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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668108/sonographic-assessment-of-swallowing-in-irradiated-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-patients
#1
Dennis T H Cheng, Kathy Y S Lee, Anil T Ahuja, Michael C F Tong
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Ultrasonography is an emerging clinical tool to study the dysfunction of swallowing muscles. This was the first sonographic study to assess the relationship between suprahyoid muscle contraction, hyoid bone displacement, and penetration-aspiration status (PAS) during swallowing in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with radiotherapy (RT). The study also aimed to establish reliability data for the sonographic technique described. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
April 18, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667012/bone-marrow-adipocyte-developmental-origin-and-biology
#2
REVIEW
Joanna Bukowska, Trivia Frazier, Stanley Smith, Theodore Brown, Robert Bender, Michelle McCarthy, Xiying Wu, Bruce A Bunnell, Jeffrey M Gimble
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review explores how the relationships between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) adipogenesis with advancing age, obesity, and/or bone diseases (osteopenia or osteoporosis) contribute to mechanisms underlying musculoskeletal pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have re-defined adipose tissue as a dynamic, vital organ with functions extending beyond its historic identity restricted solely to that of an energy reservoir or sink. "State of the art" methodologies provide novel insights into the developmental origin, physiology, and function of different adipose tissue depots...
April 18, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667006/establishment-and-characterization-of-a-c57bl-6-mouse-model-of-bone-metastasis-of-breast-cancer
#3
Toru Hiraga, Tadashi Ninomiya
Bone is one of the most common sites of metastasis in patients with advanced breast cancer; however, the mechanisms of bone metastasis remain to be fully elucidated. Animal models are essential research tools for investigating the mechanisms of diseases and drug actions. To date, there have only been a few reports in which C57BL/6 mice were used for the study of bone metastases of breast cancer. In the current study, we found that intracardiac inoculation of C57BL/6 mouse-derived parental E0771 breast cancer cells (E0771/Pa) frequently lead to bone metastases in C57BL/6 mice within 2 weeks...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667005/the-bmp-2-mutant-l51p-a-bmp-receptor-ia-binding-deficient-inhibitor-of-noggin
#4
REVIEW
Hany Mohamed Khattab, Satoshi Kubota, Masaharu Takigawa, Takuo Kuboki, Walter Sebald
The antagonist-specific regulation in tissue engineering constitutes important attempts to achieve an improved and rapid bone regeneration by controlling the natural biological response of the natural body growth factors. L51P is molecularly engineered bone morphogentic protein-2 (BMP-2) variant with a substitution of the 51st leucine with a proline residue. L51P is deficient in BMP receptor binding, but maintains its structure and affinity for inhibitory proteins such as noggin, chordin, and gremlin. These modifications convert the BMP-2 variant L51P into a receptor-inactive inhibitor of BMP antagonists...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665454/comparison-of-the-mechanobiological-performance-of-bone-tissue-scaffolds-based-on-different-unit-cell-geometries
#5
Óscar L Rodríguez-Montaño, Carlos Julio Cortés-Rodríguez, Antonio E Uva, Michele Fiorentino, Michele Gattullo, Giuseppe Monno, Antonio Boccaccio
Enhancing the performance of scaffolds for bone regeneration requires a multidisciplinary approach involving competences in the fields of Biology, Medicine and Engineering. A number of studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of scaffolds design parameters on their mechanical and biological response. The possibilities offered by the additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate sophisticated and very complex microgeometries that until few years ago were just a geometrical abstraction, led many researchers to design scaffolds made from different unit cell geometries...
April 11, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665068/osteoporosis-and-hip-fracture-risk-from-routine-computed-tomography-scans-the-fracture-osteoporosis-and-ct-utilization-study-focus
#6
Annette L Adams, Heidi Fischer, David L Kopperdahl, David C Lee, Dennis M Black, Mary L Bouxsein, Shireen Fatemi, Sundeep Khosla, Eric S Orwoll, Ethel S Siris, Tony M Keaveny
Methods now exist for analyzing previously taken clinical computed tomography (CT) scans to measure a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-equivalent bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and a finite element analysis-derived femoral strength. We assessed the efficacy of this "biomechanical CT" (BCT) approach for identifying patients at high risk of incident hip fracture in a large clinical setting. Using a case-cohort design sampled from 111,694 women and men aged 65 or older who had a prior hip CT scan, a DXA within 3 years of the CT, and no prior hip fracture, we compared those with subsequent hip fracture (n = 1959) with randomly selected sex-stratified controls (n = 1979) and analyzed their CT scans blinded to all other data...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664860/conflict-of-interest-disclosures-to-the-journal-of-bone-joint-surgery-the-relevance-of-industry-reported-payments
#7
Michael C Fu, Venkat Boddapati, Benedict U Nwachukwu, Anil S Ranawat, Todd J Albert, Joshua S Dines
BACKGROUND: Academic journals such as The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery (JBJS) require disclosures of financial relationships that authors report as potential conflicts of interest. Because industry payments can take various forms, including food and beverage, consulting, or research payments, the purpose of this study was to determine which categories of industry-reported payments were most frequently considered by authors as irrelevant to their specific publication, and therefore not included in their journal disclosures...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663809/distributions-the-importance-of-the-chemist-s-molecular-view-for-biological-materials
#8
Rachel Leah Merzel, Bradford G Orr, Mark M Banaszak Holl
Characterization of materials with biological applications and assessment of physiological effects of therapeutic interventions are critical for translating research to the clinic and preventing adverse reactions. Analytical techniques typically used to characterize targeted nanomaterials and tissues rely on bulk measurement. Therefore, the resulting data represent an average structure of the sample, masking stochastic (randomly generated) distributions that are commonly present. In this Perspective, we examine almost 20 years of work our group has done in different fields to characterize and control distributions...
