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Renal immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642802/perk-dependent-defective-tcr-mediated-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-in-end-stage-renal-disease-patients
#1
Ling Huang, Nicolle H R Litjens, Nynke M Kannegieter, Mariska Klepper, Carla C Baan, Michiel G H Betjes
BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have an impaired immune response with a prematurely aged T-cell system. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38, regulate diverse cellular programs by transferring extracellular signals into an intracellular response. T cell receptor (TCR)-induced phosphorylation of ERK (pERK) may show an age-associated decline, which can be reversed by inhibiting dual specific phosphatase (DUSP) 6, a cytoplasmic phosphatase with substrate specificity to dephosphorylate pERK...
2017: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640917/human-hantavirus-infection-elicits-pronounced-redistribution-of-mononuclear-phagocytes-in-peripheral-blood-and-airways
#2
Saskia Scholz, Faezzah Baharom, Gregory Rankin, Kimia T Maleki, Shawon Gupta, Sindhu Vangeti, Jamshid Pourazar, Andrea Discacciati, Jonas Höijer, Matteo Bottai, Niklas K Björkström, Johan Rasmuson, Magnus Evander, Anders Blomberg, Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren, Jonas Klingström, Clas Ahlm, Anna Smed-Sörensen
Hantaviruses infect humans via inhalation of virus-contaminated rodent excreta. Infection can cause severe disease with up to 40% mortality depending on the viral strain. The virus primarily targets the vascular endothelium without direct cytopathic effects. Instead, exaggerated immune responses may inadvertently contribute to disease development. Mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs), including monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs), orchestrate the adaptive immune responses. Since hantaviruses are transmitted via inhalation, studying immunological events in the airways is of importance to understand the processes leading to immunopathogenesis...
June 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631900/-experimental-development-and-rationale-for-a-renal-decellularization-protocol-with-subsequent-comprehensive-assessment-of-the-biological-scaffold
#3
P V Glybochko, S N Alekseenko, E A Gubareva, E V Kuevda, A A Basov, A S Sotnichenko, S S Dzhimak, I S Gumenyuk, I Kh Egiev, V N Chechelyan, R Z Nakokhov, O M Lyasota, Yu V Teterin
Chronic renal failure (CRF) is one of the most challenging problems of contemporary medicine. Patients with chronic renal failure usually need renal replacement therapy as either hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or a kidney transplant. The latter is the most promising option for end-stage kidney disease. However, the shortage of donor organs, the complexity of their delivery, the difficulty in finding an immunologically compatible donor and the need for lifelong immunosuppression triggered advances in modern tissue engineering...
June 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630212/a-pilot-study-of-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-combined-with-cytoreductive-nephrectomy-for-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#4
Anurag K Singh, Timothy B Winslow, Mohammad Habiby Kermany, Vincent Goritz, Lilia Heit, Austin Miller, Nicholas C Hoffend, Leighton C Stein, Lalith Kumaraswamy, Graham W Warren, Wiam Bshara, Kunle Odunsi, Junko Matsuzaki, Scott I Abrams, Thomas Schwaab, Jason B Muhitch
<p>While stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) can reduce tumor volumes in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients, little is known regarding the immunomodulatory effects of high-dose radiation in the tumor microenvironment. The main objectives of this pilot study were to assess the safety and feasibility of nephrectomy following SBRT treatment of mRCC patients and analyze the immunological impact of high-dose radiation.</p> <br /><br />Experimental Design: Human RCC cell lines were irradiated and evaluated for immunomodulation...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628025/-phenotype-facilities-of-lymphocytes-in-hemorrhagic-fever-with-renal-syndrome
#5
M Ivanov, I Balmasova, Z Vasnyova
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a feral herd disease caused by hantaviruses. HERS may be severe and its manifestations include acute renal failure, intoxication, hemorrhages and pain syndrome. Hantaviruses as pathogen of HFRS wield considerable influence on the character of the immune response, in particular, is capable of lymphocytic cytolysis suppressing. It was found that cytotoxic T lymphocytes along with NKT and CD8 + regulatory T cells play the key role in the immune mechanisms of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome...
May 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624979/new-insights-into-the-pathogenesis-of-iga-nephropathy
#6
REVIEW
See Cheng Yeo, Chee Kay Cheung, Jonathan Barratt
IgA nephropathy is the most common form of glomerulonephritis in many parts of the world and remains an important cause of end-stage renal disease. Current evidence suggests that IgA nephropathy is not due to a single pathogenic insult, but rather the result of multiple sequential pathogenic "hits". An abnormally increased level of circulating poorly O-galactosylated IgA1 and the production of O-glycan-specific antibodies leads to the formation of IgA1-containing immune complexes, and their subsequent mesangial deposition results in inflammation and glomerular injury...
