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Bone research

Qian-Yuan Wu, Jian Wang, Xiao Tong, Jie Chen, Bei Wang, Zong-Ning Miao, Xia Li, Jun-Xing Ye, Feng-Lai Yuan
The 24-h rhythm of behavioral and physiological processes is a typical biological phenomenon regulated by a group of circadian rhythm genes. Dysfunction of the circadian rhythm can cause a wide range of problems, such as cancer and metabolic diseases. In recent decades, increased understanding of the roles of circadian rhythm genes in the bone remodeling process have been documented, including osteoblastic bone formation, osteoclastic bone resorption, and osteoblast/osteoclast communication. A timely review of the current findings may help to facilitate the new field of circadian rhythmic bone remodeling research...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Davide Simone, M Hussein Al Mossawi, Paul Bowness
AS is a common rheumatic condition characterized by inflammation and new bone formation. The pathogenesis of AS is likely multifactorial and has not been fully elucidated to date. A major genetic role has been demonstrated. The strongest genetic association is with HLA B27. Numerous other associated genetic polymorphisms have been identified, including those affecting the type 17 immune pathway, although the precise link between genetics and pathogenesis remains unexplained. Several immunological alterations, together with recent therapeutic advances, support a central role for IL-23- and IL-17-producing immune cells in disease pathogenesis...
August 1, 2018: Rheumatology
A D Brown, J B Walters, Y X Zhang, M Saadatfar, J P Escobedo-Diaz, P J Hazell
Bone is a complex hierarchal structured material with varying porosity and mechanical properties. In particular, human cranial bone is essentially a natural composite consisting of low porosity outer and inner tables and a cancellous interior, or diploë. Experimental studies of biomechanically accurate cranial bone analogues are of high importance for biomechanical, forensics, and clinical researchers, which could improve the understanding and prevention of traumatic injury. Many reported studies use commercially available bone surrogates to draw biomechanical and forensics conclusions; however, their mechanical properties are not tabulated over a range of strain rates...
October 30, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Christopher Hoyle, Jack Rivers-Auty, Eloïse Lemarchand, Sandra Vranic, Emily Wang, Maurizio Buggio, Nancy J Rothwell, Stuart M Allan, Kostas Kostarelos, David Brough
Graphene oxide (GO), an oxidized form of graphene, has potential applications in biomedical research. However, how GO interacts with biological systems, including the innate immune system, is poorly understood. Here we elucidate the effects of GO sheets on macrophages, identifying distinctive effects of GO on inflammatory phenotype. Small, thin (s) GO dose-dependently inhibited release of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, but not tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase 1 activation was not affected...
November 16, 2018: ACS Nano
Donghong Wang, Hongfei Li, Zhuoxin Liu, Zijie Tang, Guojin Liang, Funian Mo, Qi Yang, Longtao Ma, Chunyi Zhi
There is a growing demand for flexible and wearable energy devices. How to enhance their tolerance to various mechanical stresses is a key issue. Bending, stretching, or twisting of flexible batteries has been widely researched. However, shear force is inevitably applied on the batteries during stretching, bending, and twisting. Unfortunately, thus far, research on analyzing shear resistance of solid batteries or even enhancing the shear tolerance has never been reported. Herein, a sewable Zn-MnO2 battery based on a nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC)/ployacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel, electrodeposited Zn nanoplates anode, and carbon nanotube (CNT)/α-MnO2 cathode is reported...
