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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30452655/the-injectable-contraceptive-medroxyprogesterone-acetate-attenuates-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-host-immunity-through-the-glucocorticoid-receptor
#1
Michele Tomasicchio, Malika Davids, Anil Pooran, Grant Theron, Liezel Smith, Lynn Semple, Richard Meldau, Janet Patricia Hapgood, Keertan Dheda
Background: The effects of the widely used progestin-only injectable contraceptives, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and norethisterone acetate (NET-A), on host susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) are unknown. Methods: We recruited HIV uninfected females, not taking any contraceptives, from Cape Town, South Africa, to evaluate the effect of MPA, NET-A, dexamethasone on M.tb containment in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) co-incubated with purified protein derivative (PPD)-driven peripheral blood-derived effector cells...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450625/t11ts-immunotherapy-augments-microglial-and-lymphocyte-protective-immune-responses-against-cryptococcus-neoformans-in-the-brain
#2
Iman Hazra, Omar Faruk Sk Md, Ankur Datta, Somnath Mondal, Saibal Moitra, Manoj Kumar Singh, Suhnrita Chaudhuri, Prasanta Kumar Das, Anjan Kumar Basu, Indranil Dhar, Nandita Basu, Swapna Chaudhuri
Cryptococcus neoformans, the encapsulated yeast acquired through inhalation remains localized in lungs, but harbours the CNS in immunocompromised individuals. Several treatment regimes have failed combating this disease totally, but long term usage of drugs lead to organ damage. As T11-target structure (T11TS) has documented profound immune potentiation, we aimed to investigate the role of microglia, pivotal immune cells of brain in ameliorating cryptococcosis, with T11TS immunotherapy. Murine model with C...
November 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450102/loss-of-smad7-promotes-inflammation-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#3
Gengmin Zhou, Xiaolin Sun, Qingxia Qin, Jiyang Lv, Yueming Cai, Meiying Wang, Rong Mu, Hui-Yao Lan, Qing-Wen Wang
Objective: Smad7 is an inhibitory Smad and plays a protective role in many inflammatory diseases. However, the roles of Smad7 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain unexplored, which were investigated in this study. Methods: The activation of TGF-β/Smad signaling was examined in synovial tissues of patients with RA. The functional roles and mechanisms of Smad7 in RA were determined in a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in Smad7 wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) CD-1 mice, a strain resistant to autoimmune arthritis induction...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30449354/sporothrix-brasiliensis-induces-a-more-severe-disease-associated-with-sustained-th17-and-regulatory-t-cells-responses-than-sporothrix-schenckii-sensu-stricto-in-mice
#4
Alexander Batista-Duharte, Damiana Téllez-Martínez, Cleverton Roberto de Andrade, Deivys Leandro Portuondo, Juliana Aparecida Jellmayer, Marisa Campos Polesi, Iracilda Zeppone Carlos
Little is known about the differences in the CD4+ T-cell response induced by Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis, the most virulent species that cause sporotrichosis. Here, the helper (Th) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) responses were evaluated comparatively in a murine model of sporotrichosis on days 7, 21 and 35 after subcutaneous infection with either S. schenckii or S. brasiliensis conidia. The fungal load was measured at the site of infection, as well as in the liver and spleen. The Th1/Th17/Tregs responses were analyzed in the spleen, while the level of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-ɣ, IL-17A and IL-10 cytokines were measured at the local site of infection on 24 h postinfections and in sera on the indicated days...
December 2018: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30446929/protease-activated-receptor-2-induces-immune-activation-and-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-post-infectious-irritable-bowel-syndrome-mice
#5
Lijun Du, Yanqin Long, John J Kim, Binrui Chen, Yubin Zhu, Ning Dai
BACKGROUND: The role of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in the pathogenesis of abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not well defined. AIMS: To investigate the role of PAR-2-mediated visceral hypersensitivity in a post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS) mouse model. METHODS: T. spiralis-infected PI-IBS mouse model was used. Fecal serine protease activity and intestinal mast cells were evaluated. Intestinal permeability was assessed by urine lactulose/mannitol ratio, and colonic expressions of PAR-2 and tight junction (TJ) proteins were examined by Western blot...
