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Molecular biology in bone research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340594/keratan-sulphate-a-complex-glycosaminoglycan-with-unique-functional-capability
#1
Bruce Caterson, James Melrose
From an evolutionary perspective keratan sulphate (KS) is the newest glycosaminoglycan (GAG) but the least understood. KS is a sophisticated molecule with a diverse structure, and unique functional roles continue to be uncovered for this GAG. The cornea is the richest tissue source of KS in the human body but the central and peripheral nervous systems also contain significant levels of KS and a diverse range of KS-proteoglycans with essential functional roles. KS also displays important cell regulatory properties in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues and in bone and in tumour development of diagnostic and prognostic utility...
January 11, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323344/updating-osteoimmunology-regulation-of-bone-cells-by-innate-and-adaptive-immunity
#2
REVIEW
Matthew C Walsh, Noriko Takegahara, Hyunsoo Kim, Yongwon Choi
Osteoimmunology encompasses all aspects of the cross-regulation of bone and the immune system, including various cell types, signalling pathways, cytokines and chemokines, under both homeostatic and pathogenic conditions. A number of key areas are of increasing interest and relevance to osteoimmunology researchers. Although rheumatoid arthritis has long been recognized as one of the most common autoimmune diseases to affect bone integrity, researchers have focused increased attention on understanding how molecular triggers and innate signalling pathways (such as Toll-like receptors and purinergic signalling pathways) related to pathogenic and/or commensal microbiota are relevant to bone biology and rheumatic diseases...
January 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301114/neither-femur-nor-tooth-petrous-bone-for-identifying-archaeological-bone-samples-via-forensic-approach
#3
Elena Pilli, Stefania Vai, Marina Grazia Caruso, Giancarlo D'Errico, Andrea Berti, David Caramelli
One of the major challenges of molecular biology in anthropological analysis is the identification via DNA typing of bone or teeth samples that can be collected from archaeological site in order to investigate kinship relationships. Due to the difficulties of isolating and analysing DNA from such samples, several efforts have been made to solve these problems, but less work has been conducted to identify the proper type of bone samples for the DNA analysis. Therefore, following the promising results obtained from the DNA analysis of petrous bones by different groups of researchers, for the first time, here we investigated the possibility of using petrous bones as skeletal elements useful for short tandem repeat (STR) typing via capillary electrophoresis technique in ancient bone samples...
December 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229388/lncrna-snhg12-promotes-tumorigenesis-and-metastasis-in-osteosarcoma-by-upregulating-notch2-by-sponging-mir-195-5p
#4
Sheng Zhou, Ling Yu, Min Xiong, Guo Dai
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor and has a high fatality rate in children and adolescents. Recently, an increasing amount of evidence has demonstrated that lncRNAs have crucial roles in regulating biological characteristics in malignant tumors. Therefore, this research was carried out to uncover the biological function and the potential molecular mechanism of SNHG12 in osteosarcoma. In this study, we found that SNHG12 was significantly upregulated in both osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines and osteosarcoma patients with high levels of SNHG12 tended to have a poor prognosis...
December 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220291/emerging-targeted-and-immune-based-therapies-in-sarcoma
#5
Seth M Pollack, Matthew Ingham, Matthew B Spraker, Gary K Schwartz
Soft tissue and bone sarcomas are malignancies of mesenchymal origin, and more than 50 subtypes are defined. For most sarcomas, locally advanced or unresectable disease is still treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy. Recently, our understanding of subtype-specific cancer biology has expanded, and it has revealed distinct molecular alterations responsible for tumor initiation and progression. These findings have motivated the development of targeted therapies that are being evaluated in subtype-specific or biomarker-driven clinical trials...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219174/igfbp3-deposited-in-the-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cell-secreted-extracellular-matrix-promotes-bone-formation
#6
Moyuan Deng, Keyu Luo, Tianyong Hou, Fei Luo, Zhao Xie, Zehua Zhang, Aijun Yang, Bo Yu, Shaoxuan Yi, Tan Jiulin, Shiwu Dong, Jianzhong Xu
The extracellular matrix (ECM) contains rich biological cues for cell recruitment, proliferation and even differentiation. The osteoinductive potential of scaffolds could be enhanced through human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hBMSC) directly depositing extracellular matrix (ECM) on surface of scaffolds. However, the role and mechanism of human umbilical cord MSC-secreted ECM in bone formation remain unknown. We tested the osteoinductive properties of a human umbilical cord MSC-secreted ECM construct (hUCMSC-ECM) in a large femur defect of a severe combined immunodeficiency mouse model...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204827/leukemia-stem-cells-microenvironment
#7
Yoko Tabe, Marina Konopleva
The dynamic interactions between leukemic cells and bone marrow (BM) cells in the leukemia BM microenvironment regulate leukemia stem cell (LSC) properties including localization, self-renewal, differentiation, and proliferation. Recent research of normal and leukemia BM microenvironments has revealed several key components of specific niches that provide a sanctuary where subpopulations of leukemia cells evade chemotherapy-induced death and acquire a drug-resistant phenotype, as well as the molecular pathways critical for microenvironment/leukemia interactions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200988/molecular-signaling-mechanisms-behind-polyphenol-induced-bone-anabolism
#8
REVIEW
Elisa Torre
For millennia, in the different cultures all over the world, plants have been extensively used as a source of therapeutic agents with wide-ranging medicinal applications, thus becoming part of a rational clinical and pharmacological investigation over the years. As bioactive molecules, plant-derived polyphenols have been demonstrated to exert many effects on human health by acting on different biological systems, thus their therapeutic potential would represent a novel approach on which natural product-based drug discovery and development could be based in the future...
