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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432342/hypermethylation-of-interferon-regulatory-factor-8-irf8-confers-risk-to-vogt-koyanagi-harada-disease
#1
Yiguo Qiu, Hongsong Yu, Yunyun Zhu, Zi Ye, Jing Deng, Wencheng Su, Qingfeng Cao, Gangxiang Yuan, Aize Kijlstra, Peizeng Yang
Aberrant methylation change of IRF8 confers risk to various tumors, and abnormal expression of IRF8 is involved in many autoimmune diseases, including ocular Behcet's disease. However, whether the methylation change of IRF8 is associated with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease remains unknown. In the present study, we found a decreased IRF8 mRNA expression in association with a higher methylation level in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) from active VKH patients compared with the normal and inactive subjects...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432147/cutting-edge-a-dual-tlr2-and-tlr7-ligand-induces-highly-potent-humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-responses
#2
Alice Gutjahr, Laura Papagno, Francesco Nicoli, Alain Lamoureux, Fabienne Vernejoul, Thierry Lioux, Emma Gostick, David A Price, Gérard Tiraby, Eric Perouzel, Victor Appay, Bernard Verrier, Stéphane Paul
TLR agonists are currently being developed and tested as adjuvants in various formulations to optimize the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunostimulatory properties of a novel compound incorporating covalently linked moieties designed to stimulate both TLR2 and TLR7. This dual TLR2/TLR7 agonist induced the maturation of dendritic cells and primed substantial populations of cytolytic and highly polyfunctional effector CD8(+) T cells in vitro, and safely potentiated the immunogenic properties of a nanoparticulate Ag in vivo, eliciting humoral responses with a balanced TH1/TH2 profile in mice...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432129/do-memory-cd4-t-cells-keep-their-cell-type-programming-plasticity-versus-fate-commitment-complexities-of-interpretation-due-to-the-heterogeneity-of-memory-cd4-t-cells-including-t-follicular-helper-cells
#3
Shane Crotty
Plasticity is the ability of a cell type to convert to another cell type. There are multiple effector CD4 T-cell subtypes, including TH1, TH2, TH17, TH1*, CD4 CTL, TH9, and TFH cells. It is commonly thought that a CD4 T cell can readily show full plasticity-full conversion from one differentiated cell-and this propensity to plasticity is possessed by memory CD4 T cells. However, there remains no direct demonstration of in vivo-generated resting memory CD4 T-cell conversion to a different subtype on secondary antigen challenge in vivo in an intact animal at the single-cell level...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428789/il-10-producing-b-cells-regulate-t-helper-cell-immune-responses-during-1-3-%C3%AE-glucan-induced-lung-inflammation
#4
Fangwei Liu, Xiaowei Lu, Wujing Dai, Yiping Lu, Chao Li, Sitong Du, Ying Chen, Dong Weng, Jie Chen
With the rapid development of industry and farm, fungi contamination widely exists in occupational environment. Inhalation of fungi-contaminated organic dust results in hypersensitivity pneumonitis. 1,3-β-Glucan is a major cell wall component of fungus and is considered as a biomarker of fungi exposure. Current studies showed that 1,3-β-glucan exposure induced lung inflammation, which involved uncontrolled T helper (Th) cell immune responses, such as Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cell (Treg). A recently identified IL-10-producing B cells (B10) was reported in regulating immune homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428203/tslp-activated-dendritic-cells-induce-human-t-follicular-helper-cell-differentiation-through-ox40-ligand
#5
Lucia Pattarini, Coline Trichot, Sofia Bogiatzi, Maximilien Grandclaudon, Stephan Meller, Zela Keuylian, Melanie Durand, Elisabetta Volpe, Stefania Madonna, Andrea Cavani, Andrea Chiricozzi, Marco Romanelli, Toshiyuki Hori, Alain Hovnanian, Bernhard Homey, Vassili Soumelis
T follicular helper cells (Tfh) are important regulators of humoral responses. Human Tfh polarization pathways have been thus far associated with Th1 and Th17 polarization pathways. How human Tfh cells differentiate in Th2-skewed environments is unknown. We show that thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)-activated dendritic cells (DCs) promote human Tfh differentiation from naive CD4 T cells. We identified a novel population, distinct from Th2 cells, expressing IL-21 and TNF, suggestive of inflammatory cells...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428201/dihydrolipoamide-dehydrogenase-lpd-rv0462-specific-t-cell-recall-responses-are-higher-in-healthy-household-contacts-of-tb-a-novel-immunodominant-antigen-from-m-tuberculosis
