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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634109/cannabis-associated-psychosis-neural-substrate-and-clinical-impact
#1
REVIEW
R M Murray, A Englund, A Abi-Dargham, D Lewis, M Di Forti, C Davies, M Sherif, P McGuire, C D'Souza
Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that cannabis use is associated with an increased subsequent risk of both psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia-like psychoses. Early onset of use, daily use of high-potency cannabis, and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. The risk-increasing effects are not explained by shared genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and cannabis use. Experimental studies in healthy humans show that cannabis and its active ingredient, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can produce transient, dose-dependent, psychotic symptoms, as well as an array of psychosis-relevant behavioral, cognitive and psychophysiological effects; the psychotogenic effects can be ameliorated by cannabidiol (CBD)...
June 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628780/brainage-score-indicates-accelerated-brain-aging-in-schizophrenia-but-not-bipolar-disorder
#2
Igor Nenadić, Maren Dietzek, Kerstin Langbein, Heinrich Sauer, Christian Gaser
BrainAGE (brain age gap estimation) is a novel morphometric parameter providing a univariate score derived from multivariate voxel-wise analyses. It uses a machine learning approach and can be used to analyse deviation from physiological developmental or aging-related trajectories. Using structural MRI data and BrainAGE quantification of acceleration or deceleration of in individual aging, we analysed data from 45 schizophrenia patients, 22 bipolar I disorder patients (mostly with previous psychotic symptoms / episodes), and 70 healthy controls...
May 24, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618327/long-term-antipsychotic-and-benzodiazepine-use-and-brain-volume-changes-in-schizophrenia-the-northern-finland-birth-cohort-1966-study
#3
Sanna Huhtaniska, Erika Jääskeläinen, Tuomas Heikka, Jani S Moilanen, Heli Lehtiniemi, Jussi Tohka, José V Manjón, Pierrick Coupé, Lassi Björnholm, Hannu Koponen, Juha Veijola, Matti Isohanni, Vesa Kiviniemi, Graham K Murray, Jouko Miettunen
High doses of antipsychotics have been associated with loss in cortical and total gray matter in schizophrenia. However, previous imaging studies have not taken benzodiazepine use into account, in spite of evidence suggesting adverse effects such as cognitive impairment and increased mortality. In this Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 study, 69 controls and 38 individuals with schizophrenia underwent brain MRI at the ages of 34 and 43 years. At baseline, the average illness duration was over 10 years. Brain structures were delineated using an automated volumetry system, volBrain, and medication data on cumulative antipsychotic and benzodiazepine doses were collected using medical records and interviews...
May 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615334/diffusion-weighted-tractography-in-the-common-marmoset-monkey-at-9-4-t
#4
David J Schaeffer, Ramina Adam, Kyle M Gilbert, Joseph S Gati, Alex X Li, Ravi S Menon, Stefan Everling
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World primate that is becoming increasingly popular in the neurosciences as an animal model of preclinical human disease. With several major disorders characterized by alterations in neural white matter (e.g., multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, schizophrenia) proposed to be transgenically modelled using marmosets, the ability to reliably isolate and characterize major white matter fiber tracts with MRI will be of utility for evaluating structural brain changes related to disease processes and symptomatology...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587701/brain-atrophy-is-a-frequent-finding-in-elderly-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis
#5
Ulla-Marja Louhija, Tuula Saarela, Kati Juva, Björn Appelberg
BACKGROUND: To characterize the yearly incidence, diagnostic distribution, and neuro-radiologic findings in patients aged over 60 years, referred to psychiatric treatment with first episode psychosis (FEP). METHODS: A computerized search, including all patients referred to psychiatric treatment during 12 consecutive months with a de novo diagnosis of psychosis was performed in the Helsinki region catchment area with 1.2 million inhabitants. Diagnoses based on hospital records were made by a group of one neurologist and three psychiatrists...
