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Molecular biology in bone research

Thomas A Babcock, Xue Zhong Liu
Over the past several years, with the evolution of genetic and molecular research, several etiologic factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of otosclerosis. Overall, current evidence suggests that otosclerosis is a complex disease with a variety of potential pathways contributing to the development of abnormal bone remodeling in the otic capsule. These pathways involved in the pathogenesis of otosclerosis are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors.
April 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Amir H Lebaschi, Xiang-Hua Deng, Christopher L Camp, Jianchun Zong, Guang-Ting Cong, Camila B Carballo, Zoe Album, Scott A Rodeo
PURPOSE: To develop a clinically relevant, robust murine model of rotator cuff tendon repair to examine cellular and molecular mechanisms of healing. METHODS: Sixty C57BL/6 male mice underwent rotator cuff transection and repair using microsurgical techniques. A modified Kessler suturing technique was used prior to tendon detachment. Sutures were passed through 2 intersecting bone tunnels that were made at the tendon attachment site. Mice were sacrificed at 2 and 4 weeks with subsequent biomechanical, histologic, micro-CT, and gene expression evaluations...
February 16, 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Nandana Das, Rajendra Kumar
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays fundamental roles in male and female fertility. FSH is a heterodimeric glycoprotein expressed by gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary. The hormone-specific FSH-subunit is non-covalently associated with the common -subunit that is also present in the luteinizing hormone (LH), another gonadotrophic hormone secreted by gonadotropes and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted by thyrotrophs. Several decades of research led to the purification, structural characterization and physiological regulation of FSH in a variety of species including humans...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Felice Rivellese, Antonio Lobasso, Letizia Barbieri, Bianca Liccardo, Amato De Paulis, Francesca Wanda Rossi
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by synovial inflammation and hyperplasia, autoantibody production, cartilage and bone destruction and several systemic features. Cardiovascular, pulmonary, psychological, and muscle involvement are the main comorbidities of RA and are responsible for the severity of the disease and long-term prognosis. Pharmacological treatment of rheumatic diseases has evolved remarkably over the past years. In addition, the widespread adoption of treat to target and tight control strategies has led to a substantial improvement of outcomes, so that drug-free remission is nowadays a realistic goal in the treatment of RA...
February 9, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Shoucheng Chen, Yuanlong Guo, Runheng Liu, Shiyu Wu, Jinghan Fang, Baoxin Huang, Zhipeng Li, Zhuofan Chen, Zetao Chen
Osteoblast cell adhesion is the initial step of early osseointegration responding to bone material implants. Enhancing the osteoblastic cell adhesion has become one of the prime aims when optimizing the surface properties of bone biomaterials. The traditional strategy focuses in improving the physical attachment of osteoblastic cells onto the surfaces of biomaterials. However, instead of a simple cell physical attachment, the osteoblastic cell adhesion has been revealed to be a sophisticated system. Despite the well-documented effect of bone biomaterial surface modifications on adhesion, few studies have focused on the underlying molecular mechanisms...
January 24, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Stavros C Manolagas
During the last 40 years, understanding of bone biology and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, the most common and impactful bone disease of old age, has improved dramatically thanks to basic and clinical research advances, genetic insights from humans and rodents, and newer imaging technologies. Culprits of osteoporosis are no longer a matter of speculation based on in vitro observations. Instead, they can be identified and dissected at the cellular and molecular level using genetic approaches; and their effect on distinct bone envelopes and anatomic regions can be functionally assessed in vivo...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Shusuke Akamatsu, Takahiro Inoue, Osamu Ogawa, Martin E Gleave
Treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer is a lethal form of prostate cancer that emerges in the later stages of castration-resistant prostate cancer treatment. Treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer transdifferentiates from adenocarcinoma as an adaptive response to androgen receptor pathway inhibition. The incidence of treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer has been rising due to the increasing use of potent androgen receptor pathway inhibitors. Typically, treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer is characterized by either low or absent androgen receptor expression, small cell carcinoma morphology and expression of neuroendocrine markers...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Bruce Caterson, James Melrose
From an evolutionary perspective keratan sulphate (KS) is the newest glycosaminoglycan (GAG) but the least understood. KS is a sophisticated molecule with a diverse structure, and unique functional roles continue to be uncovered for this GAG. The cornea is the richest tissue source of KS in the human body but the central and peripheral nervous systems also contain significant levels of KS and a diverse range of KS-proteoglycans with essential functional roles. KS also displays important cell regulatory properties in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues and in bone and in tumour development of diagnostic and prognostic utility...