November 16, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30446138/mechanism-of-lycium-barbarum-polysaccharides-liposomes-on-activating-murine-dendritic-cells
#6
Ruonan Bo, Zhenguang Liu, Jing Zhang, Pengfei Gu, Ning Ou, Yaqin Sun, Yuanliang Hu, Jiaguo Liu, Deyun Wang
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) that play a central role in the initiation and regulation of immune responses. We have previously demonstrated that Lycium barbarum polysaccharides liposomes (LBPL) as immune adjuvant elicits strong antigen-specific Th1 immune responses. The purpose of this study was to investigate underlying mechanism of liposomes promoting effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on activating DCs. LBP were loaded with high entrapment efficiency (86%) into liposomes using reverse phase evaporation...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30442645/cnbp-controls-il-12-gene-transcription-and-th1-immunity
#7
Yongzhi Chen, Shruti Sharma, Patricia A Assis, Zhaozhao Jiang, Roland Elling, Andrew J Olive, Saiyu Hang, Jennifer Bernier, Jun R Huh, Christopher M Sassetti, David M Knipe, Ricardo T Gazzinelli, Katherine A Fitzgerald
An inducible program of inflammatory gene expression is a hallmark of antimicrobial defenses. Recently, cellular nucleic acid-binding protein (CNBP) was identified as a regulator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)-dependent proinflammatory cytokine gene expression. Here, we generated mice lacking CNBP and found that CNBP regulates a very restricted gene signature that includes IL-12β. CNBP resides in the cytosol of macrophages and translocates to the nucleus in response to diverse microbial pathogens and pathogen-derived products...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30439714/type-iii-interferons-in-viral-infection-and-antiviral-immunity
#8
Jian-Hua Zhou, Yi-Ning Wang, Qiu-Yan Chang, Peng Ma, Yonghao Hu, Xin Cao
Interferons (IFNs) can serve as the first line of immune defense against viral infection. The identification of IFN-λs 1, 2, 3 & 4 (termed as type III IFNs) has revealed that the antiviral immune response to viruses contains more components than the type I IFNs that have been known for more than 50 years. IFN-λs are IFN-λ1 (IL-29), IFN-λ2 (IL-28a), IFN-λ3 (IL-28b) and IFN-λ4, which resembles IFN-λ3. IFN-λs have type I-IFN-like immune responses and biological activities, but our knowledge of these novel players in the antiviral response is not well established...
November 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30431161/eomesodermin-controls-a-unique-differentiation-program-in-human-il-10-and-ifn-%C3%AE-co-producing-regulatory-t-cells
#9
Paola Gruarin, Stefano Maglie, Marco De Simone, Barbara Häringer, Chiara Vasco, Valeria Ranzani, Roberto Bosotti, Johanna S Noddings, Paola Larghi, Federica Facciotti, Marialucia L Sarnicola, Martina Martinovic, Maria C Crosti, Monica Moro, Riccardo L Rossi, Maria E Bernardo, Flavio Caprioli, Franco Locatelli, Grazisa Rossetti, Sergio Abrignani, Massimiliano Pagani, Jens Geginat
Whether human IL-10 producing regulatory T-cells ("Tr1") represent a distinct differentiation lineage or an unstable activation stage remains a key unsolved issue. Here, we report that Eomesodermin (Eomes) acted as a lineage-defining transcription factor in human IFN-γ/IL-10 co-producing Tr1-like cells. In vivo occurring Tr1-like cells expressed Eomes, and were clearly distinct from all other CD4+ T-cell subsets, including conventional cytotoxic CD4+ T cells. They expressed Granzyme (Gzm) K, but had lost CD40L and IL-7R expression...
