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Molecular biology in bone research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30167805/genome-editing-in-diatoms-achievements-and-goals
#1
REVIEW
Peter G Kroth, Atle M Bones, Fayza Daboussi, Maria I Ferrante, Marianne Jaubert, Misha Kolot, Marianne Nymark, Carolina Río Bártulos, Andrés Ritter, Monia T Russo, Manuel Serif, Per Winge, Angela Falciatore
Diatoms are major components of phytoplankton and play a key role in the ecology of aquatic ecosystems. These algae are of great scientific importance for a wide variety of research areas, ranging from marine ecology and oceanography to biotechnology. During the last 20 years, the availability of genomic information on selected diatom species and a substantial progress in genetic manipulation, strongly contributed to establishing diatoms as molecular model organisms for marine biology research. Recently, tailored TALEN endonucleases and the CRISPR/Cas9 system were utilized in diatoms, allowing targeted genetic modifications and the generation of knockout strains...
August 23, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158034/comparative-analysis-of-serum-proangiogenic-biomarkers-between-those-with-and-without-diabetic-retinopathy
#2
Tayyaba Gul Malik, Syed Shoaib Ahmed, Roquyya Gul, Eiman Ayesha
OBJECTIVE: To compare the serum proangiogenic biomarkers in diabetic patients suffering from with and without diabetic retinopathy (DR). STUDY DESIGN: An observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Arif Memorial Teaching Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan and Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology/Centre for Research in Molecular Medicine, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan, from March to December 2017. METHODOLOGY: Forty patients with DR were included in group A and 15 patients without retinopathy (controls) were included in group B...
September 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129897/comparison-of-decellularized-cow-and-human-bone-for-engineering-bone-grafts-with-human-ips-cells
#3
Martina Sladkova, Jiayi Joy Cheng, Michael Palmer, Silvia Chen, Charles Lin, Wei Xia, Yue Eric Yu, Bin Zhou, Håkan Engqvist, Giuseppe Maria de Peppo
Bone engineering makes it possible to grow unlimited amounts of viable tissue products for basic and applied research, and for clinical applications. A common trend in tissue engineering is the use of decellularized tissue matrices as scaffolding materials, which display structural, mechanical, and biological attributes typical of the native tissue. Due to the limited availability and high cost of human samples, decellularized tissue matrices are typically derived from animal sources. It is unclear, however, whether interspecies differences in tissue parameters will influence the quality of tissue grafts that are engineered using human stem cells...
August 21, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121198/flavonoids-exert-multiple-periodontic-benefits-including-anti-inflammatory-periodontal-ligament-supporting-and-alveolar-bone-preserving-effects
#4
REVIEW
Berenice Fernández-Rojas, Gloria Gutiérrez-Venegas
Flavonoids are plant-derived polyphenolic compounds claimed to help alleviate a variety of conditions, including diabetes, infectious endocarditis, and cancer. They have attracted substantial research interest as nutraceuticals owing to their diverse bioactivities. Periodontitis is a high-incidence inflammatory disease affecting the dentition-supporting periodontium. Although the etiology of periodontitis is diverse, microbial species in dental plaque are considered its main pathogenic agents. Here, we provide a review of flavonoid study findings relevant for periodontitis treatment and prevention...
September 15, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106850/otopathology-in-the-united-states-history-current-situation-and-future-perspectives
#5
Rafael da Costa Monsanto, Henrique Furlan Pauna, Michael M Paparella, Sebahattin Cureoglu
: Human temporal bone studies have documented the pathophysiologic basis of many pathologic conditions and diseases affecting the ear, contributing to the development of specific clinical knowledge and pathology-oriented treatments. Researchers dedicated to the study of anatomy and histology of the temporal bone emanated from Europe to the United States during the first part of the 20th Century. The first otopathology laboratory was founded in the United States in 1924, at Johns Hopkins University; over time, the otopathology laboratories-considered by some authors as "gold mines" for studying ear diseases-became numerous and very prolific...
