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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231405/three-dimensional-printing-of-x-ray-computed-tomography-datasets-with-multiple-materials-using-open-source-data-processing
#1
Ian M Sander, Matthew T McGoldrick, My N Helms, Aislinn Betts, Anthony van Avermaete, Elizabeth Owers, Evan Doney, Taimi Liepert, Glen Niebur, Douglas Liepert, W Matthew Leevy
Advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing allow for digital files to be turned into a "printed" physical product. For example, complex anatomical models derived from clinical or pre-clinical X-ray computed tomography (CT) data of patients or research specimens can be constructed using various printable materials. Although 3D printing has the potential to advance learning, many academic programs have been slow to adopt its use in the classroom despite increased availability of the equipment and digital databases already established for educational use...
February 23, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231146/calcium-in-gluten-free-life-health-related-and-nutritional-implications
#2
REVIEW
Urszula Krupa-Kozak, Natalia Drabińska
Calcium deficiency and metabolic bone diseases are a frequent co-morbidity of coeliac disease (CD). Gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only effective treatment of CD. However, CD patients on the strict GFD consume less than the recommended amounts of calcium. In this review, the main etiological factors responsible for calcium deficiency in CD were presented. Additionally, the research on the application of calcium supplements in the gluten-free breadmaking was reviewed, and its effect on the technological and sensory properties of baked products was indicated...
July 15, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230927/crispr-cas9-technologies
#3
Bart O Williams, Matthew L Warman
The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) pathway is revolutionizing biological research. Modifications to this primitive prokaryotic immune system now enable scientists to efficiently edit DNA or modulate gene expression in living eukaryotic cells and organisms. Thus, many laboratories can now perform important experiments that previously were considered scientifically risky or too costly. Here, we describe the components of the CRISPR/Cas system that have been engineered for use in eukaryotes...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230905/characteristics-of-bone-injuries-resulting-from-knife-wounds-incised-with-different-forces
#4
Caitlin Humphrey, Jaliya Kumaratilake, Maciej Henneberg
The aim of this research was to experimentally determine the characteristics of incised bone wounds, which are commonly found in defense injuries. A specially constructed pivoting arm device was used to inflict wounds with controlled forces and direction. Five knives were selected to inflict the wounds on porcine forelimbs. Eight incised wounds were made per knife per force. A larger knife and a greater force caused longer and wider bone wounds. Comparisons of individual knives at the two forces produced varying results in the bone wounds...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229485/osteoporosis-related-health-services-utilization-following-first-hip-fracture-among-a-cohort-of-privately-insured-women-in-the-united-states-2008-2014-an-observational-study
#5
Catherine W Gillespie, Pamela E Morin
Timely identification and treatment of osteoporosis following hip fracture is recommended to mitigate future fracture risk, yet prior work has demonstrated a disconnect between evidence-based recommendations and real-world implementation. We sought to describe contemporary patterns of osteoporosis screening and initiation of pharmacotherapy following hip fracture based on medical and pharmacy claims in the OptumLabs™ Data Warehouse. From a national sample, we identified 8349 women aged 50+ years enrolled in private commercial or Medicare Advantage plans with no prior history of osteoporosis diagnosis, osteoporosis pharmacotherapy, or hip fracture who experienced a hip fracture between 2008 and 2013...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229416/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-an-individual-specific-and-renewable-source-of-adult-stem-cells
#6
Glen Lester Sequiera, Sekaran Saravanan, Sanjiv Dhingra
This chapter deals with the employment of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) as a candidate to differentiate into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This would enable to help establish a regular source of human MSCs with the aim of avoiding the problems associated with procuring the MSCs either from different healthy individuals or patients, limited extraction potentials, batch-to-batch variations or from diverse sources such as bone marrow or adipose tissue. The procedures described herein allow for a guided and ensured approach for the regular maintenance of hiPSCs and their subsequent differentiation into MSCs using the prescribed medium...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229409/endothelial-progenitor-cells-procedure-for-cell-isolation-and-applications
#7
Garikipati V N Srikanth, Raj Kishore
Bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have shown a great promise to promote ischemic tissue neovascularization and to attenuate ischemic injury in a variety of animal models, which led to EPC-based clinical trials that yielded modest but promising results. Some of the variables in the use of EPCs relate to their differential isolation and characterization protocols since the EPC literature does not identify a unique marker for these vascular progenitors. In this chapter, we present step-by-step protocols for the isolation of EPCs, their characterization and culture conditions, and their potential use in basic and clinical research...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229056/experimental-visualization-of-labyrinthine-structure-with-optical-coherence-tomography
