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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088699/procyanidin-b2-gallates-inhibit-ifn-%C3%AE-and-il-17-production-in-t-cells-by-suppressing-t-bet-and-ror%C3%AE-t-expression
#1
Sachi Tanaka, Kanon Furuya, Kana Yamamoto, Kazuki Yamada, Mikihiro Ichikawa, Manato Suda, Hidefumi Makabe
Procyanidins are widely found in plants and have anti-inflammatory activities. Procyanidin B2 (PCB2) inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages. However, there has been no study that has attempted to determine the effects of PCB2 gallates on T cell functions. In the present study, murine splenocytes were isolated and treated with PCB2 or PCB2 gallates in the presence of an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb). PCB2 gallates, but not PCB2, inhibited proliferation and T cell activation of splenocytes after stimulation with the anti-CD3 mAb...
January 12, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087948/regulation-of-immunity-to-tuberculosis
#2
Susanna Brighenti, Diane J Ordway
Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires a balance between adaptive immune responses to constrain bacterial replication and the prevention of potentially damaging immune activation. Regulatory T (Treg) cells express the transcription factor Foxp3+ and constitute an essential counterbalance of inflammatory Th1 responses and are required to maintain immune homeostasis. The first reports describing the presence of Foxp3-expressing CD4+ Treg cells in tuberculosis (TB) emerged in 2006. Different Treg cell subsets, most likely specialized for different tissues and microenvironments, have been shown to expand in both human TB and animal models of TB...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087917/-reasearch-progress-on-the-role-of-neutrophils-in-asthma
#3
Tingting Li, Yuehai Ke, Hongqiang Cheng
Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous chronic disease of the airways. Studies have found that neutrophils are crucial to airway inflammation in acute asthma, persistent asthma, particularly in asthma of poor response to glucocorticoid treatment. The role of neutrophils in development of bronchial asthma is complex, as they can release a potent source of cytokines and inflammatory mediators participating in asthma. Differing from eosinophilic inflammatory asthma, neutrophilic inflammatory asthma is not depend on helper T (Th)2 cells, but may be related to Th1 and Th17 cells...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087667/prmt5-selective-inhibitors-suppress-inflammatory-t-cell-responses-and-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#4
Lindsay M Webb, Stephanie A Amici, Kyle A Jablonski, Himanshu Savardekar, Amanda R Panfil, Linsen Li, Wei Zhou, Kevin Peine, Vrajesh Karkhanis, Eric M Bachelder, Kristy M Ainslie, Patrick L Green, Chenglong Li, Robert A Baiocchi, Mireia Guerau-de-Arellano
In the autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), expansion of pathogenic, myelin-specific Th1 cell populations drives active disease; selectively targeting this process may be the basis for a new therapeutic approach. Previous studies have hinted at a role for protein arginine methylation in immune responses, including T cell-mediated autoimmunity and EAE. However, a conclusive role for the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) enzymes that catalyze these reactions has been lacking...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087664/human-blood-cd1c-dendritic-cells-encompass-cd5high-and-cd5low-subsets-that-differ-significantly-in-phenotype-gene-expression-and-functions
#5
Xiangyun Yin, Haisheng Yu, Xiaoyang Jin, Jingyun Li, Hao Guo, Quanxing Shi, Zhao Yin, Yong Xu, Xuefei Wang, Rong Liu, Shouli Wang, Liguo Zhang
There are three major dendritic cell (DC) subsets in both humans and mice, that is, plasmacytoid DCs and two types of conventional DCs (cDCs), cDC1s and cDC2s. cDC2s are important for polarizing CD4(+) naive T cells into different subsets, including Th1, Th2, Th17, Th22, and regulatory T cells. In mice, cDC2s can be further divided into phenotypically and functionally distinct subgroups. However, subsets of human cDC2s have not been reported. In the present study, we showed that human blood CD1c(+) cDCs (cDC2s) can be further separated into two subpopulations according to their CD5 expression status...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086772/scutellaria-barbata-d-don-extract-inhibits-the-tumor-growth-through-down-regulating-of-treg-cells-and-manipulating-th1-th17-immune-response-in-hepatoma-h22-bearing-mice
#6
Xuefeng Kan, Wanli Zhang, Ruxu You, Yanfeng Niu, Jianrong Guo, Jun Xue
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed Scutellaria barbata D. Don extract (SBE) is a potent inhibitor in hepatoma and could improve immune function of hepatoma H22-bearing mice. However, the immunomodulatory function of SBE on the tumor growth of hepatoma remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the anti-tumor effects of SBE on hepatoma H22-bearing mice and explore the underlying immunomodulatory function. METHODS: The hepatoma H22-bearing mice were treated by SBE for 30 days...
