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Cholesterol controversy

Adela Brahimaj, Taulant Muka, Maryam Kavousi, Joop S E Laven, Abbas Dehghan, Oscar H Franco
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Previous literature documents controversial results for the impact of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in glucose metabolism. We aimed to assess the associations between serum levels of DHEA and its main derivatives DHEA sulphate (DHEAS) and androstenedione, as well as the ratio of DHEAS to DHEA, and risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We used data on serum levels of DHEA, DHEAS and androstenedione from 5189 middle-aged and elderly men and women from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study...
October 22, 2016: Diabetologia
Stella Cecchetti, Zuzana Tatar, Pilar Galan, Bruno Pereira, Céline Lambert, Gael Mouterde, Angela Sutton, Martin Soubrier, Maxime Dougados
OBJECTIVES: The relationship between vitamin D and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity remains controversial. RA is a cardiovascular risk factor. A low level of vitamin D may increase blood pressure (BP) and decrease HDL-cholesterol. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in RA patients compared to controls, and also to investigate the relationship between vitamin D and RA activity, and between vitamin D and cardiovascular risk factors...
September 30, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Om P Ganda, Joanna Mitri
Despite major advances, many patients with diabetes are currently achieving suboptimal control of lipids and blood pressure. The new cholesterol guidelines by the ACC/AHA have reignited the emphasis on more intensive treatment with statins in the population at high risk of CVD, including those with diabetes. While these guidelines do not include specific lipid goals, several other guidelines have retained previously defined risk-based LDL-C and non-HDL-C goals. More recent data indicate potential benefits in CVD outcomes with non-statin therapy added to statin therapy...
November 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
Stephen R James, Lopamudra Ray, Kandasamy Ravichandran, Sunil Kumar Nanda
BACKGROUND: A controversy exists regarding the association between subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and dyslipidemia. Moreover, studies on lipid ratios and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in SH are rare, particularly in the Indian scenario. AIM: This study aimed to investigate abnormalities in conventional lipid profile, lipid ratios, and AIP in SH and attempted to correlate thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and AIP in SH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective analysis of patient records of SH subjects and euthyroid subjects, age, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, TSH, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, lipid ratios, and AIP were compared between the two groups...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
M W Kim, I S Shin, H S Yoon, S Cho, H S Park
BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported that androgenetic alopecia (AGA) might be a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders, and the association of AGA with dyslipidemia has been studied. However, the results were controversial and previous meta-analyses had several critical limitations. OBJECTIVE: We performed a meta-analysis to clarify whether AGA patients have abnormal lipid profiles. METHODS: A literature search was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and KOREA MED databases...
October 7, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Masato Kajikawa, Tatsuya Maruhashi, Yumiko Iwamoto, Akimichi Iwamoto, Nozomu Oda, Shinji Kishimoto, Shogo Matsui, Yoshiki Aibara, Takayuki Hidaka, Yasuki Kihara, Kazuaki Chayama, Chikara Goto, Kensuke Noma, Ayumu Nakashima, Takanori Matsui, Sho-Ichi Yamagishi, Yukihito Higashi
BACKGROUND: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a glycoprotein that belongs to the superfamily of serine protease inhibitors. It is thought that PEDF plays a protective role against atherosclerosis. Clinical studies have shown that serum levels of PEDF are increased in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. The role of PEDF in cardiovascular disease is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between serum levels of PEDF and vascular function and structure...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Todd J Anderson, Jean Grégoire, Glen J Pearson, Arden R Barry, Patrick Couture, Martin Dawes, Gordon A Francis, Jacques Genest, Steven Grover, Milan Gupta, Robert A Hegele, David C Lau, Lawrence A Leiter, Eva Lonn, G B John Mancini, Ruth McPherson, Daniel Ngui, Paul Poirier, John L Sievenpiper, James A Stone, George Thanassoulis, Richard Ward
Since the publication of the 2012 guidelines new literature has emerged to inform decision-making. The 2016 guidelines primary panel selected a number of clinically relevant questions and has produced updated recommendations, on the basis of important new findings. In subjects with clinical atherosclerosis, abdominal aortic aneurysm, most subjects with diabetes or chronic kidney disease, and those with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥ 5 mmol/L, statin therapy is recommended. For all others, there is an emphasis on risk assessment linked to lipid determination to optimize decision-making...
