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Molecular biology in bone research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29967618/the-role-of-endothelial-progenitors-in-the-repair-of-vascular-damage-in-systemic-sclerosis
#1
REVIEW
Nicoletta Del Papa, Francesca Pignataro
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease characterized by a complex pathological process where the main scenario is represented by progressive loss of microvascular bed, with the consequent progressive fibrotic changes in involved organ and tissues. Although most aspects of vascular injury in scleroderma are poorly understood, recent data suggest that the scleroderma impairment of neovascularization could be related to both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis failure. Particularly, compensatory angiogenesis does not occur normally in spite of an important increase in many angiogenic factors either in SSc skin or serum...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29966233/a-review-of-the-recent-advances-made-with-sirt6-and-its-implications-on-aging-related-processes-major-human-diseases-and-possible-therapeutic-targets
#2
REVIEW
Rubayat Islam Khan, Saif Shahriar Rahman Nirzhor, Raushanara Akter
Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide⁺ (NAD⁺) dependent enzyme and stress response protein that has sparked the curiosity of many researchers in different branches of the biomedical sciences. A unique member of the known Sirtuin family, SIRT6 has several different functions in multiple different molecular pathways related to DNA repair, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, tumorigenesis, neurodegeneration, cardiac hypertrophic responses, and more. Only in recent times, however, did the potential usefulness of SIRT6 come to light as we learned more about its biochemical activity, regulation, biological roles, and structure Frye (2000)...
June 29, 2018: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908283/mir-378-and-bmp-smad-can-influence-the-proliferation-of-sheep-myoblast
#3
Zengkui Lu, Lixin Du, Ruizao Liu, Ran Di, Liping Zhang, Youji Ma, Qing Li, Enmin Liu, Mingxing Chu, Caihong Wei
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a sort of endogenous ~20-25 nt non-coding RNAs, and it can regulate a variety of biological events. We found the miR-378 may involve in regulating the muscle development of sheep during our previous research. However, the molecular mechanism of miR-378 regulating myoblast proliferation is still unclear. In this research, we predicted that BMP2 (Bone morphogenetic protein 2) was the target gene of miR-378 and the BMP-Smad signal pathway that BMP2 participated in playing an important role in the muscle development...
June 13, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888168/molecular-interaction-of-bone-marrow-adipose-tissue-with-energy-metabolism
#4
REVIEW
Karla J Suchacki, William P Cawthorn
Purpose of Review: The last decade has seen a resurgence in the study of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) across diverse fields such as metabolism, haematopoiesis, skeletal biology and cancer. Herein, we review the most recent developments of BMAT research in both humans and rodents, including the distinct nature of BMAT; the autocrine, paracrine and endocrine interactions between BMAT and various tissues, both in physiological and pathological scenarios; how these interactions might impact energy metabolism; and the most recent technological advances to quantify BMAT...
2018: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801428/minimal-residual-disease-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-a-consensus-paper-that-presents-the-clinical-impact-of-the-presently-available-laboratory-approaches
#5
Ciprian Tomuleasa, Cristina Selicean, Sonia Cismas, Anca Jurj, Mirela Marian, Delia Dima, Sergiu Pasca, Bobe Petrushev, Vlad Moisoiu, Wilhelm-Thomas Micu, Anna Vischer, Kanza Arifeen, Sonia Selicean, Mihnea Zdrenghea, Horia Bumbea, Alina Tanase, Ravnit Grewal, Laura Pop, Carmen Aanei, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a malignancy defined by the accumulation of mature lymphocytes in the lymphoid tissues, bone marrow, and blood. Therapy for CLL is guided according to the Rai and Binet staging systems. Nevertheless, state-of-the-art protocols in disease monitoring, diagnostics, and prognostics for CLL are based on the assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD). MRD is internationally considered to be the level of disease that can be detected by sensitive techniques and represents incomplete treatment and a probability of disease relapse...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696703/mcl1-gene-co-expression-module-stratifies-multiple-myeloma-and-predicts-response-to-proteasome-inhibitor-based-therapy
#6
Ayaz Ali Samo, Jiuyi Li, Min Zhou, Yingyu Sun, Yang Yuan, Yunqiu Zhang, Li Jing, Mark van Duin, Xuzhang Lu, Xiaolong Fan
Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic cancer, characterized by abnormal accumulation of plasma cells in the bone marrow. The extensive biological and clinical heterogeneity of MM hinders effective treatment and etiology research. Several molecular classification systems of prognostic impact have been proposed, but they do not predict the response to treatment nor do they correlate to plasma cell development pathways. Here we describe the classification of MM into two distinct subtypes based on the expression levels of a gene module co-expressed with MCL1 (MCL1-M), a regulator of plasma cell survival...
