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, changes to DNA methylation have also recently been implicated in the ageing process. The factors which underpin DNA methylation are complex, and remain to be fully elucidated. Over the years mathematical modelling has helped to shed light on the dynamics of this important molecular system...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Volker Endris, Ivo Buchhalter, Michael Allgäuer, Eugen Rempel, Amelie Lier, Anna-Lena Volckmar, Martina Kirchner, Moritz von Winterfeld, Jonas Leichsenring, Olaf Neumann, Roland Penzel, Wilko Weichert, Hanno Glimm, Stefan Fröhling, Hauke Winter, Felix Herth, Michael Thomas, Peter Schirmacher, Jan Budczies, Albrecht Stenzinger
Assessment of Tumor Mutational Burden (TMB) for response stratification of cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors is emerging as a new biomarker. Commonly defined as the total number of exonic somatic mutations, TMB approximates the amount of neoantigens that potentially are recognized by the immune system. While whole exome sequencing (WES) is an unbiased approach to quantify TMB, implementation in diagnostics is hampered by tissue availability as well as time and cost constrains. Conversely, panel-based targeted sequencing is nowadays widely used in routine molecular diagnostics, but only very limited data are available on its performance for TMB estimation...
November 17, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Nicholas Ingram, Christopher Dishinger, Jennifer Wood, J Matthew Hutzler, Sherri Smith, Michael Huskin
Fraction unbound (fu ) is a critical drug distribution parameter commonly utilized for modeling efficacious dosage and safety margin predictions. An over-estimation of fu for 13 chemically diverse small molecule drugs primarily bound to alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) in human plasma was discovered when in vitro results from our screening lab were compared to literature values. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer known to be used in the manufacture of blood collection bags, was extracted from plasma obtained through three common techniques that allowed contact with DEHP, and drug fu values in plasma from each collection method were estimated using the HTDialysis protein binding methodology...
November 16, 2018: AAPS Journal
Riaid Alsaeedi, Z Ozdemir
Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has been introduced in previous studies as a synergistic technique to modify the surface chemistry and topography of titanium-based implants to control their biocompatibility. In this study, the effectiveness of CMP implementation on titanium-based implant surface modification was compared to machined implants, such as baseline and etching and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) particle-based sand blasting treatments, in terms of the surface chemical and mechanical performance...
November 15, 2018: Materials
Siddharth Biswal, Haoqi Sun, Balaji Goparaju, M Brandon Westover, Jimeng Sun, Matt T Bianchi
Objectives: Scoring laboratory polysomnography (PSG) data remains a manual task of visually annotating 3 primary categories: sleep stages, sleep disordered breathing, and limb movements. Attempts to automate this process have been hampered by the complexity of PSG signals and physiological heterogeneity between patients. Deep neural networks, which have recently achieved expert-level performance for other complex medical tasks, are ideally suited to PSG scoring, given sufficient training data...
November 16, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Layal Karam, Rayan Roustom, Mohamad G Abiad, Tahra El-Obeid, Ioannis N Savvaidis
The demand for marinated chicken worldwide, is continuously growing. To date, limited data on addition of active components of Essential Oils (EOs) to marinades for chicken preservation are available. The antimicrobial effect of carvacrol and thymol, added at 0.4 and 0.8% v/w to marinated fresh chicken, stored in air and under vacuum packaging (VP), for 21 days at 4 °C, was examined. The samples were monitored for microbiological (total viable count (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp...
November 9, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Christopher J Gouveia, Amulya Yalamanchili, Saied Ghadersohi, Caroline P E Price, Michiel Bove, Hrayr P Attarian, Bruce K Tan
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To assess if there is a significant difference in the prevalence and severity of chronic cough symptoms in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients versus non-OSA patients and examine this relationship in regard to laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) symptoms. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Patients referred to Northwestern Medicine Sleep Lab for home sleep testing were enrolled. Patients filled out the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) and Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) before completing sleep testing...
