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Molecular biology in bone research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914223/osteogenesis-imperfecta-new-genes-reveal-novel-mechanisms-in-bone-dysplasia
#1
REVIEW
Heeseog Kang, A C S Aryal, Joan C Marini
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by fragile bones and short stature and known for its clinical and genetic heterogeneity which is now understood as a collagen-related disorder. During the last decade, research has made remarkable progress in identifying new OI-causing genes and beginning to understand the intertwined molecular and biochemical mechanisms of their gene products. Most cases of OI have dominant inheritance. Each new gene for recessive OI, and a recently identified gene for X-linked OI, has shed new light on its (often previously unsuspected) function in bone biology...
November 19, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879115/preface
#2
Avner Friedman, Mirosław Lachowicz, Urszula Ledzewicz, Monika Joanna Piotrowska, Zuzanna Szymanska
This volume was inspired by the topics presented at the international conference "Micro and Macro Systems in Life Sciences" which was held on Jun 8-12, 2015 in Będlewo, Poland. System biology is an approach which tries to understand how micro systems, at the molecular and cellular levels, affect macro systems such as organs, tissue and populations. Thus it is not surprising that a major theme of this volume evolves around cancer and its treatment. Articles on this topic include models for tumor induced angiogenesis, without and with delays, metastatic niche of the bone marrow, drug resistance and metronomic chemotherapy, and virotherapy of glioma...
February 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854193/a-comprehensive-review-on-edible-bird-nests-and-swiftlet-farming
#3
REVIEW
Lee Suan Chua, Siti Najihah Zukefli
Edible bird's nest (EBN) is currently widely consumed by the Chinese community as tonic food and functional food, which is believed to have many medicinal benefits. Some studies have reported the biochemical compositions of EBN, graded on the basis of colour, nitrate and nitrite contents. Other studies have shown significant biological effects, while ongoing research is in progress to explore potential pharmacological applications. The high demand for EBNs in the global market has forced the local regulatory bodies to monitor swiftlet farming activities, including the EBN cleaning process...
November 2016: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814607/molecular-strategies-for-modulating-wnt-signaling
#4
Carl T Gustafson, Tewodros Mamo, Avudaiappan Maran, Michael J Yaszemski
The importance of the Wnt signaling cascade in the fields of developmental biology, regenerative medicine, cancer genetics, and neurobiology has fueled a wide search for potent pharmacological agents capable of controlling Wnt signaling. Numerous fields of study have lent assistance to this endeavor, yielding both natural and synthetic compounds that are capable of inducing or inhibiting Wnt at multiple stages within the pathway. Further, there is a large of body research which has investigated endogenous Wnt inducers and inhibitors, namely the secreted Wnts, Dickkof proteins, secreted Frizzled-Related Proteins, and Wnt Inhibitory Factor-1, along with others which may act via indirect means to stimulate or inhibit Wnt (e...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807202/estrogens-and-androgens-in-skeletal-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#5
REVIEW
Maria Almeida, Michaël R Laurent, Vanessa Dubois, Frank Claessens, Charles A O'Brien, Roger Bouillon, Dirk Vanderschueren, Stavros C Manolagas
Estrogens and androgens influence the growth and maintenance of the mammalian skeleton and are responsible for its sexual dimorphism. Estrogen deficiency at menopause or loss of both estrogens and androgens in elderly men contribute to the development of osteoporosis, one of the most common and impactful metabolic diseases of old age. In the last 20 years, basic and clinical research advances, genetic insights from humans and rodents, and newer imaging technologies have changed considerably the landscape of our understanding of bone biology as well as the relationship between sex steroids and the physiology and pathophysiology of bone metabolism...
January 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785511/investigation-of-the-adhesive-characteristics-of-polymer-protein-systems-through-molecular-dynamics-simulation-and-their-relation-to-cell-adhesion-and-proliferation
#6
Amir Shamloo, Morteza Sarmadi
Protein adhesion is a prevalent, however, intricate phenomenon that occurs immediately after exposure of a biomaterial to the biological system. A study on the adhesive characteristics of biomaterial-protein systems has encountered serious hurdles as experimental methods cannot properly capture the initial stages of protein adhesion, taking place within nano/picoseconds. This propels research studies toward utilizing computational approaches to gain an understanding of the interactions between different proteins and biomaterial surfaces...
December 5, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714408/single-cell-biology-beyond-the-era-of-antibodies-relevance-challenges-and-promises-in-biomedical-research
#7
Parvin Abraham, Tessy Thomas Maliekal
Research of the past two decades has proved the relevance of single cell biology in basic research and translational medicine. Successful detection and isolation of specific subsets is the key to understand their functional heterogeneity. Antibodies are conventionally used for this purpose, but their relevance in certain contexts is limited. In this review, we discuss some of these contexts, posing bottle neck for different fields of biology including biomedical research. With the advancement of chemistry, several methods have been introduced to overcome these problems...
