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Renal immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899225/humoral-and-cellular-response-after-varicella-vaccination-in-vzv-igg-seronegative-kidney-transplant-candidates
#1
Marcia M L Kho, Joke M Zuijderwijk, Annemiek A van der Eijk, Ronella de Kuiper, Marieken J Boer-Verschragen, Willem Weimar, Nicole M van Besouw
BACKGROUND: In immunocompromised patients, primary infection with VZV may have a disastrous clinical course. Vaccination of VZV-seronegative patients on the waiting list for renal transplantation may prevent severe disease. However, the immunologic response of end-stage renal disease patients to peptide vaccines is far from optimal. Our question was whether end-stage renal disease patients with undetectable VZV-IgG levels were able to mount an adequate humoral and cellular response to a live attenuated varicella vaccine...
November 26, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882140/hydroxyethyl-starch-resuscitation-downregulate-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-the-early-phase-of-severe-acute-pancreatitis-a-retrospective-study
#2
Qi-Jun Chen, Zhi-Yong Yang, Chun-You Wang, Li-Ming Dong, Yu-Shun Zhang, Chao Xie, Chang-Zhong Chen, Shi-Kai Zhu, Hong-Ji Yang, He-Shui Wu, Chong Yang
In the present study, we investigated the effects of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 on serum pro-inflammatory variables, immunologic variables, fluid balance (FB)-negative(-) rate and renal function in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients. From October, 2007 to November, 2008, a total of 120 SAP patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. Fifty-nine patients in the HES group received 6% HES 130/0.4 combined with crystalloid solution for fluid resuscitation (HES group). In the control group, 61 patients received only crystalloid solution after admission...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878656/mille-modis-morimur-we-die-in-a-thousand-ways
#3
Gaspar Banfalvi
Dying cells subjected to apoptotic programs are engulfed by neighboring cells or by professional phagocytes, without inflammation or immunological reactions in the tissue where apoptosis takes place. Apoptotic cells release danger-associated project signals to their neighbours, through different molecular patterns, stimulate antigen production and immune responses. Microenvironmental effects with several functional consequences indicate that cell death is a complex process and may take place in several ways...
November 23, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871759/rabbit-atg-or-basiliximab-induction-for-rapid-steroid-withdrawal-after-renal-transplantation-harmony-an-open-label-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Oliver Thomusch, Michael Wiesener, Mirian Opgenoorth, Andreas Pascher, Rainer Peter Woitas, Oliver Witzke, Bernd Jaenigen, Markus Rentsch, Heiner Wolters, Thomas Rath, Tülay Cingöz, Urs Benck, Bernhard Banas, Christian Hugo
BACKGROUND: Standard practice for immunosuppressive therapy after renal transplantation is quadruple therapy using antibody induction, low-dose tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroids. Long-term steroid intake significantly increases cardiovascular risk factors with negative effects on the outcome, especially post-transplantation diabetes associated with morbidity and mortality. In this trial, we examined the efficacy and safety parameters of rapid steroid withdrawal after induction therapy with either rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rabbit ATG) or basiliximab in immunologically low-risk patients during the first year after kidney transplantation...
November 18, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870356/clinical-and-immunological-relevance-of-antibodies-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#5
REVIEW
N K Mehra, A K Baranwal
The two important issues affecting recipients of solid organ transplants and of importance to immunologists are (i) sensitization of the recipient to HLA antigens and the resultant humoral immune response leading to the development of anti-HLA antibodies; and ii) development of robust assays for early detection of humoral rejection post-transplant. Evidence from several studies clearly indicates that presence of circulating anti-HLA antibodies especially donor specific leads to early graft loss and high titres of DSA may even lead to hyperacute or accelerated acute rejection...
