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Renal immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524801/association-of-ugt2b7-ugt1a9-abcg2-and-il23r-polymorphisms-with-rejection-risk-in-kidney-transplant-patients
#1
Heloísa Lizotti Cilião, Rossana Batista Oliveira Camargo-Godoy, Marilesia Ferreira de Souza, Mariana Bisarro Dos Reis, Lorena Iastrenski, Vinicius Daher Alvares Delfino, Silvia Regina Rogatto, Ilce Mara de Syllos Cólus
Despite advances in testing compatibility between donor and recipient, graft rejection remains a current concern. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that codify altered enzymes of metabolism, drug transport, and the immune system may contribute to graft rejection in transplant patients. This study examined the association between SNPs present in genes of these processes and occurrence of graft rejection episodes in 246 kidney transplant patients, 35% of which were diagnosed with rejection. Genotype-gene expression associations were also assessed...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511434/anti-c1q-antibody-is-associated-with-renal-and-cutaneous-manifestations-in-asian-indian-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#2
Jayakanthan Kabeerdoss, Nikhil Gupta, Sandhya Pulukool, Hindhumathi Mohan, Gowri Mahasampath, Debashish Danda
INTRODUCTION: C1q play an important role in clearance of immune complexes and apoptotic cell debris. Impaired clearance leads to exposure of C1 native antigen and development of anti-C1q antibody formation. Anti-C1q antibody is well studied in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Significance of anti-C1q Ab in Indian SLE patients and their clinical manifestations is not clear. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between anti-C1q antibody and clinical as well as serological markers of SLE...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507917/systemic-meta-analysis-assessing-the-short-term-applicability-of-early-conversion-to-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-inhibitors-in-kidney-transplant
#3
Jayant Kumar, Isabella Reccia, Tomokazu Kusano, Bridson M Julie, Ajay Sharma, Ahmed Halawa
AIM: To consolidate the present evidence of effectiveness in renal functioning and graft survival following early introduction of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors with or without calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) in renal transplant recipients. METHODS: We analysed the current literature following PROSPERO approval describing the role of immunosuppressive agent, mTOR inhibitors as an alternative to CNI within six months of renal transplant by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Crossref, and Scopus using MeSH terms...
April 24, 2017: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491335/the-risk-of-acute-rejection-following-kidney-transplant-by-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-and-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-status-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Deborah Zimmerman, Andrew A House, S Joseph Kim, Ronald A Booth, Tinghua Zhang, Tim Ramsay, Greg Knoll
BACKGROUND: Prediction of acute kidney transplant rejection remains imperfect despite several known risk factors. There is an increasing appreciation of the potential importance of the vitamin D pathway in immunological disease and transplantation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D with acute rejection. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study. SETTING: Three academic adult kidney transplant programs in Ontario, Canada, were chosen...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489277/pancreas-after-islet-pai-transplantation-in-non-uremic-type-1-diabetes-a-strategy-for-restoring-durable-insulin-independence
#5
S A Wisel, J M Gardner, G R Roll, J Harbell, C E Freise, S Feng, S M Kang, R Hirose, D B Kaufman, A Posselt, P G Stock
Islet transplantation offers a minimally-invasive approach for beta cell replacement in diabetic patients with hypoglycemic unawareness. Attempts at insulin independence may require multiple islet re-infusions from distinct donors, thus increasing the risk for allogeneic sensitization. Currently, solid organ pancreas transplant is the only remaining surgical option following failed islet transplantation in the US. However, the immunologic impact of repeated exposure to donor antigens on subsequent pancreas transplantation is unclear...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485782/nac-attenuates-adriamycin-induced-nephrotic-syndrome-in-rats-through-regulating-tlr4-signaling-pathway
#6
H Yao, Z-Y Cai, Z-X Sheng
OBJECTIVE: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a detrimental renal disease that affects a large population. It is suggested that Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway plays an important role in NS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunosuppressive effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in the treatment of NS elucidate its interaction with TLR4 pathway in a rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat NS model was constructed using the Bertain method by injecting adriamycin (4...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484508/cohort-profile-the-complications-of-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy-study-in-uganda-coltart-a-prospective-clinical-cohort
#7
Billy Nsubuga Mayanja, Ivan Kasamba, Jonathan Levin, Ivan Namakoola, Patrick Kazooba, Jackson Were, Pontiano Kaleebu, Paula Munderi
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves the survival and quality of life of HIV-positive individuals, but the effects of long-term ART use do eventually manifest. The Complications of Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy cohort study in Uganda (CoLTART) was established to investigate the metabolic and renal complications of long-term ART use among Ugandan adults. We describe the CoLTART study set-up, aims, objectives, study methods, and also report some preliminary cross-sectional study enrolment metabolic and renal complications data analysis results...
