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Cholesterol controversy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30192204/impact-of-diabetes-mellitus-on-early-outcome-of-carotid-endarterectomy
#1
Andreja Dimic, Miroslav Markovic, Dragan Vasic, Marko Dragas, Petar Zlatanovic, Aleksandar Mitrovic, Lazar Davidovic
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of ischaemic stroke in the general population but its impact on early outcome after the carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is controversial with conflicting results. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective study includes 902 consecutive CEAs. Patients were divided into non-diabetic and diabetic groups and subsequently analysed. Early outcomes in terms of 30-day stroke and death rates were then analysed and compared. RESULTS: There were 606 non-diabetic patients...
September 7, 2018: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184091/%C3%AF-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-cardiometabolic-health-current-evidence-controversies-and-research-gaps
#2
Kevin C Maki, Fulya Eren, Martha E Cassens, Mary R Dicklin, Michael H Davidson
The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend limiting the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to <10% of energy/d and replacing dietary SFAs with unsaturated fatty acids. A Presidential Advisory from the American Heart Association recently released its evaluation of the relation between dietary fats and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and also recommended a shift from SFAs to unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in conjunction with a healthy dietary pattern. However, the suggestion to increase the intake of PUFAs in general, and omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs in particular, continues to be controversial...
September 4, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172994/android-fat-as-a-determinant-of-metabolic-syndrome-sex-differences
#3
Xinyan Bi, Yi Ting Loo, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
OBJECTIVES: Regional fat accumulation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases, yet the results are controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between regional fat accumulation and MetS as well as the underlying mechanism in Chinese adults. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 428 Chinese adults (166 men and 262 women). Android and gynoid fat percentage (AFP and GFP) were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry...
June 19, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158461/functional-analyses-of-a-putative-membrane-bound-peroxisomal-protein-import-mechanism-from-the-apicomplexan-protozoan-toxoplasma-gondii
#4
Alison J Mbekeani, Will A Stanley, Vishal C Kalel, Noa Dahan, Einat Zalckvar, Lilach Sheiner, Wolfgang Schliebs, Ralf Erdmann, Ehmke Pohl, Paul W Denny
Peroxisomes are central to eukaryotic metabolism, including the oxidation of fatty acids-which subsequently provide an important source of metabolic energy-and in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and plasmalogens. However, the presence and nature of peroxisomes in the parasitic apicomplexan protozoa remains controversial. A survey of the available genomes revealed that genes encoding peroxisome biogenesis factors, so-called peroxins (Pex), are only present in a subset of these parasites, the coccidia. The basic principle of peroxisomal protein import is evolutionarily conserved, proteins harbouring a peroxisomal-targeting signal 1 (PTS1) interact in the cytosol with the shuttling receptor Pex5 and are then imported into the peroxisome via the membrane-bound protein complex formed by Pex13 and Pex14...
August 29, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149368/pharmacological-and-dietary-factors-in-prevention-of-colorectal-cancer
#5
M Waluga, M Zorniak, J Fichna, M Kukla, M Hartleb
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most prevalent neoplasm worldwide and fourth most frequent reason of cancer-related death throughout the world. About 70% of malignant tumors are related to lifestyle and environmental factors, and better knowledge of their significance might reduce the prevalence of CRC. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitory and other direct and indirect pathways of aspirin are translated to inhibition proliferation and enhanced apoptosis of cancer cells. Many studies showed the benefits of aspirin in reducing the risk of CRC development, cancer-related mortality and adenoma prevalence rate in general population, but not in high risk populations...
June 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121379/controversy-and-debate-memory-based-methods-paper-1-the-fatal-flaws-of-food-frequency-questionnaires-and-other-memory-based-dietary-assessment-methods
#6
Edward Archer, Michael L Marlow, Carl J Lavie
There is an escalating debate over the value and validity of memory-based dietary assessment methods (M-BMs). Proponents argue that despite limitations, M-BMs such as food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), provide valid and valuable information about consumed foods and beverages, and therefore can be used to assess diet-disease relations and inform public policy. In fact, over the past 60 years thousands of research reports using these methods were published and used to populate the United States Department of Agriculture's National Evidence Library, inform public policy, and establish the Dietary Guidelines for Americans...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120211/the-effects-of-cholesterol-derived-oncometabolites-on-nuclear-receptor-function-in-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Sandrine Silvente-Poirot, Florence Dalenc, Marc Poirot
Epidemiologic studies are controversial concerning the roles played by cholesterol in cancer risk and development, possibly as it is not cholesterol per se that is pathologic in cancers. Indeed, recent data reveal that the cholesterol metabolism in cancer cells can generate endogenous oncopromoter metabolites at higher levels compared with normal tissues and/or can be deregulated in the production of endogenous oncosuppressor metabolites in an opposite way. These metabolites are oxysterols, which are cholesterol oxygenation products generated by enzymatic and/or autoxidation processes...
