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Molecular biology in bone research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507534/stress-and-alterations-in-bones-an-interdisciplinary-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Pia-Maria Wippert, Michael Rector, Gisela Kuhn, Karin Wuertz-Kozak
Decades of research have demonstrated that physical stress (PS) stimulates bone remodeling and affects bone structure and function through complex mechanotransduction mechanisms. Recent research has laid ground to the hypothesis that mental stress (MS) also influences bone biology, eventually leading to osteoporosis and increased bone fracture risk. These effects are likely exerted by modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, resulting in an altered release of growth hormones, glucocorticoids and cytokines, as demonstrated in human and animal studies...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466453/hereditary-multiple-exostoses-new-insights-into-pathogenesis-clinical-complications-and-potential-treatments
#2
REVIEW
Maurizio Pacifici
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is a complex musculoskeletal pediatric disorder characterized by osteochondromas that form next to the growth plates of many skeletal elements, including long bones, ribs, and vertebrae. Due to its intricacies and unresolved issues, HME continues to pose major challenges to both clinicians and biomedical researchers. The purpose of this review is to describe and analyze recent advances in this field and point to possible targets and strategies for future biologically based therapeutic intervention...
May 2, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465400/the-significance-of-beige-and-brown-fat-in-humans
#3
Florian W Kiefer
Promotion of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity or browning of white adipose tissue has shown great potential as anti-obesity strategy in numerous preclinical models. The discovery of active BAT in humans and the recent advances in the understanding of human BAT biology and function have significantly propelled this field of research. Pharmacological stimulation of energy expenditure to counteract obesity has always been an intriguing therapeutic concept; with the identification of the specific molecular pathways of brown fat function this idea has now become as realistic as ever...
May 2, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455432/skeletal-energy-homeostasis-a-paradigm-of-endocrine-discovery
#4
Karla Suchacki, Fiona Roberts, Andrea Lovdel, Colin Farquharson, Nicholas M Morton, Vicky E MacRae, Will Cawthorn
Throughout the last decade, significant developments in cellular, molecular, and mouse models have revealed major endocrine functions of the skeleton. More recent studies have evolved the interplay between bone-specific hormones, the skeleton, marrow adipose tissue, muscle and the brain. This review focuses on literature from the last decade, addressing endocrine regulation of global energy metabolism via the skeleton. In addition, we will highlight several recent studies that further our knowledge of new endocrine functions of some organs; explore remaining unanswered questions; and, finally, we will discuss future directions for this more complex era of bone biology research...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410005/meeting-report-of-the-2016-bone-marrow-adiposity-meeting
#5
Bram van der Eerden, André van Wijnen
There is considerable interest in the physiology and pathology, as well as the cellular and molecular biology, of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT). Because bone marrow adiposity is linked not only to systemic energy metabolism, but also to both bone marrow and musculoskeletal disorders, this biologic compartment has become of major interest to investigators from diverse disciplines. Bone marrow adiposity represents a virtual multi-tissue endocrine organ, which encompasses cells from multiple developmental lineages (e...
April 5, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335865/zebrafish-developmental-models-of-skeletal-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Lauryn N Luderman, Gokhan Unlu, Ela W Knapik
The zebrafish skeleton shares many similarities with human and other vertebrate skeletons. Over the past years, work in zebrafish has provided an extensive understanding of the basic developmental mechanisms and cellular pathways directing skeletal development and homeostasis. This review will focus on the cell biology of cartilage and bone and how the basic cellular processes within chondrocytes and osteocytes function to assemble the structural frame of a vertebrate body. We will discuss fundamental functions of skeletal cells in production and secretion of extracellular matrix and cellular activities leading to differentiation of progenitors to mature cells that make up the skeleton...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288857/a-reductionist-approach-to-extract-robust-molecular-markers-from-microarray-data-series-isolating-markers-to-track-osseointegration
#7
Anwesha Barik, Satarupa Banerjee, Santanu Dhara, Nishant Chakravorty
Complexities in the full genome expression studies hinder the extraction of tracker genes to analyze the course of biological events. In this study, we demonstrate the applications of supervised machine learning methods to reduce the irrelevance in microarray data series and thereby extract robust molecular markers to track biological processes. The methodology has been illustrated by analyzing whole genome expression studies on bone-implant integration (ossointegration). Being a biological process, osseointegration is known to leave a trail of genetic footprint during the course...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238095/adp-ribosylation-factor-1-arf1-takes-part-in-cell-proliferation-and-cell-adhesion-mediated-drug-resistance-cam-dr
#8
Xiaohong Xu, Qiru Wang, Yunhua He, Linlin Ding, Fei Zhong, Yangyu Ou, Yaodong Shen, Hong Liu, Song He
Cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) remains the primary obstacle in human multiple myeloma (MM) therapy. In this study, we aimed at investigating the expression and biologic function of ARF1 in MM. We determined that ARF1 expression was positively correlated with cell proliferation and knockdown of ARF1 contributed to CAM-DR. The enhancement in the adhesion of MM cells to fibronectin (FN) or the bone marrow stroma cell line HS-5 cells translated to an increased CAM-DR phenotype. Importantly, we showed that this CAM-DR phenotype was correlated with the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK in MM cells...
