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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087518/cardiovascular-function-in-male-and-female-jcr-la-cp-rats-effect-of-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet
#1
Ian Hunter, Amanda Soler, Gregory Joseph, Brenda Hutcheson, Chastity Bradford, Frank Zhang, Barry J Potter, Spencer D Proctor, Petra Rocic
30% of the world population is diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. High fat/high sucrose diet (HF/HS, Western diet) correlates with metabolic syndrome prevalence. We characterized effects of the HF/HS diet on vascular (arterial stiffness, vasoreactivity, coronary collateral development) and cardiac (echocardiography) function, oxidative stress and inflammation in a rat model of metabolic syndrome (JCR). Furthermore, we determined whether male vs. female animals were affected differentially by the Western diet...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069102/the-effect-of-cp-concentration-in-the-diet-on-urea-kinetics-and-microbial-usage-of-recycled-urea-in-cattle-a-meta-analysis
#2
E D Batista, E Detmann, S C Valadares Filho, E C Titgemeyer, R F D Valadares
In ruminants, urea recycling is considered an evolutionary advantage. The amount of urea recycled mainly depends of the nitrogen (N) intake and the amount of organic matter (OM) digested in the rumen. Because recycled N contributes to meeting microbial N requirements, accurate estimates of urea recycling can improve the understanding of efficiency of N utilization and N losses to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate urea kinetics and microbial usage of recycled urea N in ruminants using a meta-analytical approach...
January 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052497/coping-with-the-loss-of-large-energy-dense-prey-a-potential-bottleneck-for-weddell-seals-in-the-ross-sea
#3
Leo Salas, Nadav Nur, David Ainley, Jennifer Burns, Jay Rotella, Grant Ballard
Extraction of Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) in the Ross Sea began in 1997, following a management plan that targets the largest fish with a goal of reducing the spawning biomass by 50% over 35 yr. We investigate the potential long-term consequences of the reduced availability of this prey for Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii). Energy demands in seals are acute, especially immediately following lactation, when females must recover substantial mass and cope with molting costs. We tested the hypothesis that toothfish are critically important for adult female seals during this period...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050995/anaemia-in-adolescent-girls-an-intervention-of-diet-editing-and-counselling
#4
Andezhath K Susheela, Rashmi Gupta, Nisith K Mondal
BACKGROUND: Though a major public health problem of nutritional anaemia in schoolchildren is being addressed by iron supplementation and/or fortified food, they continue to be anaemic. We aimed to study the effect of fluoride consumption on haemoglobin levels and whether elimination of fluoride from the diet would correct anaemia in children. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty adolescent girls, 10-17 years of age, from a government senior secondary girls school in East Delhi, participated in the programme...
July 2016: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046138/detection-of-residues-in-urine-and-tissues-of-sheep-treated-with-trace-levels-of-dietary-ractopamine-hcl
#5
D J Smith, W L Shelver, A Marx
Qualitative assays are sometimes used as the sole basis for detecting drug residues in live animals or in animal products. Such assays have become increasingly sensitive as detection technologies have improved, yet the limitations of such assays to discriminate purposeful and accidental drug exposures remain poorly defined. A study was conducted to determine the ability of a ractopamine lateral flow assay to accurately detect incurred ractopamine residues in contaminated feeds and in sheep fed trace quantities of ractopamine HCl...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045773/the-association-between-celiac-disease-and-eosinophilic-esophagitis-mayo-experience-and-meta-analysis-of-the-literature
#6
Salim Hommeida, Mouaz Alsawas, Mohammad H Murad, David A Katzka, Rayna M Grothe, Imad Absah
BACKGROUND: The association between celiac disease (CD) and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has been the focus of multiple studies with variable results. Both diseases are immune mediated, and dietary triggers play a role in their pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyze the risk of EoE in children with CD, assess the magnitude of association between CD and EoE in children, and report the characteristics and outcomes of children with both conditions...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031067/effects-of-faba-beans-with-different-concentrations-of-vicine-and-convicine-on-egg-production-egg-quality-and-red-blood-cells-in-laying-hens
#7
M Lessire, V Gallo, M Prato, O Akide-Ndunge, G Mandili, P Marget, P Arese, G Duc
The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a potential source of proteins for poultry, mainly for laying hens whose protein requirements are lower than those of other birds such as growing broilers and turkeys. However, this feedstuff contains anti-nutritional factors, that is, vicine (V) and convicine (C) that are already known to reduce laying hen performance. The aim of the experiment reported here was to evaluate the effects of a wide range of dietary V and C concentrations in laying hens. Two trials were performed with laying hens fed diets including 20% or 25% of faba bean genotypes highly contrasting in V+C content...
