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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136724/-expert-consensus-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-patients-with-renal-impairment-of-multiple-myeloma
#1
(no author information available yet)
Renal impairment (RI) is a common complication of multiple myeloma (MM), which is presented as chronic kidney disease (CKD) or acute kidney injury (AKI). The typical pathological feature is cast nephropathy. Presently international system staging (ISS) is used in evaluating MM. Although the classic Durie-Salmon staging system could be still used in clinical practice, it may miss out some patients with renal impairment. For evaluations of RI in MM patients with CKD, it's recommended to assess the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by creatinine based formula CKD-epidemiology collaboration (EPI) or modification of diet in renal disease(MDRD) and to stage the renal injuries according to 2013 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD guidelines...
November 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136587/management-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-and-celiac-disease
#2
REVIEW
Rok Seon Choung, Jeffrey A Alexander, David A Katzka, Joseph A Murray
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and celiac disease (CeD) are chronic immune mediated gastrointestinal disorders characterized by mucosal inflammation, both of which are related to food antigens, but with differences in clinical and histopathological features. When untreated, both diseases lead to destruction of the epithelium. While a strict gluten-free diet is the only effective therapy for CeD, several therapeutic options, such as proton pump inhibitors, topical steroids and diet elimination therapy are available for EoE...
November 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135972/roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-reduces-plasma-cholesterol-in-diet-induced-obese-mice-by-affecting-trans-intestinal-cholesterol-excretion-and-intestinal-cholesterol-absorption
#3
C Blanchard, F Moreau, A Ayer, L Toque, D Garçon, L Arnaud, F Borel, A Aguesse, M Croyal, M Krempf, X Prieur, M Neunlist, B Cariou, C Le May
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery appears as the most efficient therapeutic alternative in morbidly obese patients. In addition to its efficiency to decrease body weight, it also improves metabolic complications associated to morbid obesity, including dyslipidemia. Although the cholesterol-lowering effect varies with the bariatric procedures, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. This study aims to assess the consequence of both restrictive (sleeve gastrectomy; SG) and malabsorptive (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; RYGB) procedures on cholesterol metabolism in mice...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133422/nutritional-and-greenhouse-gas-impacts-of-removing-animals-from-us-agriculture
#4
Robin R White, Mary Beth Hall
As a major contributor to agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, it has been suggested that reducing animal agriculture or consumption of animal-derived foods may reduce GHGs and enhance food security. Because the total removal of animals provides the extreme boundary to potential mitigation options and requires the fewest assumptions to model, the yearly nutritional and GHG impacts of eliminating animals from US agriculture were quantified. Animal-derived foods currently provide energy (24% of total), protein (48%), essential fatty acids (23-100%), and essential amino acids (34-67%) available for human consumption in the United States...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133286/eosinophilic-esophagitis-update-on-management-and-controversies
#5
REVIEW
Joan W Chen, John Y Kao
Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic allergen driven immune mediated disease that is increasingly recognized as a leading cause of dysphagia and foregut symptoms in children and adults. Much knowledge has been gained in recent years on the genetic and environmental risk factors for this disease, the associated inflammatory milieu, and the long term complications from esophageal remodeling. In this review we will highlight recent progress made in research into this disease, focusing on adults. We will discuss ongoing efforts to develop a minimally invasive technique that may obviate the need for repeated endoscopic assessment of disease activity...
November 13, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132671/unproven-diagnostic-tests-for-food-allergy
#6
REVIEW
Catherine Hammond, Jay A Lieberman
The gold standard for diagnosis of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy remains the oral food challenge, with serum IgE testing and skin prick testing serving as acceptable alternatives. However, the increase in prevalence of food allergy (both physician diagnosed and patient suspected) has led patients to pursue a variety of other alternative diagnostic procedures for suspected food allergy, which are reviewed in this article. These procedures (IgG testing, electrodermal testing, cytotoxic testing, provocation/neutralization, and applied kinesiology) have largely been unproven and may lead to unnecessary elimination diets...
February 2018: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130068/diet-and-physical-activity-behaviors-in-primary-care-patients-with-recent-intentional-weight-loss
#7
Bethany Barone Gibbs, Dana Tudorascu, Cindy L Bryce, Diane Comer, Gary S Fischer, Rachel Hess, Kimberly A Huber, Kathleen M McTigue, Laurey R Simkin-Silverman, Molly B Conroy
Purpose: Lifestyle habits of primary care patients with recent, intentional weight loss are unclear and need to be better understood to aid in translational health promotion efforts. We aimed to characterize diet and exercise habits in primary care patients with recent, intentional weight loss, comparing those with greater (≥10%) vs. lesser (5 to <10%) weight loss. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a randomized trial comparing weight loss maintenance interventions...