January 11, 2018: Glycobiology
Matthew C Walsh, Noriko Takegahara, Hyunsoo Kim, Yongwon Choi
Osteoimmunology encompasses all aspects of the cross-regulation of bone and the immune system, including various cell types, signalling pathways, cytokines and chemokines, under both homeostatic and pathogenic conditions. A number of key areas are of increasing interest and relevance to osteoimmunology researchers. Although rheumatoid arthritis has long been recognized as one of the most common autoimmune diseases to affect bone integrity, researchers have focused increased attention on understanding how molecular triggers and innate signalling pathways (such as Toll-like receptors and purinergic signalling pathways) related to pathogenic and/or commensal microbiota are relevant to bone biology and rheumatic diseases...
March 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
Elena Pilli, Stefania Vai, Marina Grazia Caruso, Giancarlo D'Errico, Andrea Berti, David Caramelli
One of the major challenges of molecular biology in anthropological analysis is the identification via DNA typing of bone or teeth samples that can be collected from archaeological site in order to investigate kinship relationships. Due to the difficulties of isolating and analysing DNA from such samples, several efforts have been made to solve these problems, but less work has been conducted to identify the proper type of bone samples for the DNA analysis. Therefore, following the promising results obtained from the DNA analysis of petrous bones by different groups of researchers, for the first time, here we investigated the possibility of using petrous bones as skeletal elements useful for short tandem repeat (STR) typing via capillary electrophoresis technique in ancient bone samples...
December 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
Sheng Zhou, Ling Yu, Min Xiong, Guo Dai
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor and has a high fatality rate in children and adolescents. Recently, an increasing amount of evidence has demonstrated that lncRNAs have crucial roles in regulating biological characteristics in malignant tumors. Therefore, this research was carried out to uncover the biological function and the potential molecular mechanism of SNHG12 in osteosarcoma. In this study, we found that SNHG12 was significantly upregulated in both osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines and osteosarcoma patients with high levels of SNHG12 tended to have a poor prognosis...
January 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Seth M Pollack, Matthew Ingham, Matthew B Spraker, Gary K Schwartz
Soft tissue and bone sarcomas are malignancies of mesenchymal origin, and more than 50 subtypes are defined. For most sarcomas, locally advanced or unresectable disease is still treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy. Recently, our understanding of subtype-specific cancer biology has expanded, and it has revealed distinct molecular alterations responsible for tumor initiation and progression. These findings have motivated the development of targeted therapies that are being evaluated in subtype-specific or biomarker-driven clinical trials...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Moyuan Deng, Keyu Luo, Tianyong Hou, Fei Luo, Zhao Xie, Zehua Zhang, Aijun Yang, Bo Yu, Shaoxuan Yi, Jiulin Tan, Shiwu Dong, Jianzhong Xu
The extracellular matrix (ECM) contains rich biological cues for cell recruitment, proliferationm, and even differentiation. The osteoinductive potential of scaffolds could be enhanced through human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hBMSC) directly depositing ECM on surface of scaffolds. However, the role and mechanism of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSC)-secreted ECM in bone formation remain unknown. We tested the osteoinductive properties of a hUCMSC-secreted ECM construct (hUCMSC-ECM) in a large femur defect of a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yoko Tabe, Marina Konopleva
The dynamic interactions between leukemic cells and bone marrow (BM) cells in the leukemia BM microenvironment regulate leukemia stem cell (LSC) properties including localization, self-renewal, differentiation, and proliferation. Recent research of normal and leukemia BM microenvironments has revealed several key components of specific niches that provide a sanctuary where subpopulations of leukemia cells evade chemotherapy-induced death and acquire a drug-resistant phenotype, as well as the molecular pathways critical for microenvironment/leukemia interactions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Elisa Torre
For millennia, in the different cultures all over the world, plants have been extensively used as a source of therapeutic agents with wide-ranging medicinal applications, thus becoming part of a rational clinical and pharmacological investigation over the years. As bioactive molecules, plant-derived polyphenols have been demonstrated to exert many effects on human health by acting on different biological systems, thus their therapeutic potential would represent a novel approach on which natural product-based drug discovery and development could be based in the future...