November 16, 2018: Small
Rahul Mittal, Frank W Woo, Carlo S Castro, Madeline A Cohen, Joana Karanxha, Jeenu Mittal, Tanya Chhibber, Vasanti M Jhaveri
Before a lead compound goes through a clinical trial, preclinical studies utilize two-dimensional (2D) in vitro models and animal models to study the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of that lead compound. However, these current preclinical studies may not accurately represent the efficacy and safety of a lead compound in humans, as there has been a high failure rate of drugs that enter clinical trials. All of these failures and the associated costs demonstrate a need for more representative models of human organ systems for screening in the preclinical phase of drug development...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Michael Maroulakos, George Kamperos, Lobat Tayebi, Demetrios Halazonetis, Yijin Ren
OBJECTIVES: Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting, a method derived from additive manufacturing technology, is a recent and ongoing trend for the construction of 3D volumetric structures. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize evidence from existing human and animal studies assessing the application of 3D printing on bone repair and regeneration in the craniofacial region. DATA & SOURCES: A rigorous search of all relevant clinical trials and case series was performed, based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Yushi Yao, Mangalakumari Jeyanathan, Siamak Haddadi, Nicole G Barra, Maryam Vaseghi-Shanjani, Daniela Damjanovic, Rocky Lai, Sam Afkhami, Yonghong Chen, Anna Dvorkin-Gheva, Clinton S Robbins, Jonathan D Schertzer, Zhou Xing
Innate immune memory is an emerging area of research. However, innate immune memory at major mucosal sites remains poorly understood. Here, we show that respiratory viral infection induces long-lasting memory alveolar macrophages (AMs). Memory AMs are programed to express high MHC II, a defense-ready gene signature, and increased glycolytic metabolism, and produce, upon re-stimulation, neutrophil chemokines. Using a multitude of approaches, we reveal that the priming, but not maintenance, of memory AMs requires the help from effector CD8 T cells...
October 20, 2018: Cell
Dijana Zadravec, Tomislav Badel, Mia Smoljan, Samir Čimić, Nataša Katavić, Ivana Savić Pavičin
The aim of the study was to analyze zygomatic air cell defect (ZACD) incidence using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and validity of panoramic radiograph as a comparative method of ZACD diagnostics. The connection between ZACD incidence, age, left/right temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and comorbidity with diagnosis of TMJ disorder was analyzed. Panoramic radiographs and MRIs of 140 TMJs of 70 consecutive patients with previously confirmed TMJ diagnosis were compared in the study. A grading system (4-point scale from '0' for absence to '3' for most extended pneumatization) was used to determine low signal on MRIs as pneumatization of temporal bone...
June 2018: Acta Clinica Croatica
Hyerim Kim, In Suk Kim, Chulhun L Chang, Sun Young Kong, Young Tak Lim, Seom Gim Kong, Eun Hae Cho, Eun Yup Lee, Ho Jin Shin, Hyeon Jin Park, Hyeon Seok Eom, Hyewon Lee
BACKGROUND: Chromosomal abnormalities and common genetic rearrangements related to T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) are not clear. We investigated T-cell receptor ( TCR ) rearrangement in Korean T-ALL patients by fragment analysis, examining frequency, association between clinicopathologic characteristics and TCR clonality, and feasibility for detecting minimal residual disease (MRD). METHODS: In 51 Korean patients diagnosed as having T-ALL, TCR rearrangement was analyzed using the IdentiClone TCR gene clonality assay (InVivoScribe Technologies, San Diego, CA, USA) from archived bone marrow specimens...
March 2019: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
James P Ledgard, Javariah Siddiqui, Matthew H Pelletier, William R Walsh, Peter J Scougall
BACKGROUND: Midcarpal arthrodesis is a treatment of choice in patients with midcarpal arthritis. Traditionally a four corner fusion has been favoured, however recent research has shown improved results when the triquetrum and scaphoid are excised. There is no clear evidence as to which remaining bones should be fused or which implants should be used. The purpose of this study is to compare the biomechanics of midcarpal arthrodesis after scaphoid and triquetrum excision, using memory staples or cannulated screws, in recognised construct patterns...
December 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
Jacqui A McGovern, Abbas Shafiee, Ferdinand Wagner, Christoph A Lahr, Marietta Landgraf, Christoph Meinert, Elizabeth D Williams, Pamela J Russell, Judith A Clements, Daniela Loessner, Boris M Holzapfel, Gail P Risbridger, Dietmar W Hutmacher
The primary tumor microenvironment is inherently important in prostate cancer (PCa) initiation, growth and metastasis. However, most current PCa animal models are based on the injection of cancer cells into the blood circulation and bypass the first steps of the metastatic cascade, hence failing to investigate the influence of the primary tumor microenvironment on PCa metastasis. Here, we investigated the spontaneous metastasis of PC3 human PCa cells from humanized prostate tissue, containing cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and prostate lymphatic and blood vessel endothelial cells (BVEC), to humanized tissue-engineered bone constructs (hTEBC) in NOD-SCID IL2Rγnull (NSG) mice...
