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Molecular biology in bone research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696703/mcl1-gene-co-expression-module-stratifies-multiple-myeloma-and-predicts-response-to-proteasome-inhibitor-based-therapy
#1
Ayaz Ali Samo, Jiuyi Li, Min Zhou, Yingyu Sun, Yang Yuan, Yunqiu Zhang, Li Jing, Mark van Duin, Xuzhang Lu, Xiaolong Fan
Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic cancer, characterized by abnormal accumulation of plasma cells in the bone marrow. The extensive biological and clinical heterogeneity of MM hinders effective treatment and etiology research. Several molecular classification systems of prognostic impact have been proposed, but they do not predict the response to treatment nor do they correlate to plasma cell development pathways. Here we describe the classification of MM into two distinct subtypes based on the expression levels of a gene module co-expressed with MCL1 (MCL1-M), a regulator of plasma cell survival...
April 26, 2018: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695767/cutaneous-neurofibromas-in-the-genomics-era-current-understanding-and-open-questions
#2
REVIEW
Robert J Allaway, Sara J C Gosline, Salvatore La Rosa, Pamela Knight, Annette Bakker, Justin Guinney, Lu Q Le
Cutaneous neurofibromas (cNF) are a nearly ubiquitous symptom of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a disorder with a broad phenotypic spectrum caused by germline mutation of the neurofibromatosis type 1 tumour suppressor gene (NF1). Symptoms of NF1 can include learning disabilities, bone abnormalities and predisposition to tumours such as cNFs, plexiform neurofibromas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours and optic nerve tumours. There are no therapies currently approved for cNFs aside from elective surgery, and the molecular aetiology of cNF remains relatively uncharacterised...
April 26, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688859/patient-derived-xenograft-models-in-musculoskeletal-malignancies
#3
REVIEW
Wan Lu, Tu Chao, Chen Ruiqi, Su Juan, Li Zhihong
Successful oncological drug development for bone and soft tissue sarcoma is grossly stagnating. A major obstacle in this process is the lack of appropriate animal models recapitulating the complexity and heterogeneity of musculoskeletal malignancies, resulting in poor efficiency in translating the findings of basic research to clinical applications. In recent years, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models generated by directly engrafting patient-derived tumor fragments into immunocompromised mice have recaptured the attention of many researchers due to their properties of retaining the principle histopathology, biological behaviors, and molecular and genetic characteristics of the original tumor, showing promising future in both basic and clinical studies of bone and soft tissue sarcoma...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676642/immunomethylomics-a-novel-cancer-risk-prediction-tool
#4
Karl T Kelsey, John K Wiencke
There is emerging evidence that the immune biology associated with lung and other solid tumors, as well as patient immune genetic traits, contributes to individual survival. At this time, dramatic advances in immunologic approaches to the study and management of human cancers are taking place, including lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, major obstacles for therapies are the profound immune alterations in blood and in the tumor microenvironment that arise in tandem with the cancer. Although there is a significant current effort underway across the cancer research community to probe the tumor environment to uncover the dynamics of the immune response, little similar work is being done to understand the dynamics of immune alterations in peripheral blood, despite evidence showing the prognostic relevance of the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio for these cancers...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675022/immunoporosis-immunology-of-osteoporosis-role-of-t-cells
#5
REVIEW
Rupesh K Srivastava, Hamid Y Dar, Pradyumna K Mishra
The role of immune system in various bone pathologies, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis is now well established. This had led to the emergence of a modern field of systems biology called as osteoimmunology, an integrated research between fields of immunology and bone biology under one umbrella. Osteoporosis is one of the most common inflammatory bone loss condition with more than 200 million individuals affected worldwide. T helper (Th) cells along with various other immune cells are major players involved in bone homeostasis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667005/the-bmp-2-mutant-l51p-a-bmp-receptor-ia-binding-deficient-inhibitor-of-noggin
#6
REVIEW
Hany Mohamed Khattab, Satoshi Kubota, Masaharu Takigawa, Takuo Kuboki, Walter Sebald
The antagonist-specific regulation in tissue engineering constitutes important attempts to achieve an improved and rapid bone regeneration by controlling the natural biological response of the natural body growth factors. L51P is molecularly engineered bone morphogentic protein-2 (BMP-2) variant with a substitution of the 51st leucine with a proline residue. L51P is deficient in BMP receptor binding, but maintains its structure and affinity for inhibitory proteins such as noggin, chordin, and gremlin. These modifications convert the BMP-2 variant L51P into a receptor-inactive inhibitor of BMP antagonists...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663809/distributions-the-importance-of-the-chemist-s-molecular-view-for-biological-materials
#7
Rachel Leah Merzel, Bradford G Orr, Mark M Banaszak Holl
Characterization of materials with biological applications and assessment of physiological effects of therapeutic interventions are critical for translating research to the clinic and preventing adverse reactions. Analytical techniques typically used to characterize targeted nanomaterials and tissues rely on bulk measurement. Therefore, the resulting data represent an average structure of the sample, masking stochastic (randomly generated) distributions that are commonly present. In this Perspective, we examine almost 20 years of work our group has done in different fields to characterize and control distributions...
