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MRI schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761952/-automatic-classification-of-first-episode-drug-naive-schizophrenia-with-multi-modal-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#1
Yongzhe Yang, Yue Zhang, Fengchun Wu, Xiaobing Lu, Yuping Ning, Biao Huang, Xin Du, Chengwei Li, Kaixi Wang, Xiaoming Wu, Kai Wu
A great number of studies have demonstrated the structural and functional abnormalities in chronic schizophrenia (SZ) patients. However, few studies analyzed the differences between first-episode, drug-naive SZ (FESZ) patients and normal controls (NCs). In this study, we recruited 44 FESZ patients and 56 NCs, and acquired their multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, including structural and resting-state functional MRI data. We calculated gray matter volume (GMV), regional homogeneity (ReHo), amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF), and degree centrality (DC) of 90 brain regions, basing on an automated anatomical labeling (AAL) atlas...
October 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749660/spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-resting-state-brain-networks-improve-single-subject-prediction-of-schizophrenia-diagnosis
#2
Akhil Kottaram, Leigh Johnston, Eleni Ganella, Christos Pantelis, Ramamohanarao Kotagiri, Andrew Zalesky
Correlation in functional MRI activity between spatially separated brain regions can fluctuate dynamically when an individual is at rest. These dynamics are typically characterized temporally by measuring fluctuations in functional connectivity between brain regions that remain fixed in space over time. Here, dynamics in functional connectivity were characterized in both time and space. Temporal dynamics were mapped with sliding-window correlation, while spatial dynamics were characterized by enabling network regions to vary in size (shrink/grow) over time according to the functional connectivity profile of their constituent voxels...
May 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748770/a-systematic-review-of-associations-between-functional-mri-activity-and-polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Zalina Dezhina, Siri Ranlund, Marinos Kyriakopoulos, Steve C R Williams, Danai Dima
Genetic factors account for up to 80% of the liability for schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). Genome-wide association studies have successfully identified several genes associated with increased risk for both disorders. This has allowed researchers to model the aggregate effect of genes associated with disease status and create a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each individual. The interest in imaging genetics using PGRS has grown in recent years, with several studies now published. We have conducted a systematic review to examine the effects of PGRS of SCZ, BD and cross psychiatric disorders on brain function and connectivity using fMRI data...
May 10, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729682/structural-covariance-and-cortical-reorganisation-in-schizophrenia-a-mri-based-morphometric-study
#4
Lena Palaniyappan, Olha Hodgson, Vijender Balain, Sarina Iwabuchi, Penny Gowland, Peter Liddle
BACKGROUND: In patients with schizophrenia, distributed abnormalities are observed in grey matter volume. A recent hypothesis posits that these distributed changes are indicative of a plastic reorganisation process occurring in response to a functional defect in neuronal information transmission. We investigated the structural covariance across various brain regions in early-stage schizophrenia to determine if indeed the observed patterns of volumetric loss conform to a coordinated pattern of structural reorganisation...
May 6, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729390/advances-in-microstructural-diffusion-neuroimaging-for-psychiatric-disorders
#5
Ofer Pasternak, Sinead Kelly, Valerie J Sydnor, Martha E Shenton
Understanding the neuropathological underpinnings of mental disorders such as schizophrenia, major depression, and bipolar disorder is an essential step towards the development of targeted treatments. Diffusion MRI studies utilizing the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) model have been extremely successful to date in identifying microstructural brain abnormalities in individuals suffering from mental illness, especially in regions of white matter, although identified abnormalities have been biologically non-specific...
May 2, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717522/brain-morphologic-changes-in-early-stages-of-psychosis-implications-for-clinical-application-and-early-intervention
#6
Tsutomu Takahashi, Michio Suzuki
To date, a large number of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have been conducted in schizophrenia, which generally demonstrate gray matter reduction predominantly in the frontal and temporo-limbic regions, as well as gross brain abnormalities (e.g., a deviated sulcogyral pattern). Although the causes as well as timing and course of these findings remain elusive, these morphologic changes (especially gross brain abnormalities and medial temporal lobe atrophy) are likely present at illness onset, possibly reflecting early neurodevelopmental abnormalities...