September 1, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30044444/the-association-of-dietary-cholesterol-and-fatty-acids-with-dyslipidemia-in-chinese-metropolitan-men-and-women
#8
Zhenni Zhu, Fan Wu, Ye Lu, Zhengyuan Wang, Jiajie Zang, Huiting Yu, Changyi Guo, Xiaodong Jia, Xianbiao Shen, Gangqiang Ding
BACKGROUND: The associations between dietary cholesterol and fatty acids and serum lipids are controversial. This study is to examine the association of dietary cholesterol and fatty acids with serum lipids and dyslipidemia in Chinese metropolitan male and female adults. METHODS: 3850 participants in the Shanghai Diet and Health Survey were investigated during the period 2012⁻2013. Information was obtained on dietary intake, anthropometric and blood laboratory measurements...
July 25, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30042202/late-endosomal-lysosomal-cholesterol-accumulation-is-a-host-cell-protective-mechanism-inhibiting-endosomal-escape-of-influenza-a-virus
#9
Alexander Kühnl, Agnes Musiol, Nicole Heitzig, Danielle E Johnson, Christina Ehrhardt, Thomas Grewal, Volker Gerke, Stephan Ludwig, Ursula Rescher
To transfer the viral genome into the host cell cytoplasm, internalized influenza A virus (IAV) particles depend on the fusion of the IAV envelope with host endosomal membranes. The antiviral host interferon (IFN) response includes the upregulation of interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3), which inhibits the release of the viral content into the cytosol. Although IFITM3 induction occurs concomitantly with late endosomal/lysosomal (LE/L) cholesterol accumulation, the functional significance of this process is not well understood...
July 24, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032855/impact-of-the-application-of-the-jnc-8-and-kdigo-2013-guidelines-on-hypertension-and-lipid-control-in-a-nephrology-outpatient-clinic
#10
Isabel Galán, Úrsula Verdalles, Marisol García de Vinuesa, Borja Quiroga, Marian Goicoechea, Ana Pérez, Eduardo Verde, José Luño
OBJECTIVE: Observational retrospective study with consecutive patients with CKD to assess the degree of accomplishment of the therapeutic objectives in hypertension and dyslipidaemia recommended by JNC 8 and KDIGO-2013 CKD guidelines the impact of their implementation compared with previous guidelines. RESULTS: 618 patients were included, mean age 67±15 years, 61.33% male. Mean eGFR was 45.99±18.94ml/min, with median albumin/creatinine 26 (0-151)mg/g. A total of 87...
July 2018: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028862/prehypertension-increases-the-risk-of-atherosclerosis-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Ippei Kanazawa, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
PURPOSE: Hypertension is a risk factor of atherosclerotic diseases. However, the importance of prehypertension in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is controversial. The aim of this study was to examine association between prehypertension, hypertension and atherosclerosis in T2DM. METHODS: We recruited 179 Japanese patients with T2DM, who never took any medication for diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or atherosclerosis. Intima-media thickness (IMT) of common carotid artery was evaluated by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023307/controversies-on-the-potential-therapeutic-use-of-rapamycin-for-treating-a-lysosomal-cholesterol-storage-disease
#12
Juan F Calderón, Andrés D Klein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013851/association-of-circulating-microrna-122-with-presence-and-severity-of-atherosclerotic-lesions
#13
Yu-Long Wang, Wen Yu
Objective: MicroRNA (miR)-122 is highly expressed in the liver, where it has been implicated as a regulator of fatty-acid metabolism. A recent study reported that miR-122 plays a role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis; however, whether it connects with severity of atherosclerotic lesion is still controversial. We therefore investigated the association between miR-122 expression and presence and severity of coronary atherosclerotic plaque. Methods: During January-November 2017, we included 300 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and 100 subjects as the control group...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012322/lipoprotein-a-and-cardiovascular-risk-prediction-among-women
#14
Nancy R Cook, Samia Mora, Paul M Ridker
BACKGROUND: Although lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), its contribution to prediction remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association and clinical utility of Lp(a) with incident CVD in women. METHODS: A turbidimetric assay assessed Lp(a) in 3 cohorts of women (the WHS [Women's Health Study] [N = 24,558], a case-cohort sample from the WHI [Women's Health Initiative] Observational Study [n = 1,815 cases, subcohort n = 1,989], and the JUPITER [Justification for Use of Statins in Prevention] trial [n = 2,569]) and in men from JUPITER (n = 5,161)...
