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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933671/causal-inference-in-obesity-research
#1
REVIEW
P W Franks, N Atabaki-Pasdar
Obesity is a risk factor for a plethora of severe morbidities and premature death. Most supporting evidence comes from observational studies that are prone to chance, bias and confounding. Even data on the protective effects of weight loss from randomized controlled trials will be susceptible to confounding and bias if treatment assignment cannot be masked, which is usually the case with lifestyle and surgical interventions. Thus, whilst obesity is widely considered the major modifiable risk factor for many chronic diseases, its causes and consequences are often difficult to determine...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933467/osteosarcoma-overview
#2
REVIEW
Brock A Lindsey, Justin E Markel, Eugenie S Kleinerman
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone and patients with metastatic disease or recurrences continue to have very poor outcomes. Unfortunately, little prognostic improvement has been generated from the last 20 years of research and a new perspective is warranted. OS is extremely heterogeneous in both its origins and manifestations. Although multiple associations have been made between the development of osteosarcoma and race, gender, age, various genomic alterations, and exposure situations among others, the etiology remains unclear and controversial...
December 8, 2016: Rheumatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931959/imaging-of-gout-new-tools-and-biomarkers
#3
REVIEW
Elizabeth G Araujo, Bernhard Manger, Fernando Perez-Ruiz, Ralf G Thiele
While joint aspiration and crystal identification by polarizing microscopy remain the gold standard for diagnosing tophaceous gout, agreement among medical and ancillary health personnel examining synovial fluid using polarizing microscopy for the detection of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals appears to be poor. Imaging modalities, including conventional radiography (CR), ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), have been found to provide information on the deposition of MSU crystals in tissues, and the consequences of such deposition...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931853/from-the-bedside-to-the-bench-new-discoveries-on-blood-cell-fate-and-function
#4
REVIEW
Eirini Trompouki, Eugenia Flores-Figueroa, Daniel Lucas, Teresa Bowman
CONTROVERSY AND CONTEXT: two words that exemplified this year's ISEH meeting. Leaders in the field of hematology from around the world gathered in San Diego in August 2016 to discuss cutting edge research on diverse topics, such as hemoglobin switching, HSC emergence, leukemogenesis, and aging. Major questions discussed included the "when, where, and how" of hematopoietic emergence, bone marrow residence, and disease origination. This meeting summary covers some of the conference highlights.
December 5, 2016: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931799/oncocytic-papillary-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-clinicopathological-and-genetic-analysis-and-indolent-clinical-course-in-14-cases
#5
Guiyan Han, Wenjuan Yu, Jing Chu, Yan Liu, Yanxia Jiang, Yujun Li, Wei Zhang
A sort of PRCC with distinct eosinophilic cytoplasm named Oncocytic Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma (OPRCC) has been increasingly attracting the attention of researchers recently. However, owing to the rarity of OPRCC, the clinicopathological and genetic features of the tumor have still not been well elucidated and whether it should be regarded as an independent subtype of PRCC remains controversial. Herein, a cohort of 14 OPRCCs was studied with the aim of revealing the distinct clinicopathological features, facilitating the classification and correct diagnosis of OPRCC...
April 28, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929496/experimental-evaluation-of-a-gpu-based-monte-carlo-dose-calculation-algorithm-in-the-monaco-treatment-planning-system
#6
Moti R Paudel, Anthony Kim, Arman Sarfehnia, Sayed B Ahmad, David J Beachey, Arjun Sahgal, Brian M Keller
A new GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm (GPUMCD), devel-oped by the vendor Elekta for the Monaco treatment planning system (TPS), is capable of modeling dose for both a standard linear accelerator and an Elekta MRI linear accelerator. We have experimentally evaluated this algorithm for a standard Elekta Agility linear accelerator. A beam model was developed in the Monaco TPS (research version 5.09.06) using the commissioned beam data for a 6 MV Agility linac. A heterogeneous phantom representing several scenarios - tumor-in-lung, lung, and bone-in-tissue - was designed and built...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929488/production-and-quality-control-177lu-nca-dotmp-as-a-potential-agent-for-bone-pain-palliation
#7
Nafise Salek, Mojtaba Shamsaei, Mohammad Ghannadi Maragheh, Simindokht Shirvani Arani, Ali Bahrami Samani