January 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081530/antipathy-of-trichoderma-against-sclerotium-rolfsii-sacc-evaluation-of-cell-wall-degrading-enzymatic-activities-and-molecular-diversity-analysis-of-antagonists
#7
Darshna G Hirpara, Harsukh P Gajera, Hitesh Z Hirpara, Balubhai A Golakiya
The fungus Trichoderma is a teleomorph of the Hypocrea genus and associated with biological control of plant diseases. The microscopic, biochemical, and molecular characterization of Trichoderma was carried out and evaluated for in vitro antagonistic activity against the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii causing stem rot disease in groundnut. In total, 11 isolates of Trichoderma were examined for antagonism at 6 and 12 days after inoculation (DAI). Out of 11, T. virens NBAII Tvs12 evidenced the highest (87...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081504/the-expression-and-function-of-the-neonatal-fc-receptor-in-thyrocytes-of-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis
#8
Chenxu Zhao, Ying Gao, Lanlan Zhao, Yuan Li, Yang Zhang, Suxia Wang, Hong Zhang, Guizhi Lu, Xiaohui Guo
OBJECTIVE: Thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies (TgAb and TPOAb), which are primarily of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) class, can mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro. However, it is unclear whether any thyrocyte molecules can facilitate the transport and elimination of TgAb and TPOAb. The IgG transport receptor neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is a candidate mediator of these processes. In this study, we aimed to evaluate FcRn expression and function in normal and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) thyrocytes...
January 9, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081174/definition-of-human-epitopes-recognized-in-tetanus-toxoid-and-development-of-an-assay-strategy-to-detect-ex-vivo-tetanus-cd4-t-cell-responses
#9
Ricardo da Silva Antunes, Sinu Paul, John Sidney, Daniela Weiskopf, Jennifer M Dan, Elizabeth Phillips, Simon Mallal, Shane Crotty, Alessandro Sette, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn
Despite widespread uses of tetanus toxoid (TT) as a vaccine, model antigen and protein carrier, TT epitopes have been poorly characterized. Herein we defined the human CD4+ T cell epitope repertoire by reevaluation of previously described epitopes and evaluation of those derived from prediction of HLA Class II binding. Forty-seven epitopes were identified following in vitro TT stimulation, with 28 epitopes accounting for 90% of the total response. Despite this diverse range of epitopes, individual responses were associated with only a few immunodominant epitopes, with each donor responding on average to 3 epitopes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079156/a-mucin-like-peptide-from-fasciola-hepatica-instructs-dendritic-cells-with-parasite-specific-th1-polarizing-activity
#10
Verónica Noya, Natalie Brossard, Ernesto Rodríguez, L Sebastián Dergan-Dylon, Carlos Carmona, Gabriel A Rabinovich, Teresa Freire
Fasciolosis is a trematode zoonosis of interest in public health and cattle production. We report here the immunostimulatory effect of a 66 mer mucin-like peptide from Fasciola hepatica (Fhmuc), which synergizes with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to promote dendritic cell (DC) maturation, endowing these cells with Th1-polarizing capacity. Exposure of DCs to Fhmuc in presence of LPS induced enhanced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and expression of co-stimulatory molecules by DCs, promoting their T cell stimulatory capacity and selectively augmenting IFN-γ secretion by allogeneic T cells...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077684/targeting-aurora-kinase-a-and-jak2-prevents-gvhd-while-maintaining-treg-and-antitumor-ctl-function
#11
Brian C Betts, Anandharaman Veerapathran, Joseph Pidala, Hua Yang, Pedro Horna, Kelly Walton, Christopher L Cubitt, Steven Gunawan, Harshani R Lawrence, Nicholas J Lawrence, Said M Sebti, Claudio Anasetti
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a leading cause of nonrelapse mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. T cell costimulation by CD28 contributes to GVHD, but prevention is incomplete when targeting CD28, downstream mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), or Aurora A. Likewise, interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) signaling promotes alloreactivity, yet JAK2 inhibition does not eliminate GVHD. We provide evidence that blocking Aurora A and JAK2 in human T cells is synergistic in vitro, prevents xenogeneic GVHD, and maintains antitumor responses by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs)...
