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Adele Williamson, Miriam Grgic, Hanna-Kirsti S Leiros
DNA ligases join breaks in the phosphodiester backbone of DNA by catalysing the formation of bonds between opposing 5'P and 3'OH ends in an adenylation-dependent manner. Catalysis is accompanied by reorientation of two core domains to provide access to the active site for cofactor utilization and enable substrate binding and product release. The general paradigm is that DNA ligases engage their DNA substrate through complete encirclement of the duplex, completed by inter-domain kissing contacts via loops or additional domains...
July 11, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Enny S Paixão, Laura C Rodrigues, Maria da Conceição N Costa, Martha Itaparica, Florisneide Barreto, Patrick Gérardin, Maria Glória Teixeira
Background: Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne disease caused by an arthritogenic alphavirus, with four genotypes: East Central South African (ECSA), West African, ECSA-diverged or Indian Ocean Lineage (IOL) and Asian lineage. Overall, the disease is self-limited; however, in some patients, joint pain and other non-specific symptoms can last for months or years. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to estimate the proportion of people that self-report chikungunya-related chronic non-specific symptoms...
July 11, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jorge F M Velez, Yvonne Shashoua, Kristian Syberg, Farhan R Khan
The association of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) to microplastics (MPs) in the aquatic environment and the possible perturbation of how biota and HOCs interact (i.e. 'MP vector effect') is a much researched topic in the emergent field of aquatic MP pollution. Consensus on whether the vector-effect is relevant can in part be ascertained using laboratory experimentation. Such studies, of which there are now many examples, have as a mandatory component a characterisation of the HOC-MP interaction. However, important considerations must be made when planning and executing such laboratory experiments, and subsequently when choosing equilibria models to fit sorption curves, as it is necessary to recognize that simplified conceptual models (i...
July 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Andrew Evered
Cytologists search for rare signals (neoplastic cells) in visually noisy samples. The difficult nature of the task means that cytologists can never be completely certain about the diagnostic decisions they make. For most visual encounters a cytologist will adopt a probabilistic internal response (e.g. "I am 75% certain that this is an abnormal cell") but to be effective they must adopt a threshold, or decision criterion, that generates an explicit binary response. In other words, they must learn to decide whether each encountered cell is normal or abnormal...
July 14, 2018: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
Louise P King, Alan Penzias
Best practices for teaching morally and spiritually charged topics, such as abortion, to those early in their medical training are elusive at best, especially in our current political climate. Here we advocate that our duty as educators requires that we explore these topics in a supportive environment. In particular, we must model respectful discourse for our learners in these difficult areas.
July 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Kim M Curby, Stephen D Smith, Denise Moerel, Amy Dyson
Previous research has identified numerous factors affecting the capacity and accuracy of visual working memory (VWM). One potentially important factor is the emotionality of the stimuli to be encoded and held in VWM. We often must hold in VWM information that is emotionally charged, but much is still unknown about how the emotionality of stimuli impacts VWM performance. In the current research, we performed four studies examining the impact of fearful facial expressions on VWM for faces. Fearful expressions were found to produce a consistent cost to VWM performance...
July 13, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Sandia Machado, Sara R Fernandes, Luise L Chaves, Sofia A C Lima, Eduarda M P Silva, Luísa Barreiros, Salette Reis, Marcela Alves Segundo
The low bioavailability and non-specific distribution of dapsone and clofazimine, commonly applied in combination for the treatment of leprosy, can produce toxic effects. Nanotechnological approaches enhance the delivery of these drugs. Therefore, a high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of dapsone and clofazimine loaded in nanoformulations for quality control purposes. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed-phase Kinetex core-shell C18 column, followed by spectrophotometric detection at 280 nm...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Ferid Krupic, Olof Westin, Mårten Hagelberg, Olof Sköldenberg, Kristian Samuelsson
The transplantation of organs is one of the most successful medical advances in recent decades, and transplantation is the treatment of choice for severe organ failure worldwide. Despite this situation and the general acknowledgment of organ donation (OD) as a global priority, the demand for organs outstrips the supply in virtually every country in the world. The study aims to elucidate whether age, gender and religion influence decision-making about organ donation in religious Muslims living in Sweden Data were collected through three group interviews using open-ended questions and qualitative content analysis...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Sumithra S Raghavan
The cultural and ethnic landscape of North America is becoming increasingly diverse, with many refugees fleeing torture and persecution and seeking safety in the United States and Canada. In working with this population, clinicians must implement culturally appropriate methods of assessing and treating individuals from diverse backgrounds. Culture can exert a powerful and often misunderstood influence on psychological assessment, and the critical challenge is to account for both subjective experience of the client and the objective symptoms or behaviors present...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Sandip Chatterjee, Aditya Banta
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric spinal tuberculosis is characterized by rapid bone destruction and carries the risk of rapid onset neurological deficits and severe deformity of the spine. Behavior of spinal deformity over time is affected by growth of spine. Owing to this dynamic behavior of pediatric spinal tuberculosis both in active phase and in healed phase, it presents with challenges which are quite different from adults with caries spine. A clinician must have high index of suspicion for accurate and early diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis in the pediatric population and should also have a thorough knowledge of differences in natural history between adult and pediatric spinal tuberculosis...