#8
Saleh Mohebbi, Marjan Mirsalehi, Lüder-Alexander Kahrs, Tobias Ortmaier, Thomas Lenarz, Omid Majdani
INTRODUCTION: Visualization of inner ear structures is a valuable strategy for researchers and clinicians working on hearing pathologies. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution imaging technology which may be used for the visualization of tissues. In this experimental study we aimed to evaluate inner ear anatomy in well-prepared human labyrinthine bones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three fresh human explanted temporal bones were trimmed, chemically decalcified with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and mechanically drilled under visual control using OCT in order to reveal the remaining bone shell...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227640/hardness-map-of-human-meta-tarsals-and-phalanges-of-toes
#9
Irfan Manarvi, Irfan Manarvi, Irfan Manarvi
Predicting location of fracture in human bones has been a keen area of research for the past few decades. A variety of tests for hardness, deformation and strain field measurement have been conducted in the past; but considered insufficient due to various limitations. Researchers therefore have proposed further studies due to inaccuracies in measurement methods, testing machines and experimental errors. Advancement and availability of hardware, measuring instrumentation and testing machines can now provide remedies to these limitations...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226955/an-investigation-of-animal-and-human-bones-for-predicting-probable-location-of-fractures
#10
Irfan Manarvi, Irfan Manarvi, Irfan Manarvi
Predicting location of fracture in animal and human bones has been a keen area of research for the past few decades. It has been established that it is various types of stress that results into bone failure. Past studies were mostly based on experimental testing of variety of bones with limited accuracy equipment leading to experimental errors. An effort has been made in present research to use latest experimental testing equipment in parallel with some modern techniques and tools such as 3D scanners for creating computer models and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to conduct structural analysis that could allow unlimited changes in boundary conditions expected to be faced by a bone...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225581/effect-of-sonication-duration-and-power-on-ablation-depth-during-mr-guided-focused-ultrasound-of-bone
#11
Matthew D Bucknor, Eugene Ozhinsky, Rutwik Shah, Roland Krug, Viola Rieke
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of differences in sonication duration and power on the size of postcontrast ablation zone following magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) of bone in a swine femoral bone model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental procedures received approval from the Institutional Committee on Animal Research. MRgFUS was used to create two thermal lesions in the left femur of six pigs. Each target was subjected to six sonications. 400J of energy was used for each sonication...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224968/hematopoiesis-with-obesity-and-exercise-role-of-the-bone-marrow-niche
#12
Russell Emmons, Grace M Niemiro, Michael De Lisio
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), the most primitive cells of the hematopoietic system responsible for maintaining all mature blood cells, display the hallmark characteristics of self-renewal and multi-potent differentiation into mature cell lineages. HSPC activity is directed by the bone marrow niche, a complex environment composed of heterogeneous cell populations that regulate HSPC function through the secretion of a wide array of cytokines and growth factors. Diet induced obesity results in a dramatic remodeling of the bone marrow niche, skewing HSPC function resulting in a compromised immune system...
2017: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224220/calcium-intake-in-winter-pregnancy-attenuates-impact-of-vitamin-d-inadequacy-on-urine-ntx-a-marker-of-bone-resorption
#13
Eileen C O'Brien, Mark T Kilbane, Malachi J McKenna, Ricardo Segurado, Aisling A Geraghty, Fionnuala M McAuliffe
PURPOSE: Pregnancy is characterised by increased bone turnover, but high bone turnover with resorption exceeding formation may lead to negative maternal bone remodelling. Recent studies are conflicting regarding the effect of calcium on skeletal health in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine the seasonal effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and dietary calcium on a marker of bone resorption. METHODS: This was prospective study of 205 pregnant women [two cohorts; early pregnancy at 13 weeks (n = 96), and late pregnancy at 28 weeks (n = 109)]...
February 21, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224090/vitamin-d-deficiency-insufficiency-from-childhood-to-adulthood-insights-from-a-sunny-country
#14
REVIEW
Motti Haimi, Richard Kremer
Vitamin D is known to be a key regulator of bone metabolism and is associated with muscle strength. Vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent worldwide. In adults, vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in numerous health conditions including osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Considerable changes have occurred in lifestyles and childhood activities in the past years. Studies have shown that the children population is at high risks of vitamin D deficiency. The objective of this study was to learn about the extent of vitamin D deficiency in children worldwide and especially in sunny country like Israel...
