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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910985/uvb-radiation-vitamin-d-and-multiple-sclerosis
#1
H F DeLuca, L Plum
Acheson et al. (1960) observed an inverse relationship between sunlight exposure and the incidence of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). This led to the suggestion that increased levels of vitamin D caused by sunlight in some way suppresses MS. Further, super physiological doses of the metabolically active metabolite of vitamin D, i.e. 1α,25 dihydroxy vitamin D suppresses the animal model of MS i.e. experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, this response was accompanied by hypercalcemia. Hypercalcemia itself can suppress EAE...
December 2, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904183/food-allergy-in-atopic-dermatitis
#2
Sandipan Dhar, Sahana M Srinivas
Food allergy in atopic dermatitis (AD) is debatable from decades. Role of diet in the cause and treatment of AD is controversial and is not well-defined. Allergists and pediatricians are convinced about the food allergy in AD whereas many dermatologists are contrary for this. However, there are studies in the Indian and western literature supporting the evidence that elimination diet may improve the severe type of AD. There is increasing awareness and lot of misconception among caregivers about food allergy and hence careful understanding about this concept is necessary to counsel parents...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901036/the-effects-of-policy-actions-to-improve-population-dietary-patterns-and-prevent-diet-related-non-communicable-diseases-scoping-review
#3
REVIEW
L Hyseni, M Atkinson, H Bromley, L Orton, F Lloyd-Williams, R McGill, S Capewell
Poor diet generates a bigger non-communicable disease (NCD) burden than tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity combined. We reviewed the potential effectiveness of policy actions to improve healthy food consumption and thus prevent NCDs. This scoping review focused on systematic and non-systematic reviews and categorised data using a seven-part framework: price, promotion, provision, composition, labelling, supply chain, trade/investment and multi-component interventions. We screened 1805 candidate publications and included 58 systematic and non-systematic reviews...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895264/sex-differences-in-human-and-animal-toxicology-toxicokinetics
#4
Michael Gochfeld
Sex, the states of being female or male, potentially interacts with all xenobiotic exposures, both inadvertent and deliberate, and influences their toxicokinetics (TK), toxicodynamics, and outcomes. Sex differences occur in behavior, exposure, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics, accounting for female-male differences in responses to environmental chemicals, diet, and pharmaceuticals, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Often viewed as an annoying confounder, researchers have studied only one sex, adjusted for sex, or ignored it...
November 28, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894899/dietary-flax-seed-oil-and-or-vitamin-e-improve-sperm-parameters-of-cloned-goats-following-freezing-thawing
#5
Rohollah Kargar, Mohsen Forouzanfar, Gholamreza Ghalamkari, Mohammad Hossein Nasr Esfahani
Semen cryopreservation is affected by individual differences and use of clones animal from the same source is the main tool to eliminate genetic variation. Among many nutrients that are necessary for fertility, essential fatty acids and antioxidants are vital for production of healthy sperm by improving sperm membrane integrity and protecting sperm from oxidative stress. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a flax seed oil or/and Vitamin E dietary supplementation could improve semen quality of cloned bucks following semen cryopreservation...
November 25, 2016: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866183/resolution-of-allergic-rhinitis-and-reactive-bronchospasm-with-supplements-and-food-specific-immunoglobulin-g-elimination-a-case-report
#6
Laura Kwiatkowski, Jessica Mitchell, Jeffrey Langland
Context • Allergies are a common affliction, whether they are respiratory, food related, or dermatological. People often resort to continuous use of over-the-counter medications, such as antihistamines, to manage their symptoms. Controversy still remains over testing serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G to diagnose food allergies. Objective • This study intended to examine the benefits of treatment of a pediatric patient with natural supplements and an elimination diet for IgG food allergies. Design • The research team reported a case study...
October 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865972/paediatric-urolithiasis-in-emerging-economies
#7
REVIEW
S Adibul Hasan Rizvi, Sajid Sultan, Mirza Naqi Zafar, Sadaf Aba Umar, Bashir Ahmed, S A Anwar Naqvi
BACKGROUND: Paediatric urolithiasis remains endemic in low resource countries. This review highlights the epidemiology, causation and management of urolithiasis in an Asian country in the context of emerging economies. METHODS: A literature review of recent articles with key words paediatric urolithiasis, developing countries, endemic stone disease, stone composition, metabolic risk factors, management of paediatric urolithiasis was undertaken and 51 relevant articles were selected with the main focus on experience of this center in managing stone disease in the last two decades...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855316/a-high-fat-diet-temporarily-renders-sod1-deficient-mice-resistant-to-an-oxidative-insult
#8
Junitsu Ito, Naoki Ishii, Ryusuke Akihara, Jaeyong Lee, Toshihiro Kurahashi, Takujiro Homma, Ryo Kawasaki, Junichi Fujii
Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease may subsequently develop nonalcoholic steatohepatitis after suffering from a second insult, such as oxidative stress. Aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenesis of the liver injury caused when lipids accumulate under conditions of intrinsic oxidative stress using mice that are deficient in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and the leptin receptor (Lepr). We established Sod1(-/-)::Lepr(db/db) mice and carried out analyses of four groups of genetically modified mice, namely, wild type, Sod1(-/-), Lepr(db/db) and Sod1(-/-)::Lepr(db/db) mice...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849251/selection-of-superior-bifidobacteria-in-the-presence-of-rotavirus
#9
G Alp Avci
The main purpose of this study was to investigate bifidobacteria flora in fecal samples from children with rotavirus infection and determine the significance of their selected probiotic properties for improvement of health status. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to identify rotavirus antigen in fecal samples from 94 patients with gastroenteritis and from 30 without gastroenteritis. Bifidobacteria were identified by selective media, gram reaction, colony morphology, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase enzyme activity and classical identification tests...
