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Cholesterol controversy

Paolo Palatini, Francesca Saladini, Lucio Mos, Claudio Fania, Adriano Mazzer, Edoardo Casiglia
OBJECTIVE: The clinical significance of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) in youth is controversial. One main confounding factor is the strong white-coat effect often observed in ISH patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of hypertension needing pharmacological treatment in ISH identified with ambulatory 24-h blood pressure (24-h BP). METHODS: We examined 1206, 18-45-year-old participants from the Hypertension and Ambulatory Recording VEnetia STudy...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Theodosios D Filippatos, Eliza C Christopoulou, Moses S Elisaf
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current data suggest that proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors may affect many metabolic pathways beyond lowering LDL cholesterol. The aim of the present manuscript is to present these so-called pleiotropic effects of PCSK9 inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS: PCSK9 may affect the activity of other receptors beyond LDL receptors (LDLR), such as cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), very-low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL) receptors, apolipoprotein (Apo) E receptors, LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP-1) and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter (ABCA1)...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Paolo Zanoni, Srividya Velagapudi, Mustafa Yalcinkaya, Lucia Rohrer, Arnold von Eckardstein
During their metabolism, all lipoproteins undergo endocytosis, either to be degraded intracellularly, for example in hepatocytes or macrophages, or to be re-secreted, for example in the course of transcytosis by endothelial cells. Moreover, there are several examples of internalized lipoproteins sequestered intracellularly, possibly to exert intracellular functions, for example the cytolysis of trypanosoma. Endocytosis and the subsequent intracellular itinerary of lipoproteins hence are key areas for understanding the regulation of plasma lipid levels as well as the biological functions of lipoproteins...
June 23, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Yanmao Wang, Runhua Zhou, Wanrun Zhong, Chengfang Hu, Shengdi Lu, Yimin Chai
PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown that serum uric acid levels and inflammation are associated with bone mineral density. Gout, a disease characterized by hyperuricemia and inflammation, contributes to the risk of osteoporotic fractures. However, this association is controversial. Therefore, this study investigated whether gout in older people (age > 55 years) is associated with osteoporotic fracture risk. METHODS: This population-based, cross-sectional study included 2674 participants (147 cases of gout and 388 fractures)...
June 28, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Ying Zhang, Hiroko Kishi, Sei Kobayashi
Add-on therapy with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been extensively researched in the intractable diseases, such as asthma, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. As an entirely new concept, add-on therapy of TCM has been also used to prevent and treat hyperlipidemia via lowering cholesterol level. However, the efficacy of add-on therapy with TCM for mediating lipid metabolism disorders remains controversial. In this review, we summarize and provide strong evidence that add-on therapy of TCM as a novel approach is efficacious and safe for hyperlipidemia associated diseases based on the mediation of lipid metabolism disorders...
June 21, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Wei Zhou, Weifeng Hu, Guofeng Han, Huiling Wang, Jinyuan Zhang, Changlin Mei
BACKGROUND: Residual renal function (RRF) is a crucial factor that plays an important role in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, but whether RRF influences the quality of life (QOL) of PD patients is still controversial. The aims of this study were to explore the effects of RRF on QOL in patients with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and analyze the related factors that might affect patients' QOL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All 120 adult patients in this study received regular CAPD treatment for at least 3 months...
August 2018: Clinical Nephrology
Thomas Schmitt, Stefan Lange, Stefan Sonnenberger, Bodo Dobner, Bruno Demé, Andreas Langner, Reinhard H H Neubert
This study used neutron diffraction to investigate a ceramide-[NP] C24/[AP] C24 /[EOS]-br C30/cholesterol/lignoceric acid (0.6: 0.3: 0.1: 0.7: 1) based stratum corneum modelling system. By adding specifically deuterated ceramides-[NP]-D3 , [AP]-D3 , and [EOS]-br-D3 , detailed information on the lamellar and the nanostructure of the system was obtained. For the short periodicity phase a natural-like lamellar repeat distance of 5.47 ± 0.02 nm was observed, similar to the [NP]/[AP] base system without the [EOS]-br...