April 17, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661810/metastases-in-prostate-cancer
#8
Federico La Manna, Sofia Karkampouna, Eugenio Zoni, Marta De Menna, Janine Hensel, George N Thalmann, Marianna Kruithof-de Julio
Prostate cancer (PCa) prognosis and clinical outcome is directly dependent on metastatic occurrence. The bone microenvironment is a favorable metastatic niche. Different biological processes have been suggested to contribute to the osteotropism of PCa such as hemodynamics, bone-specific signaling interactions, and the "seed and soil" hypothesis. However, prevalence of disseminating tumor cells in the bone is not proportional to the actual occurrence of metastases, as not all patients will develop bone metastases...
April 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643813/skull-development-ossification-pattern-and-adult-shape-in-the-emerging-lizard-model-organism-pogona-vitticeps-a-comparative-analysis-with-other-squamates
#9
Joni Ollonen, Filipe O Da Silva, Kristin Mahlow, Nicolas Di-Poï
The rise of the Evo-Devo field and the development of multidisciplinary research tools at various levels of biological organization have led to a growing interest in researching for new non-model organisms. Squamates (lizards and snakes) are particularly important for understanding fundamental questions about the evolution of vertebrates because of their high diversity and evolutionary innovations and adaptations that portrait a striking body plan change that reached its extreme in snakes. Yet, little is known about the intricate connection between phenotype and genotype in squamates, partly due to limited developmental knowledge and incomplete characterization of embryonic development...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600575/matrix-metalloproteinase-9-expression-of-gctsc-in-peripheral-tissue-and-central-tissue-of-gctb
#10
Liang Chen, Ji Zhang, Yifeng He, Xiao-Yi Ding
Giant cell tumor stromal cell (GCTSC) is the tumor cell of giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB). The biomarkers characterization of GCTSC is critical for the selection of GCTB targeting drugs. We believe the main functions of GCTSC in different part of tumor should be different for different environment. Then the biological behavior and molecular biomarkers of GCTSC should be different as well. Based on this idea, we focused on GCTSC which located in central tissue, peripheral tissue and took MMP-9 as the breakthrough point to carry out research...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588427/molecular-mechanisms-of-glucocorticoids-on-skeleton-and-regeneration-after-fracture
#11
Yasmine Hachemi, Anna Rapp, Ann-Kristin Picke, Gilbert Weidinger, Anita Ignatius, Jan Tuckermann
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) have profound effects on bone metabolism. Via their nuclear hormone receptor - the GR - they act locally within bone cells and modulate their proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. Consequently, high glucocorticoid levels - as present during steroid therapy or stress - impair bone growth and integrity, leading to retarded growth and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, respectively. Because of their profound impact on the immune system and bone cell differentiation, GCs also affect bone regeneration and fracture healing...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536696/-research-progress-on-pathogenesis-of-temporary-osteoporosis-in-hip
#12
REVIEW
De-Xin Wang, Fang-Gui Sun, Rui Liu, Da-Cheng Li, Yu-Tong Hu, Rong-Ming Xu
Transient osteoporosis of the hip(TOH) is classified as a type of bone marrow edema syndrome. TOH is lack of previous study and there is still controversy about his pathogenesis. In recent years, with the development of multi-discipline, such as imaging, pathology, molecular biology, the study has found that the pathological mechanism is complex, while its mechanism is still not clear, which need further research. This paper summarizes the research progress on the pathogenesis of TOH from neurogenic, osteonecrosis, abnormal vascular function, subchondral fracture, heredity and regional acceleration and son on...
February 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502723/otosclerosis-from-genetics-to-molecular-biology
#13
REVIEW
Thomas A Babcock, Xue Zhong Liu
Over the past several years, with the evolution of genetic and molecular research, several etiologic factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of otosclerosis. Overall, current evidence suggests that otosclerosis is a complex disease with a variety of potential pathways contributing to the development of abnormal bone remodeling in the otic capsule. These pathways involved in the pathogenesis of otosclerosis are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors.