November 13, 2018: Cancers
Rafael Delgado-Ruiz, Georgios Romanos
Implant surface characteristics, as well as physical and mechanical properties, are responsible for the positive interaction between the dental implant, the bone and the surrounding soft tissues. Unfortunately, the dental implant surface does not remain unaltered and changes over time during the life of the implant. If changes occur at the implant surface, mucositis and peri-implantitis processes could be initiated; implant osseointegration might be disrupted and bone resorption phenomena (osteolysis) may lead to implant loss...
November 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Inge Axelsson
It is important to determine the chronological ages of children and adolescent asylum seekers and physicians and researchers working in forensic medicine and paediatrics are involved in this process. However, it appears that forensic doctors in Germany (1) and Sweden, as discussed in this paper, have been ignoring high-quality research in epidemiology, paediatrics and psychology when they assess adolescents, In Sweden, the age of asylum-seeking adolescents is estimated by using radiological assessments of bone and teeth age and the risk of deportation is increased if the estimated age is 18 years or higher...
November 14, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Mohamed Samih Alsrouji, Rohana Ahmad, Aiemeeza Rajali, Nor Wati Nur Atikah Mustafa, Norliza Ibrahim, Nadim Z Baba Dmd
PURPOSE: To compare the residual ridge resorption (RRR) of the anterior maxillary bone beneath complete denture when opposed by a mandibular complete denture (CD) and implant-retained overdenture (IRO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 18 patients were rehabilitated with maxillary CD opposing mandibular IRO, and 4 patients were prescribed with conventional CD. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of the maxilla were acquired before and 1 year post-treatment and converted into 3D models using Mimics research software...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Pieter Evenepoel, Kathleen Claes, Bjorn Meijers, Michaël Laurent, Bert Bammens, Maarten Naesens, Ben Sprangers, Hans Pottel, Etienne Cavalier, Dirk Kuypers
Chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis are major public health problems associated with an aging population. Vitamin K insufficiency is prevalent among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Preliminary data indicate that poor vitamin K status may compromise bone health and that increased inflammation may be in the causal pathway. We performed an ancillary analysis of data collected in the frame of prospective observational cohort studies exploring various aspects of bone health in de novo renal transplant recipients to investigate the association between vitamin K status, inflammation, bone mineral density, and incident clinical fractures...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Hala T Borno, Eric J Small
High-risk nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer is a lethal disease that previously lacked clear treatment options. Progression to bone metastases is associated with significant morbidity and high cost. Apalutamide, an androgen receptor inhibitor, has substantial clinical response in nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Apalutamide + androgen deprivation therapy is well tolerated and improves metastasis-free survival, progression-free survival and time to symptomatic progression, and is associated with a favorable trend of improved overall survival...
November 14, 2018: Future Oncology
Noor Rahman, Rafiullah Khan, Saeed Badshah
The bone auto grafting, isografting, allografting and xenografting are used for defective bone replacement or treatment in almost all living species. The X-ray and Gamma (electromagnetic radiation) sterilization performed on the donor bone graft to prevent toxicity or migration of virus/bacterial infections from donors to reciver. Conversely, X-ray and Gamma radiation deteriorates the bone mechanical properties and bone become more susceptible to fracture. Fracture toughness as well as other mechanical properties of bone change with these radiations...
November 13, 2018: Cell and Tissue Banking
Xianlun Pang, Jiang Yang, Xiaoli Zhen, Hai Nie, Hao Qin, Lingyuan Huang, Lijie Zhang
UHMWPE granule could induce macrophages and inflammatory responses in interfacial tissues, which eliminated the wear debris of UHMWPE component and further induced dissolution of the surrounding bone, leading aseptic loosening. However, the mechanism of synovial cells, especially fibroblast-like synovial (FLS) cells response to UHMWPE, remains unknown. Herein we choose FLS cells as research object. Vimentin (+) CD68 (-) was identified by flow cytometry and immunofluorescent staining assay, and the cells were identified as FLS cells, which was consistent with the experimental requirements...
2018: BioMed Research International
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