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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822316/improved-middle-ear-soft-tissue-visualization-using-synchrotron-radiation-phase-contrast-imaging
#1
Mai Elfarnawany, Seyed Alireza Rohani, Soroush Ghomashchi, Daniel G Allen, Ning Zhu, Sumit K Agrawal, Hanif M Ladak
High resolution images are used as a basis for finite-element modeling of the middle-ear structures to study their biomechanical function. Commonly used imaging techniques such as micro-computed tomography (CT) and optical microscopy require extensive sample preparation, processing or staining using contrast agents to achieve sufficient soft-tissue contrast. We compare imaging of middle-ear structures in unstained, non-decalcified human temporal bones using conventional absorption-contrast micro-CT and using synchrotron radiation phase-contrast imaging (SR-PCI)...
August 5, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821095/an-o-acetyl-glucomannan-from-the-rhizomes-of-curculigo-orchioides-structural-characterization-and-anti-osteoporosis-activity-in-vitro
#2
Xueqian Wang, Mengliu Zhang, Dawei Zhang, Shumei Wang, Chunyan Yan
Osteoporosis is characterized by a reduction in bone mass and bone mineral density, which weakens the bone. Due to the side effects associated with drugs that are currently used to treat this disease, an increasing number of studies have focused on the research of effective ingredients derived from natural products. In particular, polysaccharides extracted from Chinese herbal medicines have received increasing attention. In this study, we isolated a homogeneous polysaccharide (COP90-1) from the dried rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides, a famous traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used in China, and determined its structure using the combined methods of chemical and spectral analyses...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820012/effect-of-rotational-prosthetic-alignment-variation-on-tibiofemoral-contact-pressure-distribution-and-joint-kinematics-in-total-knee-replacement
#3
Xin Xie, Roy Rusly, John D DesJardins, Frank Voss, Kim Chillag, Martine LaBerge
In total knee replacement surgery, implant alignment is one of the most important criteria for successful long-term clinical outcome. During total knee replacement implantation, femoral and tibial alignment are determined through appropriate bone resections, which could vary based on patient anatomy, implant design and surgical technique and further influence loading conditions and clinical outcomes. The current research focused on three critical alignment parameters for total knee replacement insertion: femoral component internal/external (I/E) rotation, varus-valgus tibiofemoral angulation and posterior tibial slope...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818745/a-systematic-review-on-the-role-of-eicosanoid-pathways-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#4
REVIEW
Malvina Hoxha
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by the production of eicosanoids, cytokines, adhesion molecules, infiltration of T and B lymphocytes in the synovium and oxygen reduction accompanied by the cartilage degradation. Eicosanoids are responsible for the progressive destruction of cartilage and bone, however neither steroids, nor the non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cannot slow down cartilage and bone destruction providing only symptomatic improvement. The current rheumatoid arthritis treatment options include mainly the use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, the corticosteroids, the NSAIDs and biological agents...
August 14, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818625/the-therapeutic-potential-of-crth2-dp2-beyond-allergy-and-asthma
#5
REVIEW
Katharina Jandl, Akos Heinemann
Prostaglandin (PG) D2 has been in the focus of research for quite a long time, but its biological effects and its roles in human disease are still not fully characterized. When in 2001 a second major PGD2 receptor termed chemoattractant receptor homologue expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2; alternative name DP2) was discovered, diverse investigations started to shed more light on the complex and often controversial actions of the prostaglandin. With various immunomodulating effects, such as induction of migration, activation, and cytokine release of leukocytes observed both in vivo and in vitro, CRTH2 has emerged as a promising target for the treatment of allergic diseases...
August 14, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817244/key-developments-that-impacted-the-field-of-mechanobiology-and-mechanotransduction
#6
Michelle Wall, David Butler, Alicia El Haj, Josephine C Bodle, Elizabeth G Loboa, Albert J Banes
Advances in mechanobiology have evolved through insights from multiple disciplines including structural engineering, biomechanics, vascular biology, and orthopaedics. In this paper, we reviewed the impact of key reports related to the study of applied loads on tissues and cells and the resulting signal transduction pathways. We addressed how technology has helped advance the burgeoning field of mechanobiology (over 33,600 publications from 1970-2016). We analyzed the impact of critical ideas and then determined how these concepts influenced the mechanobiology field by looking at the citation frequency of these reports as well as tracking how the overall number of citations within the field changed over time...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817182/centralized-patient-reported-outcome-data-collection-in-transplantation-is-feasible-and-clinically-meaningful
#7
Bronwen E Shaw, Ruta Brazauskas, Heather R Millard, Rachel Fonstad, Kathryn E Flynn, Amy Abernethy, Jenny Vogel, Charney Petroske, Deborah Mattila, Rebecca Drexler, Stephanie J Lee, Mary M Horowitz, J Douglas Rizzo
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) cures many patients, but often with the risk of late effects and impaired quality of life. The value of quantifying patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is increasingly being recognized, but the routine collection of PROs is uncommon. This study evaluated the feasibility of prospective PRO collection by an outcome registry at multiple time points from unselected HCT patients undergoing transplantation at centers contributing clinical data to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR), and then it correlated the PRO data with clinical and demographic data...