October 6, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713567/an-animal-model-of-modic-changes-by-embedding-autogenous-nucleus-pulposus-inside-subchondral-bone-of-lumbar-vertebrae
#8
Chao Han, Tao Wang, Hong-Qiang Jiang, Jian-Xiong Ma, Peng Tian, Jia-Cheng Zang, Xin-Long Ma
The establishment of Modic changes (MCs) in animal model was vital for research of MCs. Fifty-four rabbits were divided into a sham group, a muscle embedment group (ME group) and nucleus pulposus (NP) embedment group (NPE group). In the NPE group, the discs were exposed by the lumbar anterolateral surgical approach. A needle was used to puncture the L5 vertebral body close to the endplate. NP was extracted by a syringe from L1/2 intervertebral discs and then injected into the drilled hole of subchondral bone...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711028/platelet-rich-fibrin-a-boon-in-regenerative-endodontics
#9
Priyanka D Rebentish, Girish Umashetty, Harpreet Kaur, Trupthi Doizode, Mithun Kaslekar, Shouvik Chowdhury
Research into regenerative dentistry has contributed momentum to the field of molecular biology. Periapical surgery aims at removing periapical pathology to achieve complete wound healing and regeneration of bone and periodontal tissue. Regenerative endodontic procedures are widely being added to the current armamentarium of pulp therapy procedures. The regenerative potential of platelets has been deliberated. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a wonderful tissue-engineering product and has recently gained much popularity due its promising results in wound healing bone induction...
December 2016: Minerva Stomatologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699910/positron-emission-tomography-of-the-equine-distal-limb-exploratory-study
#10
Mathieu Spriet, Pablo Espinosa, Andre Z Kyme, Pavel Stepanov, Val Zavarzin, Stephen Schaeffer, Scott A Katzman, Larry D Galuppo, David Beylin
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive, noninvasive imaging technique for quantifying biological functions of tissues. However, at the time of this study, PET imaging applications had not been reported in the horse. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine whether a portable high-resolution PET scanner could be used to image the equine distal limb. Images of the front feet and fetlocks of three research horses, with known lesions localized to the distal front limbs, were acquired under general anesthesia after administration of (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG), with doses ranging from 1...
October 4, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658728/bone-tissue-regeneration-application-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms
#11
Jin Zhang, Jake Chen
The regeneration of damaged bone tissues to a pre-disease state has been a major goal for both clinicians and researchers worldwide. However, critical-sized bone defects which are unable to heal completely are a major clinical concern because effective, evidence-based regenerative therapy is still missing. Bone tissue engineering, aiming at providing novel and effective materials to promote bone regeneration, has been considered as a promising alternative to the traditional use of autografts, allografts and xenografts based on the fact that engineered bone tissue has limitless supply and has no disease transmission...
September 21, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651797/establishment-and-characterization-of-a-human-small-cell-osteosarcoma-cancer-stem-cell-line-a-new-possible-in-vitro-model-for-discovering-small-cell-osteosarcoma-biology
#12
Gaia Palmini, Roberto Zonefrati, Cecilia Romagnoli, Alessandra Aldinucci, Carmelo Mavilia, Gigliola Leoncini, Alessandro Franchi, Rodolfo Capanna, Maria Luisa Brandi
Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor, usually arising in the long bones of children and young adults. There are different subtypes of OSA, among which we find the conventional OS (also called medullary or central osteosarcoma) which has a high grade of malignancy and an incidence of 80%. There are different subtypes of high grade OS like chondroblastic, fibroblastic, osteoblastic, telangiectatic, and the small cell osteosarcoma (SCO). In this study, for the first time, we have isolated, established, and characterized a cell line of cancer stem cells (CSCs) from a human SCO...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630997/canine-lymphoma-more-than-a-morphological-diagnosis-what-we-have-learned-about-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#13
REVIEW
Luca Aresu
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common canine aggressive B-cell lymphoma worldwide, and new recent molecular approaches have shown that DLBCL constitutes a heterogeneous tumor that cannot be unraveled by morphology and immunophenotype. DLBCL behaves aggressively, typically progressing over a short period of time, and the therapy response may be difficult to be predicted. Recently, the rate of bone marrow infiltration by flow cytometry has been demonstrated to be prognostic, but more sensible markers are needed...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519973/diffusion-weighted-imaging-and-the-skeletal-system-a-literature-review
#14
REVIEW
K Yao, J M Troupis
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence that has a well-established role in neuroimaging, and is increasingly being utilised in other clinical contexts, including the assessment of various skeletal disorders. It utilises the variability of Brownian motion of water molecules; the differing patterns of water molecular diffusion in various biological tissues help determine the contrast obtained in DWI. Although early research on the clinical role of DWI focused mainly on the field of neuroimaging, there are now more studies demonstrating the promising role DWI has in the diagnosis and monitoring of various osseous diseases...