November 10, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847463/metabolic-therapy-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-a-dish-investigating-mechanisms-of-ketogenic-diet-using-electrophysiological-recordings-in-hippocampal-slices
#10
REVIEW
Masahito Jr Kawamura, David N Ruskin, Susan A Masino
The hippocampus is prone to epileptic seizures and is a key brain region and experimental platform for investigating mechanisms associated with the abnormal neuronal excitability that characterizes a seizure. Accordingly, the hippocampal slice is a common in vitro model to study treatments that may prevent or reduce seizure activity. The ketogenic diet is a metabolic therapy used to treat epilepsy in adults and children for nearly 100 years; it can reduce or eliminate even severe or refractory seizures. New insights into its underlying mechanisms have been revealed by diverse types of electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845514/are-anti-epidermal-transglutaminase-etg-antibodies-titre-correlated-with-dermatitis-herpetiformis-lesions-during-the-disease-follow-up
#11
Emanuele Cozzani, Fabrizio Pappalardo, Giulia Gasparini, Fabio Gallo, Francesco Drago, Aurora Parodi
BACKGROUND: Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is characterized by the presence of anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) IgA antibodies in patient sera. In 2002, anti-epidermal transglutaminase (eTG) antibodies have been identified in DH patients. Nowadays, their role is still controversial. AIM: To evaluate any association between presence/absence of anti-eTG antibodies and cutaneous manifestations during the follow-up. METHODS: Anti-eTG and anti-tTG antibodies from 13 patients on gluten-free diet (GFD) were studied during follow-up on ELISA...
November 15, 2016: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831561/rapidly-cycling-lgr5-stem-cells-are-exquisitely-sensitive-to-extrinsic-dietary-factors-that-modulate-colon-cancer-risk
#12
Eunjoo Kim, Laurie A Davidson, Roger S Zoh, Martha E Hensel, Michael L Salinas, Bhimanagouda S Patil, Guddadarangavvanahally K Jayaprakasha, Evelyn S Callaway, Clinton D Allred, Nancy D Turner, Brad R Weeks, Robert S Chapkin
The majority of colon tumors are driven by aberrant Wnt signaling in intestinal stem cells, which mediates an efficient route toward initiating intestinal cancer. Natural lipophilic polyphenols and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) generally suppress Wnt- and NF-κB- (nuclear factor-κ light-chain enhancer of activated B-cell) related pathways. However, the effects of these extrinsic agents on colonic leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5-positive (Lgr5(+)) stem cells, the cells of origin of colon cancer, have not been documented to date...
November 10, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810397/pharmacokinetics-of-dietary-kaempferol-and-its-metabolite-4-hydroxyphenylacetic-acid-in-rats
#13
Volha Zabela, Chethan Sampath, Mouhssin Oufir, Fahimeh Moradi-Afrapoli, Veronika Butterweck, Matthias Hamburger
SCOPE: Kaempferol is a major flavonoid in the human diet and in medicinal plants. The compound exerts anxiolytic activity when administered orally in mice, while no behavioural changes were observed upon intraperitoneal administration, or upon oral administration in gut sterilized animals. 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPAA), which possesses anxiolytic effects when administered intraperitoneally, is a major intestinal metabolite of kaempferol. Pharmacokinetic properties of the compounds are currently not clear...
