Read by QxMD icon Read

Bone research

Maya Miyoshi, Shuang Liu
Due to limitations of using patient-derived samples for systemic kinetic studies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) research, animal models are helpful for further understanding the pathophysiology of RA and seeking potential therapeutic targets or strategies. The collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model is one of the standard RA models used in preclinical research. The CIA model shares several pathological features with RA, such as breach of tolerance and generation of autoantibodies targeting collagen, synovial inflammatory cell infiltration, synovial hyperplasia, cartilage destruction, and bone erosion...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Masoumeh Ezati, Hamide Safavipour, Behzad Houshmand, Shahab Faghihi
Many approaches have been developed to regenerate biological substitutes for repairing damaged tissues. Guided bone/tissue regeneration (GBR/GTR) that employs a barrier membrane has received much attention in recent years. Regardless of substantial efforts for treatment of damaged tissue in recent years, an effective therapeutic strategy is still a challenge for tissue engineering researchers. The aim of the current study is to fabricate a GBR membrane consisting of polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin/chitosan which is modified with different percentages of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) for improved biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and antibacterial activity...
September 21, 2018: Progress in Biomaterials
Naomi M Rosenberg, Anthony M J Bull
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the process of bone formation in tissues that are not usually osseous. It occurs in 60% of those with blast-related amputations. HO can result in reduced range of motion, pain, nerve impingement and can affect prosthesis fitting and is caused by a combination of mechanical, biological, local and systemic factors. As with normal bone formation and remodelling, it is expected that heterotopic bone responds to mechanical stimuli and understanding this relationship can give insight into the pathology...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Philipp J Jost, Ulrike Höckendorf
The hematopoietic system represents an organ system with an exceptional capacity for the production of mature blood cells from a small and mostly quiescent pool of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). This extraordinary capacity includes self-renewal but also the propensity to rapidly respond to extrinsic needs, such as acute infections, severe inflammation, and wound healing. In recent years, it became clear that inflammatory signals such as cytokines, chemokine and danger signals from pathogens (PAMPs) or dying cells (DAMPs) impact on HSCs, shaping their proliferation status, lineage bias, and repopulating ability and subsequently increasing the output of mature effector cells...
September 21, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Kathleen MacDonald, Daniel Boyd
The controlled release of therapeutic inorganic ions from biomaterials is an emerging area of international research. One of the foci for this research is the development of materials, which spatially and temporally modulate therapeutic release, via controlled degradation in the intended physiological environment. Crucially however, our understanding of the release kinetics for such systems remains limited, particularly with respect to the influence of physiological loading. Consequently, this study was designed to investigate the effect of dynamic mechanical loading on a composite material intended to stabilize, reinforce and strengthen vertebral bodies...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
A Alyahya, G R J Swennen
Bone grafting has been used in orthognathic surgery to fill the gaps created by jaw repositioning, with the intention of improving healing and stability. Since the majority of orthognathic cases have a satisfactory result, the decision to graft or not is a clinical dilemma. A systematic review of the literature was performed on the use of bone grafts in orthognathic surgery. A search of PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials yielded 1927 articles published up until 2018...
September 18, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
(no author information available yet)
Retraction: Calvo-Guirado JL, Boquete-Cast ro A, Negri B, Delgado Ruiz R, Gómez-Moreno G, Iezzi G. Crestal bone reactions to immediate implants placed at different levels in relation to crestal bone. A pilot study in Foxhound dogs. Clin Oral Impl Res. 2014; 25: 344-351. The above article, published online on 25 January 2013 in Wiley Online Library (, and in Volume 25, pp. 344-351, has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, L Heitz-Mayfield, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd...
July 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Benjamin K Hendricks, Akash J Patel, Jerome Hartman, Mark F Seifert, Aaron Cohen-Gadol
INTRODUCTION: The human cranial vault possesses an incredible, complex anatomical intricacy. Bridging the divide between 2-dimensional (2D) learning resources and the 3-dimensional (3D) world in which the anatomy becomes clinically relevant poses an intellectual challenge. Advances in computer graphics and modelling technologies have allowed increasingly accurate and representative resources to supplement cadaveric dissection specimens. OBJECTIVE: To create accurate virtual models of all cranial bones to augment education, research, and clinical endeavours...