November 2016: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479184/differentiation-stage-of-myeloma-plasma-cells-biological-and-clinical-significance
#15
B Paiva, N Puig, M T Cedena, B G de Jong, Y Ruiz, I Rapado, J Martinez-Lopez, L Cordon, D Alignani, J A Delgado, M C van Zelm, J J M Van Dongen, M Pascual, X Agirre, F Prosper, J I Martín-Subero, M-B Vidriales, N C Gutierrez, M T Hernandez, A Oriol, M A Echeveste, Y Gonzalez, S K Johnson, J Epstein, B Barlogie, G J Morgan, A Orfao, J Blade, M V Mateos, J J Lahuerta, J F San-Miguel
The notion that plasma cells (PCs) are terminally differentiated has prevented intensive research in multiple myeloma (MM) about their phenotypic plasticity and differentiation. Here, we demonstrated in healthy individuals (n=20) that the CD19-CD81 expression axis identifies three bone marrow (BM)PC subsets with distinct age-prevalence, proliferation, replication-history, immunoglobulin-production, and phenotype, consistent with progressively increased differentiation from CD19+CD81+ into CD19-CD81+ and CD19-CD81- BMPCs...
September 16, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436341/the-hematopoietic-stem-cell-niche-in-health-and-leukemia
#16
Abel Sánchez-Aguilera, Simón Méndez-Ferrer
Research in the last decade has shown that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) interact with and are modulated by a complex multicellular microenvironment in the bone marrow, which includes both the HSC progeny and multiple non-hematopoietic cell types. Intense work is gradually throwing light on the composition of the HSC niche and the molecular cues exchanged between its components, which has implications for HSC production, maintenance and expansion. In addition, it has become apparent that bidirectional interactions between leukemic cells and their niche play a previously unrecognized role in the initiation and development of hematological malignancies...
July 19, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388325/efficacy-of-sorafenib-in-braf-mutated-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-and-no-response-in-synchronous-braf-wild-type-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-case-report
#17
Andrea Casadei Gardini, Elisa Chiadini, Luca Faloppi, Giorgia Marisi, Angelo Delmonte, Mario Scartozzi, Cristian Loretelli, Alessandro Lucchesi, Devil Oboldi, Alessandra Dubini, Giovanni Luca Frassineti, Paola Ulivi
BACKGROUND: Sorafenib is a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor with a demonstrated activity in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and it is currently used for the treatment of these pathologies. Ongoing clinical trials are studying its activity in other malignancies, such as non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, no biological marker is known to define either the sensitivity or resistance to the drug. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report a case of a patient with two synchronous tumors, HCC and NSCLC, with metastases in the contralateral lung and bone...
2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384718/advances-in-bone-targeted-drug-delivery-systems-for-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-for-osteosarcoma
#18
Cheng-Jun Li, Xiao-Zhou Liu, Lei Zhang, Long-Bang Chen, Xin Shi, Su-Jia Wu, Jian-Ning Zhao
Targeted therapy for osteosarcoma includes organ, cell and molecular biological targeting; of these, organ targeting is the most mature. Bone-targeted drug delivery systems are used to concentrate chemotherapeutic drugs in bone tissues, thus potentially resolving the problem of reaching the desired foci and minimizing the toxicity and adverse effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Some progress has been made in bone-targeted drug delivery systems for treatment of osteosarcoma; however, most are still at an experimental stage and there is a long transitional period to clinical application...
May 2016: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382767/-strategies-to-choose-scaffold-materials-for-tissue-engineering
#19
REVIEW
Qingdong Gao, Xulong Zhu, Junxi Xiang, Yi Lü, Jianhui Li
Current therapies of organ failure or a wide range of tissue defect are often not ideal. Transplantation is the only effective way for long time survival. But it is hard to meet huge patients demands because of donor shortage, immune rejection and other problems. Tissue engineering could be a potential option. Choosing a suitable scaffold material is an essential part of it. According to different sources, tissue engineering scaffold materials could be divided into three types which are natural and its modified materials, artificial and composite ones...
February 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355317/a-track-record-on-shox-from-basic-research-to-complex-models-and-therapy
#20
Antonio Marchini, Tsutomu Ogata, Gudrun A Rappold
SHOX deficiency is the most frequent genetic growth disorder associated with isolated and syndromic forms of short stature. Caused by mutations in the homeobox gene SHOX, its varied clinical manifestations include isolated short stature, Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis, and Langer mesomelic dysplasia. In addition, SHOX deficiency contributes to the skeletal features in Turner syndrome. Causative SHOX mutations have allowed downstream pathology to be linked to defined molecular lesions. Expression levels of SHOX are tightly regulated, and almost half of the pathogenic mutations have affected enhancers...
August 2016: Endocrine Reviews
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