2017: Phytochemistry Reviews: Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186901/live-fluorescent-staining-platform-for-drug-screening-and-mechanism-analysis-in-zebrafish-for-bone-mineralization
#9
Jung-Ren Chen, Yu-Heng Lai, Jhih-Jie Tsai, Chung-Der Hsiao
Currently, drug screening relies on cell-based experiments or on animal models to confirm biological effects. The mammalian system is considered too time-consuming, expensive and complex to perform high-throughput drug screening. There is a gap between in vitro cell-based models and the in vivo mammalian models. The zebrafish is an ideal model that could link preclinical toxicity screening with the drug development pipeline. Taking advantage of a highly conservative genomic, rapid development, large number of offspring, low cost and easy manipulation, zebrafish has been considered an excellent animal model for disease-based drug screening...
November 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180875/effective-treatment-of-low-dose-decitabine-in-myelodysplastic-syndrome-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#10
Xingnong Ye, Dan Chen, Yan Zheng, Xiaoqiong Zhu, Junkai Fu, Jian Huang
Objective: Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is one of the Philadelphia negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). The main clinical features are obvious physical symptoms and symptomatic splenomegaly. It may be converse to leukemia and has a shortened life expectancy. Nowadays, the therapy for PMF is aimed at maintaining comfort and there is no curative treatment. PMF with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), called MDS/MPN-u, is rare and the treatment is complex. In this study, we want to discuss an effective treatment for MDS/MPN via a case report and literature review...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150936/the-roles-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-tissue-development-and-regenerative-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Maryam Majidinia, Javad Aghazadeh, Rana Jahanban-Esfahlani, Bahman Yousefi
Regenerative medicine is a translational field which combines tissue engineering and molecular biology to construct spare organs or help injured or defective tissues to regenerate or restore their normal functions. This is particularly important with specific organs such as heart, central nervous system, retina or limbs which possess very limited regenerative capacity. As such, regenerative medicine has received peculiar attention in the last decade. In this regard, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has been subject to intensive research, since it plays many essential roles in the regulation of the progenitor cell fate, developmental decisions, proliferation during embryonic development, and adult tissue homeostasis...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136834/comparative-proteomics-of-cancer-stem-cells-in-osteosarcoma-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-and-orbitrap-fusion-mass-spectrometer
#12
Zhihui Zhong, Sifeng Mao, Haifeng Lin, Jin-Ming Lin, Jianhua Lin
Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant tumour found in bones, and it has a poor prognosis. For improved therapy, it is significant to have a deep understanding of the proteomics changes in the cancer stem cells (CSCs) of osteosarcoma. Therefore, a comparative proteomics approach based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer (UHPLC-Orbitrap Fusion MS) was established to investigate the key molecular changes between CSCs and non-CSCs in human osteosarcoma HOS cells...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081386/molecular-approaches-to-diagnose-diamond-blackfan-anemia-the-eurodba-experience
#13
REVIEW
Lydie Da Costa, Marie-Françoise O'Donohue, Birgit van Dooijeweert, Katarzyna Albrecht, Sule Unal, Ugo Ramenghi, Thierry Leblanc, Irma Dianzani, Hannah Tamary, Marije Bartels, Pierre-Emmanuel Gleizes, Marcin Wlodarski, Alyson W MacInnes
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare congenital erythroblastopenia and inherited bone marrow failure syndrome that affects approximately seven individuals in every million live births. In addition to anemia, about 50% of all DBA patients suffer from various physical malformations of the face, hands, heart, or urogenital region. The disorder is almost exclusively driven by haploinsufficient mutations in one of several ribosomal protein (RP) genes, although for ∼30% of diagnosed patients no mutation is found in any of the known DBA-linked genes...
