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Cholesterol controversy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302959/natural-history-of-mild-subclinical-hypothyroidism-in-a-middle-aged-and-elderly-chinese-population-a-prospective-study
#1
Xiang Li, Donghu Zhen, Meng Zhao, Lu Liu, Qingbo Guan, Haiqing Zhang, Shujian Ge, Xulei Tang, Ling Gao
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has a high global prevalence. Most SCH patients have mild cases (thyrotropin ≤10 mIU/L). Treatment recommendations for mild SCH are controversial, which raises concerns about the natural history of mild SCH. We aimed to clarify the natural history of mild SCH. This is a prospective population-based study. We measured thyroid function in 11,000 participants in the REACTION study and followed 505 newly diagnosed mild SCH patients aged 40-years or older between 2011 and 2014...
March 7, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300080/hypertriglyceridaemia-and-risk-of-coronary-artery-disease
#2
REVIEW
Željko Reiner
An elevated serum level of LDL cholesterol is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the role of elevated triglyceride levels is debated. Controversies regarding hypertriglyceridaemia as an independent risk factor for CVD have occurred partly because elevated triglyceride levels are often a component of atherogenic dyslipidaemia - they are associated with decreased levels of HDL cholesterol and increased levels of small dense LDL particles, which are highly atherogenic. Findings from several large studies indicate that elevated levels of triglycerides (either fasting or nonfasting) or, more specifically, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnants, are independently associated with increased risk of CVD...
March 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262189/hypercholesterolemia-as-a-risk-factor-for-cardiovascular-disease-current-controversial-therapeutic-management
#3
REVIEW
Arturo Zárate, Leticia Manuel-Apolinar, Renata Saucedo, Marcelino Hernández-Valencia, Lourdes Basurto
Cholesterol is a precursor of steroid hormones and an essential component of the cell membrane; however, altered regulation of the synthesis, absorption and excretion of cholesterol predispose to cardiovascular diseases of atherosclerotic origin. Despite the recognition of historical events for 200 years starting with Chevreul naming "cholesterine"; later on, Lobstein coining the term atherosclerosis and Marchand introducing it, Anichkov identifying cholesterol in atheromatous plaque, and Brown and Goldstein discovering LDL receptor (r-LDL), as well as the emergence of different drugs such as fibrates, statins and cetrapibs during this decade promising to increase HDL, and the most recent, ezetimibe and anti-PCSK9 to inhibit the degradation of r-LDL, morbidity has not been reduced in cardiovascular disease...
October 2016: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251937/comparison-of-the-impact-of-sfas-from-cheese-and-butter-on-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Didier Brassard, Maude Tessier-Grenier, Janie Allaire, Ethendhar Rajendiran, Yongbo She, Vanu Ramprasath, Iris Gigleux, Denis Talbot, Emile Levy, Angelo Tremblay, Peter Jh Jones, Patrick Couture, Benoît Lamarche
Background: Controversies persist concerning the association between intake of dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and cardiovascular disease risk.Objective: We compared the impact of consuming equal amounts of SFAs from cheese and butter on cardiometabolic risk factors.Design: In a multicenter, crossover, randomized controlled trial, 92 men and women with abdominal obesity and relatively low HDL-cholesterol concentrations were assigned to sequences of 5 predetermined isoenergetic diets of 4 wk each separated by 4-wk washouts: 2 diets rich in SFAs (12...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238234/markers-of-lipid-metabolism-do-not-correlate-with-the-expression-of-aortopathy-in-patients-with-bicuspid-aortic-valve-disease
#5
Tatiana M Sequeira Gross, Thomas Kuntze, Alexander Bernhardt, Hermann Reichenspurner, Yskert von Kodolitsch, Evaldas Girdauskas
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists regarding the potential effects of lipid metabolism on the expression of proximal aortopathy. The study aim was to compare the association between markers of lipid metabolism and the expression of proximal aortopathy in patients with either bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) or tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) disease. METHODS: A total of 458 consecutive patients (68% males) underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR) with or without concomitant aortic surgery between January 2008 and December 2014 at the authors' institution...
September 2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206728/laparoscopic-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-vs-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-for-morbid-obesity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-lipid-effects-at-one-year-post-surgery
#6
Elisenda Climent, David Benaiges, Juan Pedro-Botet, Albert Goday, Ivan Solà, José M Ramón, Juana A Flores-LE Roux, Miguel Á Checa
INTRODUCTION: Results of the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are controversial. Moreover, previous meta-analyses focused on global dyslipidaemia remission, but did not include the separate remission rates of the different lipid fractions. Hence, the aim of the present meta-analysis was to compare the outcomes (concentration change and remission rates) of GB and SG on diverse lipid disorders one year post-bariatric surgery (BS)...
