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Anorectal disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922706/functional-outcome-of-low-rectal-resection-evaluated-by-anorectal-manometry
#1
Peter Ihnát, Petr Vávra, Jiří Prokop, Anton Pelikán, Lucia Ihnát Rudinská, Igor Penka
BACKGROUND: Low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) covers disordered bowel function after rectal resection, leading to deterioration in patients' quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate anorectal function after laparoscopic low anterior resection (LAR) by means of standardized instruments. METHODS: This was a prospective clinical cohort study conducted in a single institution to assess functional outcome of patients 1 year after laparoscopic LAR by means of LARS score and high-resolution anorectal manometry...
September 18, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893560/endoscopic-mucosal-resection-is-superior-to-rectal-suction-biopsy-for-analysis-of-enteric-ganglia-in-constipation-and-dysmotility
#2
Kenneth Barshop, Field F Willingham, William R Brugge, Lawrence R Zukerberg, Braden Kuo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with chronic constipation or motility disorders may be referred for rectal suction biopsy (RSB) to rule out Hirschsprung's disease (HD). RSB may not be successful beyond infancy due to the increased thickness of rectal mucosa. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) could improve the diagnostic yield for HD when compared with traditional RSB because of the larger and deeper samples acquired for analysis. METHODS: In this prospective, single-center study, patients referred for RSB were offered enrollment for concurrent EMR...
September 8, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873483/a-rare-case-of-amelanotic-anorectal-melanoma
#3
Nicole A Negbenebor, Edward Feller
We report an exceedingly rare case of amelanotic anorectal melanoma misdiagnosed as hemorrhoids. A 74-year-old man presented with a week's history of "blood on toilet tissue" without bowel complaints or history of cutaneous melanoma. Skin evaluation was normal. Rectal exam was negative for blood, but revealed an anal nodule, interpreted as a hemorrhoid. Hemoglobin was normal; bleeding persisted. After one month, colonoscopy detected a non-pigmented anal lesion. Biopsy showed melanoma. Noncutaneous mucosal melanoma represents 0...
September 1, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871380/mri-of-anal-canal-common-anal-and-perianal-disorders-beyond-fistulas-part-2
#4
REVIEW
Ayşe Erden
A broad spectrum of disease, from benign processes to life-threatening pathologies, can cause anal pain. MR imaging (MRI) has become increasingly widely used method over the past two decades for the evaluation of individuals with anorectal symptoms. Although imaging is rarely necessary to determine the etiology of the majority of cases, MRI is particularly useful as a noninvasive method of excluding severe neoplastic conditions. In this article, MRI findings of a number of pathologies such as anal and perianal neoplasms, hemorrhoidal disease, arteriovenous malformation of the perianal region, and anal sphincter lesions (defects, scarring, atrophy) which may lead to fecal incontinence are presented...
September 4, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818558/current-and-emerging-pharmacotherapies-for-obesity-in-australia
#5
REVIEW
Samantha Hocking, Anthony Dear, Michael A Cowley
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major issue in Australia and globally. Many individuals struggle to maintain weight loss with lifestyle modification, and adjunctive pharmacotherapy may help. Historically, there have been limited pharmacotherapies for managing obesity. In addition, previous treatments such as phentermine-fenfluramine, rimonabant and sibutramine were withdrawn due to safety issues, resulting in lingering safety concerns. METHODS: This is a narrative review of published data examining four new pharmacotherapy options for weight management in Australia...
August 14, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774507/clinical-factors-associated-with-in-hospital-death-in-pediatric-surgical-patients-admitted-to-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-a-15-year-single-tertiary-center-experience
#6
Kohei Otake, Keiichi Uchida, Michiko Kubo, Akira Yamamoto, Yuka Nagano, Ryo Uratani, Kiyoshi Hashimoto, Kohei Matsushita, Mikihiro Inoue, Hirofumi Sawada, Masato Kusunoki
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore clinical characteristics and primary surgical diagnoses associated with in-hospital death in pediatric surgical patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary hospital. METHODS: This retrospective study includes all patients admitted to our NICU for pediatric surgical diseases between January 2001 and December 2015. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression were performed to assess independent factors associated with in-hospital death...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770126/anorectal-malformations-histomorphological-and-immunohistochemical-evaluation-of-neuronal-dysfunction
#7
Yashika Bhatia, Sunita Singh, Kamal Nain Rattan, Padam Parmar, Divya Sahni, Rajeev Sen
OBJECTIVE: The patients with anorectal malformations (ARM) have been identified with specific and non-specific pathological changes. The present study was conducted with the aim to study histomorphological changes and various immunohistochemical (IHC) markers (calretinin, S-100, CD117) in intestinal wall specimens to assess neuronal dysfunction in ARM patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty children having ARM were included in our study. In all the cases, a representative biopsy was received...