April 17, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663375/long-noncoding-rna-h19-mediates-lcor-to-impact-the-osteogenic-and-adipogenic-differentiation-of-mbmscs-in-mice-through-sponging-mir-188
#9
Yijun Wang, Wentao Liu, Yadong Liu, Jianli Cui, Zhiwei Zhao, Hui Cao, Zhuo Fu, Bin Liu
The research aimed to examine the expression of lncRNA H19, miR-188, and LCoR in mouse bone marrow stromal stem cells (mBMSCs), and to investigate the regulatory mechanism of lncRNA H19/miR-188/LCoR in osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of mBMSCs. The expression of miR-188 in mBMSCs and osteogenesis induced mBMSCs was detected by stem-loop RT-PCR, while the expression of H19 and LCoR in mBMSCs and adipogenesis induced mBMSCs was examined by qRT-PCR. Luciferase reporter assay verified the targeted relationship between miR-188 and H19 or LCoR...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663272/fiducial-based-fusion-of-3d-dental-models-with-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#10
Amir H Abdi, Alan G Hannam, Sidney Fels
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used in study of maxillofacial structures. While MRI is the modality of choice for soft tissues, it fails to capture hard tissues such as bone and teeth. Virtual dental models, acquired by optical 3D scanners, are becoming more accessible for dental practice and are starting to replace the conventional dental impressions. The goal of this research is to fuse the high-resolution 3D dental models with MRI to enhance the value of imaging for applications where detailed analysis of maxillofacial structures are needed such as patient examination, surgical planning, and modeling...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663095/is-antral-membrane-balloon-elevation-truly-minimally-invasive-technique-in-sinus-floor-elevation-surgery-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Huda Moutaz Asmael
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive antral membrane balloon elevation was introduced as a less traumatic technique in sinus floor elevation surgery. This is the first systematic review to assess the results of previous studies utilizing this technique. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The objectives of this study were to assess the bone gain, sinus augmentation success rate, implant survival rate, and complications with minimally invasive antral membrane balloon elevation technique in comparison with the sinus floor elevation by traditional transalveolar technique (Summers' technique)...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662776/three-dimensional-morphometric-properties-of-rod-and-plate-like-trabeculae-in-adolescent-cancellous-bone
#12
Ming Ding, Xiaozhe Lin, Wenge Liu
Background/Objective: Despite many researches have been carried out on the three-dimensional microarchitecture of cancellous bone, the morphometric properties of rod and plate trabeculae in adolescent cancellous bone have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to investigate three-dimensional morphometric properties of rod- and plate-like trabeculae in normal adolescent cancellous bone, and to compare them with adult cancellous bones to reveal morphometric changes from adolescence to adult life to obtain more insight into the subchondral bone adaptations during development and growth...
January 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662775/relationship-between-heterotopic-ossification-and-traumatic-brain-injury-why-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-increases-the-risk-of-heterotopic-ossification
#13
REVIEW
Huan Huang, Wen-Xiang Cheng, Yi-Ping Hu, Jian-Hai Chen, Zheng-Tan Zheng, Peng Zhang
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a pathological phenomenon in which ectopic lamellar bone forms in soft tissues. HO involves many predisposing factors, including congenital and postnatal factors. Postnatal HO is usually induced by fracture, burn, neurological damage (brain injury and spinal cord injury) and joint replacement. Recent studies have found that patients who suffered from bone fracture combined with severe traumatic brain injury (S-TBI) are at a significantly increased risk for HO occurrence. Thus, considerable research focused on the influence of S-TBI on fracture healing and bone formation, as well as on the changes in various osteogenic factors with S-TBI occurrence...
