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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918268/a-structural-mri-study-of-excoriation-skin-picking-disorder-and-its-relationship-to-clinical-severity
#1
Michael D Harries, Samuel R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Brian L Odlaug, Austin W Blum, Jon E Grant
Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) shares symptomology with other obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Few studies, however, have examined the neurological profile of patients with SPD. This study examined differences in cortical thickness and basal ganglia structural volumes between 20 individuals with SPD and 16 healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no significant differences in demographic variables (age, gender, education and race) between groups. All subjects completed a structural MRI scan and completed a battery of clinical assessments focusing on SPD symptom severity, depression and anxiety symptoms, and quality of life...
September 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904986/sex-matters-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-adolescent-rats
#2
David K Wright, Terence J O'Brien, Sandy R Shultz, Richelle Mychasiuk
OBJECTIVE: Whether sex differences contribute to the heterogeneity of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and repeated mTBI (RmTBI) outcomes in adolescents is unknown. Therefore, this study examined changes in, and differences between, male and female rats following single mTBI and RmTBI. METHODS: Rats were given a single mTBI, RmTBI (i.e., 3x), or sham injuries. Injuries were administered using a lateral impact model that mimics forces common in human mTBI. After the final injury, rats underwent extensive behavioral testing to examine cognition, motor function, and anxiety- and depressive-like behavior...
September 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901547/cognitive-functioning-following-one-year-natalizumab-treatment-a-non-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
I Rorsman, C Petersen, P C Nilsson
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and can have serious impact on social and occupational functioning. Natalizumab reduces relapse rates, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions, and progression of disability. Previous studies on cognitive functioning have not based inclusion on cognitive performance criteria. The aim of the present study was to determine any potential natalizumab-related cognitive effects on MS patients performing below normal limits on neuropsychological testing...
September 13, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899821/correlation-between-brain-circuit-segregation-and-obesity
#4
Hse-Huang Chao, Yin-To Liao, Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Cheng-Jui Li, Roger S McIntyre, Yena Lee, Jun-Cheng Weng
Obesity is a major public health problem. Herein, we aim to identify the correlation between brain circuit segregation and obesity using multimodal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques and analysis. Twenty obese patients (BMI=37.66±5.07) and 30 healthy controls (BMI=22.64±3.45) were compared using neuroimaging and assessed for symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). All participants underwent resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) and T1-weighted imaging using a 1...
September 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889128/hemorrhage-detection-and-incidence-during-magnetic-resonance-guided-deep-brain-stimulator-implantations
#5
Alastair J Martin, Philip A Starr, Jill L Ostrem, Paul S Larson
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) is increasingly used to implant deep brain stimulator (DBS) electrodes. The approach has the advantages of a high targeting accuracy, minimization of brain penetrations, and allowance of implantation under general anesthesia. The hemorrhagic complications of iMRI-guided DBS implantation have not been studied in a large series. We report on the incidence and characteristics of hemorrhage during these procedures. METHODS: Hemorrhage incidence was assessed in a series of 231 iMRI procedures (374 electrodes implanted)...
September 9, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884712/-clinical-and-neurovisualization-characteristics-of-apathetic-depression
#6
A S Avedisova, K V Zakharova, V V Gaskin, I S Samotaeva, I A Arkusha
AIM: To study apathetic depression first diagnosed at late age and identify its relation to cognitive and social dysfunction as well as to morphological and functional changes in the brain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-two patients at the age above 60 years with newly diagnosed depressive episode and 15 healthy age-matched volunteers were included in the study. All patients were divided into two groups by the score on the Apathy scale (AS): >14 - depression with apathy (n=21), <14 - depression without apathy (n=11)...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871117/conjoint-and-dissociated-structural-and-functional-abnormalities-in-first-episode-drug-naive-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#7
Weina Wang, Youjin Zhao, Xinyu Hu, Xiaoqi Huang, Weihong Kuang, Su Lui, Graham J Kemp, Qiyong Gong
Published MRI evidence of structural and resting-state functional brain abnormalities in MDD has been inconsistent. To eliminate interference by repeated disease episodes and antidepressant treatment, we conducted the first multimodal voxel-wise meta-analysis of studies of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in first-episode drug-naive MDD patients, using the Seed-based d Mapping method (SDM). Fifteen VBM data sets and 11 ALFF data sets were included. SDM-based multimodal meta-analysis was used to highlight brain regions with both structural and functional abnormalities...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868035/a-novel-stress-diathesis-model-to-predict-risk-of-post-operative-delirium-implications-for-intra-operative-management
#8
Renée El-Gabalawy, Ronak Patel, Kayla Kilborn, Caitlin Blaney, Christopher Hoban, Lawrence Ryner, Duane Funk, Regina Legaspi, Joseph A Fisher, James Duffin, David J Mikulis, W Alan C Mutch
