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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30446669/serotonin-signals-through-a-gut-liver-axis-to-regulate-hepatic-steatosis
#1
Wonsuk Choi, Jun Namkung, Inseon Hwang, Hyeongseok Kim, Ajin Lim, Hye Jung Park, Hye Won Lee, Kwang-Hyub Han, Seongyeol Park, Ji-Seon Jeong, Geul Bang, Young Hwan Kim, Vijay K Yadav, Gerard Karsenty, Young Seok Ju, Chan Choi, Jae Myoung Suh, Jun Yong Park, Sangkyu Park, Hail Kim
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing in worldwide prevalence, closely tracking the obesity epidemic, but specific pharmaceutical treatments for NAFLD are lacking. Defining the key molecular pathways underlying the pathogenesis of NAFLD is essential for developing new drugs. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of gut-derived serotonin synthesis ameliorates hepatic steatosis through a reduction in liver serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) signaling. Local serotonin concentrations in the portal blood, which can directly travel to and affect the liver, are selectively increased by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in mice...
November 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30445425/pepck1-antisense-oligonucleotide-prevents-adiposity-and-impairs-hepatic-glycogen-synthesis-in-high-fat-male-fed-rats
#2
Sara A Beddow, Arijeet K Gattu, Daniel F Vatner, Lauren Paolella, Abdulelah Alqarzaee, Nedda Tashkandi, Violeta Popov, Christopher Church, Matthew Rodeheffer, Gary Cline, John Geisler, Sanjay Bhanot, Varman T Samuel
The increase in hepatic gluconeogenesis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often ascribed to increased transcription of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (cytosolic form, PEPCK1) though increasing evidence questions this attribution. To assess the metabolic role of PEPCK1, we treated regular chow (RC) fed and high-fat fed (HFF) male Sprague-Dawley rats with a 2'-O-methoxyethyl chimeric antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) against PEPCK1 and compared them to control ASO treated rats. PEPCK1 ASO effectively decreased PEPCK1 expression in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT)...
November 15, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30444796/tomoelastography-for-the-evaluation-of-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#3
Christian A Hudert, Heiko Tzschätzsch, Birgit Rudolph, Hendrik Bläker, Christoph Loddenkemper, Hans-Peter Müller, Stephan Henning, Philip Bufler, Bernd Hamm, Jürgen Braun, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter, Susanna Wiegand, Ingolf Sack, Jing Guo
OBJECTIVES: Today, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adults alike. Yet, the noninvasive evaluation of disease severity remains a diagnostic challenge. In this study, we apply multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (mMRE) for the quantification of liver steatosis and fibrosis in adolescents with NAFLD. METHODS: Fifty adolescents (age range, 10-17 years; mean BMI, 33.9 kg/m; range, 21.4-42.1 kg/m) with biopsy-proven NAFLD were included in this prospective study...
November 15, 2018: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30444569/genetic-determinants-of-steatosis-and-fibrosis-progression-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Christian A Hudert, Silvia Selinski, Birgit Rudolph, Hendrik Bläker, Christoph Loddenkemper, Ria Thielhorn, Nikolaus Berndt, Klaus Golka, Cristina Cadenas, Jörg Reinders, Stephan Henning, Philip Bufler, Peter L M Jansen, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter, David Meierhofer, Jan G Hengstler, Susanna Wiegand
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adolescents today. In comparison to adult disease, pediatric NAFLD may show a periportal localization, which is associated with advanced fibrosis. This study aimed to assess the role of genetic risk variants for histologic disease pattern and severity in childhood NAFLD. METHODS: We studied 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a cohort of 70 adolescents with biopsy-proven NAFLD...