May 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236079/the-2017-abjs-nicolas-andry-award-advancing-personalized-medicine-for-clubfoot-through-translational-research
#9
Matthew B Dobbs, Christina A Gurnett
BACKGROUND: Clubfoot is one of the most common pediatric orthopaedic disorders. While the Ponseti method has revolutionized clubfoot treatment, it is not effective for all patients. When the Ponseti method does not correct the foot, patients are at risk for lifelong disability and may require more-extensive surgery. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What genetic and morphologic abnormalities contribute to the development of clubfoot? (2) How can this information be used to devise personalized treatment paradigms for patients with clubfoot? METHODS: Human gene sequencing, molecular genetic engineering of mouse models of clubfoot, MRI of clubfoot, and development of new treatment methods all have been used by our group to understand the biological basis and improve therapy for this group of disorders...
June 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219691/hepatitis-b-reactivation-associated-with-immune-suppressive-and-biological-modifier-therapies-current-concepts-management-strategies-and-future-directions
#10
REVIEW
Rohit Loomba, T Jake Liang
Hepatitis B reactivation associated with immune-suppressive and biological therapies is emerging to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with current or prior exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The population at risk for HBV reactivation includes those who either currently are infected with HBV or have had past exposure to HBV. Because curative and eradicative therapy for HBV is not currently available, there is a large reservoir of individuals at risk for HBV reactivation in the general population...
February 20, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158974/a-compendium-of-developmental-gene-expression-in-lake-malawi-cichlid-fishes
#11
R F Bloomquist, T E Fowler, J B Sylvester, R J Miro, J T Streelman
BACKGROUND: Lake Malawi cichlids represent one of a growing number of vertebrate models used to uncover the genetic and developmental basis of trait diversity. Rapid evolutionary radiation has resulted in species that share similar genomes but differ markedly in phenotypes including brains and behavior, nuptial coloration and the craniofacial skeleton. Research has begun to identify the genes, as well as the molecular and developmental pathways that underlie trait divergence. RESULTS: We assemble a compendium of gene expression for Lake Malawi cichlids, across pharyngula (the phylotypic stage) and larval stages of development, encompassing hundreds of gene transcripts...
February 3, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118705/europium-doped-gd2o3-nanotubes-increase-bone-mineral-density-in-vivo-and-promote-mineralization-in-vitro
#12
Huifang Liu, Yi Jin, Kun Ge, Guang Jia, Zhenhua Li, Xinjian Yang, Shizhu Chen, Min Ge, Wentong Sun, Dandan Liu, Jinchao Zhang
Europium-doped Gd2O3 nanotubes (Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs) have been extensively applied in the field of bioscience for their photostability and magnetic properties. Nevertheless, the distribution and interaction between Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs and metabolism of bone are not yet sufficiently understood. In this study, a systematic study of the toxicity and distribution of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs in mice after oral administration was carried out. The results showed that a small number of the Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs could pass through biological barriers into the lung, liver, and spleen, but a high concentration was observed in bone...
February 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096400/defining-recovery-neurobiology-of-injured-spinal-cord-by-synthetic-matrix-assisted-hmsc-implantation
#13
Alexander E Ropper, Devang K Thakor, InBo Han, Dou Yu, Xiang Zeng, Jamie E Anderson, Zaid Aljuboori, Soo-Woo Kim, Hongjun Wang, Richard L Sidman, Ross D Zafonte, Yang D Teng
Mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adult tissues offer tangible potential for regenerative medicine, given their feasibility for autologous transplantation. MSC research shows encouraging results in experimental stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and neurotrauma models. However, further translational progress has been hampered by poor MSC graft survival, jeopardizing cellular and molecular bases for neural repair in vivo. We have devised an adult human bone marrow MSC (hMSC) delivery formula by investigating molecular events involving hMSCs incorporated in a uniquely designed poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold, a clinically safe polymer, following inflammatory exposures in a dorsal root ganglion organotypic coculture system...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088983/the-epigenetic-basis-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-aging
#14
REVIEW
Ashley Kramer, Grant A Challen
Highly proliferative tissues such as the gut, skin, and bone marrow lose millions of cells each day to normal attrition and challenge from different biological adversities. To achieve a lifespan beyond the longevity of individual cell types, tissue-specific stem cells sustain these tissues throughout the life of a human. For example, the lifespan of erythrocytes is about 100 days and adults make about two million new erythrocytes every second. A small pool of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow is responsible for the lifetime maintenance of these populations...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036235/biomarkers-for-uranium-risk-assessment-for-the-development-of-the-cure-concerted-uranium-research-in-europe-molecular-epidemiological-protocol
#15
Yann Guéguen, Laurence Roy, Sabine Hornhardt, Christophe Badie, Janet Hall, Sarah Baatout, Eileen Pernot, Ladislav Tomasek, Olivier Laurent, Teni Ebrahimian, Chrystelle Ibanez, Stephane Grison, Sylwia Kabacik, Dominique Laurier, Maria Gomolka
Despite substantial experimental and epidemiological research, there is limited knowledge of the uranium-induce health effects after chronic low-dose exposures in humans. Biological markers can objectively characterize pathological processes or environmental responses to uranium and confounding agents. The integration of such biological markers into a molecular epidemiological study would be a useful approach to improve and refine estimations of uranium-induced health risks. To initiate such a study, Concerted Uranium Research in Europe (CURE) was established, and involves biologists, epidemiologists and dosimetrists...
