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Lab test

Anna Stedman, Carlos Maluquer de Motes, Sandrine Lesellier, Deanna Dalley, Mark Chambers, Jorge Gutierrez-Merino
BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is the most serious endemic disease affecting livestock in the UK. The European badger (Meles meles) is the most important wildlife reservoir of bTB transmission to cattle, making eradication particularly difficult. In this respect, oral vaccination with the attenuated M. bovis vaccine Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been suggested as a wide-scale intervention to reduce bTB infection in badgers. However, experimental studies show variable protection...
July 13, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Wei Ren Daniel Seng, Siaw Meng Chou, Siddiqui S Shiblee, Jacob Y L Oh
STUDY DESIGN: An experimental lab based biomechanical study. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate, in a synthetic bone model, the difference in primary and revision pull-out strength using pedicle screws of different thread designs. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Over the past few decades, there has been a growing interest in optimising the screw pull-out strength using various screw designs (single-thread, mixed-thread, dual-thread)...
July 12, 2018: Spine
Theresa E Matson, Kathleen A Mcginnis, Anna D Rubinsky, Madeline C Frost, Maggie Czarnogorski, Kendall J Bryant, E Jennifer Edelman, Derek D Satre, Sheryl L Catz, Kara M Bensley, David A Fiellin, Amy C Justice, Emily C Williams
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether gender is associated with three recommended stages of the HIV care continuum and whether gender modifies known associations between level of alcohol use and HIV care among US veterans. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. METHODS: Veterans Aging Cohort Study data were used to identify Veterans Health Administration (VA) patients with HIV and AUDIT-C alcohol screening 2/1/2008-9/30/2014. Modified Poisson regression models estimated the relative risk and predicted prevalences of engagement in HIV care (documented CD4 cells/μl or viral load copies/mL lab values), ART treatment (≥1 prescription), and viral suppression (HIV RNA <500 copies/mL) in the year following AUDIT-C (1) for women compared to men, and (2) for each level of alcohol use compared to nondrinking among women and among men...
July 12, 2018: AIDS
Ismail M Fareez, Siong Meng Lim, Kalavathy Ramasamy
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic properties are useful options for prophylactic and therapeutic applications against gastrointestinal diseases. The safety of probiotics should, however, be verified before incorporation into food or drinks. The present study had encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 within microcapsules that could withstand extremely high temperature (up to 100 °C) during pelletisation. The microencapsulated LAB12 were then tested for their acute (single dosing) and sub-chronic (a 90-day feeding) toxicity...
July 12, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Chunwang Dong, Gaozhen Liang, Bin Hu, Haibo Yuan, Yongwen Jiang, Hongkai Zhu, Jiangtao Qi
Fermentation is the key process to produce the special color of congou black tea. The machine vision technology is applied to detect the color space changes of black tea's color in RGB, Lab and HSV, and to find out its relevance to black tea's fermentation quality. And then the color feature parameter is used as input to establish physicochemical indexes (TFs, TRs, and TBs) and sensory features' linear and non-linear quantitative evaluation model. Results reveal that color features are significantly correlated to quality indices...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
O A Utheim, T Lyberg, J R Eidet, S Raeder, A Sehic, B Roald, E Messelt, M F de la Paz, D A Dartt, T P Utheim
Limbal stem cell deficiency can be treated with transplantation of cultured human limbal epithelial cells (LEC). It can be advantageous to produce LEC in centralized labs and thereafter ship them to eye clinics. The present study used transport simulations of LEC to determine if vigorous shaking during transport altered the viability, morphology and phenotype during a 4 day-long storage of LEC with a previously described serum-free storage method. Inserts with LEC cultured on amniotic membranes were sutured to caps inside air-tight containers with generous amounts of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES)-buffered minimal essential medium (MEM)...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amélie St-Georges-Robillard, Mathieu Masse, Maxime Cahuzac, Mathias Strupler, Bishnubrata Patra, Adriana Mari Orimoto, Jennifer Kendall-Dupont, Benjamin Péant, Anne-Marie Mes-Masson, Frédéric Leblond, Thomas Gervais
Tumor spheroids represent a realistic 3D in vitro cancer model because they provide a missing link between monolayer cell culture and live tissues. While microfluidic chips can easily form and assay thousands of spheroids simultaneously, few commercial instruments are available to analyze this massive amount of data. Available techniques to measure spheroid response to external stimuli, such as confocal imaging and flow cytometry, are either not appropriate for 3D cultures, or destructive. We designed a wide-field hyperspectral imaging system to analyze multiple spheroids trapped in a microfluidic chip in a single acquisition...