July 17, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008738/treatment-with-lobeglitazone-attenuates-hepatic-steatosis-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#15
Sorim Choung, Kyong Hye Joung, Bo Ram You, Sang Ki Park, Hyun Jin Kim, Bon Jeong Ku
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is strongly associated with insulin resistance. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activators, thiazolidinediones, (TZDs), are insulin sensitizers used as a treatment for NAFLD. However, TZDs are a controversial treatment for NAFLD because of conflicting results regarding hepatic steatosis and fibrosis. To evaluate a possible effective drug for treatment of NAFLD, we investigated the effects of a newly developed TZD, lobeglitazone, with an emphasis on hepatic lipid metabolism...
2018: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007479/effect-of-anthocyanin-supplementation-on-cardio-metabolic-biomarkers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
Elnaz Daneshzad, Sakineh Shab-Bidar, Zinat Mohammadpour, Kurosh Djafarian
BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown effects of anthocyanin on blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profile in different conditions, but the results of these studies are controversial. We summarized evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of anthocyanin supplementation on cardio-metabolic biomarkers in adults. METHODS: The literature searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE for published studies in English was performed up to August 2017...
July 2, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005026/clinical-characteristics-and-risk-of-hypertension-needing-treatment-in-young-patients-with-systolic-hypertension-identified-with-ambulatory-monitoring
#17
Paolo Palatini, Francesca Saladini, Lucio Mos, Claudio Fania, Adriano Mazzer, Edoardo Casiglia
OBJECTIVE: The clinical significance of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) in youth is controversial. One main confounding factor is the strong white-coat effect often observed in ISH patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of hypertension needing pharmacological treatment in ISH identified with ambulatory 24-h blood pressure (24-h BP). METHODS: We examined 1206, 18-45-year-old participants from the Hypertension and Ambulatory Recording VEnetia STudy...
September 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29994840/pleiotropic-effects-of-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-inhibitors
#18
Theodosios D Filippatos, Eliza C Christopoulou, Moses S Elisaf
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current data suggest that proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors may affect many metabolic pathways beyond lowering LDL cholesterol. The aim of the present manuscript is to present these so-called pleiotropic effects of PCSK9 inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS: PCSK9 may affect the activity of other receptors beyond LDL receptors (LDLR), such as cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), very-low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL) receptors, apolipoprotein (Apo) E receptors, LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP-1) and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter (ABCA1)...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29980055/endocytosis-of-lipoproteins
#19
REVIEW
Paolo Zanoni, Srividya Velagapudi, Mustafa Yalcinkaya, Lucia Rohrer, Arnold von Eckardstein
During their metabolism, all lipoproteins undergo endocytosis, either to be degraded intracellularly, for example in hepatocytes or macrophages, or to be re-secreted, for example in the course of transcytosis by endothelial cells. Moreover, there are several examples of internalized lipoproteins sequestered intracellularly, possibly to exert intracellular functions, for example the cytolysis of trypanosoma. Endocytosis and the subsequent intracellular itinerary of lipoproteins hence are key areas for understanding the regulation of plasma lipid levels as well as the biological functions of lipoproteins...
August 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955945/association-of-gout-with-osteoporotic-fractures
#20
Yanmao Wang, Runhua Zhou, Wanrun Zhong, Chengfang Hu, Shengdi Lu, Yimin Chai
PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown that serum uric acid levels and inflammation are associated with bone mineral density. Gout, a disease characterized by hyperuricemia and inflammation, contributes to the risk of osteoporotic fractures. However, this association is controversial. Therefore, this study investigated whether gout in older people (age > 55 years) is associated with osteoporotic fracture risk. METHODS: This population-based, cross-sectional study included 2674 participants (147 cases of gout and 388 fractures)...
September 2018: International Orthopaedics
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