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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317603/subcortical-association-with-memory-performance-in-schizophrenia-a-structural-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#1
Daisuke Koshiyama, Masaki Fukunaga, Naohiro Okada, Fumio Yamashita, Hidenaga Yamamori, Yuka Yasuda, Michiko Fujimoto, Kazutaka Ohi, Haruo Fujino, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Kiyoto Kasai, Ryota Hashimoto
Memory performance is severely impaired in individuals with schizophrenia. Although several studies have reported a relationship between memory performance and hippocampal volume, only a few structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have investigated the relationship between memory performance and subcortical structures other than hippocampus in patients with schizophrenia. We investigated the relationship between memory performance and subcortical regional volumes in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297153/cigarette-smoking-and-schizophrenia-independently-and-reversibly-altered-intrinsic-brain-activity
#2
Huan Liu, Qi Luo, Wanyi Du, Xingbao Li, Zhiwei Zhang, Renqiang Yu, Xiaolu Chen, Huaqing Meng, Lian Du
Schizophrenia patients are at high risk for cigarette smoking, but the neurobiological mechanisms of this comorbid association are relatively unknown. Long-term nicotine intake may impact brain that are independently and additively associated with schizophrenia. We investigated whether altered intrinsic brain activity (iBA) related to schizophrenia pathology is also associated with nicotine addiction. Forty-two schizophrenia patients (21 smokers and 21 nonsmokers) and 21 sex- and age-matched healthy nonsmokers underwent task-free functional MRI...
January 3, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278773/an-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-reliability-and-sensitivity-of-motion-correction-strategies-for-resting-state-functional-mri
#3
Linden Parkes, Ben Fulcher, Murat Yu Cel, Alex Fornitod
Estimates of functional connectivity derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) are sensitive to artefacts caused by in-scanner head motion. This susceptibility has motivated the development of numerous denoising methods designed to mitigate motion-related artefacts. Here, we compare popular retrospective rs-fMRI denoising methods, such as regression of head motion parameters and mean white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (with and without expansion terms), aCompCor, volume censoring (e...
December 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276351/abnormal-concentration-of-gaba-and-glutamate-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia-an-in-vivo-1h-mrs-study
#4
Tianyi Chen, Yingchan Wang, Jianye Zhang, Zuowei Wang, Jiale Xu, Yao Li, Zhilei Yang, Dengtang Liu
Background: The etiology and pathomechanism of schizophrenia are unknown. The traditional dopamine (DA) hypothesis is unable to fully explain its pathology and therapeutics. The glutamate (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) hypotheses suggest Glu or GABA concentrations are abnormal in the brains of patients with schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) show glutamate level increases in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) including the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) in those with schizophrenia...
October 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244020/association-between-structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-drug-free-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#5
Xin Gao, Wenjing Zhang, Li Yao, Yuan Xiao, Lu Liu, Jieke Liu, Siyi Li, Bo Tao, Chandan Shah, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown both structural and functional abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Recently, studies have begun to explore the association between structural and functional grey matter abnormalities. By conducting a meta-analysis on morphometric and functional imaging studies of grey matter alterations in drug-free patients, the present study aims to examine the degree of overlap between brain regions with anatomic and functional changes in patients with schizophrenia...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243527/the-neural-correlates-of-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-examples-from-mri-literature
#6
Lynn Mørch-Johnsen, Ingrid Agartz, Jimmy Jensen
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia have a negative impact on psychosocial functioning and disease outcome. It is therefore important to investigate the pathophysiology underlying negative symptoms as this may aid the development of better treatment. In the current article, examples from studies investigating neural correlates of negative symptoms in schizophrenia are given. Investigations using both structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging are presented at different levels of symptomatology descriptions, from the more heterogenous construct of negative symptoms to more single discrete symptoms...
January 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230507/evidence-for-regional-hippocampal-damage-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#7
Sadhana Singh, Subash Khushu, Pawan Kumar, Satnam Goyal, Triptish Bhatia, Smita N Deshpande
PURPOSE: Schizophrenia patients show cognitive and mood impairments, including memory loss and depression, suggesting damage in the brain regions. The hippocampus is a brain structure that is significantly involved in memory and mood function and shows impairment in schizophrenia. In the present study, we examined the regional hippocampal changes in schizophrenia patients using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), Freesurfer, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) procedures. METHODS: 1H MRS and high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were collected in both healthy control subjects (N = 28) and schizophrenia patients (N = 28) using 3-Tesla whole body MRI system...
December 11, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226284/gray-matter-surface-based-spatial-statistics-gs-bss-in-diffusion-microstructure
#8
Prasanna Parvathaneni, Baxter P Rogers, Yuankai Huo, Kurt G Schilling, Allison E Hainline, Adam W Anderson, Neil D Woodward, Bennett A Landman
Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) has proven to be a popular technique for performing voxel-wise statistical analysis that aims to improve sensitivity and interpretability of analysis of multi-subject diffusion imaging studies in white matter. With the advent of advanced diffusion MRI models - e.g., the neurite orientation dispersion density imaging (NODDI), it is of interest to analyze microstructural changes within gray matter (GM). A recent study has proposed using NODDI in gray matter based spatial statistics (N-GBSS) to perform voxel-wise statistical analysis on GM microstructure...