January 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986931/bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-regulates-cell-cell-communication-by-down-regulating-connexin43-expression-in-luteinized-human-granulosa-cells
#16
Yan-Ting Wu, Hsun-Ming Chang, He-Feng Huang, Jian-Zhong Sheng, Peter C K Leung
STUDY QUESTION: Does bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) regulate connexin43 (Cx43) and modulate cell-cell communication in luteinized human granulosa cells? SUMMARY ANSWER: BMP2 decreases gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) of luteinized human granulosa cells by down-regulating Cx43 expression through an activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)2/ALK3-mediated Sma- and Mad-related protein (SMAD)-dependent signaling pathway. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: BMP2 and its putative receptors are highly expressed in the human corpus luteum and are involved in the process of luteolysis...
March 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914223/osteogenesis-imperfecta-new-genes-reveal-novel-mechanisms-in-bone-dysplasia
#17
REVIEW
Heeseog Kang, Smriti Aryal A C, Joan C Marini
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by fragile bones and short stature and known for its clinical and genetic heterogeneity which is now understood as a collagen-related disorder. During the last decade, research has made remarkable progress in identifying new OI-causing genes and beginning to understand the intertwined molecular and biochemical mechanisms of their gene products. Most cases of OI have dominant inheritance. Each new gene for recessive OI, and a recently identified gene for X-linked OI, has shed new light on its (often previously unsuspected) function in bone biology...
November 19, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879115/preface
#18
Avner Friedman, Mirosław Lachowicz, Urszula Ledzewicz, Monika Joanna Piotrowska, Zuzanna Szymanska
This volume was inspired by the topics presented at the international conference "Micro and Macro Systems in Life Sciences" which was held on Jun 8-12, 2015 in Będlewo, Poland. System biology is an approach which tries to understand how micro systems, at the molecular and cellular levels, affect macro systems such as organs, tissue and populations. Thus it is not surprising that a major theme of this volume evolves around cancer and its treatment. Articles on this topic include models for tumor induced angiogenesis, without and with delays, metastatic niche of the bone marrow, drug resistance and metronomic chemotherapy, and virotherapy of glioma...
February 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854193/a-comprehensive-review-on-edible-bird-nests-and-swiftlet-farming
#19
REVIEW
Lee Suan Chua, Siti Najihah Zukefli
Edible bird's nest (EBN) is currently widely consumed by the Chinese community as tonic food and functional food, which is believed to have many medicinal benefits. Some studies have reported the biochemical compositions of EBN, graded on the basis of colour, nitrate and nitrite contents. Other studies have shown significant biological effects, while ongoing research is in progress to explore potential pharmacological applications. The high demand for EBNs in the global market has forced the local regulatory bodies to monitor swiftlet farming activities, including the EBN cleaning process...
November 2016: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814607/molecular-strategies-for-modulating-wnt-signaling
#20
Carl T Gustafson, Tewodros Mamo, Avudaiappan Maran, Michael J Yaszemski
The importance of the Wnt signaling cascade in the fields of developmental biology, regenerative medicine, cancer genetics, and neurobiology has fueled a wide search for potent pharmacological agents capable of controlling Wnt signaling. Numerous fields of study have lent assistance to this endeavor, yielding both natural and synthetic compounds that are capable of inducing or inhibiting Wnt at multiple stages within the pathway. Further, there is a large of body research which has investigated endogenous Wnt inducers and inhibitors, namely the secreted Wnts, Dickkof proteins, secreted Frizzled-Related Proteins, and Wnt Inhibitory Factor-1, along with others which may act via indirect means to stimulate or inhibit Wnt (e...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
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