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L Z Feng, Z B Peng, D Y Wang, P Yang, J Yang, Y Y Zhang, J Chen, S Q Jiang, L L Xu, M Kang, T Chen, Y M Zheng, J D Zheng, Y Qin, M J Zhao, Y Y Tan, Z J Li, Z J Feng
Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza virus infection and complications from infection. Currently, China has licensed trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) and quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4), including split-virus influenza vaccine and subunit vaccine. Except for a few major cities, influenza vaccine is a category Ⅱ vaccine, which means influenza vaccination is voluntary, and recipients must pay for it. To strengthen the technical guidance for prevention and control of influenza and operational research on influenza vaccination in China, the National Immunization Advisory Committee (NIAC) Influenza Vaccine Technical Working Group (TWG), updated the 2014 technical guidelines and compiled the "Technical guidelines for seasonal influenza vaccination in China (2018-2019)" ...
November 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Andreas Stallmach, Philipp A Reuken, Niels Teich
Patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a significantly increased risk of clinically relevant clostridial infection (CDI). In turn, CDI can increase IBD activity. Therefore, rapid diagnosis and therapy is required. Many diagnostic and treatment studies on patients with CDI without inflammatory bowel disease are not congruent with IBD patients. This overview summarizes the everyday data of recent years and condenses these into four guiding principles. 1) patients with IBD present a risk population for a CDI...
November 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Bishweshwar Pant, Gunendra Prasad Ojha, Hak-Yong Kim, Mira Park, Soo-Jin Park
Fly ash (FA), a solid waste generated in thermal power plants, is considered an environmental pollutant. Therefore, measures must be taken to dispose of FA in an environmentally friendly manner. In this paper, an electrospinning technique was employed to incorporate FA particles onto zinc oxide nanofibers (ZnO NFs), and the product (FA/ZnO composite) was used for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from the water. Herein, ZnO NFs may serve as effective semiconductor photocatalysts and provide sufficient surface area for FA, while the FA particles serve as an effective adsorbent...
October 29, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Eun-Young Bae
South Korea is the first Asian country to mandate the submission of pharmacoeconomic data for reimbursement decision making. For a new drug to be listed, it must demonstrate its value in terms of comparative effectiveness and cost effectiveness. The Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) judges the submitted drug's value and decides whether its coverage is appropriate on the basis of the recommendation of the Pharmaceutical Benefit Coverage Assessment Committee. Once the drug has been accepted by HIRA, the National Health Insurance Service and the sponsoring company negotiate the price and expected sales volume...
November 9, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Clifton Makate, Marshall Makate, Nelson Mango, Shephard Siziba
Conservation agriculture, drought tolerant maize, and improved legume varieties are key climate change management strategies for smallholder farmers in southern Africa. Their complementary efforts in adaptation to climate change are sternly important for farm productivity and income. This study evaluates factors explaining individual and multiple adoption of climate change management strategies and their differential impacts on productivity and income using a sample of 1172 smallholder farmers from Malawi and Zimbabwe...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Orazio Gambino, Leonardo Rundo, Vincenzo Cannella, Salvatore Vitabile, Roberto Pirrone
Computer applications for diagnostic medical imaging provide generally a wide range of tools to support physicians in their daily diagnosis activities. Unfortunately, some functionalities are specialized for specific diseases or imaging modalities, while other ones are useless for the images under investigation. Nevertheless, the corresponding Graphical User Interface (GUI) widgets are still present on the screen reducing the image visualization area. As a consequence, the physician may be affected by cognitive overload and visual stress causing a degradation of performances, mainly due to unuseful widgets...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Hayet Bouchaib, Carole Eldin, Maureen Laroche, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
BACKGROUND: In Algeria, Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF), caused by Rickettsia conorii conorii and transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, is endemic. However, the documentation of cases is rare due to a lack of laboratory facilities. Our aim was to screen for rickettsioses in patients with fever, rash and a possible inoculation eschar. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2013 and 2015, patients with a fever and a rash presenting at hospitals in the Tizi-Ouzou region were prospectively included in our study...
November 9, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
J Rick Turner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
Rong Yu, Richard G Andrachek, Leo G Lehmicke, Amanda Alice Pierce, Beth L Parker, John A Cherry, David L Freedman
Matrix diffusion must be considered when assessing natural attenuation and remediation of chlorinated ethenes in fractured porous bedrock aquifers. In this study, intact sandstone rock and groundwater from a trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated site were used in microcosms (maintained for approximately 600 days) to simulate a single fracture-matrix system with a chamber at the top of the core allowing advection to represent fracture flow. Diffusion-coupled degradation with and without biostimulation were evaluated and compared to crushed-rock, batch microcosms...
November 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Marin Pearson Allen
The unique circumstances surrounding Zika, including the fact that it is both mosquito-borne and sexually transmissible, brought to the fore concerns about optimal ways to communicate risk in an environment characterized by rapidly evolving knowledge. The difficulty in doing so is magnified by the fact that science-based health messages from governmental agencies must be developed in an evidence-based, audience-participative, and collaborative manner. A recent reminder in JAMA asserted the importance of preparing now for future threats...
November 12, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Long Viet Bui, Zohar Mor, Daniel Chemtob, Son Thai Ha, Hagai Levine
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the potential of combining routine tuberculosis (TB) surveillance and demographic and socioeconomic variables into the Geographic Information System (GIS) to describe the geographical distribution of TB notified incidence in relation to distances to health services as well as local demographic and socioeconomic factors, including population density, urban/rural status, and household poverty rates in Nam Dinh, Vietnam. It also aimed to compare the conventional Generalized Linear Models (GLM) Poisson regression model and Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR) models in order to determine the best fitting model that can be used to investigate the relationship between TB notified incidence and distances and the social risk factors...