January 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662773/characteristics-of-bone-biochemical-indices-in-predicting-secondary-osteoporotic-fracture-after-intertrochanteric-fracture-in-elderly-women
#14
Shaofeng Yang, Yanan Liu, Qin Shi, Jun Zou, Huilin Yang
Background: This study aimed to explore the characteristics of bone biochemical indices, including bone mineral density (BMD), metabolic markers in elderly women with osteoporotic intertrochanteric fracture and their relevance in secondary fracture. Methods: The standard for follow-up from 58 elderly women was established to analyse the BMD in the injured hip, healthy hip, and the vertebra at 1 week and 12 months after fracture. The serum levels of total procollagen type N-terminal propeptide (tPINP) and the age-related type I cross linked C-telopeptide (β-CTX) were recorded and compared between those patients with and without secondary fractures within 12 months...
January 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661978/control-of-cell-behaviour-through-nanovibrational-stimulation-nanokicking
#15
REVIEW
Shaun N Robertson, Paul Campsie, Peter G Childs, Fiona Madsen, Hannah Donnelly, Fiona L Henriquez, William G Mackay, Manuel Salmerón-Sánchez, Monica P Tsimbouri, Craig Williams, Matthew J Dalby, Stuart Reid
Mechanical signals are ubiquitous in our everyday life and the process of converting these mechanical signals into a biological signalling response is known as mechanotransduction. Our understanding of mechanotransduction, and its contribution to vital cellular responses, is a rapidly expanding field of research involving complex processes that are still not clearly understood. The use of mechanical vibration as a stimulus of mechanotransduction, including variation of frequency and amplitude, allows an alternative method to control specific cell behaviour without chemical stimulation (e...
May 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661810/metastases-in-prostate-cancer
#16
Federico La Manna, Sofia Karkampouna, Eugenio Zoni, Marta De Menna, Janine Hensel, George N Thalmann, Marianna Kruithof-de Julio
Prostate cancer (PCa) prognosis and clinical outcome is directly dependent on metastatic occurrence. The bone microenvironment is a favorable metastatic niche. Different biological processes have been suggested to contribute to the osteotropism of PCa such as hemodynamics, bone-specific signaling interactions, and the "seed and soil" hypothesis. However, prevalence of disseminating tumor cells in the bone is not proportional to the actual occurrence of metastases, as not all patients will develop bone metastases...
April 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661307/effect-of-ph-and-precursor-salts-on-in-situ-formation-of-calcium-phosphate-nanoparticles-in-methylcellulose-hydrogel
#17
Min Hee Kim, Hanna Park, Won Ho Park
Thermo-reversible hydrogels have been widely studied in biomedical research fields, because of their potential performance in drug delivery and tissue engineering. In this study, a novel thermo-sensitive methylcellulose (MC) hydrogel based on calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaP NPs) was prepared by in situ formation process in which precursor salts induced a salt-out effect in the MC solution. Based on the Hofmeister series, CaCl2 , Na2 HPO4 , and NaH2 PO4 precursor salts with a good salt-out effect were used as the precursor salts for CaP NPs...
July 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661229/can-arthroplasty-stem-influence-outcome-casino-a-randomized-controlled-equivalence-trial-of-125-mm-versus-150-mm-exeter-v40-stems-in-total-hip-arthroplasty
#18
David F Hamilton, Nicholas E Ohly, Paul Gaston
BACKGROUND: The use of shorter length femoral stems during total hip arthroplasty has been suggested to accommodate wider patient femoral geometry and offer maximal bone preservation. However, cemented short-stem designs may increase the risk of varus stem malalignment and influence patient outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN: CASINO is a multi-centre randomised equivalence trial that will recruit 220 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis at two NHS hospitals in Scotland...
April 16, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661041/prospective-risk-of-osteoporotic-fractures-in-patients-with-advanced-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#19
Ayushman Gupta, Neil J Greening, Rachael A Evans, Abigail Samuels, Nicole Toms, Michael C Steiner
Despite the high prevalence of osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, the fracture risk prediction tools are not routinely undertaken in the management of COPD. We quantified fracture risk using a validated risk prediction tool (Fracture Risk Assessment (FRAX®)) and determined potential bone-protection treatment needs in patients with advanced COPD. The 10-year probability of major osteoporotic or hip fracture was calculated using the FRAX tool in a cohort of patients attending a hospital complex COPD service...
January 1, 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660055/accuracy-assessment-of-pedicle-and-lateral-mass-screw-insertion-assisted-by-customized-3d-printed-drill-guides-a-human-cadaver-study
#20
Peter A J Pijpker, Joep Kraeima, Max J H Witjes, D L Marinus Oterdoom, Maarten H Coppes, Rob J M Groen, Jos M A Kuijlen
BACKGROUND: Accurate cervical screw insertion is of paramount importance considering the risk of damage to adjacent vital structures. Recent research in 3-dimensional (3D) technology describes the advantage of patient-specific drill guides for accurate screw positioning, but consensus about the optimal guide design and the accuracy is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To find the optimal design and to evaluate the accuracy of individualized 3D-printed drill guides for lateral mass and pedicle screw placement in the cervical and upper thoracic spine...
April 5, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
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