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Status epilepticus treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919412/anti-nmda-a-nmdar-receptor-encephalitis-related-to-acute-consumption-of-metamphetamine-relevance-of-differential-diagnosis
#1
O Iriondo, J Zaldibar-Gerrikagoitia, T Rodríguez, J M García, L Aguilera
A 19-year-old male came to the Emergency Room of our hospital due to an episode of dystonic movements and disorientation 4 days after consuming methamphetamine, which evolved to a catatonic frank syndrome and eventually to status epilepticus. Definitive diagnosis was anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, an acute inflammation of the limbic area of autoimmune origin in which early diagnosis and treatment are key elements for the final outcome. In this case, initial normal tests and previous methamphetamine poisoning delayed diagnosis, because inhaled-methamphetamine poisoning causes similar clinical symptoms to anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis...
December 2, 2016: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919115/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-clinical-review-and-hypotheses-of-epileptogenesis
#2
Andreas van Baalen, Annamaria Vezzani, Martin Häusler, Gerhard Kluger
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES, AERRPS, or DESC) is one of the most severe, mostly irreversible, and presumably immune-mediated epileptic encephalopathies affecting healthy children. Refractory status epilepticus or a cluster of seizures start a few days after the onset of an acute febrile illness; however, encephalitis cannot be proved. Sequelae of FIRES are drug-resistant epilepsy and neuropsychological impairments occurring without latency. Clinical knowledge is limited because FIRES is sporadic and extremely rare...
December 5, 2016: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917700/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-following-elevated-mean-arterial-pressures-for-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Jeffrey H Zimering, Addisu Mesfin
BACKGROUND: Increasing the mean arterial pressure (MAP) is an accepted treatment modality to minimize the risk for irreversible neurologic damage secondary to spinal cord ischemia. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare complication occurring after transplantation surgery, in persons having an autoimmune disorder or after abrupt increases in blood pressure of various etiologies. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of medical records...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907959/status-epilepticus-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#4
Adriana Bermeo-Ovalle, Thomas Bleck
Status epilepticus (SE) is a common neurologic emergency and a frequent reason for admission to the intensive care unit. During the last decade, the advent and availability of diagnostic tools for the recognition of nonconvulsive SE has highlighted an even higher incidence of this condition among the critically ill. New alternatives in treatment have also become available within recent years. The recommendation of early escalation toward the use of general anesthetics in the treatment of convulsive SE follows the theory that the duration of the event defines the aggressiveness of the condition and the potential for long-term neuronal injury...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907953/management-of-the-pediatric-neurocritical-care-patient
#5
Christopher M Horvat, Haifa Mtaweh, Michael J Bell
Pediatric neurocritical care is a growing subspecialty of pediatric intensive care that focuses on the management of acute neurological diseases in children. A brief history of the field of pediatric neurocritical care is provided. Neuromonitoring strategies for children are reviewed. Management of major categories of acute childhood central neurologic diseases are reviewed, including treatment of diseases associated with intracranial hypertension, seizures and status epilepticus, stroke, central nervous system infection and inflammation, and hypoxic-ischemic injury...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904066/erratum-a-case-of-cefepime-encephalopathy-being-difficult-to-distinguish-from-non-convulsive-status-epilepticus-during-the-treatment-of-bacterial-meningitis
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896706/anesthetics-and-outcome-in-status-epilepticus-a-matched-two-center-cohort-study
#7
Raoul Sutter, Gian Marco De Marchis, Saskia Semmlack, Peter Fuhr, Stephan Rüegg, Stephan Marsch, Wendy C Ziai, Peter W Kaplan
BACKGROUND: The use of anesthetics has been linked to poor outcome in patients with status epilepticus (SE). This association, however, may be confounded, as anesthetics are mostly administered in patients with more severe SE and critical illnesses. OBJECTIVE: To minimize treatment-selection bias, we assessed the association between continuously administered intravenous anesthetic drugs (IVADs) and outcome in SE patients by a matched two-center study design. METHODS: This cohort study was performed at the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA and the University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland...