June 17, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624108/modification-of-immunosuppressive-therapy-as-risk-factor-for-complications-after-liver-transplantation
#7
REVIEW
Paolo De Simone, Paola Carrai, Laura Coletti, Davide Ghinolfi, Stefania Petruccelli, Franco Filipponi
Management of complications post-liver transplantation (LT) includes immunosuppressive manipulations with the aim to reduce the overall burden of immunologic suppression and compensate for renal, cardiovascular, metabolic toxicities, and for the increased oncologic risk. Two approaches can be implemented to reduce immunosuppression-related adverse events: upfront schedules tailored to the pretransplant individual patient's risk profile versus downstream modifications in the event of immunosuppression-related complications...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607797/hyper-ige-syndrome-and-renal-cell-carcinoma
#8
Neel H Patel, Mark Ferretti, John L Phillips
Hyper IgE Syndrome (HIES) is an immunodeficiency disorder characterized by increased serum levels of IgE, eczema, and recurrent cutaneous and pulmonary infections. In this report, we present, to our knowledge, the first documented case of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) found in a patient with HIES. The patient received infectious disease clearance prior to obtaining a partial nephrectomy which revealed clear cell histology. Both HIES and RCC have an immunological basis for their pathophysiology and may involve common pathways...
2017: Case Reports in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590313/current-management-of-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-evolving-new-therapies
#9
Ravi Kumar, Anil Kapoor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Targeted therapies have recently replaced cytokine treatments as the gold standard for management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Currently approved treatments include the tyrosine kinase inhibitors sunitinib, pazopanib, axitinib, sorafenib, cabozantinib and lenvatinib; the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor bevacizumab; the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors everolimus and temsirolimus; and the immunologic nivolumab. The purpose of this review is to provide an updated analysis of the clinical data supporting the use of these agents in the first-line and second-line setting...
June 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577748/-membranous-nephropathy-new-insights-in-therapeutic-approach
#10
Karine Dahan
Membranous nephropathy is one of the leading causes of nephrotic syndrome in adults, evolving to 30 % end-stage renal disease after 10 years, in the absence of specific treatment. In 2009, the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R), a podocyte membrane glycoprotein, was identified as the first autoantigen involved in more than 70 % of primitive membranous nephropathy. Many studies have reported that high titers of PLA2R antibodies are correlated with a lower risk of spontaneous or immunosuppressant-induced remission, a higher risk of nephrotic syndrome and of progression to end-stage renal disease...
April 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556588/effects-of-dna-methylation-on-progression-to-interstitial-fibrosis-and-tubular-atrophy-in-renal-allograft-biopsies-a-multi-omics-approach
#11
Sai Vineela Bontha, Daniel G Maluf, Kellie J Archer, Catherine I Dumur, Mikhail Dozmorov, Anne King, Enver Akalin, Thomas F Mueller, Lorenzo Gallon, Valeria R Mas
Progressive fibrosis of the interstitium is the dominant final pathway in renal destruction in native and transplanted kidneys. Over time, the continuum of molecular events following immunological and non-immunological insults lead to interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA) and culminate in kidney failure. We hypothesize that these insults trigger changes in DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns which in turn could exacerbate injury and slow down the regeneration processes, leading to fibrosis development and graft dysfunction...
May 28, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554998/nutritional-vitamin-d-in-renal-transplant-patients-speculations-and-reality
#12
REVIEW
Piergiorgio Messa, Anna Regalia, Carlo Maria Alfieri
Reduced levels of nutritional vitamin D are commonly observed in most chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and particularly in patients who have received a kidney transplant (KTx). In the complex clinical scenario characterizing the recipients of a renal graft, nutritional vitamin D deficiency has been put in relation not only to the changes of mineral and bone metabolism (MBM) after KTx, but also to most of the medical complications which burden KTx patients. In fact, referring to its alleged pleiotropic (non-MBM related) activities, vitamin D has been claimed to play some role in the occurrence of cardiovascular, metabolic, immunologic, neoplastic and infectious complications commonly observed in KTx recipients...
May 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550082/primary-membranous-nephropathy
#13
William G Couser
Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a unique glomerular lesion that is the most common cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in nondiabetic white adults. About 80% of cases are renal limited (primary MN, PMN) and 20% are associated with other systemic diseases or exposures (secondary MN). This review focuses only on PMN. Most cases of PMN have circulating IgG4 autoantibody to the podocyte membrane antigen PLA2R (70%), biopsy evidence PLA2R staining indicating recent immunologic disease activity despite negative serum antibody levels (15%), or serum anti-THSD7A (3%-5%)...