February 15, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195141/a-mendelian-randomization-study-of-the-effect-of-calcium-on-coronary-artery-disease-myocardial-infarction-and-their-risk-factors
#7
Lin Xu, Shi Lin Lin, C Mary Schooling
Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest calcium could have adverse effects on cardiovascular disease, although these findings are controversial. To clarify, we assessed whether people with genetically higher calcium had a higher risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction (MI) and their risk factors. We used a two-sample Mendelian randomization study. We identified genetic variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) that independently contributed to serum calcium at genome-wide significance which we applied to large extensively genotyped studies of CAD, MI, diabetes, lipids, glycaemic traits and adiposity to obtain unconfounded estimates, with body mass index (BMI) as a control outcome...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192263/cholesterol-reducing-agents-for-treatment-of-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-haemorrhage-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
REVIEW
T Akhigbe, A Zolnourian, D Bulters
BACKGROUND: Aneurysmal haemorrhage induced cerebral vasospasm; DIND, poor neurological outcome and mortality are major causes of mortality and morbidity. The effects of cholesterol lowering agents in these patients remain controversial. This up to date systematic review and meta-analyses aimed to evaluate the efficacy of statin use in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage METHODS: Systematic review of literature conducted using electronic database searched up to September 2016 included Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials in the Cochrane library, Medline, Embase and Science Citation Index Expanded database to identify relevant studies...
February 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187365/low-glycemic-load-diets-protect-against-metabolic-syndrome-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-the-male-nile-rat
#9
Julia Bolsinger, Michelle Landstrom, Andrzej Pronczuk, Andrew Auerbach, K C Hayes
BACKGROUND: Dietary modification helps prevent and manage Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in humans and Nile rats. Specifically fibrous legumes, like lentils, benefit humans, but whether this reflects a specific change in the Glycemic Load (GLoad) remains controversial. Accordingly, low-GLoad foods were tested in the glucose-sensitive Nile rat. METHODS: 131 male Nile rats aged 3 weeks to 15 months were challenged during four experiments with 15 dietary exposures that varied Glycemic Index (GI, 36-88), GLoad (102-305/2000 kcal), and cumulative GLoad (Cum GLoad=days×GLoad, 181-537g total glucose)...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183512/a-test-in-context-lipoprotein-a-diagnosis-prognosis-controversies-and-emerging-therapies
#10
REVIEW
Sotirios Tsimikas
Evidence that elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) levels contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is substantial. Development of isoform-independent assays, in concert with genetic, epidemiological, translational, and pathophysiological insights, have established Lp(a) as an independent, genetic, and likely causal risk factor for CVD and CAVS. These observations are consistent across a broad spectrum of patients, risk factors, and concomitant therapies, including patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <70 mg/dl...
February 14, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168401/dyslipidemia-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#11
Melinda Zsuzsanna Szabó, Peter Szodoray, Emese Kiss
Cardiovascular disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Accelerated atherosclerosis is related to traditional (age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking, and positive family history) and non-traditional, disease-related factors. Traditional risk factors are still more prominent in patients with lupus, as both hypertension and hypercholesterinemia were independently associated with premature atherosclerosis in several SLE cohorts...
February 7, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145414/do-grape-polyphenols-improve-metabolic-syndrome-components-a-systematic-review
#12
J Woerdeman, E van Poelgeest, J C F Ket, E C Eringa, E H Serné, Y M Smulders
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological, in vitro and animal studies suggest that grape polyphenols, such as those present in wine, have favorable effects on the metabolic syndrome. However, controversy remains whether treatment with grape polyphenols is effective in humans. Here, we aimed to systemically review the effects of grape polyphenols on metabolic syndrome components in humans. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We systematically searched Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane database for all clinical trials assessing the effects of grape polyphenols on insulin sensitivity, glycemia, blood pressure or lipid levels...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138734/enteral-diet-enriched-with-%C3%AF-3-fatty-acid-improves-oxygenation-after-thoracic-esophagectomy-for-cancer-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Yasunori Matsuda, Daiki Habu, Sigeru Lee, Satoru Kishida, Harushi Osugi
BACKGROUND: Although the anti-inflammatory effects of immunomodulating diets (IMDs) have recently attracted attention, the efficacy of enteral feeding of such diets after radical surgery remains controversial. Thus, we conducted a new prospective, randomized controlled study to elucidate any beneficial effect of an IMD containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and γ-linolenic acid (GLA) in patients undergoing radical esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancer. METHODS: From November 2009 to July 2011, 87 consecutive patients were randomized to receive either an IMD enriched with EPA, GLA, and antioxidants (n = 42) or a standard isocaloric, isonitrogenous diet (control group, n = 45) after esophagectomy with radical lymphadenectomy...