Introduction: Risk assessment for post-operative delirium (POD) is poorly developed. Improved metrics could greatly facilitate peri-operative care as costs associated with POD are staggering. In this preliminary study, we develop a novel stress-diathesis model based on comprehensive pre-operative psychiatric and neuropsychological testing, a blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) carbon dioxide (CO2) stress test, and high fidelity measures of intra-operative parameters that may interact facilitating POD...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867303/treatment-with-a-glp-1r-agonist-over-four-weeks-promotes-weight-loss-moderated-changes-in-frontal-striatal-brain-structures-in-individuals-with-mood-disorders
#9
Rodrigo B Mansur, Andre Zugman, Juhie Ahmed, Danielle S Cha, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Yena Lee, Julie Lovshin, Jung G Lee, Jae-Hon Lee, Vladislav Drobinin, Jason Newport, Elisa Brietzke, Eva Z Reininghaus, Kang Sim, Maj Vinberg, Natalie Rasgon, Tomas Hajek, Roger S McIntyre
Cognitive deficits are a core feature across psychiatric disorders. Emerging evidence indicates that metabolic pathways are highly relevant for the substrates and phenomenology of the cognitive domain. Herein, we aimed to determine the effects of liraglutide, a GLP-1R agonist, on brain structural/volumetric parameters in adults with a mood disorder. This is the secondary analysis of a 4-week, pilot, proof-of-concept, open-label study. Participants (N=19) exhibiting impairments in executive function with either major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD) were recruited...
August 31, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860564/differential-effects-of-antidepressant-treatment-on-long-range-and-short-range-functional-connectivity-strength-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Jing An, Li Wang, Ke Li, Yawei Zeng, Yunai Su, Zhen Jin, Xin Yu, Tianmei Si
Although we have some basic understanding of the neurochemical mechanisms of the antidepressants, the network-level effect of antidepressant treatment is still not fully understood. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of antidepressant on functional brain networks of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We performed resting-state fMRI scans on 20 first-episode drug-naive MDD patients at baseline and after escitalopram medication for 8 weeks. Twenty healthy controls also received MRI scans with an 8-week interval...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859565/neuroplasticity-and-the-brain-connectome-what-can-jean-talairach-s-reflections-bring-to-modern-psychosurgery
#11
Pierre Bourdillon, Caroline Apra, Marc Lévêque, Fabien Vinckier
Contrary to common psychosurgical practice in the 1950s, Dr. Jean Talairach had the intuition, based on clinical experience, that the brain connectome and neuroplasticity had a role to play in psychosurgery. Due to the remarkable progress of pharmacology at that time and to the technical limits of neurosurgery, these concepts were not put into practice. Currently, these concepts are being confirmed by modern techniques such as neuroimaging and computational neurosciences, and could pave the way for therapeutic innovation in psychiatry...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856542/imaging-behavioural-complications-of-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Mikaeel Valli, Alexander Mihaescu, Antonio P Strafella
In addition to motor symptoms, behavioural complications are commonly found in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Behavioural complications, including depression, anxiety, apathy, impulse control disorder and psychosis, together have a large impact on PD patient's quality of life. Many neuroimaging studies using PET, SPECT and MRI techniques have been conducted to study the underlying neural mechanisms of PD pathogenesis and pathophysiology in relation to its behavioural complications. This review will survey these PET, SPECT and MRI studies to describe the current understanding of the neuro-chemical, functional and structural changes associated with behavioural complications in PD patients...
August 30, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856425/a-specific-pattern-of-gray-matter-atrophy-in-alzheimer-s-disease-with-depression
#13
Efstratios Karavasilis, Theodore P Parthimos, John D Papatriantafyllou, Sokratis G Papageorgiou, George Kapsas, Andrew C Papanicolaou, Ioannis Seimenis
Considering the high incidence of depressive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we conducted a large-sample study to investigate the pattern of gray matter (GM) abnormalities that differentiates depressive from non-depressive AD patients. We included 201 AD patients who underwent MRI assessment and categorized them into depressive and non-depressive subgroups based on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS; cut-off score: ≤9). We performed whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis in 173 patients after MRI quality control and used between-group comparisons and regression analysis models to analyze the volumetric data controlling for nuisance variables...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845171/altered-function-of-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-adolescents-with-peer-verbal-abuse-history
#14
Sang Won Lee, Jeewook Choi, Jong-Sun Lee, Jae Hyun Yoo, Ko Woon Kim, Dongchan Kim, HyunWook Park, Bumseok Jeong
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies showing the association of exposure to peer (PeVA) and parental verbal abuse in childhood with structural alterations in the young adult brain suggest functional changes in adolescence. In this functional MRI study, we investigated the effects of exposure to PeVA, during elementary and middle school periods, on brain response to emotional words, in high school students. METHODS: An emotional Stroop task consisting of swear, negative, positive, and neutral words was performed during functional MRI scan for 23 subjects who were divided into low- and high exposure groups to PeVA...