August 17, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816291/-influence-of-the-interforaminal-arch-form-of-edentulous-mandibles-on-design-of-all-on-4-preliminary-research-based-on-conebeam-computed-tomography
#8
S Y Li, G Li, H L Feng, S X Pan
OBJECTIVE: To classify the interforaminal arch form of edentulous mandibles by measuring the anterior-posterior distance (A-P distance) of implants planned to be inserted in "All-on-4" protocol using conebeam computed tomography (CBCT) data, and to investigate the influence of the arch form on the "All-on-4" distally tilted implants. METHODS: Seventy-four CBCT images of edentulous mandibles were collected, including 35 males and 39 females respectively. "All-on-4"implant supported fixed prostheses were designed for these patients based on the CBCT data...
August 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816285/-expression-of-cxcl16-cxcr6-in-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-its-role-in-synoviocyte-proliferation
#9
X Zhang, J X Zhao, L Sun, X Y Liu
OBJECTIVE: It has been found that serum CXCL16 concentration in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are significantly higher than those in osteoarthritis (OA) and normal subjects, and are positively correlated with disease activity and bone erosion. However, how is CXCL16 involved in the pathogenesis of RA is unclear. To evaluate the expression of CXCL16 and its receptor CXCR6 in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and to explore the role of CXCL16 in the proliferation of RA-FLS...
August 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816104/the-immune-response-to-allogeneic-differentiated-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-context-of-bone-tissue-engineering
#10
Caoimhe H Kiernan, Eppo B Wolvius, Pieter A J Brama, Eric Farrell
The use of allogeneic differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to mediate bone formation may be a potential alternative to the current gold standards of bone repair. While it is known that undifferentiated MSCs are immunomodulatory and weakly immunogenic, the host immune reaction to differentiated MSCs is less known. Implantation of allogeneic osteogenic or chondrogenically differentiated MSC pellets may be promising routes to induce bone repair via the processes of intramembranous and endochondral ossification...
August 17, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815485/screening-for-osteoporosis-in-older-men-operating-characteristics-of-proposed-strategies-for-selecting-men-for-bmd-testing
#11
Susan J Diem, Katherine W Peters, Margaret L Gourlay, John T Schousboe, Brent C Taylor, Eric S Orwoll, Jane A Cauley, Lisa Langsetmo, Carolyn J Crandall, Kristine E Ensrud
BACKGROUND: The optimal approach for selecting men for bone mineral density (BMD) testing to screen for osteoporosis is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To compare strategies for selecting older men for screening BMD testing. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4043 community-dwelling men aged ≥70 years at four US sites. MAIN MEASURES: BMD at the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815161/trends-and-cost-of-posterior-cervical-fusions-with-and-without-recombinant-human-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-in-the-us-medicare-population
#12
Sue Lynn Myhre, Zorica Buser, Hans-Joerg Meisel, Darrel S Brodke, S Tim Yoon, Jeffrey C Wang, Jong-Beom Park, Jim A Youssef
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective database review. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and report the trends and cost of posterior cervical fusions (PCFs) with and without off-label recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in the Medicare population. METHODS: Patient records from the PearlDiver database were retrospectively reviewed from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2012, to distinguish individuals who underwent a PCF with or without rhBMP-2...