June 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Wesley C Kephart, Coree D Pledge, Paul A Roberson, Petey W Mumford, Matthew A Romero, Christopher B Mobley, Jeffrey S Martin, Kaelin C Young, Ryan P Lowery, Jacob M Wilson, Kevin W Huggins, Michael D Roberts
Adopting low carbohydrate, ketogenic diets remains a controversial issue for individuals who resistance train given that this form of dieting has been speculated to reduce skeletal muscle glycogen levels and stifle muscle anabolism. We sought to characterize the effects of a 12-week ketogenic diet (KD) on body composition, metabolic, and performance parameters in participants who trained recreationally at a local CrossFit facility. Twelve participants (nine males and three females, 31 ± 2 years of age, 80...
January 9, 2018: Sports (Basel)
Rohith N Thota, Jessica J A Ferguson, Kylie A Abbott, Cintia B Dias, Manohar L Garg
Lower incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Greenland Inuit, Northern Canada and Japan has been attributed to their consumption of seafood rich in long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA). While a large majority of pre-clinical and intervention trials have demonstrated heart health benefits of LCn-3PUFA, some studies have shown no effects or even negative effects. LCn-3PUFA have been shown to favourably modulate blood lipid levels, particularly a reduction in circulating levels of triglycerides...
June 15, 2018: Food & Function
Catherine J Andersen
Cellular cholesterol metabolism, lipid raft formation, and lipoprotein interactions contribute to the regulation of immune-mediated inflammation and response to pathogens. Lipid pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral infections, whereas altered lipid metabolism may contribute to immune dysfunction in autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Interestingly, dietary cholesterol may exert protective or detrimental effects on risk, progression, and treatment of different infectious and autoimmune diseases, although current findings suggest that these effects are variable across populations and different diseases...
June 13, 2018: Nutrients
Matteo Pirro, Biagio Ricciuti, Daniel J Rader, Alberico L Catapano, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Maciej Banach
The relationship between high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), HDL-cholesterol (HDLC) and cancer incidence and mortality is controversial. Although most studies conducted so far, including well-designed prospective studies and meta-analyses, have revealed a significant inverse association between HDL-C levels and cancer risk, several confounding factors and opposite results showing either a direct or an inverse association between HDL-C levels and cancer mortality have hindered the possibility to derive definitive conclusions...
June 4, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
Pengfei Cheng, Junxi Pan, Jinjun Xia, Fengli Deng, Wen Huang, Shunjie Bai, Xiaofeng Zhu, Weihua Shao, Haiyang Wang, Peng Xie
Background/Objectives: The association between dietary cholesterol and stroke risk has remained controversial over the past two decades. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the relationship between dietary cholesterol and stroke risk. Results: Seven prospective studies including 269,777 non-overlapping individuals (4,604 strokes) were included. The combined RR of stroke for higher cholesterol intake (> 300 mg/day) was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.90-1.07), and the combined RR of stroke for higher cholesterol intake (> 300 mg/day) in females (age of ≥ 60 years or body mass index of ≥ 24 kg/m2 ) was 1...
May 22, 2018: Oncotarget
W F Drew Bennett, Joan-Emma Shea, D Peter Tieleman
Cholesterol is a key component of eukaryotic membranes, but its role in cellular biology in general and in lipid rafts in particular remains controversial. Model membranes are used extensively to determine the phase behavior of ternary mixtures of cholesterol, a saturated lipid, and an unsaturated lipid with liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phase coexistence. Despite many different experiments that determine lipid-phase diagrams, we lack an understanding of the molecular-level driving forces for liquid phase coexistence in bilayers with cholesterol...
June 5, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Siavash Babajafari, Abdollah Hojhabrimanesh, Zahra Sohrabi, Mehdi Ayaz, Ali Noorafshan, Atefeh Akrami
BACKGROUND: There is controversy regarding whether increasing isolated soy protein (ISP) with or without flaxseed oil (FO), as functional foods, would lead to reduce muscle catabolism and cachexia in burn patients. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-eight patients were assessed for eligibility in this randomized controlled trial. Of these, seventy-three eligible patients (total burn surface area 20-50%) were randomly assigned to three groups, labeled as Control (wheat flour [WF] + corn oil [CO]), ISP + FO, and ISP + CO, to receive these nutrients for three weeks...