November 1, 2016: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810202/detecting-animal-by-product-intake-using-stable-isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry-irms
#14
D A F da Silva, N P Biscola, L D Dos Santos, M M P Sartori, J C Denadai, E T da Silva, C Ducatti, S D Bicudo, B Barraviera, R S Ferreira
Sheep are used in many countries as food and for manufacturing bioproducts. However, when these animals consume animal by-products (ABP), which is widely prohibited, there is a risk of transmitting scrapie - a fatal prion disease in human beings. Therefore, it is essential to develop sensitive methods to detect previous ABP intake to select safe animals for producing biopharmaceuticals. We used stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) for (13)C and (15)N to trace animal proteins in the serum of three groups of sheep: 1 - received only vegetable protein (VP) for 89 days; 2 - received animal and vegetable protein (AVP); and 3 - received animal and vegetable protein with animal protein subsequently removed (AVPR)...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809267/pine-defensive-monoterpene-%C3%AE-pinene-influences-the-feeding-behavior-of-dendroctonus-valens-and-its-gut-bacterial-community-structure
#15
Letian Xu, Zhanghong Shi, Bo Wang, Min Lu, Jianghua Sun
The exposure to plant defense chemicals has negative effects on insect feeding activity and modifies insect gut microbial community composition. Dendroctonus valens is a very destructive forest pest in China, and harbors a large diversity and abundance of gut microorganisms. Host pine defensive chemicals can protect the pines from attack by the holobiont. In this study, boring length of D. valens feeding on 0 mg/g α-pinene and 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media for 6 and 48 h were recorded, and their gut bacterial communities were analyzed in parallel...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804905/protective-potential-of-lactobacillus-species-in-lead-toxicity-model-in-broiler-chickens
#16
M F Jahromi, J B Liang, R Ebrahimi, A F Soleimani, A Rezaeizadeh, N Abdullah, P Shokryazdan
To alleviate adverse effects of heavy metal toxicity, diverse range of removing methods have been suggested, that is usage of algae, agricultural by-products and microorganisms. Here, we investigated lead (Pb) biosorption efficacy by two lactic acid bacteria species (LABs) in broiler chickens. In an in vitro study, Pb was added to culture medium of LABs (Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23 and Lactobacillus acidipiscis ITA44) in the form of lead acetate. Results showed that these LABs were able to absorb more than 90% of Pb from the culture medium...
November 2, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782940/effects-of-obesity-and-leptin-deficiency-on-morphine-pharmacokinetics-in-a-mouse-model
#17
Nicholas M Dalesio, Craig W Hendrix, Douglas Hale McMichael, Carol B Thompson, Carlton K K Lee, Huy Pho, Rafael S Arias, Rachael Rzasa Lynn, Jeffrey Galinkin, Myron Yaster, Robert H Brown, Alan R Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Obesity causes multiorgan dysfunction, specifically metabolic abnormalities in the liver. Obese patients are opioid-sensitive and have high rates of respiratory complications after surgery. Obesity also has been shown to cause resistance to leptin, an adipose-derived hormone that is key in regulating hunger, metabolism, and respiratory stimulation. We hypothesized that obesity and leptin deficiency impair opioid pharmacokinetics (PK) independently of one another. METHODS: Morphine PK were characterized in C57BL/6J wild-type (WT), diet-induced obese (DIO), and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice, and in ob/ob mice given leptin-replacement (LR) therapy...
December 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773823/short-chain-fatty-acids-induce-ucp2-mediated-autophagy-in-hepatic-cells
#18
Liliana F Iannucci, Jingfeng Sun, Brijesh K Singh, Jin Zhou, Vincent A Kaddai, Antonia Lanni, Paul M Yen, Rohit A Sinha
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are gut microbial fermentation products derived from dietary fiber sources. Although depletion of gut microflora has been linked to the development of liver disease, the direct effects of SCFAs on intracellular hepatic processes are not well understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the SCFAs, propionate and butyrate, regulated autophagic flux in hepatic cells in a cell-autonomous manner. Induction of autophagy by SCFAs required PPARγ stimulation of Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) expression that was associated with reduced intracellular ATP levels and activation of PRKAA1/AMPK (protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 catalytic subunit)...
October 20, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766971/labor-and-birth-care-by-nurse-with-midwifery-skills-in-brazil
#19
Silvana Granado Nogueira da Gama, Elaine Fernandes Viellas, Jacqueline Alves Torres, Maria Helena Bastos, Odaléa Maria Brüggemann, Mariza Miranda Theme Filha, Arthur Orlando Correa Schilithz, Maria do Carmo Leal
BACKGROUND: The participation of nurses and midwives in vaginal birth care is limited in Brazil, and there are no national data regarding their involvement. The goal was to describe the participation of nurses and nurse-midwives in childbirth care in Brazil in the years 2011 and 2012, and to analyze the association between hospitals with nurses and nurse-midwives in labor and birth care and the use of good practices, and their influence in the reduction of unnecessary interventions, including cesarean sections...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745759/-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#20
Frank Zerbib
Eosinophilic esophagitis is a major cause of dysphagia and esophageal food impaction in young adults, although the diagnostic can be made in older patients. The diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis is suspected on endoscopic abnormalities of esophageal mucosa and confirmed by esophageal biopsy samples. Approximately 50% of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis do respond to proton pump inhibitors therapy. The first line therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis is proton pump inhibitor therapy. Ingested topical steroids represent a second-line therapy...
October 10, 2016: La Presse Médicale
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