June 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814956/rapid-rapamycin-only-induced-osteogenic-differentiation-of-blood-derived-stem-cells-and-their-adhesion-to-natural-and-artificial-scaffolds
#13
Carpentieri Arianna, Cozzoli Eliana, Acri Flavio, Ranalli Marco, Diedenhofen Giacomo, Scimeca Manuel, Bonanno Elena, Gambacurta Alessandra
Stem cells are a centerpiece of regenerative medicine research, and the recent development of adult stem cell-based therapy systems has vigorously expanded the scope and depth of this scientific field. The regeneration of damaged and/or degraded bone tissue in orthopedic, dental, or maxillofacial surgery is one of the main areas where stem cells and their regenerative potential could be used successfully, requiring tissue engineering solutions incorporating an ideal stem cell type paired with the correct mechanical support...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811353/the-omeract-rheumatoid-arthritis-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-scoring-system-updated-recommendations-by-the-omeract-mri-in-arthritis-working-group
#14
Mikkel Østergaard, Charles G Peterfy, Paul Bird, Frédérique Gandjbakhch, Daniel Glinatsi, Iris Eshed, Espen A Haavardsholm, Siri Lillegraven, Pernille Bøyesen, Bo Ejbjerg, Violaine Foltz, Paul Emery, Harry K Genant, Philip G Conaghan
OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scoring system (RAMRIS), evaluating bone erosion, bone marrow edema/osteitis, and synovitis, was introduced in 2002, and is now the standard method of objectively quantifying inflammation and damage by MRI in RA trials. The objective of this paper was to identify subsequent advances and based on them, to provide updated recommendations for the RAMRIS. METHODS: MRI studies relevant for RAMRIS and technical and scientific advances were analyzed by the OMERACT MRI in Arthritis Working Group, which used these data to provide updated considerations on image acquisition, RAMRIS definitions, and scoring systems for the original and new RA pathologies...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811043/treatment-of-the-fixation-surface-improves-glenoid-prosthesis-longevity-in-vitro
#15
Sarah Junaid, Sanjay Sanghavi, Carolyn Anglin, Anthony Bull, Roger Emery, Andrew A Amis, Ulrich Hansen
Many commercial cemented glenoid components claim superior fixation designs and increased survivability. However, both research and clinical studies have shown conflicting results and it is unclear whether these design variations do improve loosening rates. Part of the difficulty in investigating fixation failure is the inability to directly observe the fixation interface, a problem addressed in this study by using a novel experimental set-up. Cyclic loading-displacement tests were carried out on 60 custom-made glenoid prostheses implanted into a bone substitute...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810924/mutational-analysis-of-col1a1-and-col1a2-genes-among-estonian-osteogenesis-imperfecta-patients
#16
Lidiia Zhytnik, Katre Maasalu, Ene Reimann, Ele Prans, Sulev Kõks, Aare Märtson
BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare bone disorder. In 90% of cases, OI is caused by mutations in the COL1A1/2 genes, which code procollagen α1 and α2 chains. The main aim of the current research was to identify the mutational spectrum of COL1A1/2 genes in Estonian patients. The small population size of Estonia provides a unique chance to explore the collagen I mutational profile of 100% of OI families in the country. METHODS: We performed mutational analysis of peripheral blood gDNA of 30 unrelated Estonian OI patients using Sanger sequencing of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes, including all intron-exon junctions and 5'UTR and 3'UTR regions, to identify causative OI mutations...
August 15, 2017: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810860/tartrate-resistant-acid-phosphate-as-biomarker-of-bone-turnover-over-the-lifespan-and-different-physiologic-stages-in-sheep
#17
José A Camassa, Camila C Diogo, João P A Bordelo, Marília de A Bonelli, Carlos A Viegas, Jorge T Azevedo, Nuno Dourado, Isabel R Dias
BACKGROUND: Currently, the best resources for assessment of bone tissue using imaging techniques are expensive and available in few medical facilities, thus serum or urinary bone turnover biomarkers could be useful as early indicators of prognosis. However, there is a wide range of variability in bone turnover markers due to several factors, such as different ages and metabolic stages, thus it is important to have as much data published on the subject as possible. The aim of this study was therefore to generate a reference range for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and validate the already published data...
August 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810645/influence-of-the-shape-of-the-micro-finite-element-model-on-the-mechanical-properties-calculated-from-micro-finite-element-analysis
#18
Xin-Xin Wen, Hai-Long Yu, Ya-Bo Yan, Chun-Lin Zong, Hai-Jiao Ding, Xiang-Yu Ma, Tian-Sheng Wang, Wei Lei
Assessing the biomechanical properties of trabecular bone is of major biological and clinical significance for the research of bone diseases, fractures and their treatments. Micro-finite element (µFE) models are becoming increasingly popular for investigating the biomechanical properties of trabecular bone. The shapes of µFE models typically include cube and cylinder. Whether there are differences between cubic and cylindrical µFE models has not yet been studied. In the present study, cubic and cylindrical µFE models of human vertebral trabecular bone were constructed...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810341/-research-progress-of-bone-marrow-microenvironment-abnormalities-in-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#19
P Y Dong, L F Huang, H Y Sun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810162/standardized-anthropological-measurement-of-postcranial-bones-using-three-dimensional-models-in-cad-software
#20
Mikaela S Reynolds, Donna M MacGregor, Mark D Barry, Nicolene Lottering, Beat Schmutz, Lance J Wilson, Matthew Meredith, Laura S Gregory
This study introduces a standardized protocol for conducting linear measurements of postcranial skeletal elements using three-dimensional (3D) models constructed from post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) scans. Using femoral DICOM datasets, reference planes were generated and plane-to-plane measurements were conducted on 3D surface rendered models. Bicondylar length, epicondylar breadth, anterior-posterior (AP) diameter, medial-lateral (ML) diameter and cortical area at the midshaft were measured by four observers to test the measurement error variance and observer agreement of the protocol (n=6)...
July 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
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