October 1, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
S Warrier, J Taelman, L Tilleman, M Van der Jeught, G Duggal, S Lierman, M Popovic, A Van Soom, L Peelman, F Van Nieuwerburgh, D Deforce, S M Chuva de Sousa Lopes, P De Sutter, B Heindryckx
STUDY QUESTION: What are the transcriptional changes occurring during the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derivation process, from the inner cell mass (ICM) to post-ICM intermediate stage (PICMI) to hESC stage, that have downstream effects on pluripotency states and differentiation? SUMMARY ANSWER: We reveal that although the PICMI is transcriptionally similar to the hESC profile and distinct from ICM, it exhibits upregulation of primordial germ cell (PGC) markers, dependence on leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling, upregulation of naïve pluripotency-specific signaling networks and appears to be an intermediate switching point from naïve to primed pluripotency...
September 17, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Xavier Santamaria, Aymara Mas, Irene Cervelló, Hugh Taylor, Carlos Simon
BACKGROUND: Stem cell research in the endometrium and myometrium from animal models and humans has led to the identification of endometrial/myometrial stem cells and their niches. This basic knowledge is beginning to be translated to clinical use for incurable uterine pathologies. Additionally, the implication of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs) in uterine physiology has opened the field for the exploration of an exogenous and autologous source of stem cells. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: In this review, we outline the progress of endometrial and myometrial stem/progenitor cells in both human and mouse models from their characterization to their clinical application, indicating roles in Asherman syndrome, atrophic endometrium and tissue engineering, among others...
September 15, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Max Norman Tandrup Lambert, Per Bendix Jeppesen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Isoflavones exert estrogenic activity distinct from estrogen, they have the potential to treat diseases and symptoms related to estrogen deficiency with minimal side effects and risks. Isoflavone supplementation, in general, is shown to exert beneficial effects against estrogen-deficient bone loss in women, however, some clinical trials still produce conflicting findings. The purpose of this review is to highlight and summarize the most recent and up-to-date research in the field and to bring attention to factors that play a major role in the outcomes of clinical trials that investigate phytoestrogens...
September 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Riccardo Schiavina, Francesco Chessa, Marco Borghesi, Caterina Gaudiano, Lorenzo Bianchi, Beniamino Corcioni, Paolo Castellucci, Francesco Ceci, Isabella Ceravolo, Giovanni Barchetti, Maurizio Del Monte, Riccardo Campa, Carlo Catalano, Valeria Panebianco, Cristina Nanni, Stefano Fanti, Andrea Minervini, Angelo Porreca, Eugenio Brunocilla
We aimed to review the current state-of-the-art imaging methods used for primary and secondary staging of prostate cancer, mainly focusing on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and positron-emission tomography/computed tomography with new radiotracers. An expert panel of urologists, radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians with wide experience in prostate cancer led a PubMed/MEDLINE search for prospective, retrospective original research, systematic review, meta-analyses and clinical guidelines for local and systemic staging of the primary tumor and recurrence disease after treatment...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Anthony S Stein, Gary Schiller, Ramsis Benjamin, Catherine Jia, Alicia Zhang, Min Zhu, Zachary Zimmerman, Max S Topp
Neurologic events (NEs) have been reported during treatment with blinatumomab, a bispecific T cell engager (BiTE®) construct. We evaluated the occurrence, severity, and management of NEs; the relationship between NEs and blinatumomab dose; and the potential clinical risk factors in an open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study (N = 189). Patients had Philadelphia chromosome-negative, relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and ≥ 10% bone marrow blasts. The relationship between blinatumomab exposure and NE incidence and severity was assessed...
September 20, 2018: Annals of Hematology
Jessica S Fisher, J Jacob Kazam, Duretti Fufa, Roger J Bartolotta
While assessment of fracture healing is a common task for both orthopedic surgeons and radiologists, it remains challenging due to a lack of consensus on imaging and clinical criteria as well as the lack of a true gold standard. Further complicating this evaluation are the wide variations between patients, specific fracture sites, and fracture patterns. Research into the mechanical properties of bone and the process of bone healing has helped to guide the evaluation of fracture union. Development of standardized scoring systems and identification of specific radiologic signs have further clarified the radiologist's role in this process...