April 26, 2018: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695767/cutaneous-neurofibromas-in-the-genomics-era-current-understanding-and-open-questions
#7
REVIEW
Robert J Allaway, Sara J C Gosline, Salvatore La Rosa, Pamela Knight, Annette Bakker, Justin Guinney, Lu Q Le
Cutaneous neurofibromas (cNF) are a nearly ubiquitous symptom of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a disorder with a broad phenotypic spectrum caused by germline mutation of the neurofibromatosis type 1 tumour suppressor gene (NF1). Symptoms of NF1 can include learning disabilities, bone abnormalities and predisposition to tumours such as cNFs, plexiform neurofibromas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours and optic nerve tumours. There are no therapies currently approved for cNFs aside from elective surgery, and the molecular aetiology of cNF remains relatively uncharacterised...
April 26, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688859/patient-derived-xenograft-models-in-musculoskeletal-malignancies
#8
REVIEW
Wan Lu, Tu Chao, Chen Ruiqi, Su Juan, Li Zhihong
Successful oncological drug development for bone and soft tissue sarcoma is grossly stagnating. A major obstacle in this process is the lack of appropriate animal models recapitulating the complexity and heterogeneity of musculoskeletal malignancies, resulting in poor efficiency in translating the findings of basic research to clinical applications. In recent years, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models generated by directly engrafting patient-derived tumor fragments into immunocompromised mice have recaptured the attention of many researchers due to their properties of retaining the principle histopathology, biological behaviors, and molecular and genetic characteristics of the original tumor, showing promising future in both basic and clinical studies of bone and soft tissue sarcoma...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676642/immunomethylomics-a-novel-cancer-risk-prediction-tool
#9
Karl T Kelsey, John K Wiencke
There is emerging evidence that the immune biology associated with lung and other solid tumors, as well as patient immune genetic traits, contributes to individual survival. At this time, dramatic advances in immunologic approaches to the study and management of human cancers are taking place, including lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, major obstacles for therapies are the profound immune alterations in blood and in the tumor microenvironment that arise in tandem with the cancer. Although there is a significant current effort underway across the cancer research community to probe the tumor environment to uncover the dynamics of the immune response, little similar work is being done to understand the dynamics of immune alterations in peripheral blood, despite evidence showing the prognostic relevance of the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio for these cancers...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675022/immunoporosis-immunology-of-osteoporosis-role-of-t-cells
#10
REVIEW
Rupesh K Srivastava, Hamid Y Dar, Pradyumna K Mishra
The role of immune system in various bone pathologies, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis is now well established. This had led to the emergence of a modern field of systems biology called as osteoimmunology, an integrated research between fields of immunology and bone biology under one umbrella. Osteoporosis is one of the most common inflammatory bone loss condition with more than 200 million individuals affected worldwide. T helper (Th) cells along with various other immune cells are major players involved in bone homeostasis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667005/the-bmp-2-mutant-l51p-a-bmp-receptor-ia-binding-deficient-inhibitor-of-noggin
#11
REVIEW
Hany Mohamed Khattab, Satoshi Kubota, Masaharu Takigawa, Takuo Kuboki, Walter Sebald
The antagonist-specific regulation in tissue engineering constitutes important attempts to achieve an improved and rapid bone regeneration by controlling the natural biological response of the natural body growth factors. L51P is molecularly engineered bone morphogentic protein-2 (BMP-2) variant with a substitution of the 51st leucine with a proline residue. L51P is deficient in BMP receptor binding, but maintains its structure and affinity for inhibitory proteins such as noggin, chordin, and gremlin. These modifications convert the BMP-2 variant L51P into a receptor-inactive inhibitor of BMP antagonists...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663809/distributions-the-importance-of-the-chemist-s-molecular-view-for-biological-materials
#12
Rachel L Merzel, Bradford G Orr, Mark M Banaszak Holl
Characterization of materials with biological applications and assessment of physiological effects of therapeutic interventions are critical for translating research to the clinic and preventing adverse reactions. Analytical techniques typically used to characterize targeted nanomaterials and tissues rely on bulk measurement. Therefore, the resulting data represent an average structure of the sample, masking stochastic (randomly generated) distributions that are commonly present. In this Perspective, we examine almost 20 years of work our group has done in different fields to characterize and control distributions...
May 14, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661810/metastases-in-prostate-cancer
#13
Federico La Manna, Sofia Karkampouna, Eugenio Zoni, Marta De Menna, Janine Hensel, George N Thalmann, Marianna Kruithof-de Julio
Prostate cancer (PCa) prognosis and clinical outcome is directly dependent on metastatic occurrence. The bone microenvironment is a favorable metastatic niche. Different biological processes have been suggested to contribute to the osteotropism of PCa such as hemodynamics, bone-specific signaling interactions, and the "seed and soil" hypothesis. However, prevalence of disseminating tumor cells in the bone is not proportional to the actual occurrence of metastases, as not all patients will develop bone metastases...