December 2016: International Journal of Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869439/immunology-update-long-term-care-of-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#6
S Paul Starr
Nearly 31,000 US patients received solid organ transplants in 2015 and the number is increasing. Care of transplant recipients includes management of a variety of common posttransplantation issues. Skin cancers are common because of immunosuppression and require skin examinations at intervals. Patients should be educated about the need to report new skin lesions. The rates of other cancers also are increased, including cancers of the head and neck, lung, esophagus, cervix, and urinary tract. Osteoporosis is common in transplant recipients; monitoring and early therapy are important...
November 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869438/immunology-update-biologics
#7
S Paul Starr
Biologics are substances made from a living organism or its products. These include genes, proteins (eg, antibodies, receptors, enzymes, inhibitors), recombinant proteins, and fusion proteins. Biologics often are produced using recombinant DNA technology. For example, monoclonal antibodies are produced by inserting human genes into immortalized cell cultures, which then produce the gene product (ie, an antibody) in large quantity. Another approach is to fuse genetic material from nonhuman sources (eg, mice) with human genetic material...
November 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862900/long-term-renal-allograft-survival-after-sequential-liver-kidney-transplantation-from-a-single-living-donor
#8
Kumiko Kitajima, Yuichi Ogawa, Katsuyuki Miki, Kotaro Kai, Akihito Sannomiya, Kazuhiro Iwadoh, Toru Murakami, Ichiro Koyama, Ichiro Nakajima, Shohei Fuchinoue
Background Combined liver-kidney transplantation (CLKT) is well-established as a definitive therapy with the potential to provide complete recovery for certain liver-kidney diseases, although the results might be contingent on the cause of transplantation. The purposes of the present study were to review the long-term outcome of renal allografts in CLKT patients from single living donors and to investigate the beneficial factors, compared with solitary renal transplantation. Materials and Methods Thirteen patients underwent sequential liver (LTx) and kidney (KTx) transplantations from single living donors...
November 10, 2016: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861289/the-effect-of-asp2409-a-novel-cd86-selective-variant-of-ctla4-ig-on-renal-allograft-rejection-in-nonhuman-primates
#9
Shinsuke Oshima, Erik E Karrer, Yuka Kawato, Masashi Maeda, Hidehiko Fukahori, Susumu Tsujimoto, Jun Hirose, Koji Nakamura, Takanori Marui, Fujiko Takamura, Takahisa Noto, Steven J Chapin, Yasutomo Fujii, Margaret Neighbors, Sridhar Viswanathan, Bruce H Devens, Yasuyuki Higashi
BACKGROUND: Blockade of CD28-mediated T cell costimulation by a modified cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4-Ig), belatacept, is a clinically effective immunosuppressive therapy for the prevention of renal allograft rejection. Use of belatacept-based calcineurin inhibitor-free immunosuppression, however, has demonstrated an increased frequency of cellular rejection episodes and immunosuppression-related safety issues relative to conventional regimens. Furthermore, belatacept typically requires infusion for its administration chronically, which may present an inconvenience to patients...