2018: PloS One
Jason E Pina, Mark Bodner, Bard Ermentrout
Neural oscillations have been recorded and implicated in many different basic brain and cognitive processes. For example, oscillatory neural activity has been suggested to play a role in binding and in the maintenance of information in working memory. With respect to the latter, the majority of work has focused primarily on oscillations in terms of providing a "code" in working memory. However, oscillations may additionally play a fundamental role by enabling or facilitating essential properties and behaviors that neuronal networks must exhibit in order to produce functional working memory and the processes it supports, such as combining items in memory into bound objects or separating bound objects into distinct items...
November 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Asma Alkabsh, Hassana Samassekou, Dipanjan Mazumdar
Intense interest in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is driven, among other things, by their intriguing layer-dependent optical properties down to the monolayer and strong excitonic effects. Experimental determination of optical constants such as the complex refractive index and dielectric function of large-area TMDs thin films is prone to large uncertainties at the few-layer level using a single measurement technique such as spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). In this work, we demonstrate an approach to accurately determine the optical constants by combining transmission spectroscopy with SE...
November 12, 2018: Nanotechnology
Mohammed Alawad, Linwei Wang
Building a data-driven model to localize the origin of ventricular activation from 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECG) requires addressing the challenge of large anatomical and physiological variations across individuals. The alternative of a patientspecific model is, however, difficult to implement in clinical practice because training data must be obtained through invasive procedures. Here, we present a novel approach that overcomes this problem of the scarcity of clinical data by transferring the knowledge from a large set of patient-specific simulation data while utilizing domain adaptation to address the discrepancy between simulation and clinical data...
November 9, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Scott Stanslaski, Jeffery Herron, Tom Chouinard, Duane Bourget, Ben Isaacson, Vaclav Kremen, Enrico Opri, William Drew, Benjamin Brinkmann, Aysegul Gunduz, Tom Adamski, Gregory Worrell, Timothy Denison
Developing new tools to better understand disorders of the nervous system, with a goal to more effectively treat them, is an active area of bioelectronic medicine research. Future tools must be flexible and configurable, given the evolving understanding of both neuromodulation mechanisms and how to configure a system for optimal clinical outcomes. We describe a system, the RC+S "neural coprocessor," that attempts to bring the capability and flexibility of a microprocessor to a prosthesis embedded within the nervous system...
November 7, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Emma Spiers
Hands are anatomically complex and have great social, physical and emotional importance. Hand or digit replantation following traumatic partial or complete amputation is a complex injury for nursing staff to understand and manage. The absence of clear guidance, combined with a lack of consensus in the literature gives rise to ambiguity and insufficient understanding of appropriate and effective management. This article aims to outline nursing care of the patient in the first few days following hand or digit reattachment, particularly focusing on the recognition and management of arterial and venous compromise...
November 8, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Özgül Küçükaslan, Serkan Erdoğan, İlhami Bulut
This study aimed to investigate the views of first-year veterinary students in Turkey from six veterinary faculties on their anatomy courses and to evaluate their perceptions of the uses of animals and other teaching alternatives from an ethical perspective. The study sample included a total of 293 veterinary students studying in the provinces of Ankara, Burdur, Diyarbakır, Kars, Konya, and Tekirdağ. The 38-item instrument tool developed by the researchers consisted of three sections and was administered to volunteer student participants...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Clémentine Eloi, Gauthier Foulon, Laure Bridoux-Henno, Estelle Breton, Cecile Pelatan, Emilie Chaillou, Isabelle Grimal, Estelle Darviot, Emilie Carré, Swellen Gastineau, Yann Tourtelier, Dorothee Nicaise, Chloe Rousseau, Alain Dabadie
OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are chronic diseases which negatively affect the schooling of children. The aim is to analyze school absenteeism and its causes in children followed for IBD. METHODS: A prospective multicenter study of IBD patients aged from 5 to 18 years old, from September 2016 to June 2017. Data on absenteeism and its causes were collected via a monthly questionnaire completed by patients or their family by mail. The results were compared with existing data supplied by the school authorities (497 students without IBD divided by class)...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Jennifer M Bauer, Petya Yorgova, Geraldine Neiss, Kenneth Rogers, Peter F Sturm, Paul D Sponseller, Scott Luhmann, Jeff B Pawelek, Suken A Shah
BACKGROUND: Modern treatment of early onset scoliosis (EOS) includes implantation of traditional growing rods (TGR) or magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGR) for posterior-based distraction if nonoperative treatment plans failed. The recent MCGR innovation has largely been expected to improve patient and family burden by avoiding frequent return to the operating room. At least one study has shown no HRQoL difference between TGR and MCGR, but none have specifically investigated a cohort of conversion patients whose families have experienced both...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
David J Prottas, Mary Rogers Nummelin
In response to increased competition and outcomes transparency, healthcare delivery organizations must rely on their employees to provide superior care quality and patient service. Healthcare managers seeking to motivate employees to this end have an abundance of leadership theories, many of which are broad and overlapping, on which to base their initiatives. In this study, we looked at a relatively narrow construct: behavioral integrity (BI)-that is, the extent to which employees view their managers' words and actions as congruent (whether they "walk their talk")...
November 2018: Journal of Healthcare Management / American College of Healthcare Executives
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