April 2017: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699318/high-resolution-anorectal-manometry-an-expensive-hobby-or-worth-every-penny
#8
REVIEW
G Basilisco, A E Bharucha
Introduced approximately 10 years ago, high-resolution manometry catheters have fostered interest in anorectal manometry. This review, which accompanies two articles in this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, reviews the methods, clinical indications, utility, and pitfalls of anorectal manometry and revisits the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) Medical Position Statement on Anorectal Testing Techniques, which was last published in 1999. High-resolution manometry provides a refined assessment of the anorectal pressure profile, obviates the need for station pull-through maneuvers, and minimizes movement artifacts...
August 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674948/transitional-health-care-for-patients-with-hirschsprung-disease-and-anorectal-malformations
#9
M J Witvliet, N Petersen, E Ekkerman, C Sleeboom, E van Heurn, A F W van der Steeg
BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung disease (HD) and anorectal malformations (ARM) are congenital disorders with potentially lifelong consequences. Although follow-up is performed in most pediatric patients, transfer to adult health care is often problematic. This study assesses transitional care with the help of questionnaires in consultation with adult patients. METHODS: This study was conducted in an outpatient clinic of a pediatric surgical center in the Netherlands. All patients born and treated for ARM or HD before 1992 were invited to visit our clinic...
July 3, 2017: Techniques in Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655980/psychometry-and-pescatori-projective-test-in-coloproctological-patients
#10
Ana Célia Caetano, Dinis Oliveira, Zaida Gomes, Edgar Mesquita, Carla Rolanda
BACKGROUND: Psychological assessment is not commonly performed nor easily accepted by coloproctological patients. Our aim was to evaluate the psychological component of coloproctological disorders using uncommon tools. METHODS: The 21-Item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale and the Pescatori projective test were applied to coloproctological outpatients of the Gastroenterology Department of our hospital as well as to healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Seventy patients (median age 47 years, 22 male) divided in 4 groups (functional constipation, constipated irritable bowel syndrome, benign anorectal disease and perianal Crohn's disease) and 52 healthy volunteers (age 45 years, 18 male) completed the tests...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649615/imaging-parkinson-s-disease-below-the-neck
#11
Per Borghammer, Karoline Knudsen, Tatyana D Fedorova, David J Brooks
Parkinson's disease is a systemic disorder with widespread and early α-synuclein pathology in the autonomic and enteric nervous systems, which is present throughout the gastrointestinal canal prior to diagnosis. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary autonomic symptoms often predate clinical diagnosis by several years. It has been hypothesized that progressive α-synuclein aggregation is initiated in hyperbranched, non-myelinated neuron terminals, and may subsequently spread via retrograde axonal transport. This would explain why autonomic nerves are so prone to formation of α-synuclein pathology...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639056/relevance-of-the-clinical-and-psychophysiological-variables-in-the-dyssynergic-defecation-a-comparative-study-in-elderly-subjects
#12
Miguel A Simón, Ana M Bueno
The relevance of several clinical and psychophysiological variables in the dyssynergic defecation in elderly subjects was investigated in this study. To accomplish this, 30 elderly subjects (10 without anorectal disorders, 10 with chronic constipation and 10 with dyssynergic defecation) were repeatedly assessed once per week for 4 weeks, with the following measures being collected at each session: EMG-activity (µV) of the external anal sphincter (at rest, during squeezing, and during straining to defecate), stool frequency, difficulty defecation level, pain grade during defecation, and satisfaction level after evacuation...
June 21, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629562/3t-mr-defecography-a-feasibility-study-in-sensorimotor-complete-spinal-cord-injured-patients-with-neurogenic-bowel-dysfunction
#13
Cornelia Putz, Celine D Alt, Cornelia Hensel, Björn Wagner, Simone Gantz, Hans-Jürgen Gerner, Norbert Weidner, Lars Grenacher
INTRODUCTION: To investigate whether MR-defecography can be employed in sensorimotor complete spinal cord injury (SCI) subjects as a potential diagnostic tool to detect defecational disorders associated with neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) using standard parameters for obstructed defecation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a prospective single centre clinical trial, we developed MR-defecography in traumatic sensorimotor complete paraplegic SCI patients with upper motoneuron type injury (neurological level of injury T1 to T10) using a conventional 3T scanner...
