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Molecular biology in bone research

Maria De Santis, Berardo Di Matteo, Emanuele Chisari, Gilberto Cincinelli, Peter Angele, Christian Lattermann, Giuseppe Filardo, Nicolò Danilo Vitale, Carlo Selmi, Elizaveta Kon
Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by articular cartilage degradation, subchondral damage, and bone remodelling, affecting most commonly weight-bearing joints, such as the knee and hip. The loss of cartilage leads to joint space narrowing, pain, and loss of function which could ultimately require total joint replacement. The Wnt/ β catenin pathway is involved in the pathophysiology of OA and has been proposed as a therapeutic target. Endogenous and pharmacological inhibitors of this pathway were recently investigated within innovative therapies including the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Shih-Shih Chen
Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are created by implantation of tumor cells into immunodeficient mice. These models maintain similar morphology and molecular profiling of the original tumors, and therefore have been extensively used in cancer research in both the basic and preclinical fields. Here, we describe a PDX model of CLL using autologous activated T cells to support CLL B-cell growth in lymphoid tissues such as spleen and bone marrow. This model allows one to perform in vivo preclinical and biological studies for this clinically and molecularly heterogeneous disease...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ping Li, Hua Zhang, Dong Wang, Yingjie Tao, Lun Zhang, Wenchao Zhang, Xudong Wang
A sensitive and highly efficient approach to monitor the expression of proteins on live cells was urgently needed to demonstrate its factor and mechanism and most important for clinical diagnostics and molecular biology. Herein, we developed a simple and highly efficient strategy, nonlinear hybridization chain reaction (nonlinear HCR), for the sensitive determination of proteins on live cells with transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) and RAW264.7 cells as a model. Unlike the normal hybridization chain reaction (HCR) with multiplicative amplification, an exponential amplified fluorescent response could be obtained in theory based on the proposed nonlinear HCR...
December 24, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Germano Guerra, Fabio Perrotta, Gianluca Testa
Pulmonary vascular disorders (PVDs) include primary or secondary diseases who influence the right heart function. Several researches showed that stem and progenitor cells may represent a novel approach in treating pulmonary hypertension. In particular, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are mobilized either from the bone marrow and/or arteries to replace dysfunctional endothelial cells and restore blood perfusion to ischemic tissues. They may deliver paracrine signals to stimulate local angiogenesis or may be physically incorporated within neovessels...
October 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Rieko Oyama, Fusako Kito, Zhiwei Qiao, Marimu Sakumoto, Rei Noguchi, Mami Takahashi, Shunichi Toki, Yoshikazu Tanzawa, Akihiko Yoshida, Akira Kawai, Tadashi Kondo
Ewing's sarcoma is an aggressive mesenchymal tumor characterized by the presence of a unique EWSR1-FLI1 translocation. Ewing's sarcoma primarily occurs in the bone and soft tissues. Cell lines enable researchers to investigate the molecular backgrounds of disease and the significance of genetic alterations in relevant cellular contexts. Here, we report the establishment and characterization of a novel Ewing's sarcoma cell line following primary Ewing's sarcoma tumor tissue culture. The established cell line was authenticated by DNA microsatellite short tandem repeat analysis, characterized by in vitro assays, and named NCC-ES1-C1...
October 15, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Natalie A Twine, Linda Harkness, James Adjaye, Abdullah Aldahmash, Marc R Wilkins, Moustapha Kassem
Long-term in vitro expansion of bone marrow stromal (skeletal) stem cells (also known as human mesenchymal stem cells [hMSC]) is associated with replicative senescence and impaired functions. We have previously reported that telomerization of hMSC through hTERT overexpression led to bypassing a replicative senescence phenotype and improved in vitro and in vivo functions. However, the molecular consequence of telomerization is poorly characterized. Thus, we compared the molecular phenotype of a well-studied telomerized hMSC (hMSC-TERT) cell line with primary hMSC...
September 2018: JBMR Plus
Germano Guerra, Fabio Perrotta, Gianluca Testa
Pulmonary vascular disorders (PVDs) include primary or secondary diseases who ultimately influence the right heart function. Several researches showed that stem and progenitor cells may represent a novel approach in treating pulmonary hypertension. In particular, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are mobilized either from the bone marrow and/or arteries to replace dysfunctional endothelial cells and restore blood perfusion to ischemic tissues. They may deliver paracrine signals to stimulate local angiogenesis or may be physically incorporated within neovessels...