July 12, 2018: Analyst
J Keaton Wilson, H Arthur Woods, André Kessler
Plants release airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in response to abiotic and biotic stimuli, including herbivory. These chemicals are used by insect parasitoids as sources of information that aid in finding hosts. It is unclear how biotic and abiotic factors interact to affect blend composition and the ability of insects to interpret signals. Here, we present a novel stimulus-space model, and use it to examine patterns of VOC emission. In field experiments, we manipulated herbivory levels and collected VOCs in a population of wild Datura wrightii, while simultaneously measuring key abiotic factors...
July 11, 2018: Oecologia
David Requena, Patrick Maffucci, Benedetta Bigio, Lei Shang, Avinash Abhyankar, Bertrand Boisson, Peter D Stenson, David N Cooper, Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Laurent Abel, Yuval Itan
High-throughput genomic technologies yield about 20,000 variants in the protein-coding exome of each individual. A commonly used approach to select candidate disease-causing variants is to test whether the associated gene has been previously reported to be disease-causing. In the absence of known disease-causing genes, it can be challenging to associate candidate genes with specific genetic diseases. To facilitate the discovery of novel gene-disease associations, we determined the putative biologically closest known genes and their associated diseases for 13,005 human genes not currently reported to be disease-associated...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Elena Sorrentino, Patrizio Tremonte, Mariantonietta Succi, Massimo Iorizzo, Gianfranco Pannella, Silvia Jane Lombardi, Marina Sturchio, Raffaele Coppola
The 3-Phenyllactic acid (PLA) produced by various lactic acid bacteria (LAB) possesses a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. In this study, the effect of PLA against Listeria innocua was studied with the aim to obtain additional information about its mechanism of action. The effect of pH on the antilisterial activity of PLA was investigated and a pH-dependent behavior, typical of weak acid, was detected. The antilisterial effect of PLA was firstly compared to that produced by lactic acid (LA) and than to that expressed by phenolic acids (gallic, caffeic, and ferulic acids) evaluating minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), MBC, and survival kinetic parameters...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
W Q Yu, M D Ding, G H Dai, C J Gu, L Xue, Y Chen, D M Zhou, J C Xian, H T Xu
Objective: To describe the clinical, chest imaging, pathological manifestations and therapeutic experience of human infection with A/H7N9 virus. Methods: The features of 15 laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with A/H7N9 virus in Taizhou, Jiangsu Province were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The 15 patients with confirmed viral pneumonia included 12 males and 3 females, with a median age of 61 years(ranging from 33 to 81 years). Twelve patients had a history of exposure to the poultry trading places, or direct contact with ill/dead avian, while 3 patients denied exposure or contact...
July 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Faris M Zuraikat, Liane S Roe, Alissa D Smethers, Barbara J Rolls
Serving larger portions leads to increased food and energy intake, but little is known about strategies to moderate this response. This study tested how the effect of portion size on meal intake was influenced by providing the option to take away uneaten food in a "doggy bag" (to-go container). Women were randomly assigned to one of two subject groups: a To-Go Group (n = 27) that was informed before each meal that their leftover food would be packaged to take away after the meal, and a Control Group (n = 26) that was not given this option...
July 7, 2018: Appetite
C Unterweger, U Ruczizka, N Hießberger, J Spergser, I Hennig-Pauka
In a farrowing farm 2 first parity sows aborted on day 95 and day 110 of gestation due to an infection with leptospira and chlamydia. The double infection was diagnosed by PCR examination of abortion material. Serum samples of both sows and additional 8 sows taken three weeks after abortions were sent to two different labs for serological examination for antibodies against leptospira and chlamydia using a microagglutination test and a complement fixation test, respectively. In both labs the tests for antibodies against chlamydia were negative...