July 25, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Zhen-Wei Shen, Jie Xing, Qing-Lian Wang, Ali Faheem, Xiang Ji, Jie Li, Wei-Wei Bian, Zheng Jiang, Xiu-Jun Li, Fu-Zhong Xue, Jing Liu
PURPOSE: Limited numbers of literatures have focused on the association between γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), and their results were controversial. Therefore, in this study, we set up a large-scale cohort of Chinese population to discover and verify the association between serum GGT and CKD. METHODS: Our cohort study was based on 21,818 patients who visited Health Management Center of Shandong Provincial Hospital, China, to receive routine health check-up during the period of 2005-2010, and we used multivariate Cox regression model to clarify whether elevated serum GGT increased the risk of CKD or not...
October 4, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
Xue Li, Zhaowei Meng, Qiang Jia, Xiaojun Ren
Sub-clinical hypothyroidism is a common disease and whether L-thyroxine replacement treatment improves serum lipid levels in affected patients remains controversial. Thus, the aim of the present meta-analysis was to assess the effect of L-thyroxine therapy on serum lipid levels in sub-clinical hyperthyroidism. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) containing continuous data, published until July 2015 were retrieved from the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar and Embase databases and subjected to meta-analysis using Review Manager software version 5...
October 2016: Biomedical Reports
Maria Beatriz Trindade de Castro, Dayana Rodrigues Farias, Jaqueline Lepsch, Roberta Hack Mendes, Aline Alves Ferreira, Gilberto Kac
The association between the quality of maternal dietary fat intake during pregnancy and the infant's birthweight (BW) remains controversial. Our goal was to investigate the association between maternal dietary fat intake during pregnancy and the rate of large for gestational age (LGA) newborns. This study employed a cross-sectional analysis of 297 pairs of mothers/children attending a public maternity at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. BW for gestational age according to the Intergrowth 21st was defined as follows: adequate for gestational age (AGA ≤ 90th percentile) and LGA (>90th percentile)...
October 3, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Stefania Averaimo, Ahlem Assali, Oriol Ros, Sandrine Couvet, Yvrick Zagar, Ioana Genescu, Alexandra Rebsam, Xavier Nicol
The development of neuronal circuits is controlled by guidance molecules that are hypothesized to interact with the cholesterol-enriched domains of the plasma membrane termed lipid rafts. Whether such domains enable local intracellular signalling at the submicrometre scale in developing neurons and are required for shaping the nervous system connectivity in vivo remains controversial. Here, we report a role for lipid rafts in generating domains of local cAMP signalling in axonal growth cones downstream of ephrin-A repulsive guidance cues...
October 3, 2016: Nature Communications
Meyer Elbaz, Julien Faccini, Vanina Bongard, Cécile Ingueneau, Dorotea Taraszkiewicz, Bertrand Perret, Jean Ferrières, Jean-Bernard Ruidavets, Cécile Vindis
BACKGROUND: High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are highly heterogeneous particles, and the specific contribution of each subclass to the prediction of clinical outcome in coronary artery disease (CAD) remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between HDL subclass profile and mortality in patients with CAD, using a new and rapid electrophoretic quantitative method for the assessment of HDL particle size phenotype. METHODS: We investigated 403 patients with CAD admitted for cardiovascular examination in the context of evaluation and management of CAD...
September 29, 2016: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
Begoña Ruiz-Núñez, D A Janneke Dijck-Brouwer, Frits A J Muskiet
The mantra that dietary (saturated) fat must be minimized to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has dominated nutritional guidelines for decades. Parallel to decreasing intakes of fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA), there have been increases in carbohydrate and sugar intakes, overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The "lipid hypothesis" coined the concept that fat, especially SFA, raises blood low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and thereby CVD risk. In view of current controversies regarding their adequate intakes and effects, this review aims to summarize research regarding this heterogenic group of fatty acids and the mechanisms relating them to (chronic) systemic low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and notably CVD...