November 16, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30443192/dj-1-deficiency-protects-hepatic-steatosis-by-enhancing-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-mice
#5
Min Xu, Hailong Wu, Meng Li, Yankai Wen, Chang Yu, Lei Xia, Qiang Xia, Xiaoni Kong
Our previous studies have shown that DJ-1 play important roles in progression of liver diseases through modulating hepatic ROS production and immune response, but its role in hepatic steatosis remains obscure. In the present study, by adopting a high-fat-diet (HFD) induced mice model, we found that DJ-1 knockout (DJ-1 -/- ) mice showing decreased HFD-induced obesity and visceral adipose accumulation. In line with these changes, there were also reduced liver weight and ameliorated hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in DJ-1-/- mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30442920/liver-specific-repin1-deficiency-impairs-transient-hepatic-steatosis-in-liver-regeneration
#6
Kerstin Abshagen, Bastian Degenhardt, Marie Liebig, Anna Wendt, Berit Genz, Ute Schaeper, Michael Stumvoll, Ute Hofmann, Marcus Frank, Brigitte Vollmar, Nora Klöting
Transient hepatic steatosis upon liver resection supposes functional relationships between lipid metabolism and liver regeneration. Repin1 has been suggested as candidate gene for obesity and dyslipidemia by regulating key genes of lipid metabolism and lipid storage. Herein, we characterized the regenerative potential of mice with a hepatic deletion of Repin1 (LRep1-/-) after partial hepatectomy (PH) in order to determine the functional significance of Repin1 in liver regeneration. Lipid dynamics and the regenerative response were analyzed at various time points after PH...
November 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30442881/results-of-adult-living-donor-liver-transplantation-with-sixth-decade-donors-a-propensity-score-matching-study-in-a-high-volume-institution
#7
Seok-Hwan Kim, Gil-Chun Park, Shin Hwang, Chul-Soo Ahn, Ki-Hum Kim, Deok-Bog Moon, Tae-Yong Ha, Gi-Won Song, Dong-Hwan Jung, Hwi-Dong Cho, Jae-Hyun Kwon, Yong-Kyu Jung, Su-Min Ha, Sang-Hyun Kang, Sung-Gyu Lee
BACKGROUND We assessed the prognostic impact of donor age on the outcome of adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). MATERIAL AND METHODS The study population comprised adult donor and recipients of right lobe grafts for LDLT performed from January 2005 to December 2016. There were 35 living donors aged ≥50 years (old-age donor group). As a control group, donors in their 20s (young-age donor group) were selected after one-to-one propensity score matching based on sex, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, and primary diagnosis...
November 16, 2018: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30441965/frozen-section-examination-of-pancreas-gallbladder-extrahepatic-biliary-tree-liver-and-gastrointestinal-tract
#8
Peter Švajdler, Ondřej Daum, Magdaléna Dubová, Bohuslava Šašková, Boris Rychlý, Marián Švajdler
The main indications for intraoperative consultation of gastrointestinal tract, liver, and pancreatobiliary system are to evaluate the resection margin and to make a tissue diagnosis of lesions for which preoperative histology is not aviable for various reasons. Special situations include the evaluation of liver donor biopsies for the presence of steatosis and inflamation, or determination that ganglion cells are present in the bowel wall at the level where the anastomosis will be placed in case of Hirschprung's disease...
2018: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30440516/segmentation-of-overlapped-steatosis-in-whole-slide-liver-histopathology-microscopy-images
#9
Mousumi Roy, Fusheng Wang, George Teodoro, Miriam B Vos, Alton Brad Farris, Jun Kong
An accurate steatosis quantification with pathology tissue samples is of high clinical importance. However, such pathology measurement is manually made in most clinical practices, subject to severe reader variability due to large sampling bias and poor reproducibility. Although some computerized automated methods are developed to quantity the steatosis regions, they present limited analysis capacity for high resolution whole-slide microscopy images and accurate overlapped steatosis division. In this paper, we propose a method that extracts an individual whole tissue piece at high resolution with minimum background area by estimating tissue bounding box and rotation angle...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30439626/high-keratin-8-18-ratio-predicts-aggressive-hepatocellular-cancer-phenotype
#10
Nicole Golob-Schwarzl, Kira Bettermann, Anita Kuldeep Mehta, Sonja M Kessler, Julia Unterluggauer, Stefanie Krassnig, Kensuke Kojima, Xintong Chen, Yujin Hoshida, Nabeel M Bardeesy, Heimo Müller, Vendula Svendova, Michael G Schimek, Clemens Diwoky, Alexandra Lipfert, Vineet Mahajan, Cornelia Stumptner, Andrea Thüringer, Leopold F Fröhlich, Tatjana Stojakovic, K P R Nilsson, Thomas Kolbe, Thomas Rülicke, Thomas M Magin, Pavel Strnad, Alexandra K Kiemer, Richard Moriggl, Johannes Haybaeck
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Steatohepatitis (SH) and SH-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are of considerable clinical significance. SH is morphologically characterized by steatosis, liver cell ballooning, cytoplasmic aggregates termed Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs), inflammation, and fibrosis at late stage. Disturbance of the keratin cytoskeleton and aggregation of keratins (KRTs) are essential for MDB formation. METHODS: We analyzed livers of aged Krt18-/- mice that spontaneously developed in the majority of cases SH-associated HCC independent of sex...