September 27, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Suresh K Nayar, Eric J Dein, Johnathan A Bernard, Bashir A Zikria, Andrea M Spiker
Background: Much of current clinical orthopedics traces its origin to basic science investigation of cellular and biochemical pathways, tissue engineering, and biomechanics of bone and joint physiology in animal and cadaveric models. Questions/Purposes: We sought to describe research trends in highly cited basic science studies in orthopedics. Methods: By searching Web of Science, we identified the 100 most cited basic science orthopedics articles and focused on author position and degree (PhD, MD, or MD/PhD), topic, type of study, country, institution, and citation trends...
October 2018: HSS Journal: the Musculoskeletal Journal of Hospital for Special Surgery
Peter G Kroth, Atle M Bones, Fayza Daboussi, Maria I Ferrante, Marianne Jaubert, Misha Kolot, Marianne Nymark, Carolina Río Bártulos, Andrés Ritter, Monia T Russo, Manuel Serif, Per Winge, Angela Falciatore
Diatoms are major components of phytoplankton and play a key role in the ecology of aquatic ecosystems. These algae are of great scientific importance for a wide variety of research areas, ranging from marine ecology and oceanography to biotechnology. During the last 20 years, the availability of genomic information on selected diatom species and a substantial progress in genetic manipulation, strongly contributed to establishing diatoms as molecular model organisms for marine biology research. Recently, tailored TALEN endonucleases and the CRISPR/Cas9 system were utilized in diatoms, allowing targeted genetic modifications and the generation of knockout strains...
October 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Tayyaba Gul Malik, Syed Shoaib Ahmed, Roquyya Gul, Eiman Ayesha
OBJECTIVE: To compare the serum proangiogenic biomarkers in diabetic patients suffering from with and without diabetic retinopathy (DR). STUDY DESIGN: An observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Arif Memorial Teaching Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan and Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology/Centre for Research in Molecular Medicine, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan, from March to December 2017. METHODOLOGY: Forty patients with DR were included in group A and 15 patients without retinopathy (controls) were included in group B...
September 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Martina Sladkova, Jiayi Joy Cheng, Michael Palmer, Silvia Chen, Charles Lin, Wei Xia, Yue Eric Yu, Bin Zhou, Håkan Engqvist, Giuseppe Maria de Peppo
Bone engineering makes it possible to grow unlimited amounts of viable tissue products for basic and applied research, and for clinical applications. A common trend in tissue engineering is the use of decellularized tissue matrices as scaffolding materials, which display structural, mechanical, and biological attributes typical of the native tissue. Due to the limited availability and high cost of human samples, decellularized tissue matrices are typically derived from animal sources. It is unclear, however, whether interspecies differences in tissue parameters will influence the quality of tissue grafts that are engineered using human stem cells...
August 21, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Berenice Fernández-Rojas, Gloria Gutiérrez-Venegas
Flavonoids are plant-derived polyphenolic compounds claimed to help alleviate a variety of conditions, including diabetes, infectious endocarditis, and cancer. They have attracted substantial research interest as nutraceuticals owing to their diverse bioactivities. Periodontitis is a high-incidence inflammatory disease affecting the dentition-supporting periodontium. Although the etiology of periodontitis is diverse, microbial species in dental plaque are considered its main pathogenic agents. Here, we provide a review of flavonoid study findings relevant for periodontitis treatment and prevention...
September 15, 2018: Life Sciences
Rafael da Costa Monsanto, Henrique Furlan Pauna, Michael M Paparella, Sebahattin Cureoglu
: Human temporal bone studies have documented the pathophysiologic basis of many pathologic conditions and diseases affecting the ear, contributing to the development of specific clinical knowledge and pathology-oriented treatments. Researchers dedicated to the study of anatomy and histology of the temporal bone emanated from Europe to the United States during the first part of the 20th Century. The first otopathology laboratory was founded in the United States in 1924, at Johns Hopkins University; over time, the otopathology laboratories-considered by some authors as "gold mines" for studying ear diseases-became numerous and very prolific...