January 11, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077601/a-new-rna-based-adjuvant-enhances-virus-specific-vaccine-responses-by-locally-triggering-tlr-and-rlh-dependent-effects
#12
Annett Ziegler, Claudia Soldner, Stefan Lienenklaus, Julia Spanier, Stephanie Trittel, Peggy Riese, Thomas Kramps, Siegfried Weiss, Regina Heidenreich, Edith Jasny, Carlos A Guzmán, Karl-Josef Kallen, Mariola Fotin-Mleczek, Ulrich Kalinke
Among innovative adjuvants conferring a Th1-shift, RNAdjuvant is a promising candidate. This adjuvant consists of a 547-nt uncapped noncoding ssRNA containing polyU repeats that is stabilized by a cationic carrier peptide. Whereas vaccination of mice with an influenza subunit vaccine induced moderate virus-specific IgG1, vaccination together with RNAdjuvant significantly enhanced this IgG1 and additionally promoted the formation of IgG2b/c, which is indicative of Th1 responses. Furthermore, such sera neutralized influenza virus, whereas this effect was not detected upon vaccination with the subunit vaccine alone...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077577/extracellular-microrna-signature-of-human-helper-t-cell-subsets-in-health-and-autoimmunity
#13
Anna Torri, Donatella Carpi, Elisabetta Bulgheroni, Maria-Cristina Crosti, Monica Moro, Paola Gruarin, Riccardo L Rossi, Grazisa Rossetti, Dolores Di Vizio, Mirjam Hoxha, Valentina Bollati, Cristina Gagliani, Carlo Tacchetti, Moira Paroni, Jens Geginat, Laura Corti, Luigia Venegoni, Emilio Berti, Massimiliano Pagani, Giuseppe Matarese, Sergio Abrignani, Paola de Candia
Upon TCR stimulation, CD4+ T lymphocytes release extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing microRNAs. However, no data are available on whether human CD4+ T cell subsets release EVs containing different pattern of microRNAs. The present work aimed at filling this gap by assessing the microRNA content in EVs released upon in vitro TCR stimulation of Th1, Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) cells. Our results indicate that EVs released by Treg cells are significantly different compared to those released by the other subsets...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076390/il-37-confers-protection-against-mycobacterial-infection-involving-suppressing-inflammation-and-modulating-t-cell-activation
#14
Haipeng Liu, Ruijuan Zheng, Peng Wang, Hua Yang, Xin He, Qun Ji, Wenjuan Bai, Hao Chen, Jianxia Chen, Wenxia Peng, Siyu Liu, Zhonghua Liu, Baoxue Ge
Interleukin-37 (IL-37), a novel member of the IL-1 family, plays fundamental immunosuppressive roles by broadly reducing both innate inflammation and acquired immunity, but whether it is involved in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB) has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis demonstrated an association of the genetic variant rs3811047 of IL-37 with TB susceptibility. In line with previous report, a significant elevated IL-37 abundance in the sera and increased expression of IL-37 protein in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were observed in TB patients in comparison to healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075473/spirulina-lipopolysaccharides-inhibit-tumor-growth-in-a-toll-like-receptor-4-dependent-manner-by-altering-the-cytokine-milieu-from-interleukin-17-interleukin-23-to-interferon-%C3%AE
#15
Hiromi Okuyama, Akira Tominaga, Satoshi Fukuoka, Takahiro Taguchi, Yutaka Kusumoto, Shiro Ono
Th17 cells and the cytokine they produce, interleukin (IL)-17, play an important role in tumor progression in humans and in mice. IL-6 and IL-23 are critical cytokines for the differentiation and propagation of Th17 cells, respectively. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are known to stimulate immune cells to produce such inflammatory cytokines. Contrary to Escherichia coli (E. coli) LPS, LPS from Spirulina has low toxicity and barely induces in vivo production of IL-6 and IL-23 in mice. We examined the antitumor effects of Spirulina LPS compared to E...