November 15, 2018: Laryngoscope
Almaz Akunov, Akylbek Sydykov, Turgun Toktash, Anara Doolotova, Akpay Sarybaev
Chronic high altitude hypoxia leads to an increase in red cell numbers and hemoglobin concentration. However, the effects of long-term intermittent hypoxia on hemoglobin concentration have not fully been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate hemoglobin levels in workers commuting between an elevation of 3,800 m (2-week working shift) and lowland below 1,700 m (2 weeks of holiday). A total of 266 healthy males, aged from 20 to 69 years (mean age 45.9 ± 0.6 years), were included into this study. The duration of intermittent high altitude exposure ranged from 0 to 21 years...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Wajid Arshad Abbasi, Amina Asif, Asa Ben-Hur, Fayyaz Ul Amir Afsar Minhas
BACKGROUND: Determining protein-protein interactions and their binding affinity are important in understanding cellular biological processes, discovery and design of novel therapeutics, protein engineering, and mutagenesis studies. Due to the time and effort required in wet lab experiments, computational prediction of binding affinity from sequence or structure is an important area of research. Structure-based methods, though more accurate than sequence-based techniques, are limited in their applicability due to limited availability of protein structure data...
November 15, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Mohammed Saqib, Ying Sha, May D Wang
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by infection and subsequent overreaction by the immune system. Physicians effectively treat sepsis with early administration of antibiotics. However, excessive use of antibiotics on false positive cases cultivates antibiotic resistant bacterial strains and can waste resources while false negative cases result in unacceptable mortality rates. Accurate early prediction ensures correct, early antibiotic treatment; unfortunately, prediction remains daunting due to error-ridden electronic medical records (EMRs) and the inherent complexity of sepsis...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Eyad M Hamad, Ghadeer Hawamdeh, Noor Abu Jarrad, Omar Yasin, Samer I Al-Gharabli, Raed Shadfan
The main goal of this work was to establish a hybrid device incorporating an electrochemical-based transducer on a conventional lateral flow assay strip in order to perform an on-chip fast testing method for the detection of various bio-analyses. In this context, the expected development of the digital lateral-flow immunoassay to be considered a reliable low-cost instrument improves the future of the very simple and flexible approach oflateral-flow assays. It is anticipated to achieve a digital quantitative lateral-flow immunoassay by exploring the electrochemical transducers alongwith recognition elements for digitization of commercially available rapid tests...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Spiros Kontogiannopoulos, Zacharias Vangelatos, Georgios A Bertos, Evangelos Papadopoulos
Historically, Classic Extended Physiological Proprioception (EPP) as an upper-limb prosthesis control topology has been outperforming functionally all other topologies of the past. A novel Biomechatronic EPP controller has been designed to overcome shortcomings of the classic EPP control topology, and has been hypothesized to be functionally equivalent to the classic EPP topology. Using the dSpace realtime hardware platform and other mechanical and electronic components, the following were developed in the lab: (a) A Biomechatronic EPP controller, (b) a classic EPP controller, (c) an "unconnected" controller and (d) an EMG controller...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
John G Webster
Further develop strong engineering skills, supplement with knowledge of medicine and biology. Acquire clinical problems requiring solutions from medical and biological professionals. Form design teams to solve those problems: review the literature, confer with experts, brainstorm all the possibilities, select the most promising solution, build it in the lab, test it, iterate, publish.