June 7, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582529/disrupted-olfactory-integration-in-schizophrenia-functional-connectivity-study
#6
Sara Kiparizoska, Toshikazu Ikuta
Background: Evidence for olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia has been firmly established. However, in the typical understanding of schizophrenia, olfaction is not recognized to contribute to or interact with the illness. Despite the solid presence of olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia, its relation to the rest of the illness remains largely unclear. Here, we aimed to examine functional connectivity of the olfactory bulb, olfactory tract, and piriform cortices and isolate the network that would account for the altered olfaction in schizophrenia...
June 3, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580294/gender-differences-in-the-structural-connectome-of-the-teenage-brain-revealed-by-generalized-q-sampling-mri
#7
Yeu-Sheng Tyan, Jan-Ray Liao, Chao-Yu Shen, Yu-Chieh Lin, Jun-Cheng Weng
The question of whether there are biological differences between male and female brains is a fraught one, and political positions and prior expectations seem to have a strong influence on the interpretation of scientific data in this field. This question is relevant to issues of gender differences in the prevalence of psychiatric conditions, including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Tourette's syndrome, schizophrenia, dyslexia, depression, and eating disorders. Understanding how gender influences vulnerability to these conditions is significant...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567321/neuropsychiatric-manifestations-in-a-patient-with-panhypopituitarism
#8
Oluwole Jegede, Ajouka Jeyakumar, Thyarapan Balakumar, Alyssa Raghu, Katherine I Chang, Katarina Soewono, Mario Gustave, Ayodeji Jolayemi
We present a case of an incidental diagnosis of panhypopituitarism in a 68-year-old African American man admitted to our psychiatric inpatient unit with symptoms suggestive of schizophrenia. The case was unusual as a first-episode psychosis given the patient's age. In the course of his admission, the patient's clinical condition deteriorated culminating in a sudden altered mental status which prompted a transfer to the medical floors and further investigations. A head CT scan and a pituitary MRI revealed a near total resection of the pituitary while laboratory investigations revealed hyponatremia and a grossly low hormone profile...
2017: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558941/effects-of-aripiprazole-versus-risperidone-on-brain-activation-during-planning-and-social-emotional-evaluation-schizophrenia-a-single-blind-randomized-exploratory-study
#9
Edith J Liemburg, Frank van Es, Henderikus Knegtering, André Aleman
Impaired function of prefrontal brain networks may be the source of both negative symptoms and neurocognitive problems in psychotic disorders. Whereas most antipsychotics may decrease prefrontal activation, the partial dopamine D2-receptor agonist aripiprazole is hypothesized to improve prefrontal function. This study investigated whether patients with a psychotic disorder would show stronger activation of prefrontal areas and associated regions after treatment with aripiprazole compared to risperidone treatment...
May 27, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557508/neural-markers-of-emotional-face-perception-across-psychotic-disorders-and-general-population
#10
Amri Sabharwal, Roman Kotov, Akos Szekely, Hoi-Chung Leung, Deanna M Barch, Aprajita Mohanty
There is considerable variation in negative and positive symptoms of psychosis, global functioning, and emotional face perception (EFP), not only in schizophrenia but also in other psychotic disorders and healthy individuals. However, EFP impairment and its association with worse symptoms and global functioning have been examined largely in the domain of schizophrenia. The present study adopted a dimensional approach to examine the association of behavioral and neural measures of EFP with symptoms of psychosis and global functioning across individuals with schizophrenia spectrum (SZ; N = 28) and other psychotic (OP; N = 29) disorders, and never-psychotic participants (NP; N = 21)...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556774/functional-mri-examination-of-empathy-for-pain-in-people-with-schizophrenia-reveals-abnormal-activation-related-to-cognitive-perspective-taking-but-typical-activation-linked-to-affective-sharing
#11
Damien Vistoli, Marie-Audrey Lavoie, Stephanie Sutliff, Philip L Jackson, Amélie M Achim
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with important disturbances in empathy that are related to everyday functioning. Empathy is classically defined as including affective (sharing others' emotions) and cognitive (taking others' cognitive perspectives) processes. In healthy individuals, studies on empathy for pain revealed specific brain systems associated with these sets of processes, notably the anterior middle cingulate (aMCC) and anterior insula (AI) for affective sharing and the bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ) for the cognitive processes, but the integrity of these systems in patients with schizophrenia remains uncertain...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521048/altered-coupling-between-resting-state-cerebral-blood-flow-and-functional-connectivity-in-schizophrenia
#12
Jiajia Zhu, Chuanjun Zhuo, Lixue Xu, Feng Liu, Wen Qin, Chunshui Yu
Background: Respective changes in resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity in schizophrenia have been reported. However, their coupling alterations in schizophrenia remain largely unknown. Methods: 89 schizophrenia patients and 90 sex- and age-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI to calculate functional connectivity strength (FCS) and arterial spin labeling imaging to compute CBF. The CBF-FCS coupling of the whole gray matter and the CBF/FCS ratio (the amount of blood supply per unit of connectivity strength) of each voxel were compared between the 2 groups...