July 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843886/childhood-maltreatment-is-associated-with-gray-matter-volume-abnormalities-in-patients-with-first-episode-depression
#15
Shuran Yang, Yuqi Cheng, Yin Mo, Yan Bai, Zonglin Shen, Fang Liu, Na Li, Linling Jiang, Wei Chen, Yi Lu, Xuejin Sun, Xiufeng Xu
Previous neuroimaging studies suggest that childhood maltreatment (CM) can affect brain function and structure and constitutes a potent risk of developing depression. The present study attempts to differentiate the effect of CM from the impact of depression diagnosis on brain structure. Eighty-four patients with first-episode depression and 84 controls participated in this study. All subjects underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Voxel-based morphometric analysis of variance (ANOVA), between-group comparison, and regression analyses were performed on a whole-brain level to identify the unbiased effects of CM and depression on brain structure...
July 26, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843842/association-between-change-in-brain-gray-matter-volume-cognition-and-depression-severity-pre-and-post-antidepressant-pharmacotherapy-for-late-life-depression
#16
K Droppa, H T Karim, D L Tudorascu, J F Karp, C F Reynolds, H J Aizenstein, M A Butters
Late-life depression (LLD) is associated with cognitive impairments and reduced gray matter volume (GMV); however the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. The goal of this study was to characterize changes in depression severity, cognitive function, and brain structure associated with pharmacologic antidepressant treatment for LLD. We administered a detailed neurocognitive battery and conducted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on 26 individuals with LLD, pre-/post-a 12-week treatment trial with venlafaxine...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843078/impact-of-early-and-recent-stress-on-white-matter-microstructure-in-major-depressive-disorder
#17
Poletti Sara, Aggio Veronica, Brioschi Silvia, Bollettini Irene, Falini Andrea, Colombo Cristina, Benedetti Francesco
BACKGROUND: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a worldwide-spread pathology, characterized by lifetime-recurrent episodes. Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) increase the lifetime risk of developing depression and affect the structure of the brain. Recent stressful events (RSE) can trigger the onset of depressive episodes, and affect grey matter volume. The aim of our study is to analyse the effect of both early and recent stress events on white matter microstructure in MDD patients and healthy volunteers...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842450/neuroinflammation-drives-anxiety-and-depression-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Silvia Rossi, Valeria Studer, Caterina Motta, Serena Polidoro, Jacopo Perugini, Giulia Macchiarulo, Ambra Mara Giovannetti, Lorena Pareja-Gutierrez, Andrea Calò, Isabella Colonna, Roberto Furlan, Gianvito Martino, Diego Centonze
OBJECTIVE: To explore the inflammatory processes in the pathogenesis of psychiatric symptoms and the prognostic value of psychiatric comorbidities in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Four hundred five patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) MS underwent psychiatric evaluation by means of Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y). The inflammatory activity level was assessed by MRI. In a subset of 111 treatment-naive patients, CSF levels of proinflammatory cytokines were determined...
August 25, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837952/association-of-obesity-with-cognitive-function-and-brain-structure-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#19
Shinsuke Hidese, Miho Ota, Junko Matsuo, Ikki Ishida, Moeko Hiraishi, Sumiko Yoshida, Takamasa Noda, Noriko Sato, Toshiya Teraishi, Kotaro Hattori, Hiroshi Kunugi
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), which prompted us to examine the possible association of obesity with cognitive function and brain structure in patients with MDD. METHODS: Three hundred and seven patients with MDD and 294 healthy participants, matched for age, sex, ethnicity (Japanese), and handedness (right) were recruited for the study. Cognitive function was assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828215/cortical-thickness-and-subcortical-structure-volume-abnormalities-in-patients-with-major-depression-with-and-without-anxious-symptoms
#20
Ke Zhao, Haiyan Liu, Rui Yan, Lingling Hua, Yu Chen, Jiabo Shi, Qing Lu, Zhijian Yao
BACKGROUND: Anxious depression is one of the common subtypes of major depressive disorder (MDD). Clinically, patients with anxious depression exhibit more severe depressive symptoms than patients with nonanxious depression. The aim of the present study was to explore the common and differing cortical and subcortical structural changes between patients with anxious and nonanxious depression. METHODS: Patients were placed into one of three groups: the anxious depression group (MDD patients with high levels of anxiety symptoms, n = 23), the nonanxious depression group (n = 22), and healthy controls (n = 43) that were matched for age, sex, and education level...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
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