July 13, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Patricia de Paz-Lugo, José Antonio Lupiáñez, Enrique Meléndez-Hevia
Collagen synthesis is severely diminished in osteoarthritis; thus, enhancing it may help the regeneration of cartilage. This requires large amounts of glycine, proline and lysine. Previous works of our group have shown that glycine is an essential amino acid, which must be present in the diet in large amounts to satisfy the demands for collagen synthesis. Other authors have shown that proline is conditionally essential. In this work we studied the effect of these amino acids on type II collagen synthesis. Bovine articular chondrocytes were cultured under a wide range of different concentrations of glycine, proline and lysine...
July 13, 2018: Amino Acids
James McCanney, Katy Winckworth-Prejsnar, Alyssa A Schatz, Elizabeth A Nardi, Andrea J Dwyer, Christopher Lieu, Yelak Biru, Robert W Carlson
As a disease, cancer can affect an individual's well-being, from physical to psychological, social, and even spiritual wellness. The cancer survivor population must navigate a complex, constantly evolving field, with the assistance of their care team, to conquer the disease. To address the unmet needs of the cancer survivorship community, NCCN conducted an environmental scan of existing and emerging aspects of survivorship cancer care through stakeholder meetings with survivors and patient advocacy groups to discuss needs, opportunities, and challenges in providing high-quality, patient-centered cancer survivorship care...
July 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
David R Sannino, Clifford E Kraft, Katie A Edwards, Esther R Angert
Thiamin is essential to life, as it serves as a cofactor for enzymes involved in critical carbon transformations. Many bacteria can synthesize thiamin, while thiamin auxotrophs must obtain it or its precursors from the environment. Thiaminases degrade thiamin by catalyzing the base-exchange substitution of thiazole with a nucleophile, and thiaminase I specifically has been implicated in thiamin deficiency syndromes in animals. The biological role of this secreted enzyme has been a long-standing mystery. We used the thiaminase I producing soil bacterium Burkholderia thailandensis as a model to ascertain its function...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Dana Carroll
The efficacy of the powerful CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing platform depends on DNA repair activities in the cells being targeted. Two new papers show that the low efficiency of targeting in some primary human cell lines is the result of p53-dependent cell arrest in response to the Cas9-induced break. This limitation must be overcome for some anticipated therapies.
July 10, 2018: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Yo Sasaki
Cellular metabolism maintains the life of cells, allowing energy production required for building cellular constituents and maintaining homeostasis under constantly changing external environments. Neuronal cells maintain their structure and function for the entire life of organisms and the loss of neurons, with limited neurogenesis in adults, directly causes loss of complexity in the neuronal networks. The nervous system organizes the neurons by placing cell bodies containing nuclei of similar types of neurons in discrete regions...
July 10, 2018: Neuroscience Research
A-S Bertrand, M Fondain, P Rullier, C Fontaine, B Guillot
INTRODUCTION: Haemophagocytic syndrome (HS) is a rare disease with a severe prognosis that is defined by clinical, laboratory and histopathological criteria. Infections represent the classical cause of HS. HS secondary to Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is rare with only a few cases being reported in the literature. OBSERVATIONS: We report two cases of HS secondary to MSF in 2 men aged 77 and 63 years presenting a febrile maculo-purpuric eruption with inoculation ulcer associated with laboratory abnormalities (cytopenia, elevated ferritin, hypertriglyceridaemia)...
July 10, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Merna A Armanious, Homan Mohammadi, Sara Khodor, Daniel E Oliver, Peter A Johnstone, Michael G Fradley
Radiation therapy (RT) plays a prominent role in the treatment of many cancers. With increasing use of RT and high overall survival rates, the risks associated with RT must be carefully considered. Of these risks, the cardiovascular and autonomic toxicities have been of significant concern. In fact, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of nonmalignancy-related death in cancer survivors. The manifestations of radiation induced cardiac injury include the acute toxicities of myopericarditis and late toxicities including constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, heart failure, and conduction abnormalities...
June 12, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Anne Spang
In eukaryotic cells, various cellular functions are compartmentalized and performed by sophisticated and specialized organelles. However, the membrane-bounded organelles need to communicate with each other and with the cytoplasm, and sense the outside through the plasma membrane to coordinate various functions and to maintain cellular homeostasis. To maintain homeostasis, the information on the cellular state must be collected and appropriate responses initiated. The endoplasmic reticulum fulfils these functions...
July 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Michael Stöckle, Kerstin Junker, Paolo Fornara
CONTEXT: Organ transplantation requires immunosuppression, which was regarded as a risk factor for tumor induction and tumor progression in all types of malignancy. Until recently, any form of active neoplasia was, therefore, regarded as contraindicative to organ transplantation. However, there is growing evidence that the increased tumor risk by immunosuppression is restricted to particular subgroups of malignancy, whereas others such as prostate cancer (PCa) are not negatively influenced...
July 10, 2018: European Urology Focus
Ira Leifer, Christopher Melton, David M Tratt, Kerry N Buckland, Clement S Chang, Jason Frash, Jeffrey L Hall, Akihiko Kuze, Brian Leen, Lieven Clarisse, Tryg Lundquist, Martin Van Damme, Sam Vigil, Simon Whitburn, Leonid Yurganov
Mobile in situ concentration and meteorology data were collected for the Chino Dairy Complex in the Los Angeles Basin by AMOG (AutoMObile trace Gas) Surveyor on 25 June 2015 to characterize husbandry emissions in the near and far field in convoy mode with MISTIR (Mobile Infrared Sensor for Tactical Incident Response), a mobile upwards-looking, column remote sensing spectrometer. MISTIR reference flux validated AMOG plume inversions at different information levels including multiple gases, GoogleEarth imagery, and airborne trace gas remote sensing data...
July 3, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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