November 15, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30431147/unilesional-mycosis-fungoides-is-associated-with-increased-expression-of-microrna-17-92-and-th1-skewing
#10
L Moyal, B Gorovitz-Haris, S Yehezkel, J Jacob-Hirsch, V Bershtein, A Barzilai, C Rotem, S Sherman, I Amitay-Laish, M Feinmesser, E Hodak
BACKGROUND: The molecular basis of unilesional mycosis fungoides (MF), characterized by a solitary lesion which is clinicopathologically indistinguishable from multifocal patch/plaque MF (early MF), is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the microRNA (miR) profile in unilesional MF distinguishing it from early MF. METHODS: Biopsy samples of unilesional MF and early MF were evaluated with the Affymetrix microRNA array, with further comparison to inflammatory dermatosis, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
November 15, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429854/early-induction-of-human-regulatory-dermal-antigen-presenting-cells-by-skin-penetrating-schistosoma-mansoni-cercariae
#11
Béatrice M F Winkel, Mirjam R Dalenberg, Clarize M de Korne, Carola Feijt, Marijke C C Langenberg, Leonard Pelgrom, Munisha S Ganesh, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Hermelijn Helene Smits, Esther C de Jong, Bart Everts, Fijs W B van Leeuwen, Cornelis H Hokke, Meta Roestenberg
Following initial invasion of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, schistosomula reside in the skin for several days during which they can interact with the dermal immune system. While murine experiments have indicated that exposure to radiation-attenuated (RA) cercariae can generate protective immunity which is initiated in the skin stage, contrasting non-attenuated cercariae, such data is missing for the human model. Since murine skin does not form a reliable marker for immune responses in human skin, we used human skin explants to study the interaction with non-attenuated and RA cercariae with dermal innate antigen presenting cells (APCs) and the subsequent immunological responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429789/pien-tze-huang-alleviates-relapsing-remitting-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-mice-by-regulating-th1-and-th17-cells
#12
Xuemei Qiu, Qingqing Guo, Xue Liu, Hui Luo, Danping Fan, Yongqi Deng, Hua Cui, Cheng Lu, Ge Zhang, Xiaojuan He, Aiping Lu
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by infiltrating inflammatory cells and demyelinating lesions, and T helper (Th) cells play critical roles in the pathogenesis of MS. There is still lack of effective treatments currently. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been proved to have anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and immunoregulatory effects. However, whether PZH can be used to treat MS is still obscure. This study aimed to investigate the possible therapeutic effect and the underlying action mechanism of PZH in relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (RR-EAE) mice...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429675/analysis-of-selected-t-cell-subsets-in-peripheral-blood-after-exhaustive-effort-among-elite-soccer-players
#13
Dorota Kostrzewa-Nowak, Robert Nowak
Introduction: Physical exercise induces developing of naïve T lymphocyte subsets into polarised effector ones by immune system. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of exhaustive effort on the selected Th cell subsets and inflammation markers among soccer players. Materials and methods: Fourteen soccer players aged 18 (16-21) years old performed the progressive efficiency test on mechanical treadmill. Th and Tc memory lymphocytes' subsets and selected cytokine concentrations pre-exercise, post-exercise and in recovery were analysed by flow cytometry...
October 15, 2018: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429436/differential-dendritic-cell-responses-to-cell-wall-mannan-of-candida-albicans-candida-parapsilosis-and-candida-dubliniensis
#14
Thu N Y Nguyen, Oranart Matangkasombut, Patcharee Ritprajak
Mannan (mannosylated glycoproteins) in the outermost layer of the Candida cell wall may be the first molecules that interact with host dendritic cells (DCs) and activate immune responses that determine disease outcomes. However, little is known about how different mannan structures of common oral Candida species affect DC activation. The effects of heat-inactivated (HI) yeast cells and soluble mannan of Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida dubliniensis on bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) responses were compared...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429284/indole-3-pyruvic-acid-an-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activator-suppresses-experimental-colitis-in-mice
#15
Reiji Aoki, Ayako Aoki-Yoshida, Chise Suzuki, Yoshiharu Takayama
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists are promising immunomodulators that potentially maintain immune tolerance. In this study, we examined the ability of indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA), a major precursor of microbiota-derived AHR agonists and a proagonist of AHR, to activate AHR. The anti-inflammatory effects of IPA were also evaluated in a mouse model of colitis in comparison with other aromatic pyruvic acids (phenylpyruvic acid and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid). Among them, IPA showed the strongest ability to activate AHR in vitro and in vivo, and only IPA improved chronic inflammation in an experimental colitis model...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429159/plateletpheresis-associated-lymphopenia-in-frequent-platelet-donors
#16
John M Gansner, Mahboubeh Rahmani, A Helena Jonsson, Brooke M Fortin, Idayat Brimah, Martha Ellis, Robin Smeland-Wagman, Zhihan J Li, Jason M Schenkel, Michael B Brenner, Revital Yefidoff-Freedman, Steven R Sloan, Nancy Berliner, Nicolas C Issa, Lindsey R Baden, Dan L Longo, Duane R Wesemann, Donna Neuberg, Deepak A Rao, Richard M Kaufman
Over one million apheresis platelet collections are performed annually in the United States. After two healthy plateletpheresis donors were incidentally found to have low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts, we investigated whether plateletpheresis causes lymphopenia. We conducted a cross-sectional, single-center study of platelet donors undergoing plateletpheresis with the Trima Accel, which removes leukocytes continuously with its leukoreduction system chamber. We recruited three groups of platelet donors based on the total number of plateletpheresis sessions in the prior 365 days: 1-2, 3-19, or 20-24...