June 4, 2018: Trials
Karen King, Alan Macken, Ophelia Blake, Clodagh S O'Gorman
Atherosclerosis begins in childhood. Fatty streaks, the earliest precursor of atherosclerotic lesions, have been found in the coronary arteries of children of 2 years of age. Hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Hypercholesterolaemia can be either primary, when it is characteristic of the main disease, or secondary when it occurs as a result of either a disease process or drug treatment. Given the risk of vascular disease, including myocardial infarction (MI), cerebrovascular accidents (CVA, also known as strokes), peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and ruptured aortic aneurysm, which may follow atherosclerosis, it is important to prevent or slow the early development of atherosclerotic lesions...
June 1, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Karina M Rebello, Valter V Andrade-Neto, Aline A Zuma, Maria Cristina M Motta, Claudia Regina B Gomes, Marcus Vinícius N de Souza, Geórgia C Atella, Marta H Branquinha, André L S Santos, Eduardo Caio Torres-Santos, Claudia M d'Avila-Levy
The anti-leishmania effects of HIV peptidase inhibitors (PIs) have been widely reported; however, the biochemical target and mode of action are still a matter of controversy in Leishmania parasites. Considering the possibility that HIV-PIs induce lipid accumulation in Leishmania amazonensis, we analysed the effects of lopinavir on the lipid metabolism of L. amazonensis promastigotes. To this end, parasites were treated with lopinavir at different concentrations and analysed by fluorescence microscopy and spectrofluorimetry, using a fluorescent lipophilic marker...
May 28, 2018: Parasitology
Neel H Patel, Jonathan Bloom, Joel Hillelsohn, Sean Fullerton, Denton Allman, Gerald Matthews, Majid Eshghi, John L Phillips
Purpose: Prostate cancer screening is a controversial topic. We examined trends in Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing in an underserved population before and after the United States Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation against screening. Methods: Data were collected on all PSA and cholesterol screening tests from 2008 to 2014. We examined the trend of these tests and prostate biopsies while comparing this data to lipid panel data to adjust for changes in patient population. Results: A decrease in PSA screening was observed from 2010 through 2014, with the greatest decline in 2012...
2018: Health Equity
Seon-Joo Park, Ji-Hye Jung, Sang-Woon Choi, Hae-Jeung Lee
The effect of high egg intake on metabolic syndrome (MetS), a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), has not been clearly elucidated. This study was conducted to review the literature related to egg consumption and the risk of metabolic disease as well as to examine the association between high egg intake and MetS in Korean adults. A literature review was conducted using published papers in PubMed and EMBASE through December 2017. We have reviewed 26 articles, which were associated with egg consumption and metabolic diseases, and found that the results were controversial...
April 2018: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
Reza Tabrizi, Vahidreza Ostadmohammadi, Kamran B Lankarani, Payam Peymani, Maryam Akbari, Fariba Kolahdooz, Zatollah Asemi
BACKGROUND: Several studies have evaluated the effect of inositol supplementation on lipid profiles among population with metabolic diseases; however, the findings are controversial. This review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to summarize the evidence of the effects of inositol supplementation on lipid profiles among population with metabolic diseases. METHODS: Relevant RCTs studies were searched in Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Web of Science until October 2017...
May 24, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Adel M A Assiri, Hala F M Kamel, Abeer A ALrefai
The interaction of advanced glycation end products (AGE) and their receptors promote vascular complications of diabetes in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The soluble form of the receptor for the advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) has been studied as a vascular biomarker in various diseases with controversial results. Our aim was to evaluate the association of the serum levels of the AGEs and their receptor sRAGE with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the cardiovascular risk factors among HD patients. There were 130 HD patients and 80 age and gender matched control subjects were involved; 31...
May 22, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
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