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Carlos Rodrigues, Miguel Correia, Joao M C S Abrantes, Marco A Benedetti Rodrigues, Jurandir Nadal
This study presents and applies generalized angular phase space analysis to lower limb joint angles of specific subject during normal and modified gait for discrimination of gait and joint angular movements. Case study of an adult healthy male in-vivo and noninvasive kinematic assessment of skin surface adhesive markers at lower limb was performed at human movement lab during normal gait, stiff knee gait and slow running. Musculoskeletal modeling was performed using AnyGait v.0.92 morphing Twente Lower Extremity Model (TLEM) to match the size and joint morphology of the stick-figure model...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Zhuo Zhang, Chuanchu Wang, Kai Keng Ang, Aung Aung Phyo Wai, Cuntai Guan Nanyang
Among various brain activity patterns, Steady State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP) based Brain Computer Inter-face (BCI) requires the least training time while carrying the fastest information transfer rate, making it highly suitable for deploying efficient self-paced BCI systems. In this study, we propose a Spectrum and Phase Adaptive CCA (SPACCA) for subject-and device-specific SSVEP-based BCI. Cross subject heterogeneity of spectrum distribution is taken into consideration to improve the prediction accuracy...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Caron A C Clark, Suena H Massey, Sandra A Wiebe, Kimberly Andrews Espy, Lauren S Wakschlag
Children with prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) exhibit early self-regulatory impairments, reflecting a life-course persistent propensity toward behavioral disinhibition. Previously, we demonstrated the protective role of parental responsiveness for reducing the risk of exposure-related disruptive behavior in adolescence. Here, we expanded this line of inquiry, examining whether responsiveness moderates the relation of PTE to a broader set of behavioral disinhibition features in early childhood and testing alternative diathesis-stress versus differential susceptibility explanatory models...
November 15, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Bernhard Kerschberger, Qhubekani Mpala, Paola Andrea Díaz Uribe, Gugu Maphalala, Roberto de la Tour, Sydney Kalombola, Addis Bekele, Tiwonge Chawinga, Mukelo Mliba, Nombuso Ntshalintshali, Nomcebo Phugwayo, Serge Mathurin Kabore, Javier Goiri, Sindisiwe Dlamini, Iza Ciglenecki, Emmanuel Fajardo
BACKGROUND: Viral load (VL) testing is being scaled up in resource-limited settings. However, not all commercially available VL testing methods have been evaluated under field conditions. This study is one of a few to evaluate the Biocentric platform for VL quantification in routine practice in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Venous blood specimens were obtained from patients eligible for VL testing at two health facilities in Swaziland from October 2016 to March 2017...
November 14, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sebastien Boyer, Emilie Pothin, Sanjiarizaha Randriamaherijaona, Christophe Rogier, Thomas Kesteman
Malaria control programs implementing Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) are encouraged to conduct field monitoring of nets' survival, fabric integrity and insecticidal bio-efficacy. The reference method for testing the insecticide activity of LLINs needs 100 two-to-five-day-old female mosquitoes per net, which is highly resource-intensive. We aimed at identifying an alternative protocol, using fewer mosquitos, while ensuring a precision in the main indicator of ±5 percentage points (pp). We compared different laboratory methods against the probability of the LLIN to fail the test as determined by a hierarchical Bayesian model...
November 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gianluca Trotta, Rebeca Martínez Vázquez, Annalisa Volpe, Francesco Modica, Antonio Ancona, Irene Fassi, Roberto Osellame
Microinjection moulding combined with the use of removable inserts is one of the most promising manufacturing processes for microfluidic devices, such as lab-on-chip, that have the potential to revolutionize the healthcare and diagnosis systems. In this work, we have designed, fabricated and tested a compact and disposable plastic optical stretcher. To produce the mould inserts, two micro manufacturing technologies have been used. Micro electro discharge machining (µEDM) was used to reproduce the inverse of the capillary tube connection characterized by elevated aspect ratio...
August 4, 2018: Micromachines
Dahoon Ahn, Kyungwho Choi
During rolling stock operation, various kinds of energy such as vibration, heat, and train-induced wind are dissipated. The amount of energy dissipation cannot be overlooked when a heavy railroad vehicle operates at high speed. Therefore, if the wasted energy is effectively harvested, it can be used to power components like low power sensor nodes. This study aims to review a method of collecting waste heat, caused by the axle bearing of bogie in a rolling stock. A thermoelectric module (TEM) was used to convert the temperature gradient between the surface of the axle bearing housing and the outdoor air into electric energy...
July 20, 2018: Micromachines
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