April 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643813/skull-development-ossification-pattern-and-adult-shape-in-the-emerging-lizard-model-organism-pogona-vitticeps-a-comparative-analysis-with-other-squamates
#14
Joni Ollonen, Filipe O Da Silva, Kristin Mahlow, Nicolas Di-Poï
The rise of the Evo-Devo field and the development of multidisciplinary research tools at various levels of biological organization have led to a growing interest in researching for new non-model organisms. Squamates (lizards and snakes) are particularly important for understanding fundamental questions about the evolution of vertebrates because of their high diversity and evolutionary innovations and adaptations that portrait a striking body plan change that reached its extreme in snakes. Yet, little is known about the intricate connection between phenotype and genotype in squamates, partly due to limited developmental knowledge and incomplete characterization of embryonic development...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600575/matrix-metalloproteinase-9-expression-of-gctsc-in-peripheral-tissue-and-central-tissue-of-gctb
#15
Liang Chen, Ji Zhang, Yifeng He, Xiao-Yi Ding
Giant cell tumor stromal cell (GCTSC) is the tumor cell of giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB). The biomarkers characterization of GCTSC is critical for the selection of GCTB targeting drugs. We believe the main functions of GCTSC in different part of tumor should be different for different environment. Then the biological behavior and molecular biomarkers of GCTSC should be different as well. Based on this idea, we focused on GCTSC which located in central tissue, peripheral tissue and took MMP-9 as the breakthrough point to carry out research...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588427/molecular-mechanisms-of-glucocorticoids-on-skeleton-and-bone-regeneration-after-fracture
#16
REVIEW
Yasmine Hachemi, Anna E Rapp, Ann-Kristin Picke, Gilbert Weidinger, Anita Ignatius, Jan Tuckermann
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) have profound effects on bone metabolism. Via their nuclear hormone receptor - the GR - they act locally within bone cells and modulate their proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. Consequently, high glucocorticoid levels - as present during steroid therapy or stress - impair bone growth and integrity, leading to retarded growth and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, respectively. Because of their profound impact on the immune system and bone cell differentiation, GCs also affect bone regeneration and fracture healing...
July 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536696/-research-progress-on-pathogenesis-of-temporary-osteoporosis-in-hip
#17
REVIEW
De-Xin Wang, Fang-Gui Sun, Rui Liu, Da-Cheng Li, Yu-Tong Hu, Rong-Ming Xu
Transient osteoporosis of the hip(TOH) is classified as a type of bone marrow edema syndrome. TOH is lack of previous study and there is still controversy about his pathogenesis. In recent years, with the development of multi-discipline, such as imaging, pathology, molecular biology, the study has found that the pathological mechanism is complex, while its mechanism is still not clear, which need further research. This paper summarizes the research progress on the pathogenesis of TOH from neurogenic, osteonecrosis, abnormal vascular function, subchondral fracture, heredity and regional acceleration and son on...
February 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502723/otosclerosis-from-genetics-to-molecular-biology
#18
REVIEW
Thomas A Babcock, Xue Zhong Liu
Over the past several years, with the evolution of genetic and molecular research, several etiologic factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of otosclerosis. Overall, current evidence suggests that otosclerosis is a complex disease with a variety of potential pathways contributing to the development of abnormal bone remodeling in the otic capsule. These pathways involved in the pathogenesis of otosclerosis are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors.
April 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459078/biomechanical-histologic-and-molecular-evaluation-of-tendon-healing-in-a-new-murine-model-of-rotator-cuff-repair
#19
Amir H Lebaschi, Xiang-Hua Deng, Christopher L Camp, Jianchun Zong, Guang-Ting Cong, Camila B Carballo, Zoe Album, Scott A Rodeo
PURPOSE: To develop a clinically relevant, robust murine model of rotator cuff tendon repair to examine cellular and molecular mechanisms of healing. METHODS: Sixty C57BL/6 male mice underwent rotator cuff transection and repair using microsurgical techniques. A modified Kessler suturing technique was used prior to tendon detachment. Sutures were passed through 2 intersecting bone tunnels that were made at the tendon attachment site. Mice were sacrificed at 2 and 4 weeks with subsequent biomechanical, histologic, micro-CT, and gene expression evaluations...
April 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437880/molecular-regulation-of-follicle-stimulating-hormone-synthesis-secretion-and-action
#20
REVIEW
Nandana Das, T Rajendra Kumar
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays fundamental roles in male and female fertility. FSH is a heterodimeric glycoprotein expressed by gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary. The hormone-specific FSHβ-subunit is non-covalently associated with the common α-subunit that is also present in the luteinizing hormone (LH), another gonadotrophic hormone secreted by gonadotrophs and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted by thyrotrophs. Several decades of research led to the purification, structural characterization and physiological regulation of FSH in a variety of species including humans...
April 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
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