Skeletal uptake of radiolabeled-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetramethylene phosphoric acid (e.g., 177Lu-DOTMP) complex, is used for bone pain palliation. The moderate energy of β-emitting 177Lu (T½ = 6.7 d, Eβmax = 497keV) has been considered as a potential radionuclide for development of the bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical. Since the specific activity of the radiolabeled carrier molecules should be high, the "no-carrier-added radionuclides" have sig-nificant roles in nuclear medicine...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927967/the-common-r71h-g230a-r293q-human-tmem173-is-a-null-allele
#8
Seema Patel, Steven M Blaauboer, Heidi R Tucker, Samira Mansouri, Juan Sebastian Ruiz-Moreno, Lutz Hamann, Ralf R Schumann, Bastian Opitz, Lei Jin
TMEM173 encodes MPYS/STING and is an innate immune sensor for cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) playing a critical role in infection, inflammation, and cancer. The R71H-G230A-R293Q (HAQ) of TMEM173 is the second most common human TMEM173 allele. In this study, using data from the 1000 Genomes Project we found that homozygous HAQ individuals account for ∼16.1% of East Asians and ∼2.8% of Europeans whereas Africans have no homozygous HAQ individuals. Using B cells from homozygous HAQ carriers, we found, surprisingly, that HAQ/HAQ carriers express extremely low MPYS protein and have a decreased TMEM173 transcript...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927567/probing-and-tapping-are-we-inserting-pedicle-screws-correctly
#9
Vishal Prasad, Addisu Mesfin, Robert Lee, Julie Reigrut, John Schmidt
PURPOSE: Although there are a significant number of research publications on the topic of bone morphology and the strength of bone, the clinical significance of a failed pedicle screw is often revision surgery and the potential for further postoperative complications; especially in elderly patients with osteoporotic bone. The purpose of this report is to quantify the mechanical strength of the foam-screw interface by assessing probe/pilot hole diameter and tap sizes using statistically relevant sample sizes under highly controlled test conditions...
November 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926674/jbjs-the-bone-joint-journal-and-clinical-orthopaedics-and-related-research-require-prospective-registration-of-randomized-clinical-trials-why-is-this-important
#10
Seth S Leopold, Marc Swiontkowski, Fares Haddad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926672/mechanisms-predisposing-factors-and-prognosis-of-intra-operative-vertebral-subluxation-during-pedicle-subtraction-osteotomy-in-surgical-correction-of-thoracolumbar-kyphosis-secondary-to-ankylosing-spondylitis
#11
Bang-Ping Qian, Sai-Hu Mao, Jun Jiang, Bin Wang, Yong Qiu
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mechanisms, predisposing factors and prognosis of the intraoperative vertebral subluxation (VS) during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) for thoracolumbar kyphosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: VS is one of the most daunting challenges that surgeons encounter during PSO closure, especially in AS patients with ankylosed and mostly osteoporotic spine...
December 6, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925188/a-human-3d-in-vitro-model-to-assess-the-relationship-between-osteoporosis-and-dissemination-to-bone-of-breast-cancer-tumour-cells
#12
F Salamanna, V Borsari, S Brogini, P Torricelli, S Cepollaro, M Cadossi, M Fini
Despite consistent improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for breast cancer, up to 40% of patients will develop bone metastases. To reduce the morbidity and complications related with bone metastases, it is imperative to reduce their etiological factors. Osteoporosis, being characterized by a sudden estrogen deficiency, may provide a favorable condition for bone metastasis. This work, using a humanized 3D in vitro model, aims at evaluating the relationship between osteoporosis and breast cancer-derived bone metastases...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924730/congenital-malformations-attributed-to-prenatal-exposure-to-cyclophosphamide
#13
Padmanabhan Rengasamy
Cyclophosphamide (CPA) remains one of the most widely prescribed anticancer drugs. It is also used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, childhood nephrotic syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. It is a potent immunosuppressive agent. It is commonly used in blood and bone marrow transplantation. With the growing trend among women postponing childbearing, the number of women who are diagnosed with breast cancer is also increasing thus escalating the chances of exposure of the unborn child to antineoplastic drugs...
December 6, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924638/understanding-sarcomas-and-other-rare-tumors-an-interview-with-robin-l-jones
#14
Robin L Jones
Robin Jones speaks to Jade Parker, Commissioning Editor: Robin Jones is a medical oncologist specializing in the treatment of bone and soft tissue sarcomas and Head of the Sarcoma Unit at The Royal Marsden. He completed his medical training at Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital, and his oncology training at The Royal Marsden. His postgraduate research degree, with Professor Dowsett at the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR), evaluated potential predictive and prognostic factors in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy...
