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Marcin Wirtwein, Olle Melander, Marketa Sjogren, Michal Hoffmann, Marcin Gruchala, Wojciech Sobiczewski
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to report the relationship between certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and blunted nighttime blood pressure (BP) fall in hypertensive patients with CAD confirmed by coronary angiography. DESIGN AND METHOD: According to the percentage decrease in mean systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) during the nighttime period subjects were classified as dippers or non-dippers (nighttime relative SBP or DBP decline ≥ and <10% respectively)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Tomoaki Mori, Kento Nakamura, Keisuke Masaoka, Yusuke Fujita, Ryosuke Morisada, Koichi Mori, Takamasa Tobimatsu, Takashi Sera
Various viruses infect animals and humans and cause a variety of diseases, including cancer. However, effective methodologies to prevent virus infection have not yet been established. Therefore, development of technologies to inactivate viruses is highly desired. We have already demonstrated that cleavage of a DNA virus genome was effective to prevent its replication. Here, we expanded this methodology to RNA viruses. In the present study, we used staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) instead of the PIN domain (PilT N-terminus) of human SMG6 as an RNA-cleavage domain and fused the SNase to a human Pumilio/fem-3 binding factor (PUF)-based artificial RNA-binding protein to construct an artificial RNA restriction enzyme with enhanced RNA-cleavage rates for influenzavirus...
October 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Marcin Wirtwein, Olle Melander, Marketa Sjogren, Michal Hoffmann, Marcin Gruchala, Wojciech Sobiczewski
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to report the relationship between certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and blunted nighttime blood pressure (BP) fall in hypertensive patients with CAD confirmed by coronary angiography. DESIGN AND METHOD: According to the percentage decrease in mean systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) during the nighttime period subjects were classified as dippers or non-dippers (nighttime relative SBP or DBP decline ≥ and <10% respectively)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Marcin Wirtwein, Olle Melander, Marketa Sjőgren, Michal Hoffmann, Krzysztof Narkiewicz, Marcin Gruchala, Wojciech Sobiczewski
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to report the relationship between certain single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and blunted nighttime blood pressure (BP) fall in patients with coronary artery disease confirmed by coronary angiography. METHODS: According to the percentage decrease in mean systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) during the nighttime period, subjects were classified as dippers or nondippers (nighttime relative SBP or DBP decline ≥10% and <10%, respectively)...
September 2016: American Journal of Hypertension
Christina M Lill, Tian Liu, Kristina Norman, Antje Meyer, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Ilja Demuth, Lars Bertram
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), and telomere length are phenotypes that modulate the course of aging. Over 40% of their phenotypic variance is determined by genetics. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have recently uncovered >100 independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing genome-wide significant (p < 5 × 10-8) association with these traits. OBJECTIVE: To test the individual and combined impact of previously reported GWAS SNPs on BMI, BMD, and relative leukocyte telomere length (rLTL) in ∼1,750 participants of the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II), a cohort consisting predominantly of individuals >60 years of age...
2016: Gerontology
Orit Shaul
Nonsense-mediated mRNA Decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic quality-control mechanism that governs the stability of both aberrant and normal transcripts. Although plant and mammalian NMD share great similarity, they differ in certain mechanistic and regulatory aspects. Whereas SMG6 (from Caenorhabditis elegans 'suppressor with morphogenetic effect on genitalia')-catalyzed endonucleolytic cleavage is a prominent step in mammalian NMD, plant NMD targets are degraded by an SMG7-induced exonucleolytic pathway. Both mammalian and plant NMD are downregulated by stress, thereby enhancing the expression of defense response genes...
November 2015: Trends in Plant Science
Rebecca V Steenaard, Symen Ligthart, Lisette Stolk, Marjolein J Peters, Joyce B van Meurs, Andre G Uitterlinden, Albert Hofman, Oscar H Franco, Abbas Dehghan
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking, a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD), is known to modify DNA methylation. We hypothesized that tobacco smoking modifies methylation of the genes identified for CAD by genome-wide association study (GWAS). RESULTS: We selected genomic regions based on 150 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in the largest GWAS on CAD. We investigated the association between current smoking and the CpG sites within and near these CAD-related genes...