2017: Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129301/pharmacologic-treatment-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-an-update
#8
REVIEW
Alain M Schoepfer, Alex Straumann, Ekaterina Safroneeva
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is defined as a chronic, immune-medicated or antigen-mediated, esophageal disease, characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation. Food allergens are identified in most patients. Treatment strategies include elimination diets, drugs, and esophageal dilation. This article focuses on pharmacologic treatment. Currently, there is no pharmacologic treatment that has been approved by regulatory authorities...
January 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129295/future-directions-in-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#9
REVIEW
Ikuo Hirano
Eosinophilic esophagitis advances parallel the increased prevalence. Developments include refining the diagnostic criteria, identifying risk factors, appreciating the contribution of inflammatory pathways, recognizing the importance of subepithelial remodeling, validating trial endpoints, defining a role for biological therapies, and optimizing dietary therapy. Endoscopic outcomes have emerged as endpoints in trials of novel therapeutics. Expanding efforts seek to develop less-invasive methods to assess disease activity thereby reducing the burden of repeated endoscopic procedures during elimination diets...
January 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109277/gut-microbiomes-and-reproductive-isolation-in-drosophila
#10
Philip T Leftwich, Naomi V E Clarke, Matthew I Hutchings, Tracey Chapman
Experimental studies of the evolution of reproductive isolation (RI) in real time are a powerful way in which to reveal fundamental, early processes that initiate divergence. In a classic speciation experiment, populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura were subjected to divergent dietary selection and evolved significant positive assortative mating by diet. More recently, a direct role for the gut microbiome in determining this type of RI in Drosophila melanogaster has been proposed. Manipulation of the diet, and hence the gut microbiome, was reported to result in immediate assortative mating by diet, which could be eliminated by reducing gut microbes using antibiotics and recreated by adding back Lactobacillus plantarum We suggest that the evolutionary significance of this result is unclear...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105574/disagreement-in-estimates-of-kidney-function-for-drug-dosing-in-obese-inpatients
#11
Emily A Higdon, Lauren A Kimmons, Benjamin T Duhart, Joanna Q Hudson
BACKGROUND: The Cockcroft-Gault (CG), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations are used to estimate kidney function. However, utility has been questioned in the obese population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in estimates of kidney function in obese patients and implications for drug dosing. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of adult inpatients with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) and stable kidney function...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095112/assessment-of-elimination-profile-of-albendazole-residues-in-fish
#12
Zenaís Busatto, Welliton Gonçalves de França, José Eurico Possebon Cyrino, Jonas Augusto Rizzato Paschoal
Few drugs are specifically regulated for aquaculture. Thus this study considered albendazole (ABZ) as a potential drug for use in fish, which, however, is not yet regulated for this application. ABZ is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic approved for farmed ruminants and recently considered for treatment of fish parasites. It is the subject of careful monitoring because of potential residues in animal products. This study evaluated the depletion of ABZ and its main known metabolites: albendazole sulfoxide - ABZSO, albendazole sulfone - ABZSO2 and albendazole amino sulfone - ABZ-2-NH2SO2, in the fillets of the Neotropical Characin pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, which were fed diets containing 10 mg ABZ kg(-1) body weight in a single dose...
November 14, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081768/diet-environments-and-gut-microbiota-a-preliminary-investigation-in-children-living-in-rural-and-urban-burkina-faso-and-italy
#13
Carlotta De Filippo, Monica Di Paola, Matteo Ramazzotti, Davide Albanese, Giuseppe Pieraccini, Elena Banci, Franco Miglietta, Duccio Cavalieri, Paolo Lionetti
Diet is one of the main factors that affects the composition of gut microbiota. When people move from a rural environment to urban areas, and experience improved socio-economic conditions, they are often exposed to a "globalized" Western type diet. Here, we present preliminary observations on the metagenomic scale of microbial changes in small groups of African children belonging to the same ethnicity and living in different environments, compared to children living on the urban area of Florence (Italy). We analyzed dietary habits and, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, gut microbiota profiles from fecal samples of children living in a rural village of Burkina Faso (n = 11), of two groups of children living in different urban settings (Nanoro town, n = 8; Ouagadougou, the capital city, n = 5) and of a group of Italian children (n = 13)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074457/step-up-empiric-elimination-diet-for-pediatric-and-adult-eosinophilic-esophagitis-the-2-4-6-study
#14
Javier Molina-Infante, Ángel Arias, Javier Alcedo, Ruth Garcia-Romero, Sergio Casabona-Frances, Alicia Prieto-Garcia, Ines Modolell, Pedro L Gonzalez-Cordero, Isabel Perez-Martinez, Jose Luis Martin-Lorente, Carlos Guarner-Argente, Maria L Masiques, Victor Vila-Miravet, Roger Garcia-Puig, Edoardo Savarino, Carlos Teruel Sanchez-Vegazo, Cecilio Santander, Alfredo J Lucendo