October 26, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047220/the-cytokines-and-microenvironment-of-fracture-haematoma-current-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Gavin Walters, Ippokratis Pountos, Peter V Giannoudis
BACKGROUND: Fracture haematoma formation is the first and foremost important stage of fracture healing. It orchestrates the inflammatory and cellular processes leading to the formation of callus and the restoration of the continuity of the bone. Evidence suggests that blocking this initial stage could lead to an impairment of the overall bone healing process. This review aims to analyse the existing evidence of molecular contributions to bone healing within fracture haematoma, and to determine the potential to modify the molecular response to fracture in the haematoma with the aim of improving union times...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930556/osteoimmunology-the-nexus-between-bone-and-immune-system
#15
Hamid Y Dar, Zaffar Azam, Rajaneesh Anupam, Rajesh K Mondal, Rupesh K Srivastava
Osteoimmunology is an interdisciplinary research field which combines the existing fields of osteology (bone biology) and immunology under one umbrella. The observation that contributed enormously to the emergence of osteoimmunology as an independent field of investigation was the enhanced bone loss in various inflammatory bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and periodontitis. T helper cells (Th1, Th2, Treg and Th17) along with various other immune cells (B cells, DC, macrophages etc.) are actively involved in bone homeostasis...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883615/development-of-new-experimental-platform-mars-multiple-artificial-gravity-research-system-to-elucidate-the-impacts-of-micro-partial-gravity-on-mice
#16
Dai Shiba, Hiroyasu Mizuno, Akane Yumoto, Michihiko Shimomura, Hiroe Kobayashi, Hironobu Morita, Miki Shimbo, Michito Hamada, Takashi Kudo, Masahiro Shinohara, Hiroshi Asahara, Masaki Shirakawa, Satoru Takahashi
This Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency project focused on elucidating the impacts of partial gravity (partial g) and microgravity (μg) on mice using newly developed mouse habitat cage units (HCU) that can be installed in the Centrifuge-equipped Biological Experiment Facility in the International Space Station. In the first mission, 12 C57BL/6 J male mice were housed under μg or artificial earth-gravity (1 g). Mouse activity was monitored daily via downlinked videos; μg mice floated inside the HCU, whereas artificial 1 g mice were on their feet on the floor...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855094/sphingosine-1-phosphate-s1p-signalling-role-in-bone-biology-and-potential-therapeutic-target-for-bone-repair
#17
REVIEW
Ziad Sartawi, Ernestina Schipani, Katie B Ryan, Christian Waeber
The lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) affects cellular functions in most systems. Interest in its therapeutic potential has increased following the discovery of its G protein-coupled receptors and the recent availability of agents that can be safely administered in humans. Although the role of S1P in bone biology has been the focus of much less research than its role in the nervous, cardiovascular and immune systems, it is becoming clear that this lipid influences many of the functions, pathways and cell types that play a key role in bone maintenance and repair...
September 22, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842819/musculoskeletal-health-in-the-context-of-spinal-cord-injury
#18
REVIEW
Jillian M Clark, David M Findlay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review assembles recent understanding of the profound loss of muscle and bone in spinal cord injury (SCI). It is important to try to understand these changes, and the context in which they occur, because of their impact on the wellbeing of SC-injured individuals, and the urgent need for viable preventative therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research provides new understanding of the effects of age and systemic factors on the response of bone to loading, of relevance to attempts to provide load therapy for bone in SCI...
October 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789906/tocotrienols-the-unsaturated-sidekick-shifting-new-paradigms-in-vitamin-e-therapeutics
#19
REVIEW
Madhu M Kanchi, Muthu K Shanmugam, Grishma Rane, Gautam Sethi, Alan P Kumar
Vitamin E family members: tocotrienols and tocopherols are widely known for their health benefits. Decades of research on tocotrienols have shown they have diverse biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotective and skin protection benefits, as well as improved cognition, bone health, longevity and reduction of cholesterol levels in plasma. Tocotrienols also modulate several intracellular molecular targets and, most importantly, have been shown to improve lipid profiles, reduce total cholesterol and reduce the volume of white matter lesions in human clinical trials...
August 5, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665585/cryotem-as-an-advanced-analytical-tool-for-materials-chemists
#20
Joseph P Patterson, Yifei Xu, Mohammad-Amin Moradi, Nico A J M Sommerdijk, Heiner Friedrich
Morphology plays an essential role in chemistry through the segregation of atoms and/or molecules into different phases, delineated by interfaces. This is a general process in materials synthesis and exploited in many fields including colloid chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis, and functional molecular systems. To rationally design complex materials, we must understand and control morphology evolution. Toward this goal, we utilize cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryoTEM), which can track the structural evolution of materials in solution with nanometer spatial resolution and a temporal resolution of <1 s...
July 18, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
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