September 2017: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208422/support-vector-machine-based-classification-of-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-schizophrenia-patients-and-healthy-controls-using-structural-mri
#9
Yuan Xiao, Zhihan Yan, Youjin Zhao, Bo Tao, Huaiqiang Sun, Fei Li, Li Yao, Wenjing Zhang, Shah Chandan, Jieke Liu, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Su Lui
Although regional brain deficits have been demonstrated in schizophrenia patients by structural MRI studies, one important question that remains largely unanswered is whether the complex and subtle deficits revealed by MRI could be used as objective biomarkers to discriminate patients from healthy controls individually. To address this question, a total of 326 right-handed participants were recruited, including 163 drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and 163 demographically matched healthy controls...
December 2, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206399/association-between-structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-drug-free-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#10
Xin Gao, Wenjing Zhang, Li Yao, Yuan Xiao, Lu Liu, Jieke Liu, Siyi Li, Bo Tao, Chandan Shah, Qiyong Gong, John Sweeney, Su Lui
Background: Neuroimaging studies have shown both structural and functional abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Recently, studies have begun to explore the association between structural and functional grey matter abnormalities. By conducting a meta­-analysis on morphometric and functional imaging studies of grey matter alterations in drug-free patients, the present study aims to examine the degree of overlap between brain regions with anatomic and functional changes in patients with schizophrenia...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184182/a-quantitative-method-for-microstructural-analysis-of-myelinated-axons-in-the-injured-rodent-brain
#11
Erik van Tilborg, Caren M van Kammen, Caroline G M de Theije, Maurits P A van Meer, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Cora H Nijboer
MRI studies (e.g. using diffusion tensor imaging) revealed that injury to white matter tracts, as observed in for instance perinatal white matter injury and multiple sclerosis, leads to compromised microstructure of myelinated axonal tracts. Alterations in white matter microstructure are also present in a wide range of neurological disorders including autism-spectrum disorders, schizophrenia and ADHD. Whereas currently myelin quantity measures are often used in translational animal models of white matter disease, it can be an important valuable addition to study the microstructural organization of myelination patterns in greater detail...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181875/integration-of-routine-qa-data-into-mega-analysis-may-improve-quality-and-sensitivity-of-multisite-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies
#12
Peter Kochunov, Erin W Dickie, Joseph D Viviano, Jessica Turner, Peter B Kingsley, Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson, Meghann C Ryan, Els Fieremans, Dmitry Novikov, Jelle Veraart, Elliot L Hong, Anil K Malhotra, Robert W Buchanan, Sofia Chavez, Aristotle N Voineskos
A novel mega-analytical approach that reduced methodological variance was evaluated using a multisite diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fractional anisotropy (FA) data by comparing white matter integrity in people with schizophrenia to controls. Methodological variance was reduced through regression of variance captured from quality assurance (QA) and by using Marchenko-Pastur Principal Component Analysis (MP-PCA) denoising. N = 192 (119 patients/73 controls) data sets were collected at three sites equipped with 3T MRI systems: GE MR750, GE HDx, and Siemens Trio...
November 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170485/aberrant-perfusion-and-its-connectivity-within-default-mode-network-of-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-schizophrenia-patients-and-their-unaffected-first-degree-relatives
#13
Long-Biao Cui, Liu-Xian Wang, Ping Tian, Hua-Ning Wang, Min Cai, Fan Guo, Chen Li, Yu-Jing Wu, Peng-Gang Qiao, Zi-Liang Xu, Lin Liu, Hong He, Wen-Jun Wu, Yi-Bin Xi, Hong Yin
Neural substrates behind schizophrenia (SZ) and its heritability mediated by brain function are largely unknown. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), as a biomarker of activation in the brain, reflects the neuronal metabolism, and is promisingly used to detect cerebral alteration thereby shedding light on the features of individuals at high genetic risk. We performed a cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study enrolling 45 first-episode drug-naïve patients with SZ, 32 unaffected first-degree relatives of these patients, and 51 healthy controls (HCs)...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155259/polyi-c-model-of-schizophrenia-in-rats-induces-functional-brain-changes-detected-by-mri-irreversible-by-aripiprazole-treatment
#14
Eva Drazanova, Jana Ruda-Kucerova, Lucie Kratka, Katerina Horska, Regina Demlova, Zenon Starcuk, Tomas Kasparek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: One of the hallmarks of schizophrenia is altered brain structure, potentially due to antipsychotic treatment, the disorder itself or both. It was proposed that functional changes may precede the structural ones. In order to understand and potentially prevent this unwanted process, brain function assessment should be validated as a diagnostic tool. METHODS: We used Arterial Spin Labelling MRI technique for the evaluation of brain perfusion in several brain regions in a neurodevelopmental poly(I:C) model of schizophrenia (8 mg/kg on a gestational day 15) in rats taking into account sex-dependent effects and chronic treatment with aripiprazole (30 days), an atypical antipsychotic acting as a partial agonist on dopaminergic receptors...