2015: Clinical Epigenetics
Tangliang Li, Yue Shi, Pei Wang, Luis Miguel Guachalla, Baofa Sun, Tjard Joerss, Yu-Sheng Chen, Marco Groth, Anja Krueger, Matthias Platzer, Yun-Gui Yang, Karl Lenhard Rudolph, Zhao-Qi Wang
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a post-transcriptional mechanism that targets aberrant transcripts and regulates the cellular RNA reservoir. Genetic modulation in vertebrates suggests that NMD is critical for cellular and tissue homeostasis, although the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we generate knockout mice lacking Smg6/Est1, a key nuclease in NMD and a telomerase cofactor. While the complete loss of Smg6 causes mouse lethality at the blastocyst stage, inducible deletion of Smg6 is compatible with embryonic stem cell (ESC) proliferation despite the absence of telomere maintenance and functional NMD...
June 12, 2015: EMBO Journal
Skye A Schmidt, Patricia L Foley, Dong-Hoon Jeong, Linda A Rymarquis, Francis Doyle, Scott A Tenenbaum, Joel G Belasco, Pamela J Green
In metazoans, cleavage by the endoribonuclease SMG6 is often the first degradative event in non-sense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). However, the exact sites of SMG6 cleavage have yet to be determined for any endogenous targets, and most evidence as to the identity of SMG6 substrates is indirect. Here, we use Parallel Analysis of RNA Ends to specifically identify the 5' termini of decay intermediates whose production is dependent on SMG6 and the universal NMD factor UPF1. In this manner, the SMG6 cleavage sites in hundreds of endogenous NMD targets in human cells have been mapped at high resolution...
January 2015: Nucleic Acids Research
Søren Lykke-Andersen, Yun Chen, Britt R Ardal, Berit Lilje, Johannes Waage, Albin Sandelin, Torben Heick Jensen
Eukaryotic RNAs with premature termination codons (PTCs) are eliminated by nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). While human nonsense RNA degradation can be initiated either by an endonucleolytic cleavage event near the PTC or through decapping, the individual contribution of these activities on endogenous substrates has remained unresolved. Here we used concurrent transcriptome-wide identification of NMD substrates and their 5'-3' decay intermediates to establish that SMG6-catalyzed endonucleolysis widely initiates the degradation of human nonsense RNAs, whereas decapping is used to a lesser extent...
November 15, 2014: Genes & Development
Jeremy E Wilusz, Jeffrey Wilusz
Production of multiple functional RNAs from a single primary transcript is an extremely efficient use of genetic information, although it complicates the ability of the cell to independently regulate the production of each RNA. For the case of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) encoded within introns of mRNA genes, Lykke-Andersen and colleagues (pp. 2498-2517) demonstrated that alternative splicing and the SMG6 endonuclease of the nonsense-mediated RNA decay pathway are key regulators that control which RNAs accumulate...
November 15, 2014: Genes & Development
Volker Boehm, Nejc Haberman, Franziska Ottens, Jernej Ule, Niels H Gehring
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) degrades different classes of mRNAs, including transcripts with premature termination codons (PTCs). The NMD factor SMG6 initiates degradation of substrate mRNAs by endonucleolytic cleavage. Here, we aim to delineate the cascade of NMD-activating events that culminate in endocleavage. We report that long 3' UTRs elicit SMG6-mediated endonucleolytic degradation. The presence of an exon-junction complex (EJC) within the 3' UTR strongly stimulates endocleavage in a distance-independent manner...
October 23, 2014: Cell Reports
Tatsuaki Kurosaki, Wencheng Li, Mainul Hoque, Maximilian W-L Popp, Dmitri N Ermolenko, Bin Tian, Lynne E Maquat
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) controls the quality of eukaryotic gene expression and also degrades physiologic mRNAs. How NMD targets are identified is incompletely understood. A central NMD factor is the ATP-dependent RNA helicase upframeshift 1 (UPF1). Neither the distance in space between the termination codon and the poly(A) tail nor the binding of steady-state, largely hypophosphorylated UPF1 is a discriminating marker of cellular NMD targets, unlike for premature termination codon (PTC)-containing reporter mRNAs when compared with their PTC-free counterparts...