#6
Santhi Devasundaram, Alamelu Raja
The partial effectiveness against pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), displayed by the existing tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), highlights the need for novel vaccines to replace or improve BCG. In TB immunology, antigen-specific cellular immune response is frequently considered indispensable. Latency-associated antigens are intriguing as targets for TB vaccine development. The mycobacterial protein, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd; Rv0462), the third enzyme of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex, facilitates Mycobacterium tuberculosis to resist host reactive nitrogen intermediates...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427965/t1-st2-deficient-mice-display-protection-against-leishmania-infantum-experimental-infection
#7
Khalid Eltahir Khalid, Manuela Sales, Laís Sacramento, Diego L Costa, Djalma de Souza, Vanessa Carregaro, Joao Santana da Silva
T1/ST2 is a surface marker selectively expressed on type 2 helper (TH2) effector cells. As Leishmania infection in susceptible BALB/c mice have ascribed to a polarized TH2 response, this study aim to investigate the T1/ST2 (the receptor for IL-33), as a typical TH2 marker in the postulation that a shift towards a beneficial TH1 response would occur in the absence of ST2. For this, ST2 knockout (ST2(-/-)) and WT BALB/c mice were experimentally infected in the retro-orbital sinus with L. infantum. We showed that ST2(-/-) animals displayed better control of parasite burden in both spleen and liver tissues at different time points of chronic phases, and reduced spleenomegaly and hepatomegaly compared with the wild-type (WT) mice...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427395/protein-antigen-of-bird-related-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-in-pigeon-serum-and-dropping
#8
Tsuyoshi Shirai, Haruhiko Furusawa, Asuka Furukawa, Yuki Ishige, Keisuke Uchida, Yasunari Miyazaki, Yoshinobu Eishi, Naohiko Inase
BACKGROUND: Avian antigen is a common cause of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Inhalation challenge with pigeon serum and pigeon dropping extract (PDE) elicits a hypersensitivity reaction in patients with bird-related hypersensitivity pneumonitis (BRHP), but the antigenic components in these materials have yet to be fully elucidated. METHOD: Pigeon serum, pigeon intestine homogenates, and PDE were immunoblotted with serum samples from 8 patients with BRHP, 2 patients with summer-type HP, 2 patients with humidifier lung, and 3 healthy volunteers...
April 20, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426172/distinct-roles-of-th17-and-th1-cells-in-inflammatory-responses-associated-with-the-presentation-of-paucibacillary-leprosy-and-leprosy-reactions-th17-immune-response-in-leprosy
#9
Márcio Bezerrra Santos, Daniela Teles de Oliveira, Rodrigo Anselmo Cazzaniga, Crisuelle Santana Varjão, Priscila Lima Dos Santos, Micheli L B Santos, Cristiane Bane Correia, Daniela R Faria, Marise do Vale Simon, João Santana Silva, Walderez O Dutra, Steven G Reed, Malcolm S Duthie, Roque Pahceco de Almeida, Amélia Ribeiro de Jesus
It is well established that helper T cell responses influence resistance or susceptibility to Mycobacterium leprae infection, but the role of more recently described helper T cell subsets in determining severity is less clear. To investigate the involvement of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of leprosy, we determined the immune profile with variant presentations of leprosy. Firstly, IL-17A, IFN-γ and IL-10 were evaluated in conjunction with CD4(+) T cell staining by confocal microscopy of lesion biopsies from tuberculoid (TT) and lepromatous (LL) patients...
April 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425862/the-impact-of-il-17-in-atherosclerosis
#10
Xinjie Lu
Atherosclerosis is a chronic vascular disease in which atherosclerotic plaques develop in the arterial wall. It is believed that inflammation plays a major role in atherosclerotic formation and progression. Thus, atherosclerosis can be considered as an inflammatory disease of the arterial vessel. Mouse model demonstrated that T and B cell deficiency reduces the atherosclerotic burden in the formation of an atherosclerotic lesion. CD4+ T helper cells (Th), such as Th1 cells known being the major CD4+ T cell subtype found in mouse models of atherogenesis, increase plaque formation caused by oxLDL...
