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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324674/osteoblast-osteoclast-interactions
#1
Xiao Chen, Zhongqiu Wang, Na Duan, Guoying Zhu, Edward M Schwarz, Chao Xie
Bone homeostasis depends on the resorption of bones by osteoclasts and formation of bones by the osteoblasts. Imbalance of this tightly coupled process can cause diseases such as osteoporosis. Thus, the mechanisms that regulate communication between osteoclasts and osteoblasts are critical to bone cell biology. It has been shown that osteoblasts and osteoclasts can communicate with each other through direct cell-cell contact, cytokines, and extracellular matrix interaction. Osteoblasts can affect osteoclast formation, differentiation, or apoptosis through several pathways, such as OPG/RANKL/RANK, RANKL/LGR4/RANK, Ephrin2/ephB4, and Fas/FasL pathways...
February 8, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323974/phenotypic-spectrum-in-osteogenesis-imperfecta-due-to-mutations-in-tmem38b-unravelling-a-complex-cellular-defect
#2
Emma A Webb, Meena Balasubramanian, Nadja Fratzl-Zelman, Wayne A Cabral, Hannah Titheradge, Atif Alsaedi, Vrinda Saraff, Julie Vogt, Trevor Cole, Susan Stewart, Nicola J Crabtree, Brandi M Sargent, Sonja Gamsjaeger, Eleftherios P Paschalis, Paul Roschger, Klaus Klaushofer, Nick J Shaw, Joan C Marini, Wolfgang Högler
Context: Recessive mutations in TMEM38B cause type XIV osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) by dysregulating intracellular calcium flux. Objectives: Clinical and bone material phenotype description and osteoblast differentiation studies. Design and Setting: Natural history study in paediatric research centres. Patients: Eight patients with type XIV OI. Main Outcome Measures: Clinical examinations included: bone mineral density, radiographs, echocardiography and muscle biopsy...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320084/lncrna-meg3-inhibited-osteogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-postmenopausal-osteoporosis-by-targeting-mir-133a-3p
#3
Qiujun Wang, Ying Li, Yuanxia Zhang, Lan Ma, Lin Lin, Jia Meng, Lihong Jiang, Liping Wang, Ping Zhou, Yina Zhang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) MEG3 has proven to be an important regulator involved in the pathogenesis and development of various human diseases. However, the functional involvement of MEG3 in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) and its mechanism is still unclear. METHODS: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were isolated and cultured from mouse pathologic models and patients with PMOP, respectively. The expression of MEG3 and miR-133a-3p in BMSCs was detected using qRT-PCR...
March 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319389/potential-antiosteoporotic-natural-product-lead-compounds-that-inhibit-17%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-2
#4
Anna Vuorinen, Roger T Engeli, Susanne Leugger, Fabio Bachmann, Muhammad Akram, Atanas G Atanasov, Birgit Waltenberger, Veronika Temml, Hermann Stuppner, Liselotte Krenn, Sylvin B Ateba, Dieudonné Njamen, Rohan A Davis, Alex Odermatt, Daniela Schuster
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17β-HSD2) converts the active steroid hormones estradiol, testosterone, and 5α-dihydrotestosterone into their weakly active forms estrone, Δ(4)-androstene-3,17-dione, and 5α-androstane-3,17-dione, respectively, thereby regulating cell- and tissue-specific steroid action. As reduced levels of active steroids are associated with compromised bone health and onset of osteoporosis, 17β-HSD2 is considered a target for antiosteoporotic treatment. In this study, a pharmacophore model based on 17β-HSD2 inhibitors was applied to a virtual screening of various databases containing natural products in order to discover new lead structures from nature...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319248/cyclic-tensile-strain-enhances-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-smad-2-3-activation-and-tenogenic-differentiation-in-anisotropic-collagen-glycosaminoglycan-scaffolds
#5
W G Grier, A S Moy, B A Harley
Stem cell research arose from the need to explore new therapeutic possibilities for intractable and lethal diseases. Although musculoskeletal disorders are basically nonlethal, their high prevalence and relative ease of performing clinical trials have facilitated the clinical application of stem cells in this field. However, few reliable clinical studies have been published, despite the plethora of in vitro and preclinical studies in stem cell research for regenerative medicine in the musculoskeletal system...
March 20, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318949/wing-augmentation-reduces-femoral-head-cutting-out-of-dynamic-hip-screw
#6
Chih-Yu Chen, Shu-Wei Huang, Jui-Sheng Sun, Shin-Yiing Lin, Chih-Sheng Yu, Hsu-Pin Pan, Ping-Hung Lin, Fan-Chun Hsieh, Yang-Hwei Tsuang, Feng-Huei Lin, Rong-Sen Yang, Cheng-Kung Cheng
The dynamic hip screw (DHS) is commonly used in the treatment of femoral intertrochanteric fracture with high satisfactory results. However, post-operative failure does occur and result in poor prognosis. The most common failure is femoral head varus collapse, followed by lag screw cut-out through the femoral head. In this study, a novel-designed DHS with two supplemental horizontal blades was used to improve the fixation stability. In this study, nine convention DHS and 9 Orthopaedic Device Research Center (ODRC) DHSs were tested in this study...