November 29, 2016: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894945/successful-treatment-of-refractory-status-epilepticus-using-anterior-thalamic-nuclei-deep-brain-stimulation
#8
Ching-Yi Lee, Siew-Na Lim, Tony Wu, Shih-Tseng Lee
BACKGROUND: Refractory status epilepticus(RSE) is considered a medical emergency in neurology and is related to a high mortality rate. We report a successfully treated case of RSE using deep brain stimulation (DBS) at the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN). METHOD: Report concerning the resolution of RSE after DBS of the ATN in a 17-year-old woman RESULT: This patient developed RSE due to progressive seizure activity. RSE with generalized tonic-clonic seizures was noted two weeks prior to admission...
November 25, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893511/continuous-infusion-antiepileptic-medications-for-refractory-status-epilepticus-a-review-for-nurses
#9
Adam L Wiss, Michael Samarin, Jacob Marler, G Morgan Jones
Status epilepticus requires treatment with emergent initial therapy with a benzodiazepine and urgent control therapy with an additional antiepileptic drug (AED) to terminate clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity. However, nearly one-third of patients will prove refractory to the aforementioned therapies and are prone to a higher degree of neuronal injury, resistance to pharmacotherapy, and death. Current guidelines for refractory status epilepticus (RSE) recommend initiating a continuous intravenous (CIV) anesthetic over bolus dosing with a different AED...
January 2017: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890484/25-years-of-advances-in-definition-classification-and-treatment-of-status-epilepticus
#10
Eugen Trinka, Reetta Kälviäinen
PURPOSE: Status epilepticus (SE) requires not only urgent symptomatic treatment with antiepileptic drugs but also rapid identification and treatment of its cause. This narrative review summarizes the most important advances in classification and treatment of SE. METHOD: Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and back tracking of references in pertinent studies, reviews, and books. RESULTS: SE is now defined as "a condition resulting either from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or from the initiation of mechanisms, which lead to abnormally, prolonged seizures (after time point t1)...
November 14, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888514/the-burden-of-premature-mortality-of-epilepsy-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review-from-the-mortality-task-force-of-the-international-league-against-epilepsy
#11
REVIEW
David J Thurman, Giancarlo Logroscino, Ettore Beghi, W Allen Hauser, Dale C Hesdorffer, Charles R Newton, Fulvio Alexandre Scorza, Josemir W Sander, Torbjörn Tomson
Since previous reviews of epidemiologic studies of premature mortality among people with epilepsy were completed several years ago, a large body of new evidence about this subject has been published. We aim to update prior reviews of mortality in epilepsy and to reevaluate and quantify the risks, potential risk factors, and causes of these deaths. We systematically searched the Medline and Embase databases to identify published reports describing mortality risks in cohorts and populations of people with epilepsy...
November 26, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888506/rapid-and-safe-response-to-low-dose-carbamazepine-in-neonatal-epilepsy
#12
Tristan T Sands, Martina Balestri, Giulia Bellini, Sarah B Mulkey, Olivier Danhaive, Eliza Hayes Bakken, Maurizio Taglialatela, Michael S Oldham, Federico Vigevano, Gregory L Holmes, Maria Roberta Cilio
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate treatment responses in benign familial neonatal epilepsy (BFNE). METHODS: We recruited patients with BFNE through a multicenter international collaboration and reviewed electroclinical and genetic details, and treatment response. All patients were tested at minimum for mutations/deletions in the KCNQ2, KCNQ3, and SCN2A genes. RESULTS: Nineteen patients were included in this study. A family history of neonatal seizures was positive in 16 patients, and one additional patient had a family history of infantile seizures...
November 26, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878767/phenobarbital-versus-valproate-for-generalized-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-adults-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial-in-china
#13
Yingying Su, Gang Liu, Fei Tian, Guoping Ren, Mengdi Jiang, Brian Chun, Yunzhou Zhang, Yan Zhang, Hong Ye, Daiquan Gao, Weibi Chen
OBJECTIVE: Although generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) is a life-threatening emergency, evidence-based data to guide initial drug treatment choices are lacking in the Chinese population. We conducted this prospective, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the relative efficacy and safety of intravenous phenobarbital and valproate in patients with GCSE. METHODS: After the failure of first-line diazepam treatment, Chinese adult patients with GCSE were randomized to receive either intravenous phenobarbital (standard doses, low rate) or valproate (standard)...