2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483237/biochemical-alteration-in-children-with-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-sensorineural-hearing-loss-additional-insights-in-cochlear-renal-relationship
#8
Ghada Mohamed El Mashad, Wafaa Moustafa M Abo El Fotoh, Ahmed Mahmoud Zein El Abedein, Fatma Abd El Raoof Abd El Sadek
OBJECTIVES: Children with Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome (INS) are at risk of hearing loss due to the adverse impact of medications and related immunological and genetic factors on both cochlea and kidney. So this work was planned to evaluate hearing status in children with INS and to clarify the possible associated risk factors by interpreting the clinical and laboratory profiles of those children. METHODS: Ninety children with INS aged 5-14 years [30 patients with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS), 30 patients with steroid dependent/frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (SDNS/FRNS), and 30 patients with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS)], and 90 age and sex matched normal controls were enrolled into this study...
June 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480787/clinical-and-immunological-characteristics-of-150-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-in-jamaica-a-comparative-analysis
#9
K C Maloney, T S Ferguson, H D Stewart, A A Myers, K De Ceulaer
Background Epidemiological studies in systemic lupus erythematosus have been reported in the literature in many countries and ethnic groups. Although systemic lupus erythematosus in Jamaica has been described in the past, there has not been a detailed evaluation of systemic lupus erythematosus patients in urban Jamaica, a largely Afro-Caribbean population. The goal of this study was to describe the clinical features, particularly disease activity, damage index and immunological features, of 150 systemic lupus erythematosus subjects...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480647/increased-circulating-t-lymphocytes-expressing-hla-dr-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-with-microcirculation-inflammation
#10
Hee Yeon Jung, Yong Jin Kim, Ji Young Choi, Jang Hee Cho, Sun Hee Park, Yong Lim Kim, Hyung Kee Kim, Seung Huh, Dong Il Won, Chan Duck Kim
We consecutively enrolled 82 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with stable renal function and 24 KTRs who underwent indication biopsy to compare the histological grading of renal allografts with the activity of circulating T lymphocyte subsets and monocytes determined by flow cytometry, which were obtained at 2 weeks after kidney transplantation (KT) and at the time of indication biopsy, respectively. The sum of the scores of glomerulitis (g) + peritubular capillaritis (ptc), inflammation (i) + tubulitis (t), interstitial fibrosis (ci) + tubular atrophy (ct), and fibrointimal thickening (cv) + arteriolar hyaline thickening (ah) was used to assign a histological grade to the renal allograft samples...
June 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476234/clinical-implications-for-germline-pten-spectrum-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Joanne Ngeow, Kaitlin Sesock, Charis Eng
Patients with PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) may present to a variety of different subspecialties with benign and malignant clinical features. They have increased lifetime risks of breast, endometrial, thyroid, renal, and colon cancers, as well as neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder. Patients and affected family members can be offered gene-directed surveillance and management. Patients who are unaffected can be spared unnecessary investigations. With longitudinal follow-up, we are likely to identify other non-cancer manifestations associated with PHTS such as metabolic, immunologic, and neurologic features...
June 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473932/acquired-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura-in-a-patient-with-pernicious-anemia
#12
Ramesh Kumar Pandey, Sumit Dahal, Kamal Fadlalla El Jack Fadlalla, Shambhu Bhagat, Bikash Bhattarai
Introduction. Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) has been associated with different autoimmune disorders. However, its association with pernicious anemia is rarely reported. Case Report. A 46-year-old male presented with blood in sputum and urine for one day. The vitals were stable. The physical examination was significant for icterus. Lab tests' results revealed leukocytosis, macrocytic anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction, and unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. He had an elevated LDH, low haptoglobin levels with many schistocytes, nucleated RBCs, and reticulocytes on peripheral smear...
2017: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473001/cohort-profile-the-complications-of-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy-study-in-uganda-coltart-a-prospective-clinical-cohort
#13
Billy Nsubuga Mayanja, Ivan Kasamba, Jonathan Levin, Ivan Namakoola, Patrick Kazooba, Jackson Were, Pontiano Kaleebu, Paula Munderi
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves the survival and quality of life of HIV-positive individuals, but the effects of long-term ART use do eventually manifest. The Complications of Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy cohort study in Uganda (CoLTART) was established to investigate the metabolic and renal complications of long-term ART use among Ugandan adults. We describe the CoLTART study set-up, aims, objectives, study methods, and also report some preliminary cross-sectional study enrolment metabolic and renal complications data analysis results...
May 4, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465379/cell-therapy-in-kidney-transplantation-focus-on-regulatory-t-cells
#14
Nicholas A Zwang, Joseph R Leventhal
Renal transplantation is the renal replacement modality of choice for suitable candidates with advanced CKD or ESRD. Prevention of rejection, however, requires treatment with nonspecific pharmacologic immunosuppressants that carry both systemic and nephrologic toxicities. Use of a patient's own suppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) is an attractive biologic approach to reduce this burden. Here, we review the immunologic underpinnings of Treg therapy and technical challenges to developing successful cell therapy...