March 17, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318751/fracture-admissions-after-burns-a-retrospective-longitudinal-study
#7
Janine M Duke, Sean M Randall, Mark W Fear, James H Boyd, Fiona M Wood
BACKGROUND: Severe burn triggers systemic responses that result in reduced muscle mass and changes in bone formation, with recent evidence also suggesting systemic effects on bone after minor burns. The aim of this study was to assess if people hospitalised with a burn have increased admissions for fractures after discharge. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal study using linked hospital morbidity and death data from Western Australia was undertaken of all persons hospitalised for a first burn (n=30,997) during the period 1980-2012...
March 15, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318400/new-frontiers-in-fibers-innovative-and-emerging-research-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-bone-health
#8
Taylor C Wallace, Massimo Marzorati, Lisa Spence, Connie M Weaver, Patricia S Williamson
The complex interactions between the diet, gut microbiome, and host characteristics that provide a functional benefit to the host are an area of great interest and current exploration in the nutrition and health science community. New technologies are available to assess mechanisms that may explain these functional benefits to the host. One emerging functional benefit from changes in the gut microbiome is increased calcium absorption, increased calcium retention, and improved indices of bone health. Prebiotic fibers enhance microbial fermentation in the gut, providing an ecological advantage to specific nonpathogenic bacteria that have the ability to modify an individual's metabolic potential...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317829/-modern-approaches-to-dental-implants-placement-in-deficient-alveolar-bone
#9
A A Kulakov, R Sh Gvetadze, T V Brailovskaya, A A Khar'kova, L S Dzikovitskaya
The paper presents statistical data on implant placement procedures in Central Research Institute of Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery (Moscow, Russia) in 2010-2015. In 64% of cases inadequate bone volume was attributed to alveolar bone atrophy. Bone deficiency was equally often in upper and lower jaws (in 49.3 and 50.7%, correspondently) but varied in forms with complex configurations to be more specific for maxilla. The study also includes a series of clinical cases illustrating implant placement procedures in anatomically unfavorable settings...
2017: Stomatologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317366/-research-progress-on-forkhead-box-protein-o1-and-bone-metabolism
#10
Shu Linjing, Wu Yingying, Tan Zhen, Gong Ping
Recent studies found that forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) does not only demonstrate important biological functions in cell proliferation, gluconeogenesis, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress, but it also plays a vital role in the remodeling process of bones. FoxO1 can regulate bone mass by affecting osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and precursor cells. In this article, we review the role of FoxO1 in bone metabolism and elucidate its underlying mechanism.
August 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316922/miracle-cells-for-natural-dentistry-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Rani Somani, Shipra Jaidka, Neeti Bajaj, Sameksha Arora
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can differentiate into specialized cells. Recently, enormous growth has been seen in the recognition of stem cell-based therapies, which have the potential to ameliorate the life of patients with conditions that span from Parkinson's disease to cardiac ischemia to bone or tooth loss. This research has produced new but unexplored possibilities in the regeneration of different organs and tissues. Presently, research is focused on the proficiency of stem cells and their utilization in dentistry, which is gaining interest...
January 2017: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316169/-advances-in-the-research-of-basic-study-and-clinical-application-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
S J Cao, L F Wang, T Ba, Z D Rong, G L Hu, B Zhou, Q Li
Since the discovery of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) in more than ten years, a great progress has been made from its basic research to clinical application. Compared with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, ADSCs are more abundant in reserve, easier to obtain with fewer injuries and less complications. These cells have multiple differentiation potential and can differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts with the influence of different inducing factors. Early studies of ADSCs mainly focused on the ability of multi-directional differentiation, espe-cially on the regeneration of bone defects and cartilage tissue...