2017: Phytochemistry Reviews: Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
Jung-Ren Chen, Yu-Heng Lai, Jhih-Jie Tsai, Chung-Der Hsiao
Currently, drug screening relies on cell-based experiments or on animal models to confirm biological effects. The mammalian system is considered too time-consuming, expensive and complex to perform high-throughput drug screening. There is a gap between in vitro cell-based models and the in vivo mammalian models. The zebrafish is an ideal model that could link preclinical toxicity screening with the drug development pipeline. Taking advantage of a highly conservative genomic, rapid development, large number of offspring, low cost and easy manipulation, zebrafish has been considered an excellent animal model for disease-based drug screening...
November 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xingnong Ye, Dan Chen, Yan Zheng, Xiaoqiong Zhu, Junkai Fu, Jian Huang
Objective: Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is one of the Philadelphia negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). The main clinical features are obvious physical symptoms and symptomatic splenomegaly. It may be converse to leukemia and has a shortened life expectancy. Nowadays, the therapy for PMF is aimed at maintaining comfort and there is no curative treatment. PMF with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), called MDS/MPN-u, is rare and the treatment is complex. In this study, we want to discuss an effective treatment for MDS/MPN via a case report and literature review...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
Maryam Majidinia, Javad Aghazadeh, Rana Jahanban-Esfahlani, Bahman Yousefi
Regenerative medicine is a translational field which combines tissue engineering and molecular biology to construct spare organs or help injured or defective tissues to regenerate or restore their normal functions. This is particularly important with specific organs such as heart, central nervous system, retina, or limbs which possess very limited regenerative capacity. As such, regenerative medicine has received peculiar attention in the last decade. In this regard, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has been subject to intensive research, since it plays many essential roles in the regulation of the progenitor cell fate, developmental decisions, proliferation during embryonic development, and adult tissue homeostasis...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Zhihui Zhong, Sifeng Mao, Haifeng Lin, Jin-Ming Lin, Jianhua Lin
Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant tumour found in bones, and it has a poor prognosis. For improved therapy, it is significant to have a deep understanding of the proteomics changes in the cancer stem cells (CSCs) of osteosarcoma. Therefore, a comparative proteomics approach based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer (UHPLC-Orbitrap Fusion MS) was established to investigate the key molecular changes between CSCs and non-CSCs in human osteosarcoma HOS cells...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
Lydie Da Costa, Marie-Françoise O'Donohue, Birgit van Dooijeweert, Katarzyna Albrecht, Sule Unal, Ugo Ramenghi, Thierry Leblanc, Irma Dianzani, Hannah Tamary, Marije Bartels, Pierre-Emmanuel Gleizes, Marcin Wlodarski, Alyson W MacInnes
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare congenital erythroblastopenia and inherited bone marrow failure syndrome that affects approximately seven individuals in every million live births. In addition to anemia, about 50% of all DBA patients suffer from various physical malformations of the face, hands, heart, or urogenital region. The disorder is almost exclusively driven by haploinsufficient mutations in one of several ribosomal protein (RP) genes, although for ∼30% of diagnosed patients no mutation is found in any of the known DBA-linked genes...
October 26, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
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