April 19, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424989/t-lymphocyte-derived-enkephalins-reduce-th1-th17-colitis-and-associated-pain-in-mice
#11
Lilian Basso, Laure Garnier, Arnaud Bessac, Jérôme Boué, Catherine Blanpied, Nicolas Cenac, Sophie Laffont, Gilles Dietrich
BACKGROUND: Endogenous opioids, including enkephalins, are fundamental regulators of pain. In inflammatory conditions, the local release of opioids by leukocytes at the inflammatory site inhibits nociceptor firing, thereby inducing analgesia. Accordingly, in chronic intestinal Th1/Th17-associated inflammation, enkephalins released by colitogenic CD4(+) T lymphocytes relieve inflammation-induced visceral pain. The present study aims to investigate whether mucosal T-cell-derived enkephalins also exhibit a potent anti-inflammatory activity as described for exogenous opioid drugs in Th1/Th17-associated colitis...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424693/human-melanoma-derived-extracellular-vesicles-regulate-dendritic-cell-maturation
#12
Rachel L G Maus, James W Jakub, Wendy K Nevala, Trace A Christensen, Klara Noble-Orcutt, Zohar Sachs, Tina J Hieken, Svetomir N Markovic
Evolution of melanoma from a primary tumor to widespread metastasis is crucially dependent on lymphatic spread. The mechanisms regulating the initial step in metastatic dissemination via regional lymph nodes remain largely unknown; however, evidence supporting the establishment of a pre-metastatic niche is evolving. We have previously described a dysfunctional immune profile including reduced expression of dendritic cell (DC) maturation markers in the first node draining from the primary tumor, the sentinel lymph node (SLN)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424692/t-cells-in-osteoarthritis-alterations-and-beyond
#13
REVIEW
Yu-Sheng Li, Wei Luo, Shou-An Zhu, Guang-Hua Lei
Although osteoarthritis (OA) has been traditionally regarded as a non-inflammatory disease, reports increasingly suggest that it is inflammatory, at least in certain patients. OA patients often exhibit inflammatory infiltration of synovial membranes by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, B cells, plasma cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, granulocytes, etc. Although previous reviews have summarized the knowledge of inflammation in the pathogenesis of OA, as far as we know, no report review our current understanding about T cells, especially, each T cell subtype, in the biology of OA...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424682/interactions-between-type-1-interferons-and-the-th17-response-in-tuberculosis-lessons-learned-from-autoimmune-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Bas C Mourik, Erik Lubberts, Jurriaan E M de Steenwinkel, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Pieter J M Leenen
The classical paradigm of tuberculosis (TB) immunity, with a central protective role for Th1 responses and IFN-γ-stimulated cellular responses, has been challenged by unsatisfactory results of vaccine strategies aimed at enhancing Th1 immunity. Moreover, preclinical TB models have shown that increasing IFN-γ responses in the lungs is more damaging to the host than to the pathogen. Type 1 interferon signaling and altered Th17 responses have also been associated with active TB, but their functional roles in TB pathogenesis remain to be established...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424681/the-spontaneous-autoimmune-neuromyopathy-in-icosl-nod-mice-is-cd4-t-cell-and-interferon-%C3%AE-dependent
#15
Claire Briet, Gwladys Bourdenet, Ute C Rogner, Chantal Becourt, Isabelle Tardivel, Laurent Drouot, Christophe Arnoult, Jean-Claude do Rego, Nicolas Prevot, Charbel Massaad, Olivier Boyer, Christian Boitard
Abrogation of ICOS/ICOS ligand (ICOSL) costimulation prevents the onset of diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse but, remarkably, yields to the development of a spontaneous autoimmune neuromyopathy. At the pathological level, ICOSL(-/-) NOD mice show stronger protection from insulitis than their ICOS(-/-) counterparts. Also, the ICOSL(-/-) NOD model carries a limited C57BL/6 region containing the Icosl nul mutation, but, in contrast to ICOS(-/-) NOD mice, no gene variant previously reported as associated to NOD diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424680/induction-of-protective-immunity-against-toxoplasma-gondii-in-mice-by-nucleoside-triphosphate-hydrolase-ii-ntpase-ii-self-amplifying-rna-vaccine-encapsulated-in-lipid-nanoparticle-lnp
#16
Fangjun Luo, Lina Zheng, Yue Hu, Shuxian Liu, Yan Wang, Zhongkui Xiong, Xin Hu, Feng Tan