December 29, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030540/severe-atherosclerosis-and-hypercholesterolemia-in-mice-lacking-both-the-melanocortin-type-4-receptor-and-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor
#8
Vera Lede, Christin Franke, Andrej Meusel, Daniel Teupser, Albert Ricken, Joachim Thiery, Jürgen Schiller, Daniel Huster, Torsten Schöneberg, Angela Schulz
Dysfunction of the melanocortin system can result in severe obesity accompanied with dyslipidemia and symptoms of the metabolic syndrome but the effect on vascular atherogenesis is not known. To study the impact of obesity and dyslipidemia on the cardiovascular system, we generated mice double-deficient for the melanocortin type 4 receptor (Mc4rmut mice) and the LDL receptor (Ldlr-/- mice). Mc4rmut mice develop obesity due to hyperphagia. Double-mutant mice (Mc4rmut;Ldlr-/-) exhibited massive increases in body weight, plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels and developed atherosclerosis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001025/clinical-benefits-of-phosphate-control-in-progression-of-end-stage-renal-disease
#9
Piergiorgio Bolasco, Stefano Murtas
It is largely agreed that preservation of RKF has a directly proportional affect on general, and in particular cardiovascular, mortality. During evaluation of patients on infrequent hemodialysis (ID) as both as once-weekly or twice-weekly hemodialysis it has been frequently underestimated the importance of phosphaturia, Indeed, the native kidney preserves the ability to eliminate not only toxic molecules but also a significative output of phosphate despite of a severe decrease of residual kidney function (RKF)...
December 21, 2016: Panminerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999436/food-allergy-and-the-gut
#10
REVIEW
Anna Nowak-Wegrzyn, Hania Szajewska, Gideon Lack
Food allergy develops as a consequence of a failure in oral tolerance, which is a default immune response by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues to ingested antigens that is modified by the gut microbiota. Food allergy is classified on the basis of the involvement of IgE antibodies in allergic pathophysiology, either as classic IgE, mixed pathophysiology or non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Gastrointestinal manifestations of food allergy include emesis, nausea, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, dysphagia, food impaction, protein-losing enteropathy and failure to thrive...
December 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998193/update-on-dietary-therapy-for-eosinophilic-esophagitis-in-children-and-adults
#11
Javier Molina-Infante, Pedro Luis Gonzalez-Cordero, Angel Arias, Alfredo J Lucendo
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory esophageal disease triggered predominantly, but not excusively, by food antigens. Elimination diet thus remains the only therapy targeting the cause of the disease. Importantly, EoE is a unique form of non-IgE mediated food allergy, largely dependant upon delayed, cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Areas covered: A comprehensive review of literature to summarize and update the most relevant advances on dietary therapy for pediatric and adult EoE patients is conducted...
December 23, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995503/improvement-of-anti-nutritional-effect-resulting-from-%C3%AE-glucanase-specific-expression-in-the-parotid-gland-of-transgenic-pigs
#12
Li-Zeng Guan, Jin-Shun Cai, Shuai Zhao, Yu-Ping Sun, Jing-Lan Wang, Yong Jiang, Gang Shu, Qing-Yan Jiang, Zhen-Fang Wu, Qian-Yun Xi, Yong-Liang Zhang
β-Glucan is the predominant anti-nutritional factors in monogastric animal feed. Although β-glucanase supplementation in diet can help to eliminate the adverse effects, enzyme stability is substantially modified during the feed manufacturing process. To determine whether the expression of endogenous β-glucanase gene (GLU) in vivo can improve digestibility of dietary β-glucan and absorption of nutrients, we successfully produced transgenic pigs via nuclear transfer which express the GLU from Paenibacillus polymyxa CP7 in the parotid gland...