April 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459078/biomechanical-histologic-and-molecular-evaluation-of-tendon-healing-in-a-new-murine-model-of-rotator-cuff-repair
#14
Amir H Lebaschi, Xiang-Hua Deng, Christopher L Camp, Jianchun Zong, Guang-Ting Cong, Camila B Carballo, Zoe Album, Scott A Rodeo
PURPOSE: To develop a clinically relevant, robust murine model of rotator cuff tendon repair to examine cellular and molecular mechanisms of healing. METHODS: Sixty C57BL/6 male mice underwent rotator cuff transection and repair using microsurgical techniques. A modified Kessler suturing technique was used prior to tendon detachment. Sutures were passed through 2 intersecting bone tunnels that were made at the tendon attachment site. Mice were sacrificed at 2 and 4 weeks with subsequent biomechanical, histologic, micro-CT, and gene expression evaluations...
April 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437880/molecular-regulation-of-follicle-stimulating-hormone-synthesis-secretion-and-action
#15
REVIEW
Nandana Das, T Rajendra Kumar
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays fundamental roles in male and female fertility. FSH is a heterodimeric glycoprotein expressed by gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary. The hormone-specific FSHβ-subunit is non-covalently associated with the common α-subunit that is also present in the luteinizing hormone (LH), another gonadotrophic hormone secreted by gonadotrophs and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted by thyrotrophs. Several decades of research led to the purification, structural characterization and physiological regulation of FSH in a variety of species including humans...
April 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424301/novel-therapeutic-approaches-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-role-of-janus-kinases-inhibitors
#16
Felice Rivellese, Antonio Lobasso, Letizia Barbieri, Bianca Liccardo, Amato De Paulis, Francesca Wanda Rossi
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by synovial inflammation and hyperplasia, autoantibody production, cartilage and bone destruction and several systemic features. Cardiovascular, pulmonary, psychological, and muscle involvement are the main comorbidities of RA and are responsible for the severity of the disease and long-term prognosis. Pharmacological treatment of rheumatic diseases has evolved remarkably over the past years. In addition, the widespread adoption of treat to target and tight control strategies has led to a substantial improvement of outcomes, so that drug-free remission is nowadays a realistic goal in the treatment of RA...
February 9, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413621/tuning-surface-properties-of-bone-biomaterials-to-manipulate-osteoblastic-cell-adhesion-and-the-signaling-pathways-for-the-enhancement-of-early-osseointegration
#17
REVIEW
Shoucheng Chen, Yuanlong Guo, Runheng Liu, Shiyu Wu, Jinghan Fang, Baoxin Huang, Zhipeng Li, Zhuofan Chen, Zetao Chen
Osteoblast cell adhesion is the initial step of early osseointegration responding to bone material implants. Enhancing the osteoblastic cell adhesion has become one of the prime aims when optimizing the surface properties of bone biomaterials. The traditional strategy focuses in improving the physical attachment of osteoblastic cells onto the surfaces of biomaterials. However, instead of a simple cell physical attachment, the osteoblastic cell adhesion has been revealed to be a sophisticated system. Despite the well-documented effect of bone biomaterial surface modifications on adhesion, few studies have focused on the underlying molecular mechanisms...
April 1, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405383/the-quest-for-osteoporosis-mechanisms-and-rational-therapies-how-far-we-ve-come-how-much-further-we-need-to-go
#18
Stavros C Manolagas
During the last 40 years, understanding of bone biology and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, the most common and impactful bone disease of old age, has improved dramatically thanks to basic and clinical research advances, genetic insights from humans and rodents, and newer imaging technologies. Culprits of osteoporosis are no longer a matter of speculation based on in vitro observations. Instead, they can be identified and dissected at the cellular and molecular level using genetic approaches; and their effect on distinct bone envelopes and anatomic regions can be functionally assessed in vivo...
March 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396873/clinical-and-molecular-features-of-treatment-related-neuroendocrine-prostate-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Shusuke Akamatsu, Takahiro Inoue, Osamu Ogawa, Martin E Gleave
Treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer is a lethal form of prostate cancer that emerges in the later stages of castration-resistant prostate cancer treatment. Treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer transdifferentiates from adenocarcinoma as an adaptive response to androgen receptor pathway inhibition. The incidence of treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer has been rising due to the increasing use of potent androgen receptor pathway inhibitors. Typically, treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer is characterized by either low or absent androgen receptor expression, small cell carcinoma morphology and expression of neuroendocrine markers...
April 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340594/keratan-sulfate-a-complex-glycosaminoglycan-with-unique-functional-capability
#20
Bruce Caterson, James Melrose
From an evolutionary perspective keratan sulfate (KS) is the newest glycosaminoglycan (GAG) but the least understood. KS is a sophisticated molecule with a diverse structure, and unique functional roles continue to be uncovered for this GAG. The cornea is the richest tissue source of KS in the human body but the central and peripheral nervous systems also contain significant levels of KS and a diverse range of KS-proteoglycans with essential functional roles. KS also displays important cell regulatory properties in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues and in bone and in tumor development of diagnostic and prognostic utility...
April 1, 2018: Glycobiology
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