October 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087655/-anril-a-lncrna-at-the-cdkn2a-b-locus-with-roles-in-cancer-and-metabolic-disease
#6
REVIEW
Yahui Kong, Chih-Heng Hsieh, Laura C Alonso
The CDKN2A/B genomic locus is associated with risk of human cancers and metabolic disease. Although the locus contains several important protein-coding genes, studies suggest disease roles for a lesser-known antisense lncRNA encoded at this locus, called ANRIL . ANRIL is a complex gene containing at least 21 exons in simians, with many reported linear and circular isoforms. Like other genes, abundance of ANRIL is regulated by epigenetics, classic transcription regulation, splicing, and post-transcriptional influences such as RNA stability and microRNAs...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30029723/dehydroepiandrosterone-research-past-current-and-future
#7
Carolyn M Klinge, Barbara J Clark, Russell A Prough
The discovery of "oestrus-producing" hormones was a major research breakthrough in biochemistry and pharmacology during the early part of the 20th century. The elucidation of the molecular weight and chemical structure of major oxidative metabolites of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) led to the award of the Nobel Prize in 1939 to Adolf Frederick Johann Butenandt and Leopold Ruzicka. Considered a bulk androgen in the circulation, DHEA and its sulfated metabolite DHEA-S can be taken up by most tissues where the sterols are metabolized to active androgenic and estrogenic compounds needed for growth and development...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29967618/the-role-of-endothelial-progenitors-in-the-repair-of-vascular-damage-in-systemic-sclerosis
#8
REVIEW
Nicoletta Del Papa, Francesca Pignataro
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease characterized by a complex pathological process where the main scenario is represented by progressive loss of microvascular bed, with the consequent progressive fibrotic changes in involved organ and tissues. Although most aspects of vascular injury in scleroderma are poorly understood, recent data suggest that the scleroderma impairment of neovascularization could be related to both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis failure. Particularly, compensatory angiogenesis does not occur normally in spite of an important increase in many angiogenic factors either in SSc skin or serum...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29966233/a-review-of-the-recent-advances-made-with-sirt6-and-its-implications-on-aging-related-processes-major-human-diseases-and-possible-therapeutic-targets
#9
REVIEW
Rubayat Islam Khan, Saif Shahriar Rahman Nirzhor, Raushanara Akter
Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide⁺ (NAD⁺) dependent enzyme and stress response protein that has sparked the curiosity of many researchers in different branches of the biomedical sciences. A unique member of the known Sirtuin family, SIRT6 has several different functions in multiple different molecular pathways related to DNA repair, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, tumorigenesis, neurodegeneration, cardiac hypertrophic responses, and more. Only in recent times, however, did the potential usefulness of SIRT6 come to light as we learned more about its biochemical activity, regulation, biological roles, and structure Frye (2000)...
June 29, 2018: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908283/mir-378-and-bmp-smad-can-influence-the-proliferation-of-sheep-myoblast
#10
Zengkui Lu, Lixin Du, Ruizao Liu, Ran Di, Liping Zhang, Youji Ma, Qing Li, Enmin Liu, Mingxing Chu, Caihong Wei
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a sort of endogenous ~20-25 nt non-coding RNAs, and it can regulate a variety of biological events. We found the miR-378 may involve in regulating the muscle development of sheep during our previous research. However, the molecular mechanism of miR-378 regulating myoblast proliferation is still unclear. In this research, we predicted that BMP2 (Bone morphogenetic protein 2) was the target gene of miR-378 and the BMP-Smad signal pathway that BMP2 participated in playing an important role in the muscle development...
October 20, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888168/molecular-interaction-of-bone-marrow-adipose-tissue-with-energy-metabolism
#11
REVIEW
Karla J Suchacki, William P Cawthorn
Purpose of Review: The last decade has seen a resurgence in the study of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) across diverse fields such as metabolism, haematopoiesis, skeletal biology and cancer. Herein, we review the most recent developments of BMAT research in both humans and rodents, including the distinct nature of BMAT; the autocrine, paracrine and endocrine interactions between BMAT and various tissues, both in physiological and pathological scenarios; how these interactions might impact energy metabolism; and the most recent technological advances to quantify BMAT...
2018: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801428/minimal-residual-disease-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-a-consensus-paper-that-presents-the-clinical-impact-of-the-presently-available-laboratory-approaches
#12
Ciprian Tomuleasa, Cristina Selicean, Sonia Cismas, Anca Jurj, Mirela Marian, Delia Dima, Sergiu Pasca, Bobe Petrushev, Vlad Moisoiu, Wilhelm-Thomas Micu, Anna Vischer, Kanza Arifeen, Sonia Selicean, Mihnea Zdrenghea, Horia Bumbea, Alina Tanase, Ravnit Grewal, Laura Pop, Carmen Aanei, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a malignancy defined by the accumulation of mature lymphocytes in the lymphoid tissues, bone marrow, and blood. Therapy for CLL is guided according to the Rai and Binet staging systems. Nevertheless, state-of-the-art protocols in disease monitoring, diagnostics, and prognostics for CLL are based on the assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD). MRD is internationally considered to be the level of disease that can be detected by sensitive techniques and represents incomplete treatment and a probability of disease relapse...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696703/mcl1-gene-co-expression-module-stratifies-multiple-myeloma-and-predicts-response-to-proteasome-inhibitor-based-therapy
#13
Ayaz Ali Samo, Jiuyi Li, Min Zhou, Yingyu Sun, Yuan Yang, Yunqiu Zhang, Jing Li, Mark van Duin, Xuzhang Lu, Xiaolong Fan
Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic cancer, characterized by abnormal accumulation of plasma cells in the bone marrow. The extensive biological and clinical heterogeneity of MM hinders effective treatment and etiology research. Several molecular classification systems of prognostic impact have been proposed, but they do not predict the response to treatment nor do they correlate to plasma cell development pathways. Here we describe the classification of MM into two distinct subtypes based on the expression levels of a gene module coexpressed with MCL1 (MCL1-M), a regulator of plasma cell survival...