January 30, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127730/factors-influencing-dialysis-arteriovenous-graft-survival
#14
Anna Valerianova, Jaroslav Kudlicka, Eva Chytilova, Barbora Grauova, Zdislava Krupickova, Jan Malik
PURPOSE: Dysfunction and loss of patency of dialysis arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) are serious causes of morbidity in patients on dialysis. Various risk factors associated with shorter AVG patency have been blamed, but the results of the studies were controversial. The aim of this study was to assess if associated diseases, biochemical markers and other parameters associated with atherosclerosis influence patency of AVGs in a large vascular access centre. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study that included patients with AVGs patent for at least 3 weeks after creation...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124492/helicobacter-pylori-infection-is-an-independent-risk-factor-of-early-and-advanced-colorectal-neoplasm
#15
Tae Jun Kim, Eun Ran Kim, Dong Kyung Chang, Young-Ho Kim, Sun-Young Baek, Kyunga Kim, Sung Noh Hong
BACKGROUND: The role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the development of colorectal neoplasm remains controversial. We examined the association between H. pylori infection and colorectal neoplasm in a large sample of healthy participants who underwent screening colonoscopy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 8916 men, who participated in a regular health-screening examination that included an H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin G antibody test and colonoscopy, was conducted to evaluate the association between H...
January 26, 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115523/apoc3-is-not-a-predisposing-factor-for-fat-induced-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#16
Xiaoyun Cheng, Jun Yamauchi, Sojin Lee, Ting Zhang, Zhenwei Gong, Radhika Muzumdar, Shen Qu, H Henry Dong
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by excessive fat accumulation in liver, is prevalent in obesity. Genetic factors that link obesity to NAFLD remain obscure. Apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) is a lipid-binding protein with a pivotal role in triglyceride metabolism. Humans with APOC3 gain-of-function mutations and mice with APOC3 overproduction are associated with hypertriglyceridemia. Nonetheless, it remains controversial whether APOC3 is culpable for diet-induced NAFLD. To address this fundamental issue, we fed APOC3-transgenic and wild-type littermates a high fructose diet or high fat diet, followed by determining the effect of APOC3 on hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammation, and the progression of NAFLD...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109635/impact-of-high-cholesterol-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-model-prevention-of-lysosomal-leakage-versus-stimulation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregation
#17
Ida Eriksson, Sangeeta Nath, Per Bornefall, Ana Maria Villamil Giraldo, Karin Öllinger
Parkinson's disease is characterized by accumulation of intraneuronal cytoplasmic inclusions, Lewy bodies, which mainly consist of aggregated α-synuclein. Controversies exist as to whether high blood cholesterol is a risk factor for the development of the disease and whether statin treatment could have a protective effect. Using a model system of BE(2)-M17 neuroblastoma cells treated with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), we found that MPP(+)-induced cell death was accompanied by cholesterol accumulation in a lysosomal-like pattern in pre-apoptotic cells...
January 16, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104770/decline-in-cardiovascular-mortality-possible-causes-and-implications
#18
REVIEW
George A Mensah, Gina S Wei, Paul D Sorlie, Lawrence J Fine, Yves Rosenberg, Peter G Kaufmann, Michael E Mussolino, Lucy L Hsu, Ebyan Addou, Michael M Engelgau, David Gordon
If the control of infectious diseases was the public health success story of the first half of the 20th century, then the decline in mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke has been the success story of the century's past 4 decades. The early phase of this decline in coronary heart disease and stroke was unexpected and controversial when first reported in the mid-1970s, having followed 60 years of gradual increase as the US population aged. However, in 1978, the participants in a conference convened by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute concluded that a significant recent downtick in coronary heart disease and stroke mortality rates had definitely occurred, at least in the US Since 1978, a sharp decline in mortality rates from coronary heart disease and stroke has become unmistakable throughout the industrialized world, with age-adjusted mortality rates having declined to about one third of their 1960s baseline by 2000...
January 20, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099551/cholesterol-and-prevention-of-atherosclerotic-events-limits-of-a-new-frontier
#19
Luís Eduardo Teixeira de Macedo, Faerstein E
Control of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease - a highly prevalent condition and one of the main causes of mortality in Brazil and worldwide - is a recurrent subject of great interest for public health. Recently, three new guidelines on dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis prevention have been published. The close release of these important publications is a good opportunity for comparison: the Brazilian model has greater sensitivity, the English model does not work with risk stratification, and the American model may be overestimating the risk...
January 12, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078852/cell-based-therapies-for-experimental-diabetic-nephropathy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
H J Tang, Z G Tian, X Yang, Y Cao, W G Li
Study has shown that stem cell–based therapies are promising strategies in the treatment of several chronic diseases, but their overall benefit in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to summarize the evidence of the effect of cell-based therapy in the treatment of DN to guide future clinical trials. We searched PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library for studies from the inception of cell-based therapies up to July 2015. We included animal trials that reported the effects of cell-based therapy on kidney function, cardiovascular risk factors, and body factors...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
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