February 8, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220660/sarcoma-survivors-perspectives-on-their-body-image-and-functional-quality-of-life-post-resection-limb-salvage-surgery
#15
Myra F Taylor, Julie A Pooley
Sarcomas often occur in patients' extremities and treatment typically involves bone resection/limb salvage surgery. Such treatments leave survivors with physical disfigurements, functional disabilities, and/or emotional traumas. Our post-surgery psychological intervention investigated how these experiences impinge on sarcoma survivors' lives. Twenty-three survivors aged 19-60 years (M = 36 years) participated in a tri-disciplinary (rehabilitative exercise, plastic surgery and psychological) intervention...
February 21, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220276/taxonomic-examination-of-longgu-fossilia-ossis-mastodi-dragon-bone-and-a-related-crude-drug-longchi-dens-draconis-dragon-tooth-from-japanese-and-chinese-crude-drug-markets
#16
Kazuki Oguri, Yuichiro Nishioka, Yoshitsugu Kobayashi, Kyoko Takahashi
Longgu ("dragon bone," Ryu-kotsu, Fossilia Ossis Mastodi, or Os Draconis) is the only fossil crude drug listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia. All longgu in the current Japanese market is imported from China, where its resources are being depleted. Therefore, effective countermeasures are urgently needed to prevent resource depletion. One possible solution is the development of a substitute made from bones of contemporary animals that are closely related to the original animal source of the current longgu. However, no research has been conducted on the original animal source of longgu, except for a report on the longgu specimens present in the Shosoin Repository...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219807/setd2-is-associated-with-strontium-induced-bone-regeneration
#17
Jia Xiaoshi, Long Qiaoyun, Richard J Miron, Yin Chengcheng, Wei Yan, Zhang Yufeng, Wu Min
: Strontium Ranelate has been utilized as a preventative treatment option for osteoporosis with the release of Sr ions having a direct effect on preventing osteoclast activation and promoting osteoblast differentiation. Previously our group has prepared and characterized a porous Sr-mesoporous bioactive glass (Sr-MBG) scaffold demonstrating its ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to MBG alone. The goal of the present study was to elucidate the bone-inducing properties of Sr by utilizing RNA-seq on in vivo tissue samples to investigate potential target genes responsible for Sr-induced new bone formation...
February 17, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219691/hepatitis-b-reactivation-associated-with-immune-suppressive-and-biological-modifier-therapies-current-concepts-management-strategies-and-future-directions
#18
REVIEW
Rohit Loomba, T Jake Liang
Hepatitis B reactivation associated with immune suppressive and biological therapies is emerging to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with current or prior exposure to hepatitis B virus infection. The population at risk for HBV reactivation includes those who are either currently infected with HBV or have past exposure to HBV. Since curative and eradicative therapy for HBV is not currently available, there is a large reservoir of individuals at risk for HBV reactivation in the general population...
February 17, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219093/-impact-of-vitamin-d-in-sports-does-vitamin-d-insufficiency-compromise-athletic-performance
#19
Sebastian Butscheidt, Tim Rolvien, Peter Ueblacker, Michael Amling, Florian Barvencik
: Introduction Vitamin D is essential for calcium homeostasis and regulates the expression of over 900 genes. It thereby influences musculoskeletal health and function. Additionally, multiple other effects were observed through the detection of vitamin D receptors (VDR) in numerous tissues of the human body. Material and Methods We reviewed the literature regarding evidence of the impact of vitamin D on musculoskeletal health and peak athletic performance. Results and Discussion It is well known that there is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the average European population...
February 20, 2017: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218393/the-relative-position-of-the-human-fibula-to-the-tibia-influences-cross-sectional-properties-of-the-tibia
#20
Benjamin M Auerbach, Alice F Gooding, Colin N Shaw, Adam D Sylvester
OBJECTIVES: The fibula transmits loads within the lower limb of hominids. The few studies of variation in the cross-sectional geometric (CSG) properties of the fibula have established differences in its rigidity among groups engaged in distinct habitual loading activities. This study adds to this research by considering the relationship between CSG properties and the anatomical position of the fibula relative to the tibia among groups with differences in documented activity patterns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used pQCT scans taken at 50% of the length of the lower leg in 83 healthy young adult collegiate-aged individuals divided into five activity groups: runners, swimmers, cricketers, field hockey players, and non-athletes...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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