RNA-based vaccine represents an irresistible and safe immunization strategy with decreasing theoretical risks of genomic integration and malignant cell transformation. To our knowledge, however, there is no report about development of RNA vaccine against Toxoplasma gondii infection. We have previously demonstrated that the recombinant T. gondii nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase-II (NTPase-II) protein is able to provide protective Th1 cell-mediated immunity against T. gondii. Herein, we evaluated the immunogenic potential of a self-amplifying RNA vaccine-encoding T...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424283/simian-immunodeficiency-virus-targeting-of-cxcr3-cd4-t-cells-in-secondary-lymphoid-organs-is-associated-with-robust-cxcl10-expression-in-monocyte-macrophage-subsets
#17
Masayuki Fujino, Hirotaka Sato, Tomotaka Okamura, Akihiko Uda, Satoshi Takeda, Nursarat Ahmed, Shigeyuki Shichino, Teiichiro Shiino, Yohei Saito, Satoru Watanabe, Chie Sugimoto, Marcelo Kuroda, Manabu Ato, Yoshiyuki Nagai, Shuji Izumo, Kouji Matsushima, Masaaki Miyazawa, Aftab A Ansari, Francois Villinger, Kazuyasu Mori
Glycosylation of Env defines pathogenic properties of SIV. We previously demonstrated that pathogenic SIVmac239 and live-attenuated, quintuple deglycosylated Env mutant (Δ5G) target CD4(+) T cells residing in different tissues during acute infection. SIVmac239 and Δ5G preferentially infected distinct CD4(+) T cells in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) and within the lamina propria of the small intestine, respectively (C. Sugimoto et al., J Virol 86:9323-9336, 2012). Herein, we studied the host responses relevant to SIV targeting of CXCR3(+)CCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells in SLOs...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424242/mtorc1-promotes-t-bet-phosphorylation-to-regulate-th1-differentiation
#18
Olesya Chornoguz, Robert S Hagan, Azeb Haile, Matthew L Arwood, Christopher J Gamper, Arnob Banerjee, Jonathan D Powell
CD4(+) T cells lacking the mTORC1 activator Rheb fail to secrete IFN-γ under Th1 polarizing conditions. We hypothesized that this phenotype is due to defects in regulation of the canonical Th1 transcription factor T-bet at the level of protein phosphorylation downstream of mTORC1. To test this hypothesis, we employed targeted mass-spectrometry proteomic analysis-multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. We used this method to detect and quantify predicted phosphopeptides derived from T-bet. By analyzing activated murine wild-type and Rheb-deficient CD4(+) T cells, as well as murine CD4(+) T cells activated in the presence of rapamycin, a pharmacologic inhibitor of mTORC1, we were able to identify six T-bet phosphorylation sites...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424240/the-histone-acetyltransferase-gcn5-positively-regulates-t-cell-activation
#19
Beixue Gao, Qingfei Kong, Yana Zhang, Chawon Yun, Sharon Y R Dent, Jianxun Song, Donna D Zhang, Yiming Wang, Xuemei Li, Deyu Fang
Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) regulate inducible transcription in multiple cellular processes and during inflammatory and immune response. However, the functions of general control nonrepressed-protein 5 (Gcn5), an evolutionarily conserved HAT from yeast to human, in immune regulation remain unappreciated. In this study, we conditionally deleted Gcn5 (encoded by the Kat2a gene) specifically in T lymphocytes by crossing floxed Gcn5 and Lck-Cre mice, and demonstrated that Gcn5 plays important roles in multiple stages of T cell functions including development, clonal expansion, and differentiation...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423971/intrauterine-infection-immune-system-and-premature-birth
#20
Fernanda Rodrigues Helmo, Eduardo Arthur Rodovalho Alves, Renata Alves de Andrade Moreira, Viviane Oliveira Severino, Laura Penna Rocha, Maria Luíza Gonçalves Dos Reis Monteiro, Marlene Antônia Dos Reis, Renata Margarida Etchebehere, Juliana Reis Machado, Rosana Rosa Miranda Corrêa
Preterm birth accounts for nearly one million deaths among children under five years of age, and although its etiopathogenesis is not fully elucidated, ascending intrauterine infection and fetal inflammatory response seem to be the main triggers. The intense inflammatory response mediated by IL-1β, TNF-α, PAF, IFN-γ and IL-6, PGE2 and MMP-1 and MMP-9 causes fetal membrane damage and rupture, increased uterine contractions and biochemical and structural changes in the cervix. Furthermore, preterm neonates have deficient innate and adaptive immune responses characterized by reduced levels of IgG, opsonization and phagocytosis, as well as increased activation of Th1 cells in relation to Th2 cells...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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