December 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860413/development-of-a-wearable-bioartificial-kidney-using-the-bioartificial-renal-epithelial-cell-system-brecs
#10
Kimberly A Johnston, Angela J Westover, Alvaro Rojas-Pena, Deborah A Buffington, Christopher J Pino, Peter L Smith, H David Humes
Cell therapy for the treatment of renal failure in the acute setting has proved successful, with therapeutic impact, yet development of a sustainable, portable bioartificial kidney for treatment of chronic renal failure has yet to be realized. Challenges in maintaining an anticoagulated blood circuit, the typical platform for solute clearance and support of the biological components, have posed a major hurdle in advancement of this technology. This group has developed a Bioartificial Renal Epithelial Cell System (BRECS) capable of differentiated renal cell function while sustained by body fluids other than blood...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846884/future-perspectives-in-melanoma-research-meeting-report-from-the-melanoma-bridge-napoli-december-1st-4th-2015
#11
Paolo A Ascierto, Sanjiv Agarwala, Gerardo Botti, Alessandra Cesano, Gennaro Ciliberto, Michael A Davies, Sandra Demaria, Reinhard Dummer, Alexander M Eggermont, Soldano Ferrone, Yang Xin Fu, Thomas F Gajewski, Claus Garbe, Veronica Huber, Samir Khleif, Michael Krauthammer, Roger S Lo, Giuseppe Masucci, Giuseppe Palmieri, Michael Postow, Igor Puzanov, Ann Silk, Stefani Spranger, David F Stroncek, Ahmad Tarhini, Janis M Taube, Alessandro Testori, Ena Wang, Jennifer A Wargo, Cassian Yee, Hassane Zarour, Laurence Zitvogel, Bernard A Fox, Nicola Mozzillo, Francesco M Marincola, Magdalena Thurin
The sixth "Melanoma Bridge Meeting" took place in Naples, Italy, December 1st-4th, 2015. The four sessions at this meeting were focused on: (1) molecular and immune advances; (2) combination therapies; (3) news in immunotherapy; and 4) tumor microenvironment and biomarkers. Recent advances in tumor biology and immunology has led to the development of new targeted and immunotherapeutic agents that prolong progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of cancer patients. Immunotherapies in particular have emerged as highly successful approaches to treat patients with cancer including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), bladder cancer, and Hodgkin's disease...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836384/sensitization-assessment-before-kidney-transplantation
#12
REVIEW
Ben C Reynolds, Kathryn J Tinckam
Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end stage renal disease to optimize survival, freedom from morbidity and quality of life. A fundamental aspect of the pre-transplant assessment is a thorough understanding of their immunological history and prior exposures, so that the immunological risk from a given donor can be estimated, if not quantified, in order to guide interventions to optimize transplant access and success. The methodologies available to complete this assessment have evolved rapidly, with flow cytometric based analyses now standard in many laboratories, availability of comprehensive molecular methods for HLA typing of both donors and recipients, and an increasing recognition of the vital dialogue that must occur between the HLA laboratory and transplant clinicians...
October 8, 2016: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832657/expression-of-bmp-2-in-vascular-endothelial-cells-of-recipient-may-predict-delayed-graft-function-after-renal-transplantation
#13
Nikolina Basic-Jukic, Marijana Gulin, Tvrtko Hudolin, Zeljko Kastelan, Lea Katalinic, Marijana Coric, Marija Varnai Veda, Vanja Ivkovic, Petar Kes, Bojan Jelakovic
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Delayed graft function (DGF) is associated with adverse outcomes after renal transplantation. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is involved in both endothelial function and immunological events. We compared expression of BMP-2 in epigastric artery of renal transplant recipients with immediate graft function (IGF) and DGF. METHODS: 79 patients were included in this prospective study. Patients were divided in IGF group (64 patients) and DGF group (15 patients)...
November 11, 2016: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805725/laboratory-tests-for-diagnosing-and-monitoring-canine-leishmaniasis
#14
REVIEW
Saverio Paltrinieri, Luigi Gradoni, Xavier Roura, Andrea Zatelli, Eric Zini
Although several reviews on canine leishmaniasis have been published, none thoroughly described clinicopathologic abnormalities and their clinical usefulness. The aim of this review was to provide information concerning current diagnostic tests relevant for clinical pathologists and from a practical perspective. Specifically, in canine leishmaniasis, nonregenerative normocytic normochromic anemia, thrombocytopenia, or leukogram changes may be present. Clinical chemistry and urinalysis may indicate renal dysfunction (azotemia, decreased urine specific gravity, proteinuria) and an inflammatory/immune response (increased acute phase proteins [APP] or α2 - and/or γ-globulins)...
November 2, 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805521/smoking-is-related-to-postoperative-pulmonary-complications-and-graft-outcomes-in-renal-transplant-patients
#15
Balam Er Dedekargınoğlu, Gaye Ulubay, Elif Küpeli, Mahir Kırnap, Füsun Öner Eyüboğlu, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: Renal transplant is an important treatment option for end-stage renal disease. A successful kidney transplant improves the quality of life and reduces the mortality risk compared with maintenance dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease. Several immunologic and nonimmunologic factors are responsible for graft outcomes in renal transplant patients. Our study was performed to evaluate the role of smoking on postoperative pulmonary complications and graft outcomes in renal transplant patients...