June 7, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524801/association-of-ugt2b7-ugt1a9-abcg2-and-il23r-polymorphisms-with-rejection-risk-in-kidney-transplant-patients
#14
Heloísa Lizotti Cilião, Rossana Batista Oliveira Camargo-Godoy, Marilesia Ferreira de Souza, Mariana Bisarro Dos Reis, Lorena Iastrenski, Vinicius Daher Alvares Delfino, Silvia Regina Rogatto, Ilce Mara de Syllos Cólus
Despite advances in testing compatibility between donor and recipient, graft rejection remains a current concern. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that codify altered enzymes of metabolism, drug transport, and the immune system may contribute to graft rejection in transplant patients. This study examined the association between SNPs present in genes of these processes and occurrence of graft rejection episodes in 246 kidney transplant patients, 35% of which were diagnosed with rejection. Genotype-gene expression associations were also assessed...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511434/anti-c1q-antibody-is-associated-with-renal-and-cutaneous-manifestations-in-asian-indian-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#15
Jayakanthan Kabeerdoss, Nikhil Gupta, Sandhya Pulukool, Hindhumathi Mohan, Gowri Mahasampath, Debashish Danda
INTRODUCTION: C1q play an important role in clearance of immune complexes and apoptotic cell debris. Impaired clearance leads to exposure of C1 native antigen and development of anti-C1q antibody formation. Anti-C1q antibody is well studied in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Significance of anti-C1q Ab in Indian SLE patients and their clinical manifestations is not clear. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between anti-C1q antibody and clinical as well as serological markers of SLE...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507917/systemic-meta-analysis-assessing-the-short-term-applicability-of-early-conversion-to-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-inhibitors-in-kidney-transplant
#16
Jayant Kumar, Isabella Reccia, Tomokazu Kusano, Bridson M Julie, Ajay Sharma, Ahmed Halawa
AIM: To consolidate the present evidence of effectiveness in renal functioning and graft survival following early introduction of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors with or without calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) in renal transplant recipients. METHODS: We analysed the current literature following PROSPERO approval describing the role of immunosuppressive agent, mTOR inhibitors as an alternative to CNI within six months of renal transplant by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Crossref, and Scopus using MeSH terms...
April 24, 2017: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491335/the-risk-of-acute-rejection-following-kidney-transplant-by-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-and-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-status-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Deborah Zimmerman, Andrew A House, S Joseph Kim, Ronald A Booth, Tinghua Zhang, Tim Ramsay, Greg Knoll
BACKGROUND: Prediction of acute kidney transplant rejection remains imperfect despite several known risk factors. There is an increasing appreciation of the potential importance of the vitamin D pathway in immunological disease and transplantation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D with acute rejection. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study. SETTING: Three academic adult kidney transplant programs in Ontario, Canada, were chosen...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489277/pancreas-after-islet-transplantation-in-nonuremic-type-1-diabetes-a-strategy-for-restoring-durable-insulin-independence
#18
S A Wisel, J M Gardner, G R Roll, J Harbell, C E Freise, S Feng, S M Kang, R Hirose, D B Kaufman, A M Posselt, P G Stock
Islet transplantation offers a minimally invasive approach for β cell replacement in diabetic patients with hypoglycemic unawareness. Attempts at insulin independence may require multiple islet reinfusions from distinct donors, increasing the risk of allogeneic sensitization. Currently, solid organ pancreas transplant is the only remaining surgical option following failed islet transplantation in the United States; however, the immunologic impact of repeated exposure to donor antigens on subsequent pancreas transplantation is unclear...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485782/nac-attenuates-adriamycin-induced-nephrotic-syndrome-in-rats-through-regulating-tlr4-signaling-pathway
#19
H Yao, Z-Y Cai, Z-X Sheng
OBJECTIVE: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a detrimental renal disease that affects a large population. It is suggested that Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway plays an important role in NS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunosuppressive effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in the treatment of NS elucidate its interaction with TLR4 pathway in a rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat NS model was constructed using the Bertain method by injecting adriamycin (4...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484508/cohort-profile-the-complications-of-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy-study-in-uganda-coltart-a-prospective-clinical-cohort
#20
Billy Nsubuga Mayanja, Ivan Kasamba, Jonathan Levin, Ivan Namakoola, Patrick Kazooba, Jackson Were, Pontiano Kaleebu, Paula Munderi
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves the survival and quality of life of HIV-positive individuals, but the effects of long-term ART use do eventually manifest. The Complications of Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy cohort study in Uganda (CoLTART) was established to investigate the metabolic and renal complications of long-term ART use among Ugandan adults. We describe the CoLTART study set-up, aims, objectives, study methods, and also report some preliminary cross-sectional study enrolment metabolic and renal complications data analysis results...
2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
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