September 1, 2014: Genes & Development
Pamela Nicholson, Christoph Josi, Hitomi Kurosawa, Akio Yamashita, Oliver Mühlemann
Eukaryotic mRNAs with premature translation-termination codons (PTCs) are recognized and eliminated by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). NMD substrates can be degraded by different routes that all require phosphorylated UPF1 (P-UPF1) as a starting point. The endonuclease SMG6, which cleaves mRNA near the PTC, is one of the three known NMD factors thought to be recruited to nonsense mRNAs via an interaction with P-UPF1, leading to eventual mRNA degradation. By artificial tethering of SMG6 and mutants thereof to a reporter mRNA combined with knockdowns of various NMD factors, we demonstrate that besides its endonucleolytic activity, SMG6 also requires UPF1 and SMG1 to reduce reporter mRNA levels...
August 2014: Nucleic Acids Research
Sutapa Chakrabarti, Fabien Bonneau, Steffen Schüssler, Elfriede Eppinger, Elena Conti
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic surveillance pathway that recognizes mRNAs with premature stop codons and targets them for rapid degradation. Evidence from previous studies has converged on UPF1 as the central NMD factor. In human cells, the SMG1 kinase phosphorylates UPF1 at the N-terminal and C-terminal tails, in turn allowing the recruitment of the NMD factors SMG5, SMG6 and SMG7. To understand the molecular mechanisms, we recapitulated these steps of NMD in vitro using purified components...
August 2014: Nucleic Acids Research
Amanda J Ward, Michaela Norrbom, Seung Chun, C Frank Bennett, Frank Rigo
Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are synthetic oligonucleotides that alter expression of disease-associated transcripts via Watson-Crick hybridization. ASOs that function through RNase H or the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) result in enzymatic degradation of target RNA. ASOs designed to sterically block access of proteins to the RNA modulate mRNA metabolism but do not typically cause degradation. Here, we rationally design steric blocking ASOs to promote mRNA reduction and characterize the terminating mechanism...
May 2014: Nucleic Acids Research
Belinda Loh, Stefanie Jonas, Elisa Izaurralde
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic quality control mechanism that detects aberrant mRNAs containing nonsense codons and induces their rapid degradation. This degradation is mediated by SMG6, an NMD-specific endonuclease, as well as the SMG5 and SMG7 proteins, which recruit general mRNA decay enzymes. However, it remains unknown which specific decay factors are recruited and whether this recruitment is direct. Here, we show that SMG7 binds directly to POP2, a catalytic subunit of the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex, and elicits deadenylation-dependent decapping and 5'-to-3' decay of NMD targets...
October 1, 2013: Genes & Development
Roshan Mascarenhas, Julie A Dougherty, Daniel R Schoenberg
mRNAs targeted by endonuclease decay generally disappear without detectable decay intermediates. The exception to this is nonsense-containing human β-globin mRNA, where the destabilization of full-length mRNA is accompanied by the cytoplasmic accumulation of 5'-truncated transcripts in erythroid cells of transgenic mice and in transfected erythroid cell lines. The relationship of the shortened RNAs to the decay process was characterized using an inducible erythroid cell system and an assay for quantifying full-length mRNA and a truncated RNA missing 169 nucleotides from the 5' end...
2013: PloS One
Stefanie Metze, Veronika A Herzog, Marc-David Ruepp, Oliver Mühlemann
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic post-transcriptional gene regulation mechanism that eliminates mRNAs with the termination codon (TC) located in an unfavorable environment for efficient translation termination. The best-studied NMD-targeted mRNAs contain premature termination codons (PTCs); however, NMD regulates even many physiological mRNAs. An exon-junction complex (EJC) located downstream from a TC acts as an NMD-enhancing signal, but is not generally required for NMD. Here, we compared these "EJC-enhanced" and "EJC-independent" modes of NMD with regard to their requirement for seven known NMD factors in human cells using two well-characterized NMD reporter genes (immunoglobulin μ and β-Globin) with or without an intron downstream from the PTC...
October 2013: RNA
Lingling Shi, Xu Zhang, Ryan Golhar, Frederick G Otieno, Mingze He, Cuiping Hou, Cecilia Kim, Brendan Keating, Gholson J Lyon, Kai Wang, Hakon Hakonarson
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) represent a group of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders that affect 1 in 88 children in the US. Previous exome sequencing studies on family trios have implicated a role for rare, de-novo mutations in the pathogenesis of autism. METHODS: To examine the utility of whole-genome sequencing to identify inherited disease candidate variants and genes, we sequenced two probands from a large pedigree, including two parents and eight children...
2013: Molecular Autism
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