September 21, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
Xingchen Pang, Hongjiao Li, Feng Guan, Xiang Li
The three types of blood cells (red blood cells for carrying oxygen, white blood cells for immune protection, and platelets for wound clotting) arise from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in the adult bone marrow, and function in physiological regulation and communication with local microenvironments to maintain systemic homeostasis. Hematological malignancies are relatively uncommon malignant disorders derived from the two major blood cell lineages: myeloid (leukemia) and lymphoid (lymphoma). Malignant clones lose their regulatory mechanisms, resulting in production of a large number of dysfunctional cells and destruction of normal hematopoiesis...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Andrzej Golachowski, Sulaiman Al Hashmi, Barbara Golachowska
The Arabian leopard ( Panthera pardus nimr ) is critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, with an effective population of 150-250 across its entire range in the Arabian Peninsula. Isolation and preservation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells is beneficial both for medical and research purposes. The optimal protocol for collection, handling, culturing and preserving the Arabian leopard mesenchymal stem cells acquired from bone marrow was established. Anesthesia with combination of medetomidine and tiletamine-zozalepam is the safest option even for old animals with concurrent disease including chronic kidney disease...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
Debjit Chakraborty, Sukanya Rangamani, Vaitheeswaran Kulothungan, Meesha Chaturvedi, S Stephen, Priyanka Das, Kondalli Lakshminarayana Sudarshan, R Janani Surya, K Sathish Kumar, Anish John, N Manoharan, S S Koyande, Rajaraman Swaminathan, C Ramesh, Atul Shrivastava, B Ganesh, Prashant Mathur, Ambakumar Nandakumar
Background: Ewing sarcoma is a malignant tumour found mainly in childhood and adolescence. The present study aims at analyzing the data on Ewing sarcoma cases of bone from the National Cancer Registry Programme, India to provide incidence, patterns, and trends in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: The data of five Population Based Cancer Registries (PBCR) of Bangalore, Mumbai, Chennai, Bhopal and Delhi over 30 years period (1982- 2011) were used to calculate the Age Specific and Age Standardized Incidence Rates (ASpR and ASIR), and trends in incidence was analyzed by linear and Joinpoint Regression...
September 2018: Journal of Bone Oncology
Hongyi Li, Xianbiao Xie, Junqiang Yin, Jian Tu, Xiaoshuai Wang, Weihai Liu, Jiajun Zhang, Hongbo Li, Changye Zou, Yongqian Wang, Jingnan Shen, Gang Huang
Background: The treatment algorithm for solitary bone lesions of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (SBL-LCH) in children extremities still remains controversial. We conducted a retrospective case-control study to compare the feasibility of low-dose chemotherapy (LDC) and surgery for SBL-LCH in children extremities. Patients and methods: This study compares 43 pediatric patients starting LDC with a surgery control group (n = 44), matched for gender, age, follow-up time, and lesion sites and sizes, treated between 2001 and 2015 at our institution...
September 2018: Journal of Bone Oncology
Bicheng Yong, Zhe Yuan, Jingchun Li, Yiqiang Li, Edward P Southern, Federico Canavese, Hongwen Xu
Background: It is uncertain whether single bone fixation is comparable to both bone fixation in the treatment of unstable both bone forearm fractures in children. Materials and Methods: A systematic review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library database searches was performed on October 1, 2015 on English language scientific literature only. Clinical study designs comparing single bone fixation with both bone fixation of pediatric both bone forearm fractures were included...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
Yujie Wu, Xuenong Xing, Shandong Ye, Chao Chen, Jumei Wang
OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterizedby reduced bone mass, deteriorated bone structure. Various studies have tried to evaluate the association between lipid level and osteoporosis, but the results were proved to be controversial. The objectives of this study are to assess the correlation between BMD and serum lipid levels, to determine independent variables associated with osteoporosis and osteopenia in men and postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
September 20, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"