October 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Yahui Kong, Chih-Heng Hsieh, Laura C Alonso
The CDKN2A/B genomic locus is associated with risk of human cancers and metabolic disease. Although the locus contains several important protein-coding genes, studies suggest disease roles for a lesser-known antisense lncRNA encoded at this locus, called ANRIL . ANRIL is a complex gene containing at least 21 exons in simians, with many reported linear and circular isoforms. Like other genes, abundance of ANRIL is regulated by epigenetics, classic transcription regulation, splicing, and post-transcriptional influences such as RNA stability and microRNAs...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Carolyn M Klinge, Barbara J Clark, Russell A Prough
The discovery of "oestrus-producing" hormones was a major research breakthrough in biochemistry and pharmacology during the early part of the 20th century. The elucidation of the molecular weight and chemical structure of major oxidative metabolites of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) led to the award of the Nobel Prize in 1939 to Adolf Frederick Johann Butenandt and Leopold Ruzicka. Considered a bulk androgen in the circulation, DHEA and its sulfated metabolite DHEA-S can be taken up by most tissues where the sterols are metabolized to active androgenic and estrogenic compounds needed for growth and development...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Nicoletta Del Papa, Francesca Pignataro
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease characterized by a complex pathological process where the main scenario is represented by progressive loss of microvascular bed, with the consequent progressive fibrotic changes in involved organ and tissues. Although most aspects of vascular injury in scleroderma are poorly understood, recent data suggest that the scleroderma impairment of neovascularization could be related to both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis failure. Particularly, compensatory angiogenesis does not occur normally in spite of an important increase in many angiogenic factors either in SSc skin or serum...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Rubayat Islam Khan, Saif Shahriar Rahman Nirzhor, Raushanara Akter
Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide⁺ (NAD⁺) dependent enzyme and stress response protein that has sparked the curiosity of many researchers in different branches of the biomedical sciences. A unique member of the known Sirtuin family, SIRT6 has several different functions in multiple different molecular pathways related to DNA repair, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, tumorigenesis, neurodegeneration, cardiac hypertrophic responses, and more. Only in recent times, however, did the potential usefulness of SIRT6 come to light as we learned more about its biochemical activity, regulation, biological roles, and structure Frye (2000)...
June 29, 2018: Biomolecules
Zengkui Lu, Lixin Du, Ruizao Liu, Ran Di, Liping Zhang, Youji Ma, Qing Li, Enmin Liu, Mingxing Chu, Caihong Wei
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a sort of endogenous ~20-25 nt non-coding RNAs, and it can regulate a variety of biological events. We found the miR-378 may involve in regulating the muscle development of sheep during our previous research. However, the molecular mechanism of miR-378 regulating myoblast proliferation is still unclear. In this research, we predicted that BMP2 (Bone morphogenetic protein 2) was the target gene of miR-378 and the BMP-Smad signal pathway that BMP2 participated in playing an important role in the muscle development...
October 20, 2018: Gene
Karla J Suchacki, William P Cawthorn
Purpose of Review: The last decade has seen a resurgence in the study of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) across diverse fields such as metabolism, haematopoiesis, skeletal biology and cancer. Herein, we review the most recent developments of BMAT research in both humans and rodents, including the distinct nature of BMAT; the autocrine, paracrine and endocrine interactions between BMAT and various tissues, both in physiological and pathological scenarios; how these interactions might impact energy metabolism; and the most recent technological advances to quantify BMAT...
2018: Current Molecular Biology Reports
Ciprian Tomuleasa, Cristina Selicean, Sonia Cismas, Anca Jurj, Mirela Marian, Delia Dima, Sergiu Pasca, Bobe Petrushev, Vlad Moisoiu, Wilhelm-Thomas Micu, Anna Vischer, Kanza Arifeen, Sonia Selicean, Mihnea Zdrenghea, Horia Bumbea, Alina Tanase, Ravnit Grewal, Laura Pop, Carmen Aanei, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a malignancy defined by the accumulation of mature lymphocytes in the lymphoid tissues, bone marrow, and blood. Therapy for CLL is guided according to the Rai and Binet staging systems. Nevertheless, state-of-the-art protocols in disease monitoring, diagnostics, and prognostics for CLL are based on the assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD). MRD is internationally considered to be the level of disease that can be detected by sensitive techniques and represents incomplete treatment and a probability of disease relapse...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
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