November 16, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153446/the-instability-of-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-their-siblings-a-dynamic-connectivity-study
#15
Shuixia Guo, Wei Zhao, Haojuan Tao, Zhening Liu, Lena Palaniyappan
BACKGROUND: The distributed connectivity among brain regions is in a constant state of flux, even when a subject is at rest. This instability (temporal variability), when optimal, may contribute to efficient cross-network communications. We investigate the role of this variability in the genetic diathesis and symptom expression of schizophrenia. METHODS: Resting state functional MRI data acquired from 116 subjects (28 patients with schizophrenia, 28 siblings and 60 matched healthy controls)...
November 15, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136642/common-and-distinct-structural-features-of-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-the-european-network-on-psychosis-affective-disorders-and-cognitive-trajectory-enpact-study
#16
Eleonora Maggioni, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Igor Nenadic, Francesco Benedetti, Christian Gaser, Heinrich Sauer, Roberto Roiz-Santiañez, Sara Poletti, Veronica Marinelli, Marcella Bellani, Cinzia Perlini, Mirella Ruggeri, A Carlo Altamura, Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Paolo Brambilla
INTRODUCTION: Although schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) share elements of pathology, their neural underpinnings are still under investigation. Here, structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data collected from a large sample of BD and SCZ patients and healthy controls (HC) were analyzed in terms of gray matter volume (GMV) using both voxel based morphometry (VBM) and a region of interest (ROI) approach. METHODS: The analysis was conducted on two datasets, Dataset1 (802 subjects: 243 SCZ, 176 BD, 383 HC) and Dataset2, a homogeneous subset of Dataset1 (301 subjects: 107 HC, 85 BD and 109 SCZ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111383/disturbed-glutathione-antioxidative-defense-is-associated-with-structural-brain-changes-in-neuroleptic-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-psychosis-patients
#17
K Langbein, J Hesse, A Gussew, B Milleit, S Lavoie, G P Amminger, C Gaser, G Wagner, J R Reichenbach, U-C Hipler, D Winter, S Smesny
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense are reported in schizophrenia and are thought to be associated with disturbed neurodevelopment, brain structural alterations, glutamatergic imbalance, negative symptomatology, and cognitive impairment. To test some of these assumptions we investigated the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant defense system (AODS) and brain structural abnormalities in drug-naïve individuals with first acute episode of psychosis (FEP). METHOD: The study involved 27 drug-naïve FEP patients and 31 healthy controls (HC)...
October 18, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079398/the-neural-correlates-of-apathy-in-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-investigation
#18
Fernando Caravaggio, Gagan Fervaha, Mahesh Menon, Gary Remington, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Philip Gerretsen
BACKGROUND: Motivational deficits represent a core negative symptom in patients with schizophrenia. Previous morphology studies have demonstrated that apathy in patients with schizophrenia is associated with reduced frontal grey matter (GM). We attempted to replicate this previous finding, and explored whether it was distinct from potential associations with a distinct subdomain of negative symptoms, namely Affective Flattening, and GM. METHODS: Twenty medicated patients with schizophrenia provided structural T1-weighted images acquired on a 3-Tesla MRI scanner and negative symptoms were evaluated using the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms...
October 24, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079060/omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-may-prevent-loss-of-gray-matter-thickness-in-the-left-parieto-occipital-cortex-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-a-secondary-outcome-analysis-of-the-offer-randomized-controlled-study
#19
Tomasz Pawełczyk, Ewa Piątkowska-Janko, Piotr Bogorodzki, Piotr Gębski, Marta Grancow-Grabka, Elżbieta Trafalska, Natalia Żurner, Agnieszka Pawełczyk
The aim of the study was to assess changes in cortical thickness related to the use of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as add-on therapy in patients with first episode schizophrenia. A double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted using a 26-week intervention composed of concentrated fish oil containing 2.2g/d of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or placebo (olive oil). Participants underwent MRI scanning twice to assess changes in cortical thickness: at the beginning and at the end of intervention...
October 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074330/motor-dysfunction-as-an-intermediate-phenotype-across-schizophrenia-and-other-psychotic-disorders-progress-and-perspectives
#20
Dusan Hirjak, Katharina M Kubera, Philipp A Thomann, Robert C Wolf
Primary motor abnormalities (PMA), as found in patients with schizophrenia, are quantitatively and qualitatively distinct markers of motor system abnormalities. PMA have been often referred to phenomena that are present across schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. A dysfunction of frontoparietal and subcortical networks has been proposed as core pathophysiological mechanism underlying the expression of PMA. However, it is unclear at present if such mechanisms are a common within schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders...
October 23, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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