July 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Ramesh Laungani, Colby Tanner, Tessa Durham Brooks, Barbara Clement, Melissa Clouse, Erin Doyle, Scott Dworak, Brad Elder, Kate Marley, Brett Schofield
Reports such as Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education call for integration of course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) into biology curricula and less emphasis on "cookbook" laboratories. CUREs, often characterized by a single open-ended research question, allow students to develop hypotheses, design experiments, and collaborate with peers. Conversely, "cookbook" labs incentivize task completion and have pre-determined experimental outcomes. While research comparing CUREs and "cookbook" labs is growing, there are fewer comparisons among CUREs...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Joana Figueiredo, Isabel Rodrigues, João Ribeiro, Maria Sofia Fernandes, Soraia Melo, Bárbara Sousa, Joana Paredes, Raquel Seruca, João M Sanches
Immunofluorescence is the gold standard technique to determine the level and spatial distribution of fluorescent-tagged molecules. However, quantitative analysis of fluorescence microscopy images faces crucial challenges such as morphologic variability within cells. In this work, we developed an analytical strategy to deal with cell shape and size variability that is based on an elastic geometric alignment algorithm. Firstly, synthetic images mimicking cell populations with morphological variability were used to test and optimize the algorithm, under controlled conditions...
July 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ashton D Lesiak, Kristen L Fowble, Rabi A Musah
The utility of direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS) for quantification of a variety of compounds has been explored, but the number of reports of validated methods using this technique is limited. Furthermore, despite the increasing use in crime labs of DART-HRMS for the detection and identification of drugs of abuse, very few published reports have appeared describing how the method can be exploited for the analysis of small molecules of interest within complex matrices such as plant tissues...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
James L Lawrence, Hussam Hindi
A 41-year-old female presented to the emergency department with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Five days prior to this, she tested positive for influenza type A in an urgent care clinic and received Tamiflu. She also complained of generalized weakness in her extremities. Her initial labs were concerning for a grossly elevated hemoglobin and hematocrit despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Her condition continued to worsen as she developed distal cyanosis in all of her extremities and pulselessness. She was treated with IV hydration, bicarbonate, heparin, vasopressors, albumin replacement, Tamiflu, and phlebotomy...
April 30, 2018: Curēus
Zhen-Ni Guo, Xin Sun, Jia Liu, Huijie Sun, Yingkai Zhao, Hongyin Ma, Baofeng Xu, Zhongxiu Wang, Chao Li, Xiuli Yan, Hongwei Zhou, Peng Zhang, Hang Jin, Yi Yang
The influence of the anterior and posterior communicating artery (ACoA and PCoA) on dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) is largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to test whether substantial differences in collateral anatomy were associated with differences in dCA in two common types of stenosis according to digital subtraction angiography (DSA): either isolated basal artery and/or bilateral vertebral arteries severe stenosis/occlusion (group 1; group 1A: with bilateral PCoAs; and group 1B: without bilateral PCoAs), or isolated unilateral internal carotid artery severe stenosis/occlusion (group 2; group 2A: without ACoA and with PCoA; group 2B: with ACoA and without PCoAs; and group 2C: without both ACoA and PCoA)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Dharitri Rath, Sathishkumar N, Bhushan J Toley
Paper-based microfluidic devices are rapidly becoming popular as a platform for developing point-of-care medical diagnostic tests. However, the design of these devices largely relies on trial and error, owing to a lack of proper understanding of fluid flow through porous membranes. Any porous material having pores of multiple sizes contains partially saturated regions, i.e. regions where less than 100% of the pores are filled with fluid. The capillary pressure and permeability of the material change as a function of the extent of saturation...
July 3, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Siegfried Reipert, Helmuth Goldammer, Christine Richardson, Martin W Goldberg, Timothy J Hawkins, Elena Hollergschwandtner, Walter A Kaufmann, Sebastian Antreich, York-Dieter Stierhof
For ultrafast fixation of biological samples to avoid artifacts, high-pressure freezing (HPF) followed by freeze substitution (FS) is preferred over chemical fixation at room temperature. After HPF, samples are maintained at low temperature during dehydration and fixation, while avoiding damaging recrystallization. This is a notoriously slow process. McDonald and Webb demonstrated, in 2011, that sample agitation during FS dramatically reduces the necessary time. Then, in 2015, we (H.G. and S.R.) introduced an agitation module into the cryochamber of an automated FS unit and demonstrated that the preparation of algae could be shortened from days to a couple of hours...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
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