August 2018: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695767/cutaneous-neurofibromas-in-the-genomics-era-current-understanding-and-open-questions
#14
REVIEW
Robert J Allaway, Sara J C Gosline, Salvatore La Rosa, Pamela Knight, Annette Bakker, Justin Guinney, Lu Q Le
Cutaneous neurofibromas (cNF) are a nearly ubiquitous symptom of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a disorder with a broad phenotypic spectrum caused by germline mutation of the neurofibromatosis type 1 tumour suppressor gene (NF1). Symptoms of NF1 can include learning disabilities, bone abnormalities and predisposition to tumours such as cNFs, plexiform neurofibromas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours and optic nerve tumours. There are no therapies currently approved for cNFs aside from elective surgery, and the molecular aetiology of cNF remains relatively uncharacterised...
June 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688859/patient-derived-xenograft-models-in-musculoskeletal-malignancies
#15
REVIEW
Wan Lu, Tu Chao, Chen Ruiqi, Su Juan, Li Zhihong
Successful oncological drug development for bone and soft tissue sarcoma is grossly stagnating. A major obstacle in this process is the lack of appropriate animal models recapitulating the complexity and heterogeneity of musculoskeletal malignancies, resulting in poor efficiency in translating the findings of basic research to clinical applications. In recent years, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models generated by directly engrafting patient-derived tumor fragments into immunocompromised mice have recaptured the attention of many researchers due to their properties of retaining the principle histopathology, biological behaviors, and molecular and genetic characteristics of the original tumor, showing promising future in both basic and clinical studies of bone and soft tissue sarcoma...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676642/immunomethylomics-a-novel-cancer-risk-prediction-tool
#16
Karl T Kelsey, John K Wiencke
There is emerging evidence that the immune biology associated with lung and other solid tumors, as well as patient immune genetic traits, contributes to individual survival. At this time, dramatic advances in immunologic approaches to the study and management of human cancers are taking place, including lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, major obstacles for therapies are the profound immune alterations in blood and in the tumor microenvironment that arise in tandem with the cancer. Although there is a significant current effort underway across the cancer research community to probe the tumor environment to uncover the dynamics of the immune response, little similar work is being done to understand the dynamics of immune alterations in peripheral blood, despite evidence showing the prognostic relevance of the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio for these cancers...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675022/immunoporosis-immunology-of-osteoporosis-role-of-t-cells
#17
REVIEW
Rupesh K Srivastava, Hamid Y Dar, Pradyumna K Mishra
The role of immune system in various bone pathologies, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis is now well established. This had led to the emergence of a modern field of systems biology called as osteoimmunology, an integrated research between fields of immunology and bone biology under one umbrella. Osteoporosis is one of the most common inflammatory bone loss condition with more than 200 million individuals affected worldwide. T helper (Th) cells along with various other immune cells are major players involved in bone homeostasis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667005/the-bmp-2-mutant-l51p-a-bmp-receptor-ia-binding-deficient-inhibitor-of-noggin
#18
REVIEW
Hany Mohamed Khattab, Satoshi Kubota, Masaharu Takigawa, Takuo Kuboki, Walter Sebald
The antagonist-specific regulation in tissue engineering constitutes important attempts to achieve an improved and rapid bone regeneration by controlling the natural biological response of the natural body growth factors. L51P is molecularly engineered bone morphogentic protein-2 (BMP-2) variant with a substitution of the 51st leucine with a proline residue. L51P is deficient in BMP receptor binding, but maintains its structure and affinity for inhibitory proteins such as noggin, chordin, and gremlin. These modifications convert the BMP-2 variant L51P into a receptor-inactive inhibitor of BMP antagonists...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663809/distributions-the-importance-of-the-chemist-s-molecular-view-for-biological-materials
#19
Rachel L Merzel, Bradford G Orr, Mark M Banaszak Holl
Characterization of materials with biological applications and assessment of physiological effects of therapeutic interventions are critical for translating research to the clinic and preventing adverse reactions. Analytical techniques typically used to characterize targeted nanomaterials and tissues rely on bulk measurement. Therefore, the resulting data represent an average structure of the sample, masking stochastic (randomly generated) distributions that are commonly present. In this Perspective, we examine almost 20 years of work our group has done in different fields to characterize and control distributions...
May 14, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661810/metastases-in-prostate-cancer
#20
Federico La Manna, Sofia Karkampouna, Eugenio Zoni, Marta De Menna, Janine Hensel, George N Thalmann, Marianna Kruithof-de Julio
Prostate cancer (PCa) prognosis and clinical outcome is directly dependent on metastatic occurrence. The bone microenvironment is a favorable metastatic niche. Different biological processes have been suggested to contribute to the osteotropism of PCa such as hemodynamics, bone-specific signaling interactions, and the "seed and soil" hypothesis. However, prevalence of disseminating tumor cells in the bone is not proportional to the actual occurrence of metastases, as not all patients will develop bone metastases...
June 14, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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