June 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619043/effect-of-transcutaneous-electrical-stimulation-treatment-on-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-after-class-iii-radical-hysterectomy-in-cervical-cancer-patients-study-protocol-for-a-multicentre-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Xiu-Li Sun, Hai-Bo Wang, Zhi-Qi Wang, Ting-Ting Cao, Xin Yang, Jing-Song Han, Yang-Feng Wu, Kathleen H Reilly, Jian-Liu Wang
BACKGROUND: Class III radical hysterectomy (RH III)_plus pelvic lymphadenectomy is the standard surgery for early stage cervical cancer (CC) patients, the 5 year survival rate is about 90%, but pelvic floor disorders especially bladder dysfunction are common due to damaged vessels and nerve fibers following surgery. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS) treatment has been used to treat bladder disorders for many years, but its effect on cervical cancer patients, the best treatment time point and stimulated protocol, had never been assessed...
June 15, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612626/carcinoid-transformation-of-presacral-dermoid-cyst-in-patient-with-currarino-syndrome-a-case-report
#15
Francesca Colombo, Petr Janous, Neil Buxton
Currarino syndrome (CS) is a congenital disorder characterized by partial sacral agenesis, anorectal malformation and a presacral mass. Only three cases of carcinoid transformation of the presacral mass have been described in the literature. We present a case of carcinoid transformation of presacral dermoid cyst in patient with Currarino syndrome.
June 14, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592440/rome-foundation-asian-working-team-report-asian-functional-gastrointestinal-disorder-symptom-clusters
#16
Kewin Tien Ho Siah, Xiaorong Gong, Xi Jessie Yang, William E Whitehead, Minhu Chen, Xiaohua Hou, Nitesh Pratap, Uday C Ghoshal, Ari F Syam, Murdani Abdullah, Myung-Gyu Choi, Young-Tae Bak, Ching-Liang Lu, Sutep Gonlachanvit, Chua Seng Boon, Fan Fang, Pui Kuan Cheong, Justin C Y Wu, Kok-Ann Gwee
OBJECTIVE: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are diagnosed by the presence of a characteristic set of symptoms. However, the current criteria-based diagnostic approach is to some extent subjective and largely derived from observations in English-speaking Western patients. We aimed to identify latent symptom clusters in Asian patients with FGID. DESIGN: 1805 consecutive unselected patients with FGID who presented for primary or secondary care to 11 centres across Asia completed a cultural and linguistic adaptation of the Rome III Diagnostic Questionnaire that was translated to the local languages...
June 7, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588875/management-of-chronic-constipation-in-adults
#17
REVIEW
K Krogh, G Chiarioni, W Whitehead
Chronic constipation (CC) is an extremely common condition with an estimated prevalence of up to 24%. Most patients with CC should be treated in primary care. Changes in lifestyle, including increased intake of dietary fibre, fluid, and exercise, should be attempted in most patients. Osmotic or stimulant laxatives are indicated if there are insufficient effects of lifestyle changes. Prokinetics and secretagogues should be restricted to those not responding to basic treatment. Anorectal physiology tests and assessment of colorectal transit time are indicated if medical treatment fails or if symptoms indicate severely obstructed defecation...
June 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585787/-home-training-as-a-treatment-of-faecal-incontinence-and-sphincter-dyssynergia
#18
G V Vivas Colmenares, M J Moya Jiménez, S Roldán Pérez, R Granero Cendón, J Vinuesa Salgueiro, M López Alonso
OBJECTIVE: The defecation disorders represents the 3% of consultations in pediatrics patients. Our goal was to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the reeducation of the defecation maneuver through home training in patients with encopresis and sphincter dyssynergia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study of patients with fecal incontinence treated with home training at our center between 2014-2015. Anorectal manometry was performed and was valued defecation maneuver by expulsion of rectal probe with or without the ball...
January 25, 2017: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556178/change-of-appetite-in-patients-with-functional-digestive-disorder-association-with-psychological-disorders-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Marinos Fysekidis, Michel Bouchoucha, Florence Mary, Gheorghe Airinei, Cyriaque Bon, Robert Benamouzig
BACKGROUND / AIMS: Changes in appetite are a frequent complaint in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the changes in appetite are associated with specific FGIDs, and to explore associations of these changes with symptoms of anxiety or depression. METHODS: This study included 1,009 consecutive FGID patients (71% female), aged 48.9 years who all filled out a Rome III questionnaire for the evaluation of FGIDs, submitted to a psychological evaluation of symptoms of anxiety and completed the Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539683/stubborn-rectal-prolapse-in-systemic-sclerosis
#20
Sven Petersen, Alexander Tobisch, Gero Puhl, Ina Kötter, Uwe Wollina
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder. Anorectal involvement might typically cause fecal incontinence and rarely rectal prolapse. Here we report three female patients, who were admitted with a mean history of 10 years suffering from SSc. All patients presented with the initial symptom of anal incontinence, in all cases this was associated with rectal intussusception or rectal prolapse. The three women faced prolapse recurrence, independent of the initial procedure. After surgical removal of the prolapse, the incontinence remained...
2017: Reumatologia
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