November 12, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30431378/severe-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-type-2-diabetes-liver-histology-after-weight-loss-therapy-in-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
Kuat Oshakbayev, Bakytzhan Bimbetov, Kenzhegul Manekenova, Gulnara Bedelbayeva, Khalit Mustafin, Bibazhar Dukenbayeva
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the fast weight loss method on liver steatosis, fibrosis, inflammation, glycemic and lipids features and body composition in patients with severe Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). METHODS: A 24-week open prospective randomised controlled clinical trial including 80 adult patients (aged 40-65 years) was performed. The patients after randomisation were divided in two groups: Main group followed the fast weight loss method; Control group received conventional drug treatment...
November 15, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30431036/spirulina-platensis-and-silicon-enriched-spirulina-equally-improve-glucose-tolerance-and-decrease-the-enzymatic-activity-of-hepatic-nadph-oxidase-in-obesogenic-diet-fed-rats
#12
Joris Vidé, Béatrice Bonafos, Gilles Fouret, Melha Benlebna, Joël Poupon, Bernard Jover, François Casas, Nicolas Jouy, Christine Feillet-Coudray, Sylvie Gaillet, Charles Coudray
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome components, such as obesity, glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis, is rapidly increasing and becoming a major issue of public health. The present work was designed to determine the effects of Spirulina platensis (Sp) algae and silicon-enriched Sp on major metabolic syndrome components in obesogenic diet-fed rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Ten rats were fed a control diet and 30 rats were fed a high fat (HF) diet. The HF groups were divided into three groups and supplemented with placebo or Sp or Si-enriched Sp for 12 weeks...
November 15, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30430684/accuracy-and-precision-of-proton-density-fat-fraction-measurement-across-field-strengths-and-scan-intervals-a-phantom-and-human-study
#13
Hye Jin Kim, Hyo Jung Cho, Bohyun Kim, Myung-Won You, Jei Hee Lee, Jimi Huh, Jai Keun Kim
BACKGROUND: Complex-based chemical shift imaging-based magnetic resonance imaging (CSE-MRI) is emerging as a preferred method for noninvasively quantifying proton density fat fraction (PDFF), a promising quantitative imaging biomarker (QIB) for longitudinal hepatic steatosis measurement. PURPOSE: To determine linearity, bias, repeatability, and reproducibility of the PDFF measurement using CSE-MRI (CSE-PDFF) across scan intervals, MR field strengths, and readers in phantom and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429386/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-mumbai-india-identification-of-a-mixed-and-novel-genotype
#14
Priya Madan Yabaji, Aruna Shankarkumar, Akash Shukla, Shobna Bhatia
Purpose: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCV being a ribonucleic acid virus has considerable sequence variability. Assessment of viral load and genotype is necessary for designing treatment strategies and monitoring for viral resistance among HCV-infected cases. HCC is the most common form of liver cancer, often occurring in people with chronic hepatitis B or C. We undertook this study to observe genotype distribution of the virus in HCV patients from Mumbai...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429322/obesity-associated-exosomal-mirnas-modulate-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-in-mice
#15
Carlos Castaño, Susana Kalko, Anna Novials, Marcelina Párrizas
Obesity is frequently associated with metabolic disease. Here, we show that obesity changes the miRNA profile of plasma exosomes in mice, including increases in miR-122 , miR-192 , miR-27a-3p , and miR-27b-3p Importantly, treatment of lean mice with exosomes isolated from obese mice induces glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Moreover, administration of control exosomes transfected with obesity-associated miRNA mimics strongly induces glucose intolerance in lean mice and results in central obesity and hepatic steatosis...