BACKGROUND: Numerous dietary restrictions and endoscopies limit the implementation of empiric elimination diets in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Milk and wheat/gluten are the most common food triggers. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a step-up dietary strategy for EoE. METHODS: Prospective study conducted in 14 centers. Patients underwent a 6-week two-food group elimination diet (TFGED) (milk and gluten-containing cereals). Remission was defined by symptom improvement and <15 eos/HPF...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073165/negative-legacy-of-obesity
#15
Kohsuke Shirakawa, Jin Endo, Yoshinori Katsumata, Tsunehisa Yamamoto, Masaharu Kataoka, Sarasa Isobe, Naohiro Yoshida, Keiichi Fukuda, Motoaki Sano
Obesity promotes excessive inflammation, which is associated with senescence-like changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. We have reported that a unique population of CD44hi CD62Llo CD4+ T cells that constitutively express PD-1 and CD153 exhibit cellular senescence and cause VAT inflammation by producing large amounts of osteopontin. Weight loss improves glycemic control and reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors, but its long-term effects on cardiovascular events and longevity in obese individuals with T2DM are somewhat disappointing and not well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064014/a-statistically-significant-association-between-esophageal-granular-cell-tumors-and-eosinophilic-esophagitis-a-16-year-analysis-at-two-large-hospitals-of-167-434-egds
#16
Borko Nojkov, Mitual Amin, Gehad Ghaith, Mitchell S Cappell
BACKGROUND: Esophageal granular cell tumor (eGCT) is a rare, usually benign, neoplasm of neuroectodermic origin. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively uncommon, immune-mediated, chronic disease. Both diseases commonly present with dysphagia. One case has been reported of simultaneous occurrence of both diseases. AIMS: To determine the association between diseases. METHODS: The present study was an IRB-approved, retrospective review of esophagogastroduodenoscopies (EGDs) with esophageal biopsies from two large hospitals, 1999-2014...
October 24, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057833/indications-and-use-of-the-gluten-contamination-elimination-diet-for-patients-with-non-responsive-celiac-disease
#17
Maureen M Leonard, Pamela Cureton, Alessio Fasano
For the majority of patients diagnosed with celiac disease, once a gluten-free diet is initiated, symptoms improve within weeks and may completely resolve in months. However, up to 30% of patients may show signs, symptoms or persistent small intestinal damage after one year on a gluten-free diet. These patients require evaluation for other common GI etiologies and assessment of their celiac disease status in order to make a diagnosis and suggest treatment. Here, we propose an approach to evaluating patients with celiac disease with persistent symptoms, persistently elevated serology, and or persistent villous atrophy despite a gluten-free diet...
October 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055715/live-or-let-die-neuroprotective-and-anti-cancer-effects-of-nutraceutical-antioxidants
#18
REVIEW
Xiao-Yuan Mao, Ming-Zhu Jin, Jin-Fei Chen, Qin Li, Hong-Hao Zhou, Wei-Lin Jin
Diet sources are closely involved in the pathogenesis of diverse neuropsychiatric disorders and cancers, in addition to inherited factors. Currently, natural products or nutraceuticals (commonly called medical foods) are increasingly employed for adjunctive therapy of these patients. However, the potential molecular mechanisms of the nutrient efficacy remain elusive. In this review, we summarized the neuroprotective and anti-cancer mechanisms of nutraceuticals. It was concluded that the nutraceuticals exerted neuroprotection and suppressed tumor growth possibly through the differential modulations of redox homeostasis...
October 18, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053819/changes-in-immune-and-metabolic-gut-response-in-broilers-fed-%C3%AE-mannanase-in-%C3%AE-mannan-containing-diets
#19
R J Arsenault, J T Lee, R Latham, B Carter, M H Kogut
β-galactomannans found in soy-based broiler feed are known to cause physiological effects that are hypothesized to be related to gut inflammation. Previous studies have shown that the incorporation of β-mannanase in the diet or as a supplement results in improvements to certain performance parameters related to gut health and feed conversion. Using kinome analysis, we characterized the mechanism of β-galactomannan activity and supplementation with β-mannanase on the gut of commercial broilers to understand the mode of action...
September 14, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051893/eosinophilic-enteritis-a-delayed-diagnosis
#20
Ankita Munjal, Abdulhameed Al-Sabban, Kathryn Bull-Henry
Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders are a rare and complex group of disorders that are characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. Patients often present with a wide range of signs and symptoms as any length or layer of the GI tract can be involved such as mucosal, muscular, or serosal. As a part of the workup, patients frequently undergo computed tomography scans and multiple endoscopies before the diagnosis is finally made as was true in our case of a 59-year-old male patient presenting with 2 months of nausea, abdominal pain, and weight loss...
October 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
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