May 1, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704613/regional-brain-volume-changes-following-chronic-antipsychotic-administration-are-mediated-by-the-dopamine-d2-receptor
#7
Elisa Guma, Jill Rocchetti, Gabriel A Devenyi, Arnaud Tanti, Axel Mathieu, Jason P Lerch, Guillaume Elgbeili, Blandine Courcot, Naguib Mechawar, M Mallar Chakravarty, Bruno Giros
BACKGROUND: Neuroanatomical alterations are well established in patients suffering from schizophrenia, however the extent to which these changes are attributable to illness, antipsychotic drugs (APDs), or their interaction is unclear. APDs have been extremely effective for treatment of positive symptoms in major psychotic disorders. Their therapeutic effects are mediated, in part, through blockade of D2-like dopamine (DA) receptors, i.e. the D2, D3 and D4 dopamine receptors. Furthermore, the dependency of neuroanatomical change on DA system function and D2-like receptors has yet to be explored...
April 25, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688876/neuroanatomical-phenotypes-in-mental-illness-identifying-convergent-and-divergent-cortical-phenotypes-across-autism-adhd-and-schizophrenia
#8
Min Tae M Park, Armin Raznahan, Philip Shaw, Nitin Gogtay, Jason P Lerch, M Mallar Chakravarty
BACKGROUND: There is evidence suggesting neuropsychiatric disorders share genomic, cognitive and clinical features. Here, we ask if autism-spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia share neuroanatomical variations. METHODS: First, we used measures of cortical anatomy to estimate spatial overlap of neuroanatomical variation using univariate methods. Next, we developed a novel methodology to determine whether cortical deficits specifically target or are "enriched" within functional resting-state networks...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678679/formal-thought-disorders-from-phenomenology-to-neurobiology
#9
REVIEW
Tilo Kircher, Henrike Bröhl, Felicitas Meier, Jennifer Engelen
Formal thought disorder (FTD) is present in most psychiatric disorders and in some healthy individuals. In this Review, we present a comprehensive, integrative, and multilevel account of what is known about FTD, covering genetic, cellular, and neurotransmitter effects, environmental influences, experimental psychology and neuropsychology, brain imaging, phenomenology, linguistics, and treatment. FTD is a dimensional, phenomenologically defined construct, which can be clinically subdivided into positive versus negative and objective versus subjective symptom clusters...
April 17, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671056/progressive-symptom-associated-prefrontal-volume-loss-occurs-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-but-not-in-affective-psychosis
#10
Toshiyuki Ohtani, Elisabetta Del Re, James J Levitt, Margaret Niznikiewicz, Jun Konishi, Takeshi Asami, Toshiro Kawashima, Tomohide Roppongi, Paul G Nestor, Martha E Shenton, Dean F Salisbury, Robert W McCarley
Although smaller gray matter volumes (GMV) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have been reported cross-sectionally, there are, to our knowledge, no reports of longitudinal comparisons using manually drawn, gyrally based ROI, and their associations with symptoms. The object of this study was to determine whether first-episode schizophrenia (FESZ) and first-episode affective psychosis (FEAFF) patients show initial and progressive PFC GMV reduction in bilateral frontal pole, superior frontal gyrus (SFG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and examine their symptom associations...
April 18, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660513/white-matter-functional-networks-changes-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#11
REVIEW
Yuchao Jiang, Cheng Luo, Xuan Li, Yingjia Li, Hang Yang, Jianfu Li, Xin Chang, Hechun Li, Huanghao Yang, Jijun Wang, Mingjun Duan, Dezhong Yao
Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is a useful technique for investigating the functional organization of human gray-matter in neuroscience and neuropsychiatry. Nevertheless, most studies have demonstrated the functional connectivity and/or task-related functional activity in the gray-matter. White-matter functional networks have been investigated in healthy subjects. Schizophrenia has been hypothesized to be a brain disorder involving insufficient or ineffective communication associated with white-matter abnormalities...