November 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30428423/dietary-saturated-fatty-acid-type-impacts-obesity-induced-metabolic-dysfunction-and-plasma-lipidomic-signatures-in-mice
#16
Petr Žáček, Michael Bukowski, Aaron Mehus, LuAnn Johnson, Huawei Zeng, Susan Raatz, Joseph P Idso, Matthew Picklo
Saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis, but scant work examines the impact of SFA type upon these outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that an obesogenic diet prepared with medium chain SFA (MCSFA), mostly as lauric acid-derived from coconut oil, reduces obesity-induced outcomes compared to obesogenic diets prepared with increasing amounts long chain SFA (LCSFA), primarily palmitic acid. Mice were fed (16 weeks) a control, low fat diet or obesogenic diets prepared with differing content of MCSFA or LCSFA in which polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; MUFA) were kept constant...
October 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30427909/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-underweight-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-case-control-study
#17
Lisa C Adams, Falk Lübbe, Keno Bressem, Moritz Wagner, Bernd Hamm, Marcus R Makowski
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was shown to also occur in lean and underweight patients. So far, the prevalence of NAFLD in underweight individuals with and without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is insufficiently enlightened. In this cross-sectional age, gender and disease-matched case-control study, underweight patients (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), who underwent abdominal MRI at 1.5 T/3 T with fat-saturated fast-spin-echo imaging from 10/2005-07/2018 were analysed (control-to-case-ratio 1:1, n = 130)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30425654/changes-in-physiological-parameters-lipid-metabolism-and-expression-of-micrornas-in-genetically-improved-farmed-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-with-fatty-liver-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#18
Yi-Fan Tao, Jun Qiang, Jing-Wen Bao, De-Ju Chen, Guo-Jun Yin, Pao Xu, Hao-Jun Zhu
Tilapia is susceptible to hepatic steatosis when grown in intensive farming systems. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus ). Juvenile GIFT were fed with HFD or a normal-fat diet (NFD) for 60 days. Substantial fat deposition in the liver of HFD-fed GIFT on days 20, 40, and 60 was observed using hematoxylin - eosin staining and oil red O staining. The increased fat deposition was consistent with increased triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels in the liver of HFD-fed GIFT...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30424542/regulation-of-leptin-methylation-not-via-apoptosis-by-melatonin-in-the-rescue-of-chronic-programming-liver-steatosis
#19
Ching-Chou Tsai, Yu-Ju Lin, Hong-Ren Yu, Jiunn-Ming Sheen, I-Chun Lin, Yun-Ju Lai, You-Lin Tain, Li-Tung Huang, Mao-Meng Tiao
We examined the mechanisms of chronic liver steatosis after prenatal dexamethasone exposure and whether melatonin rescues adult offspring with liver steatosis. Melatonin rescued prenatal dexamethasone-exposed livers with steatosis in young rats. Sprague-Dawley rats pregnant at gestational day 14⁻21 were administered with intraperitoneal dexamethasone (DEX) or prenatal dexamethasone and melatonin between gestational day 14 and postnatal day ~120 (DEX+MEL). Chronic programming effects in the liver were assessed at day ~120...
November 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423963/ursolic-acid-attenuates-hepatic-steatosis-fibrosis-and-insulin-resistance-by-modulating-the-circadian-rhythm-pathway-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#20
Eun-Young Kwon, Su-Kyung Shin, Myung-Sook Choi
The aim of the current study was to elucidate the effects of long-term supplementation with dietary ursolic acid (UR) on obesity and associated comorbidities by analyzing transcriptional and metabolic responses, focusing on the role of UR in the modulation of the circadian rhythm pathway in particular. C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed a normal diet, high-fat diet, or high-fat + 0.05% ( w / w ) UR diet for 16 weeks. Oligonucleotide microarray profiling revealed that UR is an effective regulator of the liver transcriptome, and canonical pathways associated with the "circadian rhythm" and "extracellular matrix (ECM)⁻receptor interactions" were effectively regulated by UR in the liver...
November 9, 2018: Nutrients
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