May 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512057/normative-morphometric-data-for-cerebral-cortical-areas-over-the-lifetime-of-the-adult-human-brain
#13
Olivier Potvin, Louis Dieumegarde, Simon Duchesne
Proper normative data of anatomical measurements of cortical regions, allowing to quantify brain abnormalities, are lacking. We developed norms for regional cortical surface areas, thicknesses, and volumes based on cross-sectional MRI scans from 2713 healthy individuals aged 18 to 94 years using 23 samples provided by 21 independent research groups. The segmentation was conducted using FreeSurfer, a widely used and freely available automated segmentation software. Models predicting regional cortical estimates of each hemisphere were produced using age, sex, estimated total intracranial volume (eTIV), scanner manufacturer, magnetic field strength, and interactions as predictors...
May 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506703/abnormal-asymmetry-of-white-matter-tracts-between-ventral-posterior-cingulate-cortex-and-middle-temporal-gyrus-in-recent-onset-schizophrenia
#14
Sung Woo Joo, Myong-Wuk Chon, Yogesh Rathi, Martha E Shenton, Marek Kubicki, Jungsun Lee
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have reported abnormalities in the ventral posterior cingulate cortex (vPCC) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG) in schizophrenia patients. However, it remains unclear whether the white matter tracts connecting these structures are impaired in schizophrenia. Our study investigated the integrity of these white matter tracts (vPCC-MTG tract) and their asymmetry (left versus right side) in patients with recent onset schizophrenia. METHOD: Forty-seven patients and 24 age-and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study...
May 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487157/cerebrovascular-reactivity-measured-by-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-during-breath-hold-challenge-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Adam L Urback, Bradley J MacIntosh, Benjamin I Goldstein
Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is the cerebral hemodynamic response to a vasoactive substance. Breath-hold (BH) induced CVR has the advantage of being non-invasive and easy to implement during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We systematically reviewed the literature regarding MRI measurement of BH induced CVR. The literature was searched using MEDLINE with the search terms breath-hold; and MRI or cerebrovascular reactivity. The search yielded 2244 results and 54 articles were included. Between-group comparisons have found that CVR was higher among healthy controls than patients with various pathologies (e...
August 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480992/inferring-pathobiology-from-structural-mri-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-modeling-head-motion-and-neuroanatomical-specificity
#16
Nailin Yao, Anderson M Winkler, Jennifer Barrett, Gregory A Book, Tamara Beetham, Rachel Horseman, Olivia Leach, Karen Hodgson, Emma E Knowles, Samuel Mathias, Michael C Stevens, Michal Assaf, Theo G M van Erp, Godfrey D Pearlson, David C Glahn
Despite over 400 peer-reviewed structural MRI publications documenting neuroanatomic abnormalities in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, the confounding effects of head motion and the regional specificity of these defects are unclear. Using a large cohort of individuals scanned on the same research dedicated MRI with broadly similar protocols, we observe reduced cortical thickness indices in both illnesses, though less pronounced in bipolar disorder. While schizophrenia (n = 226) was associated with wide-spread surface area reductions, bipolar disorder (n = 227) and healthy comparison subjects (n = 370) did not differ...