November 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805505/challenges-for-renal-retransplant-an-overview
#16
Mohamed Adel Bakr, Ahmed Abdelfattah Denewar, Mohamed Hamed Abbas
Despite many achievements in renal transplant in the past few years regarding immunosuppression and tissue matching, the rates of early and late graft loss and return to dialysis are still high. Many of those with primary graft failure will be listed for a kidney retransplant, as this allows for better quality of life than dialysis. Many challenges face those requiring renal retransplant, including first graft nephrectomy and whether site of retransplant should be ipsilateral or contralateral, whether to conduct preemptive retransplant or wait while on dialysis, additional immunologic factors, immunosuppression after retransplant, cancer risk, BK virus infection, and retransplant in pediatrics...
November 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803919/increasing-access-to-kidney-transplantation-for-sensitized-recipient-through-three-way-kidney-paired-donation-with-desensitization-the-first-indian-report
#17
Vivek B Kute, Himanshu V Patel, Pankaj R Shah, Pranjal R Modi, Veena R Shah, Sayyed J Rizvi, Bipin C Pal, Manisha P Modi, Priya S Shah, Umesh T Varyani, Pavan S Wakhare, Saiprasad G Shinde, Viajay A Ghodela, Minaxi H Patel, Varsha B Trivedi, Hargovind L Trivedi
The combination of kidney paired donation (KPD) with desensitization represents a promising method of increasing the rate of living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) in immunologically challenging patients. Patients who are difficult to match and desensitize due to strong donor specific antibody are may be transplanted by a combination of desensitization and KPD protocol with more immunologically favorable donor. We present our experience of combination of desensitization protocol with three-way KPD which contributed to successful LDKT in highly sensitized end stage renal disease patient...
October 16, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799439/systemic-lupus-erythematosus-in-spanish-males-a-study-of-the-spanish-rheumatology-society-lupus-registry-relesser-cohort
#18
A Riveros Frutos, I Casas, I Rúa-Figueroa, F J López-Longo, J Calvo-Alén, M Galindo, A Fernández-Nebro, J M Pego-Reigosa, A Olivé Marqués
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the demographic, clinical, and immunological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in male patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multicenter study was carried out of 3651 patients (353 men, 9.7%, and 3298 women, 90.2%) diagnosed with SLE, included in the Spanish Rheumatology Society SLE Registry (RELESSER). RESULTS: Mean ages (18-92 years) of symptom onset were 37 (SD 17) years (men) and 32 (SD 14) years (women)...
October 31, 2016: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798455/the-gut-microbiome-and-hypertension
#19
Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Eran Blacher, Evgeny Tatirovsky, Iddo Z Ben-Dov, Eran Elinav
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The mammalian mucosal surfaces are densely inhabited by a diverse microbial ecosystem termed the microbiota. Among these highly heterogeneous populations, the largest and richest is the gut microbiota, recently suggested to affect various physiological traits and susceptibility to disease. Novel metagenomic and metabolomic approaches, which have been developed in the past decade, have enabled the elucidation of the contribution of the microbiota to metabolic, immunologic, neurologic and endocrine homeostasis...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797900/viral-associated-gn-hepatitis-b-and-other-viral-infections
#20
Warren L Kupin
By definition, viral-associated GN indicates the direct pathogenic relationship between active viral replication and the development of acute GN. This definition is in sharp contrast to the semantic label and pathophysiologic foundation behind postinfectious GN that uniquely develops only during a period of resolved and absent active infection. The primary example of postinfectious GN are the glomerular lesions described after a pharyngeal or cutaneous streptococcal infection and do not represent the clinical or immunologic pattern seen with viral-associated GN...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
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