March 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316107/applied-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-combination-with-biomaterials-in-bone-tissue-engineering
#13
Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi
Due to increasing of the orthopedic lesions and fractures in the world and limitation of current treatment methods, researchers and surgeons paid attention to the new treatment ways especially to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Innovation in stem cells and biomaterials accelerate during the last decade as two main important parts of the tissue engineering. Recently, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) introduced as cells with highly proliferation and differentiation potentials that hold great promising features for used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316103/identification-of-hip-bmd-loss-and-fracture-risk-markers-through-population-based-serum-proteomics
#14
Carrie M Nielson, Jack Wiedrick, Jian Shen, Jon Jacobs, Erin S Baker, Aaron Baraff, Paul Piehowski, Christine G Lee, Arie Baratt, Vladislav Petyuk, Shannon McWeeney, Jeong Youn Lim, Douglas C Bauer, Nancy E Lane, Peggy M Cawthon, Richard D Smith, Jodi Lapidus, Eric S Orwoll
Serum proteomics analysis may lead to the discovery of novel osteoporosis biomarkers. The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) comprises men ≥65 in the US who have had repeated BMD measures and have been followed for incident fracture. High-throughput quantitative proteomic analysis was performed on baseline fasting serum samples from non-Hispanic white men using a multi-dimensional approach coupling liquid chromatography, ion-mobility separation, and mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS). We followed the participants for a mean of 4...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314976/enzyme-replacement-therapy-and-beyond-in-memoriam-roscoe-o-brady-m-d-1923-2016
#15
REVIEW
Markus Ries
Lysosomal storage disorders are strong candidates for the development of specific innovative therapies. The discovery of enzyme deficiencies is an important milestone in understanding the underlying cause of disease. Being able to replace the first missing enzyme in a lysosomal storage required three decades of dedicated research. Successful drug development for lysosomal storage disorders was fostered by the U.S. Orphan Drug Act. Various optimization strategies have the potential to overcome the current limitations of enzyme replacement therapies...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314891/revision-total-knee-arthroplasty-with-porous-coated-metaphyseal-sleeves-provides-radiographic-ingrowth-and-stable-fixation
#16
Catherine J Fedorka, Antonia F Chen, Michael R Pagnotto, Lawrence S Crossett, Brian A Klatt
PURPOSE: Porous-coated metaphyseal sleeves are designed to fill bone defects and facilitate osseointegration when bone loss in encountered during revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study is to evaluate short-term results of porous-coated metaphyseal sleeves with regards to implant fixation and clinical outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted on 50 patients (79 sleeves-49 tibial and 30 femoral) who had a press-fit metaphyseal sleeve with revision TKA...
March 17, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306336/fifty-years-of-research-in-ards-cell-based-therapy-for-ards-biology-and-potential-therapeutic-value
#17
John G Laffey, Michael A Matthay
Based on several pre-clinical studies, cell-based therapy has emerged as a potential new therapeutic for ARDS. Of the various cell-based therapy options, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from bone marrow, adipose tissue and umbilical cord have the most experimental data to support their potential efficacy for lung injury from both infectious and non-infectious causes. Mechanistically, MSCs exert their beneficial effects by release of paracrine factors, microvesicles, and transfer of mitochondria, all of which have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving effects on injured lung endothelium and alveolar epithelium, including enhancing the resolution of pulmonary edema by upregulating sodium-dependent alveolar fluid clearance...
March 17, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303975/a-conserved-inter-domain-communication-mechanism-regulates-the-atpase-activity-of-the-aaa-protein-drg1
#18
Michael Prattes, Mathias Loibl, Gertrude Zisser, Daniel Luschnig, Lisa Kappel, Ingrid Rössler, Manuela Grassegger, Altijana Hromic, Elmar Krieger, Karl Gruber, Brigitte Pertschy, Helmut Bergler
AAA-ATPases fulfil essential roles in different cellular pathways and often act in form of hexameric complexes. Interaction with pathway-specific substrate and adaptor proteins recruits them to their targets and modulates their catalytic activity. This substrate dependent regulation of ATP hydrolysis in the AAA-domains is mediated by a non-catalytic N-terminal domain. The exact mechanisms that transmit the signal from the N-domain and coordinate the individual AAA-domains in the hexameric complex are still the topic of intensive research...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302039/bone-degeneration-inflammation-and-secondary-complications-of-arthritis-potential-targets-and-their-natural-inhibitors
#19
Mahadevappa Hemshekhar, Ram M Thushara, Somanatahpura K NaveenKumar, Paul Manoj, Mahalingam S Sundaram, Kempaiah Kemparaju, Kesturu S Girish
Arthritis is marked with joint deterioration that affects articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Though cartilage degradation is a major damage during arthritis, the subsequent bone loss cannot be neglected. Progress in the arthritis research has identified clinical importance of bone erosion in destructive arthritis. Studies have showed the key role played by osteoclasts and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL) signaling in bone erosion. Cathepsins and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) are considered key enzymatic factors contributing to bone erosion...
March 15, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301779/detection-of-bone-marrow-edema-in-nondisplaced-hip-fractures-utility-of-a-virtual-unenhanced-dual-energy-ct-application
#20
Trenton T Kellock, Savvas Nicolaou, Sandra S Y Kim, Sultan Al-Busaidi, Luck J Louis, Tim W O'Connell, Hugue A Ouellette, Patrick D McLaughlin
Purpose To quantify the sensitivity and specificity of dual-energy computed tomographic (CT) virtual noncalcium images in the detection of nondisplaced hip fractures and to assess whether obtaining these images as a complement to bone reconstructions alters sensitivity, specificity, or diagnostic confidence. Materials and Methods The clinical research ethics board approved chart review, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. The authors retrospectively identified 118 patients who presented to a level 1 trauma center emergency department and who underwent dual-energy CT for suspicion of a nondisplaced traumatic hip fracture...
March 16, 2017: Radiology
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