October 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Ting Gong, Quan-Wei Wei, Da-Gan Mao, Kentaro Nagaoka, Gen Watanabe, Kazuyoshi Taya, Fang-Xiong Shi
Saccharin sodium consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to its highly intense sweetness without any associated calories, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Herein, we demonstrated that dose-response relationships existed for with regard to administration of saccharin or sucrose to mice for 35 days, and this association involved testis- expressed sweet-tasting molecules (taste receptor type 1 subunit 3, T1R3; G protein alpha-gustducin, G-alpha). Mouse body weights and testis weights in middle- and low-dose saccharin-treated groups were increased with up-expressions of molecules involved in testicular sweet taste and steroidogenic (middle saccharin: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, StAR; P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, CYP11A1; 17-alpha-Hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase, CYP17A1; low saccharin: StAR)...
September 28, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Xiaoming Zhou, Haiyan Lin, Shigang Zhang, Jianwei Ren, Zhe Wang, Yun Zhang, Mansen Wang, Qunye Zhang
BACKGROUND: The rules and mechanisms of seasonal changes in plasma lipid levels, which may be related to annual rhythmicity of incidence and mortality of cardiovascular diseases, are still controversial. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to study the effects of climatic factors on plasma lipid levels and to preliminarily reveal mechanisms of annual rhythmicity of plasma lipid levels. METHODS: A longitudinal study was performed using health examination data of 5 consecutive years (47,270 subjects) in Jinan, China...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Fawaz Mzayek, J Kennedy Cruickshank, Doris Amoah, Sathanur Srinivasan, Wei Chen, Gerald S Berenson
PURPOSE: Birth weight (BW) is associated with risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. The findings from studies examined the association of BW with metabolic markers of CV risk were inconsistent and controversial. We examined the association of BW with insulin resistance and blood lipids using repeated measures up to mid-adulthood. METHODS: Data from seven screenings of the Bogalusa Heart Study-a longitudinal study of cardiovascular risk factors in Bogalusa, LA-are analyzed using generalized estimation equations method...
September 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Francesca Zimetti, Paolo Caffarra, Nicoletta Ronda, Elda Favari, Maria Pia Adorni, Ilaria Zanotti, Franco Bernini, Federica Barocco, Marco Spallazzi, Daniela Galimberti, Chiara Ricci, Massimiliano Ruscica, Alberto Corsini, Nicola Ferri
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been associated with dysregulation of brain cholesterol trafficking and abnormal production of apolipoprotein E isoform 4 (apoE4). Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a protein present in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) degrading the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) and other apoE-binding receptors involved in neuron cholesterol uptake. The role of PCSK9 in AD is controversial. OBJECTIVE: We compared PCSK9 levels in CSF of AD patients and non-AD controls and looked at correlations with CSF total apoE and apoE4...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Vicente Giner-Galvañ, María José Esteban-Giner, Vicente Pallarés-Carratalá
Modern medicine is characterized by a continuous genesis of evidence making it very difficult to translate the latest findings into a better clinical practice. Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) emerge to provide clinicians evidence-based recommendations for their daily clinical practice. However, the high number of existing CPG as well as the usual differences in the given recommendations usually increases the clinician's confusion and doubts. It has apparently been the case for the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
Francesco Rozza, Valentina Trimarco, Raffaele Izzo, Davide Grassi, Claudio Ferri
INTRODUCTION: Asymptomatic hyperuricemia is not a current indication for therapy as the definite role of serum uric acid elevation as a cardiovascular risk factor is extremely likely but still controversial. AIM: We designed a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study to assess the effects of a combination of nutraceuticals (ZinutriK(®), containing a fixed combination of kampferol, baicalin, caffeine, and rutin) on serum uric acid levels, lipid variables and the global cardiovascular risk profile...
September 19, 2016: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
Shu-Xia Guo, Ming-Hong Yao, Yu-Song Ding, Jing-Yu Zhang, Yi-Zhong Yan, Jia-Ming Liu, Mei Zhang, Dong-Sheng Rui, Qiang Niu, Jia He, Heng Guo, Ru-Lin Ma
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have evaluated the associations between the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) TaqIB polymorphism (rs708272), the risk of developing composite ischemic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), but results remain controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a relationship exists between these factors. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of available studies to clarify the associations of the CETP TaqIB polymorphism with HDL-C concentration and the composite ischemic CVD risk in both Asians and Caucasians...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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