November 14, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30428974/analysis-of-pancreatic-beta-cell-specific-cd4-t-cells-reveals-a-predominance-of-proinsulin-specific-cells
#17
Gabriele Blahnik, Hannes Uchtenhagen, I-Ting Chow, Cate Speake, Carla Greenbaum, William W Kwok, Eddie A James
CD4+ T cell responses are thought to play a role in type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, detection and characterization of T cells that respond to beta cell epitopes in subjects with T1D has been limited by technical obstacles, including the inherently low frequencies in peripheral blood and variable responsiveness of individual subjects to single epitopes. We implemented a multicolor staining approach that allows direct ex vivo characterization of multiple CD4+ T cell specificities in a single sample. Here we demonstrate and apply that multicolor approach to directly measure the frequency and phenotype of beta cell specific CD4+ T cells in T1D patients and HLA matched controls...
November 7, 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30428479/intranasal-administration-of-il-27-ameliorates-nasal-allergic-responses-and-symptoms
#18
Motohiko Suzuki, Makoto Yokota, Shinya Ozaki, Tamami Matsumoto
BACKGROUND: Interleukin 27 (IL-27) is an initiator of the Th1 response and inhibits inflammatory responses. In a mouse model of asthma, administration of IL-27 reduced eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and airway hyperresponsiveness. However, it is unclear whether administration of IL-27 can inhibit symptoms of allergic diseases and allergic rhinitis as a therapeutic agent. Therefore, we investigated the in vivo effect of IL-27 on nasal symptoms and allergic rhinitis...
November 14, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30426906/generation-and-characterization-of-a-functional-nanobody-against-inflammatory-chemokine-cxcl10-as-a-novel-strategy-for-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Tahereh Sadeghian-Rizi, Mahdi Behdani, Hossein Khanahmad, Hamid Mirmohammad Sadeghi, Ali Jahanian-Najafabadi
Chemokines and their receptors play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, infectious diseases, and also in cancer metastasis via attraction of the pathogenic immune cells into the inflammation sites. Inflammatory chemokine CXCL10 as a T helper (Th)1-chemokine directs chemotaxis of many cell subsets especially Th1 into the central nevous system (CNS) via its receptor CXCR3 and it has been put forward as a potential therapeutic target in treatment of multiple sclerosis...
November 14, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30426014/immunomodulatory-effects-of-probiotics-on-cytokine-profiles
#20
REVIEW
Md Abul Kalam Azad, Manobendro Sarker, Dan Wan
Probiotics confer immunological protection to the host through the regulation, stimulation, and modulation of immune responses. Researchers have shifted their attention to better understand the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics, which have the potential to prevent or alleviate certain pathologies for which proper medical treatment is as yet unavailable. It has been scientifically established that immune cells (T- and B-cells) mediate adaptive immunity and confer immunological protection by developing pathogen-specific memory...
2018: BioMed Research International
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