December 19, 2016: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995150/risk-factors-for-the-requirement-of-antenatal-insulin-treatment-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Mayu Watanabe, Akihiro Katayama, Hidetoshi Kagawa, Daisuke Ogawa, Jun Wada
Poor maternal glycemic control increases maternal and fetal risk for adverse outcomes, and strict management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is recommended to prevent neonatal and maternal complications. However, risk factors for the requirement of antenatal insulin treatment (AIT) are not well-investigated in the pregnant women with GDM. We enrolled 37 pregnant women with GDM and investigated the risk for AIT by comparing the patients with AIT (AIT group; n = 10) and without insulin therapy (Diet group; n = 27)...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992662/parental-perception-of-their-child-s-quality-of-life-in-children-with-non-immunoglobulin-e-mediated-gastrointestinal-allergies
#14
R X Foong, R Meyer, H Godwin, R Dziubak, A C Lozinsky, K Reeve, R Knibb, N Shah
BACKGROUND: Food allergy can have a significant impact on health related quality of life (HRQoL). Parental proxy questionnaires are commonly used when children are too young to complete questionnaires themselves. Little data is available on HRQoL in children with non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy (GIFA). The aim of this study was to evaluate HRQoL in these children by parent proxy. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted with children 2-16 years old with confirmed (GIFA)...
December 19, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980496/reversal-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-sleep-disturbance-and-fatigue-with-an-elimination-diet-lifestyle-modification-and-dietary-supplements-a-case-report
#15
Stephanie Davis
BACKGROUND: A 53-y-old Caucasian patient presented in August 2015 with chief complaints of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS; gas/bloating, gastroesophageal reflux), fatigue, and sleep disturbances. He also noted a history of chronic sinusitis, seasonal allergies, multiple chemical sensitivities, and right knee pain (3 surgeries). His primary care physician, in 2014, diagnosed prediabetes based on an elevated hemoglobin A1c and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, which was treated with diet and lifestyle modification...
October 2016: Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979389/eosinophilic-esophagitis-update-in-diagnosis-and-management-position-paper-by-the-italian-society-of-gastroenterology-and-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-sige
#16
REVIEW
Nicola de Bortoli, Roberto Penagini, Edoardo Savarino, Santino Marchi
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the esophagus characterized by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction, as well as significant esophageal eosinophilia. The entity exists worldwide but has been most extensively studied in Western countries. However, a wide range of symptoms has been noticed such as chest pain or gastro-esophageal reflux disease-like symptoms. Upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy and esophageal biopsies are crucial for the diagnosis. Endoscopy might be normal or reveal typical patterns such as rings, furrows, exudates, edema, and stricture...
December 2, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956451/chronic-kidney-disease-towards-a-risk-based-approach
#17
Maarten W Taal
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 8-16% of adults worldwide and is associated with multiple adverse outcomes. It includes a heterogeneous group of conditions with widely varied associated risks; risk stratification is therefore vital for clinical management. Use of the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) instead of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation will reduce, though not eliminate, over-diagnosis of CKD. Cystatin C is recommended as an alternative measure of GFR but is not yet widely used...
December 2016: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943221/a-population-pharmacokinetic-model-for-51-cr-edta-to-estimate-renal-function
#18
Isabelle H S Kuan, Stephen B Duffull, Tracey L Putt, John B W Schollum, Robert J Walker, Daniel F B Wright
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: (51)Cr EDTA clearance (CL) from plasma is used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We propose that current methods for analysing the raw (51)Cr EDTA measurements over-simplifies the disposition of (51)Cr EDTA and therefore could produce biased GFR estimates. The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for (51)Cr EDTA disposition and to compare model-predicted GFR to other methods of estimating renal function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from 40 individuals who received ~7...
December 9, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942376/improved-nutrition-cues-switch-from-efficiency-to-luxury-phenotypes-for-a-long-lived-ungulate
#19
Eric S Michel, Emily B Flinn, Stephen Demarais, Bronson K Strickland, Guiming Wang, Chad M Dacus
Cervid phenotype can be categorized as efficiency, which promotes survival but not extravagant growth, or luxury which promotes growth of large weaponry and body size. Although nutritional variation greatly influences these phenotypic forms, the potential for subspecies-linked genetic or founder effects from restocking efforts of harvested species has not been eliminated. We measured intergenerational phenotypic change of males in response to improved nutrition in three captive-reared populations of white-tailed deer...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940272/cost-utility-analysis-of-topical-steroids-compared-to-dietary-elimination-for-treatment-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#20
Cary C Cotton, Daniel Erim, Swathi Eluri, Sarah H Palmer, Daniel J Green, W Asher Wolf, Thomas M Runge, Stephanie Wheeler, Nicholas J Shaheen, Evan S Dellon
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Topical corticosteroids or dietary elimination are recommended as first-line therapies for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), but data to directly compare these therapies are scant. We performed a cost utility comparison of topical corticosteroids and the 6 food elimination diet (SFED) in treatment of EoE, from the payer perspective. METHODS: We used a modified Markov model based on current clinical guidelines, in which transition between states depended on histologic response simulated at the individual cohort-member level...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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