January 2, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074932/the-helicobacter-cinaedi-antigen-caip-participates-in-atherosclerotic-inflammation-by-promoting-the-differentiation-of-macrophages-in-foam-cells
#16
Mario Milco D'Elios, Francesca Vallese, Nagaja Capitani, Marisa Benagiano, Maria Lina Bernardini, Mirko Rossi, Gian Paolo Rossi, Mauro Ferrari, Cosima Tatiana Baldari, Giuseppe Zanotti, Marina de Bernard, Gaia Codolo
Recent studies have shown that certain specific microbial infections participate in atherosclerosis by inducing inflammation and immune reactions, but how the pathogens implicated in this pathology trigger the host responses remains unknown. In this study we show that Helicobacter cinaedi (Hc) is a human pathogen linked to atherosclerosis development since at least 27% of sera from atherosclerotic patients specifically recognize a protein of the Hc proteome, that we named Cinaedi Atherosclerosis Inflammatory Protein (CAIP) (n = 71)...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071693/ik-acts-as-an-immunoregulator-of-inflammatory-arthritis-by-suppressing-th17-cell-differentiation-and-macrophage-activation
#17
Hye-Lim Park, Sang-Myeong Lee, Jun-Ki Min, Su-Jin Moon, Inki Kim, Kyung-Won Kang, Sooho Park, SeulGi Choi, Ha-Na Jung, Dong-Hee Lee, Jae-Hwan Nam
Pathogenic T helper cells (TH) and macrophages have been implicated in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which can lead to severe synovial inflammation and bone destruction. A range of therapies have been widely used for RA, including specific monoclonal antibodies and chemical inhibitors against inflammatory cytokines produced by these cells. However, these have not been sufficient to meet the medical need. Here, we show that in transgenic mice expressing truncated IK (tIK) cytokine, inflammatory arthritis symptoms were ameliorated as the result of suppression of the differentiation of TH1 and TH17 cells and of macrophage activation...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069953/c-type-lectin-receptor-dcir-modulates-immunity-to-tuberculosis-by-sustaining-type-i-interferon-signaling-in-dendritic-cells
#18
Anthony Troegeler, Ingrid Mercier, Céline Cougoule, Danilo Pietretti, André Colom, Carine Duval, Thien-Phong Vu Manh, Florence Capilla, Renaud Poincloux, Karine Pingris, Jérôme Nigou, Jörg Rademann, Marc Dalod, Frank A W Verreck, Talal Al Saati, Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino, Bernd Lepenies, Denis Hudrisier, Olivier Neyrolles
Immune response against pathogens is a tightly regulated process that must ensure microbial control while preserving integrity of the infected organs. Tuberculosis (TB) is a paramount example of a chronic infection in which antimicrobial immunity is protective in the vast majority of infected individuals but can become detrimental if not finely tuned. Here, we report that C-type lectin dendritic cell (DC) immunoreceptor (DCIR), a key component in DC homeostasis, is required to modulate lung inflammation and bacterial burden in TB...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069554/encapsulation-of-two-different-tlr-ligands-into-liposomes-confer-protective-immunity-and-prevent-tumor-development
#19
Banu Bayyurt, Gizem Tincer, Kubra Almacioglu, Esin Alpdundar, Mayda Gursel, Ihsan Gursel
Nucleic acid-based Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands are promising adjuvants and immunotherapeutic agents. Combination of TLR ligands potentiates immune response by providing synergistic immune activity via triggering different signaling pathways and may impact antigen dependent T-cell immune memory. However, their short circulation time due to nuclease attack hampers their clinical performance. Liposomes offer inclusion of protein and nucleic acid-based drugs with high encapsulation efficiency and drug loading...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067667/excessive-expression-of-mir-27-impairs-treg-mediated-immunological-tolerance
#20
Leilani O Cruz, Somaye Sadat Hashemifar, Cheng-Jang Wu, Sunglim Cho, Duc T Nguyen, Ling-Li Lin, Aly Azeem Khan, Li-Fan Lu
MicroRNAs (miRs) are tightly regulated in the immune system, and aberrant expression of miRs often results in hematopoietic malignancies and autoimmune diseases. Previously, it was suggested that elevated levels of miR-27 in T cells isolated from patients with multiple sclerosis facilitate disease progression by inhibiting Th2 immunity and promoting pathogenic Th1 responses. Here we have demonstrated that, although mice with T cell-specific overexpression of miR-27 harbor dysregulated Th1 responses and develop autoimmune pathology, these disease phenotypes are not driven by miR-27 in effector T cells in a cell-autonomous manner...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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