December 7, 2016: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924380/adherence-to-the-2006-american-heart-association-s-diet-and-lifestyle-recommendations-for-cardiovascular-disease-risk-reduction-is-associated-with-bone-mineral-density-in-older-chinese
#15
G D Chen, D Ding, H Y Tian, Y Y Zhu, W T Cao, C Wang, Y M Chen
: This cross-sectional study investigated the association between the modified 2006 American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations (AHA-DLR) and bone mineral density in Chinese adults. We found that better adherence to the AHA-DLR associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD) at multiple sites. INTRODUCTION: Accumulating evidence shows that cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis are associated with each other, yet little research has focused on whether strategies to reduce CVD risk could also benefit bone health...
December 6, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923552/preleukaemic-clonal-haemopoiesis-and-risk-of-therapy-related-myeloid-neoplasms-a-case-control-study
#16
Koichi Takahashi, Feng Wang, Hagop Kantarjian, Denaha Doss, Kanhav Khanna, Erika Thompson, Li Zhao, Keyur Patel, Sattva Neelapu, Curtis Gumbs, Carlos Bueso-Ramos, Courtney D DiNardo, Simona Colla, Farhad Ravandi, Jianhua Zhang, Xuelin Huang, Xifeng Wu, Felipe Samaniego, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, P Andrew Futreal
BACKGROUND: Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms are secondary malignancies that are often fatal, but their risk factors are not well understood. Evidence suggests that individuals with clonal haemopoiesis have increased risk of developing haematological malignancies. We aimed to identify whether patients with cancer who have clonal haemopoiesis are at an increased risk of developing therapy-related myeloid neoplasms. METHODS: We did this retrospective case-control study to compare the prevalence of clonal haemopoiesis between patients treated for cancer who later developed therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (cases) and patients who did not develop these neoplasms (controls)...
December 2, 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923195/aplastic-anemia-and-mds-international-foundation-aamdsif-bone-marrow-failure-disease-scientific-symposium-2016
#17
Amer M Zeidan, Minoo Battiwalla, Deborah Berlyne, Thomas Winkler
Patients with acquired and inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (BMFS) have ineffective hematopoiesis due to impairments of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment. Common manifestations of BMFS include varying degrees of peripheral blood cytopenias and, sometimes, progression to acute myelogenous leukemia. Research efforts have been made all over the world to improve understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases and their clinical implications. The Aplastic Anemia and MDS International Foundation (AAMDSIF) is an independent nonprofit organization whose mission is to help patients and family members cope with BMFS...
November 24, 2016: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922965/prevalence-of-different-forms-and-involved-bones-of-craniofacial-fibrous-dysplasia
#18
Liya Yang, Huanhuan Wu, Jianjian Lu, Li Teng
BACKGROUND: The purposes of this study were to analyze the prevalence of various craniofacial bones involved in patients with craniofacial fibrous dysplasia (CFD) and to demonstrate the most common form and bone involvement in patients with CFD for surgeons. METHODS: To address the research purpose, the authors designed and performed a systematic review with meta-analysis. A comprehensive electronic search without date was performed in August 2013. Data extracted from the previously published literature were analyzed with STATA 11...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922692/mir-195-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-chondrocytes-by-targeting-git1
#19
Yang-Lin Gu, Xiao-Xu Rong, Li-Ting Wen, Guo-Xing Zhu, Ming-Quan Qian
Previous studies have demonstrated that G-protein coupled receptor kinase interacting protein-1 (GIT1) and microRNAs (miRNAs) serve an important role in chondrocyte proliferation and migration. However, a limited number of studies conducted thus far have investigated the association between GIT1 and miRNAs. In the present study, putative miR‑195 binding sites in the GIT1 3'‑untranslated region were identified using common bioinformatic algorithms (miRanda, TargetScan, miRBase and miRWalk), and it was demonstrated that they may be involved in regulating GIT1 expression...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921147/can-the-alendronate-dosage-be-altered-when-combined-with-high-frequency-loading-in-osteoporosis-treatment
#20
C B Correa, G V Camargos, M Chatterjee, M F Mesquita, A A Del Bel Cury, I Naert, J Duyck, K Vandamme
: Alendronate therapy has been associated with serious side effects. Altering the alendronate concentration and combining with high-frequency loading as mechanical intervention was explored in this animal study as a treatment for osteoporosis. The bone anabolic potency of high-frequency loading was overruled by the different alendronate dosages applied in the present study. Further exploration of reduced hormonal therapy associated with mechanical interventions in osteoporosis treatment should be sought...
December 5, 2016: Osteoporosis International
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