May 2, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449659/vitamin-d-and-activated-vitamin-d-in-tuberculosis-in-equatorial-malaysia-a-prospective-clinical-study
#15
Anna P Ralph, Muhammad Redzwan S Rashid Ali, Timothy William, Kim Piera, Uma Parameswaran, Elspeth Bird, Christopher S Wilkes, Wai Khew Lee, Tsin Wen Yeo, Nicholas M Anstey
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency (low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25D] concentration) is often reported in tuberculosis. Adjunctive vitamin D has been tested for its potential to improve treatment outcomes, but has proven largely ineffective. To better understand vitamin D in tuberculosis, we investigated determinants of 25D and its immunologically active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), their inter-relationship in tuberculosis, longitudinal changes and association with outcome...
April 27, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446488/eculizumab-in-a-child-with-atypical-haemolytic-uraemic-syndrome-and-haemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-triggered-by-cytomegalovirus-infection
#16
Gloria M Fraga-Rodriguez, Sonia Brió-Sanagustin, Eulalia Turón-Viñas, Bradley P Dixon, Eduardo Carreras-González
We present the case of a 21-month-old girl with two rare and life-threatening conditions, atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) and haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), triggered by a cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Soon after admission, the girl became anuric and required continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration.Initial treatments included methylprednisolone, fibrinogen and plasma infusion (for HLH), plasmapheresis (for thrombotic microangiopathy), immunoglobulins (for inflammation), ganciclovir (for CMV infection) and the antibiotic cefotaxime...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446195/mature-leaf-concentrate-of-sri-lankan-wild-type-carica-papaya-linn-modulates-nonfunctional-and-functional-immune-responses-of-rats
#17
Chanika Dilumi Jayasinghe, Dinara S Gunasekera, Nuwan De Silva, Kithmini Kawya Mandakini Jayawardena, Preethi Vidya Udagama
BACKGROUND: The leaf concentrate of Carica papaya is a traditionally acclaimed immunomodulatory remedy against numerous diseases; nonetheless comprehensive scientific validation of this claim is limited. The present study thus investigated the immunomodulatory potential of Carica papaya mature leaf concentrate (MLCC) of the Sri Lankan wild type cultivar using nonfunctional and functional immunological assays. METHODS: Wistar rats (N = 6/ group) were orally gavaged with 3 doses (0...
April 26, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444409/diagnostic-work-up-and-specific-causes-of-acute-kidney-injury
#18
REVIEW
Michael Darmon, Marlies Ostermann, Jorge Cerda, Meletios A Dimopoulos, Lui Forni, Eric Hoste, Matthieu Legrand, Nicolas Lerolle, Eric Rondeau, Antoine Schneider, Bertrand Souweine, Miet Schetz
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients and associated with grim short- and long-term outcome. Although in the vast majority of cases AKI is multifactorial, with sepsis, shock and nephrotoxicity accounting for most episodes, specific causes of AKI are not uncommon. Despite remaining uncertainties regarding their prevalence in the ICU, prompt recognition of specific aetiologies of AKI is likely to ensure timely management, limit worsening of renal dysfunction, and ultimately limit renal and systemic consequences of AKI...
April 25, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438129/severe-type-1-upgrading-leprosy-reaction-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient-a-paradoxical-manifestation-associated-with-deficiency-of-antigen-specific-regulatory-t-cells
#19
Ana Paula Vieira, Maria Angela Bianconcini Trindade, Flávio Jota de Paula, Neusa Yurico Sakai-Valente, Alberto José da Silva Duarte, Francine Brambate Carvalhinho Lemos, Gil Benard
BACKGROUND: Due to its chronic subclinical course and large spectrum of manifestations, leprosy often represents a diagnostic challenge. Even with proper anti-mycobacteria treatment, leprosy follow up remains challenging: almost half of leprosy patients may develop reaction episodes. Leprosy is an infrequent complication of solid organ transplant recipients. This case report illustrates the challenges in diagnosing and managing leprosy and its reactional states in a transplant recipient...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436605/digeorge-like-syndrome-in-a-child-with-a-3p12-3-deletion-involving-mir4273-gene-born-to-a-mother-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Emilia Cirillo, Giuliana Giardino, Vera Gallo, Giovanni Galasso, Roberta Romano, Roberta D'Assante, Giulia Scalia, Luigi Del Vecchio, Lucio Nitsch, Rita Genesio, Claudio Pignata
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion is the most common chromosomal alteration associated with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), even though this is not the only underlying cause of DGS. In rare patients, mutations in a single gene, TBX1, have been described resulting in a DGS phenotype. Recently, it has been reported that at least part of the TBX1 mutant phenotype is due to excessive bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) signaling. Evidence suggests that miRNA may modulate the expression of critical T-box transcriptional regulators during midface development and Bmp-signaling...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
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