April 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655938/delineation-of-early-brain-development-from-fetuses-to-infants-with-diffusion-mri-and-beyond
#12
REVIEW
Minhui Ouyang, Jessica Dubois, Qinlin Yu, Pratik Mukherjee, Hao Huang
Dynamic macrostructural and microstructural changes take place from the mid-fetal stage to 2 years after birth. Delineating brain structural changes during this early developmental period provides new insights into the complicated processes of both typical brain development and the pathological mechanisms underlying various psychiatric and neurological disorders including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Decades of histological studies have identified strong spatial and functional gradients of maturation in human brain gray and white matter...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629500/altered-structural-brain-connectivity-involving-the-dorsal-and-ventral-language-pathways-in-16p11-2-deletion-syndrome
#13
Banu Ahtam, Naira Link, Erikson Hoff, P Ellen Grant, Kiho Im
Copy number variants at the chromosomal locus 16p11.2 contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and language and articulation disorders. Here, we provide detailed findings on the disrupted structural brain connectivity in 16p11.2 deletion syndrome (patients: N = 21, age range: 8-16 years; typically developing (TD) controls: 18, 9-16 years) using structural and diffusion MRI. We performed global short-, middle-, long-range, and interhemispheric connectivity analysis in the whole brain using gyral topology-based cortical parcellation...
April 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628269/cerebellar-abnormalities-in-first-episode-drug-naive-schizophrenia-at-rest
#14
Wenbin Guo, Fengyu Zhang, Feng Liu, Jindong Chen, Renrong Wu, Danny Q Chen, Zhikun Zhang, Jinguo Zhai, Jingping Zhao
The cerebellum plays a crucial role in higher cortical functions through a cerebellar-cerebral circuit. However, the specific mechanisms through which the cerebellum contributes to the neurobiology of schizophrenia remain unclear. Forty-nine first-episode, drug-naive patients with schizophrenia and 50 healthy controls underwent structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). The MRI data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), cerebellum homogeneity (CH), and seed-based functional connectivity (FC)...
March 29, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622496/multi-site-diagnostic-classification-of-schizophrenia-using-discriminant-deep-learning-with-functional-connectivity-mri
#15
Ling-Li Zeng, Huaning Wang, Panpan Hu, Bo Yang, Weidan Pu, Hui Shen, Xingui Chen, Zhening Liu, Hong Yin, Qingrong Tan, Kai Wang, Dewen Hu
BACKGROUND: A lack of a sufficiently large sample at single sites causes poor generalizability in automatic diagnosis classification of heterogeneous psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia based on brain imaging scans. Advanced deep learning methods may be capable of learning subtle hidden patterns from high dimensional imaging data, overcome potential site-related variation, and achieve reproducible cross-site classification. However, deep learning-based cross-site transfer classification, despite less imaging site-specificity and more generalizability of diagnostic models, has not been investigated in schizophrenia...