May 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455369/complement-c5ar1-signaling-promotes-polarization-and-proliferation-of-embryonic-neural-progenitor-cells-through-pkc%C3%AE
#17
Liam G Coulthard, Owen A Hawksworth, Rui Li, Anushree Balachandran, John D Lee, Farshid Sepehrband, Nyoman Kurniawan, Angela Jeanes, David G Simmons, Ernst Wolvetang, Trent M Woodruff
The complement system, typically associated with innate immunity, is emerging as a key controller of non-immune systems including in development, with recent studies linking complement mutations with neurodevelopmental disease. A key effector of the complement response is the activation fragment C5a which, through its receptor C5aR1, is a potent driver of inflammation. Surprisingly, C5aR1 is also expressed during early mammalian embryogenesis, however no clearly defined function is ascribed to C5aR1 in development...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444556/thalamo-cortical-functional-connectivity-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#18
Kristina C Skåtun, Tobias Kaufmann, Christine L Brandt, Nhat Trung Doan, Dag Alnæs, Siren Tønnesen, Guido Biele, Anja Vaskinn, Ingrid Melle, Ingrid Agartz, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
The thalamus is a highly connected subcortical structure that relays and integrates sensory and cortical information, which is critical for coherent and accurate perceptual awareness and cognition. Thalamic dysfunction is a classical finding in schizophrenia (SZ), and resting-state functional MRI has implicated somatomotor and frontal lobe thalamic dysconnectivity. However, it remains unclear whether these findings generalize to different psychotic disorders, are confined to specific thalamic sub-regions, and how they relate to structural thalamic alterations...
April 25, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428048/multi-center-machine-learning-in-imaging-psychiatry-a-meta-model-approach
#19
Petr Dluhoš, Daniel Schwarz, Wiepke Cahn, Neeltje van Haren, René Kahn, Filip Španiel, Jiří Horáček, Tomáš Kašpárek, Hugo Schnack
One of the biggest problems in automated diagnosis of psychiatric disorders from medical images is the lack of sufficiently large samples for training. Sample size is especially important in the case of highly heterogeneous disorders such as schizophrenia, where machine learning models built on relatively low numbers of subjects may suffer from poor generalizability. Via multicenter studies and consortium initiatives researchers have tried to solve this problem by combining data sets from multiple sites. The necessary sharing of (raw) data is, however, often hindered by legal and ethical issues...
April 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426817/evaluation-of-machine-learning-algorithms-and-structural-features-for-optimal-mri-based-diagnostic-prediction-in-psychosis
#20
Raymond Salvador, Joaquim Radua, Erick J Canales-Rodríguez, Aleix Solanes, Salvador Sarró, José M Goikolea, Alicia Valiente, Gemma C Monté, María Del Carmen Natividad, Amalia Guerrero-Pedraza, Noemí Moro, Paloma Fernández-Corcuera, Benedikt L Amann, Teresa Maristany, Eduard Vieta, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet
A relatively large number of studies have investigated the power of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data to discriminate patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls. However, very few of them have also included patients with bipolar disorder, allowing the clinically relevant discrimination between both psychotic diagnostics. To assess the efficacy of sMRI data for diagnostic prediction in psychosis we objectively evaluated the discriminative power of a wide range of commonly used machine learning algorithms (ridge, lasso, elastic net and L0 norm regularized logistic regressions, a support vector classifier, regularized discriminant analysis, random forests and a Gaussian process classifier) on main sMRI features including grey and white matter voxel-based morphometry (VBM), vertex-based cortical thickness and volume, region of interest volumetric measures and wavelet-based morphometry (WBM) maps...
2017: PloS One
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