November 23, 2016: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872655/novel-burst-suppression-segmentation-in-the-joint-time-frequency-domain-for-eeg-in-treatment-of-status-epilepticus
#14
Jaeyun Lee, Woo-Jin Song, Hyang Woon Lee, Hyun-Chool Shin
We developed a method to distinguish bursts and suppressions for EEG burst suppression from the treatments of status epilepticus, employing the joint time-frequency domain. We obtained the feature used in the proposed method from the joint use of the time and frequency domains, and we estimated the decision as to whether the measured EEG was a burst segment or suppression segment by the maximum likelihood estimation. We evaluated the performance of the proposed method in terms of its accordance with the visual scores and estimation of the burst suppression ratio...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865173/accelerated-cognitive-decline-in-a-rodent-model-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Sandra Schipper, Marlien W Aalbers, Kim Rijkers, Melanie Lagiere, Jan G Bogaarts, Arjan Blokland, Sylvia Klinkenberg, Govert Hoogland, Johan S H Vles
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment is frequently observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. It is hypothesized that cumulative seizure exposure causes accelerated cognitive decline in patients with epilepsy. We investigated the influence of seizure frequency on cognitive decline in a rodent model for temporal lobe epilepsy. METHODS: Neurobehavioral assessment was performed before and after surgery, after the induction of self-sustaining limbic status epilepticus (SSLSE), and in the chronic phase in which rats experienced recurrent seizures...
November 16, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862207/successful-management-of-super-refractory-status-epilepticus-with-thalamic-dbs
#16
Kai Lehtimäki, Jaakko W Långsjö, Jyrki Ollikainen, Hanna Heinonen, Timo Möttönen, Timo Tähtinen, Joonas Haapasalo, Jyrki Tenhunen, Jani Katisko, Juha Öhman, Jukka Peltola
Super-refractory status epilepticus is a condition characterized by recurrence of status epilepticus despite use of deep general anesthesia and it has high morbidity and mortality rates. We report a case of a 17-year old man with a prolonged super-refractory status epilepticus which eventually resolved after commencing deep brain stimulation of the centromedian nucleus of the thalamus. Later attempt to reduce stimulation parameters resulted in immediate relapse of status epilepticus, suggesting a pivotal role of deep brain stimulation in the treatment response...
November 9, 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858372/severe-respiratory-acidosis-in-status-epilepticus-as-a-possible-etiology-of-sudden-death-in-lesch-nyhan-disease-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Alison Christy, William Nyhan, Jenny Wilson
INTRODUCTION: Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is an X-linked disorder of purine metabolism, associated with self-mutilation, dystonia, and chorea. Seizures are uncommon in LND. Patients with LND are at risk for sudden and unexpected death. The etiology of this is unknown, but appears to occur from a respiratory process. We propose that respiratory failure secondary to subclinical seizure may lead to sudden death in these patients. CASE: We report a case of an 11-year-old boy with LND who had two episodes of nocturnal gasping...
November 18, 2016: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856078/not-everything-that-shakes-is-a-seizure%C3%A2-role-of-continuous-eeg-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#18
Thomas Ritzenthaler, Chloé Laurencin, Nathalie André Obadia, Carole Bodonian, Frédéric Dailler
Treatment of status epilepticus often requires highly sedative drugs with risk of side effects. Correct diagnosis is mandatory in order to prevent introduction of usefulness treatments. We report a case of suspected myoclonic status epilepticus. A thalamic lesion secondary to an osmotic demyelination syndrome was found to be the likely etiology of the myoclonus. Electrophysiological data (electroencephalography and electromyography) provided evidence for a subcortical origin of myoclonus and use of continuous EEG allowed monitoring of drug withdrawal...
November 14, 2016: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854088/long-term-and-strong-immunotherapy-to-treat-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-with-refractory-status-epilepticus
#19
Lan-Hsin Lee, Chien-Jung Lu
BACKGROUND: Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is responsive to immunotherapy and removal of tumor, but there is no consensus in the treatment of severe anti- NMDAR encephalitis with prolonged refractory status epilepticus (SE). CASE REPORT: A 17-year-old girl presented as acute psychosis, refractory seizures, hyperkinesia, autonomic instability, and soon progressed to a dissociative state of coma. Anti-NMDAR antibodies were positive in serum and CSF...
September 15, 2016: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851441/1806-transition-from-intravenous-to-enteral-ketamine-for-treatment-of-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus
#20
Michael Pizzi, William Tatum, Jerry Shih, Daniel Jackson, William Freeman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
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