March 23, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593508/gabaergic-control-of-nigrostriatal-and-mesolimbic-dopamine-in-the-rat-brain
#16
Susanne Nikolaus, Hans-Jörg Wittsack, Markus Beu, Christina Antke, Maria A De Souza Silva, Frijthof Wickrath, Anja Müller-Lutz, Joseph P Huston, Gerald Antoch, Hans-Wilhelm Müller, Hubertus Hautzel
Purpose: The present study assessed the effects of the GABAA receptor (R) agonist muscimol (MUS), and the GABAA R antagonist bicuculline (BIC) on neocortical and subcortical radioligand binding to dopamine D2/3 Rs in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors in the rat. Methods: D2/3 R binding was measured with small animal SPECT in baseline and after challenge with either 1 mg/kg MUS or 1 mg/kg BIC, using [123 I]IBZM as radioligand. Motor/exploratory behaviors were assessed for 30 min in an open field prior to radioligand administration...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572660/surface-morphology-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-in-individuals-at-risk-of-psychosis-a-multicenter-study
#17
Mihoko Nakamura, Tsutomu Takahashi, Yoichiro Takayanagi, Daiki Sasabayashi, Naoyuki Katagiri, Atsushi Sakuma, Chika Obara, Shinsuke Koike, Hidenori Yamasue, Atsushi Furuichi, Mikio Kido, Yumiko Nishikawa, Kyo Noguchi, Kazunori Matsumoto, Masafumi Mizuno, Kiyoto Kasai, Michio Suzuki
Changes in the surface morphology of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), such as a fewer orbital sulci and altered sulcogyral pattern of the 'H-shaped' orbital sulcus, have been reported in schizophrenia, possibly reflecting abnormal neurodevelopment during gestation. However, whether high-risk subjects for developing psychosis also exhibit these gross morphologic anomalies is not well documented. This multicenter MRI study from four scanning sites in Japan investigated the distribution of the number of intermediate and posterior orbital sulci, as well as the OFC sulcogyral pattern, in 125 individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) [of whom 22 later developed psychosis (ARMS-P) and 89 did not (ARMS-NP)] and 110 healthy controls...
March 23, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559372/a-double-dissociation-between-two-psychotic-phenotypes-periodic-catatonia-and-cataphasia
#18
Foucher Jack René, Zhang Yi Fan, Roser Mathilde, Lamy Julien, De Sousa Paulo Loureiro, Weibel Sébastien, Vidailhet Pierre, Mainberger Olivier, Berna Fabrice
Schizophrenia as a single liability model was confronted to the multiple psychotic phenotypes model proposed by the Wernicke-Kleist-Leonhard school, focusing on two: periodic catatonia (PC) and cataphasia (C). Both are stable and heritable psychotic phenotypes with no crossed liability and are coming with the buildup of specific residual symptoms: impairment of psychomotricity for PC and a specific disorganization of thought and language in C. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was used as a biomarker. We attempted to refute the single phenotype model by looking at relevant and specific rCBF anomalies for PC and C, that would exceed anomalies in common relative to controls (CTR), i...
March 17, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556734/neural-correlates-of-binocular-depth-inversion-illusion-in-antipsychotic-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients
#19
Cathrin Rohleder, Dagmar Koethe, Stefan Fritze, Cristina E Topor, F Markus Leweke, Dusan Hirjak
OBJECTIVES: Binocular depth inversion illusion (BDII), a visual, 'top-down'-driven information process, is impaired in schizophrenia and particularly in its early stages. BDII is a sensitive measure of impaired visual information processing and represents a valid diagnostic tool for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. However, neurobiological underpinnings of aberrant BDII in first-episode schizophrenia are largely unknown at present. METHODS: In this study, 22 right-handed, first-episode, antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients underwent BDII assessment and MRI scanning at 1...
March 19, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548527/investigating-brain-structural-patterns-in-first-episode-psychosis-and-schizophrenia-using-mri-and-a-machine-learning-approach
#20
Adriana Miyazaki de Moura, Walter Hugo Lopez Pinaya, Ary Gadelha, André Zugman, Cristiano Noto, Quirino Cordeiro, Sintia Iole Belangero, Andrea P Jackowski, Rodrigo A Bressan, João Ricardo Sato
In this study, we employed the Maximum Uncertainty Linear Discriminant Analysis (MLDA) to investigate whether the structural brain patterns in first episode psychosis (FEP) patients would be more similar to patients with chronic schizophrenia (SCZ) or healthy controls (HC), from a schizophrenia model perspective. Brain regions volumetric data were estimated by using MRI images of SCZ and FEP patients and HC. First, we evaluated the MLDA performance in discriminating SCZ from controls, which provided a score based on a model for changes in brain structure in SCZ...
March 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
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