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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333824/eosinophilic-esophagitis-and-esophageal-atresia-coincidence-or-causality
#1
Karen V Stave Salgado, Ana M Rocca
Eosinophilic esophagitis is an immune-mediated chronic disease of the esophagus characterized by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and tissue eosinophilia. In the endoscopy, the esophageal mucosa may appear normal or show exudates, rings, edema, furrows, and strictures. Its management is based on elimination diet, topical corticosteroids and/or esophageal dilation. Atresia is the most common congenital alteration of the esophagus; it requires surgical repair and poses potential complications, such as gastroesophageal reflux, strictures, and esophageal dysmotility...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321488/bt-cotton-producing-cry1ac-and-cry2ab-does-not-harm-two-parasitoids-cotesia-marginiventris-and-copidosoma-floridanum
#2
Jun-Ce Tian, Xiang-Ping Wang, Yang Chen, Jörg Romeis, Steven E Naranjo, Richard L Hellmich, Ping Wang, Anthony M Shelton
Cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) is an important lepidopteran pest on many vegetable and greenhouse crops, and some field crops. Although there are no commercial transgenic Bt vegetable or greenhouse crops, T. ni is a target of Bollgard II cotton, which produces Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. We expand on previous work that examined the effect of Bt crops on parasitoids using Bt-resistant lepidopteran populations as hosts. Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab-resistant T. ni larvae were used to eliminate host quality effects and to evaluate the direct effects of Bt cotton on the parasitoids Copidosoma floridanum (Ashmead) and Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson)...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321172/modest-decreases-in-endogenous-all-trans-retinoic-acid-produced-by-a-mouse-rdh10-heterozygote-provoke-major-abnormalities-in-adipogenesis-and-lipid-metabolism
#3
Di Yang, Marta G Vuckovic, Carolyn P Smullin, Myeongcheol Kim, Christabel Pui-See Lo, Emily Devericks, Hong Sik Yoo, Milena Tintcheva, Yinghua Deng, Joseph L Napoli
Pharmacological dosing of all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) controls adiposity in rodents by inhibiting adipogenesis and inducing fatty acid oxidation. Retinol dehydrogenases (Rdh) catalyze the first reaction that activate retinol into atRA. This study examined post-natal contributions of Rdh10 to atRA biosynthesis and physiological functions of endogenous atRA. Embryonic fibroblasts from Rdh10 heterozygote hypomorphs or with a total Rdh10 knockout exhibit decreased atRA biosynthesis and escalated adipogenesis...
January 10, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303070/is-there-a-role-for-lifestyle-interventions-in-obsessive-compulsive-and-related-disorders
#4
Leonardo F Fontenelle, Julliana N Quintas, Murat Yücel
Many of the currently available treatments for obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) such as pharmacotherapy augmentation strategies, partial hospitalization programs, deep brain stimulation, and neurosurgery are efficacious for individuals suffering from more severe forms of these conditions. Unfortunately, the application of these treatments in milder forms of illness and subclinical samples, which affect a substantial portion of the population, is not justifiable by their costs (e.g. cognitive-behavioral therapy) and/or potential for side effects (serotonin-reuptake inhibitors associated sexual side effects)...
January 4, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290921/gut-brain-crosstalk-regulates-craving-for-fatty-food
#5
REVIEW
Rajendra Raghow
Patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery elicit striking loss of body weight. Anatomical re-structuring of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, leading to reduced caloric intake and changes in food preference, are thought to be the primary drivers of weight loss in bariatric surgery patients. However, the mechanisms by which RYGB surgery causes a reduced preference for fatty foods remain elusive. In a recent report, Hankir et al described how RYGB surgery modulated lipid nutrient signals in the intestine of rats to blunt their craving for fatty food...
December 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289517/-dietary-acid-load-a-novel-target-for-the-nephrologist
#6
Philippe Chauveau, Catherine Lasseur, Céline Nodimar, Mathilde Prezelin-Reydit, Stanislas Trolonge, Christian Combe, Michel Aparicio
The acid production of endogenous origin depends mainly on the metabolism of the food and varies with the nature of these. Of the order of 1mEq/kg/day for contemporary food in industrialized countries, it is reduced by more than one third among vegetarians and close to neutrality among vegans. The dietary acid load is eliminated by the normal kidneys, thus maintaining the acid-base equilibrium. In the setting of CKD, it will overflow the capacities of the nephrons, generating a retention of H+ ions, promoting subclinical acidosis...
December 27, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286648/substituted-diphenylamine-antioxidants-and-benzotriazole-uv-stabilizers-in-aquatic-organisms-in-the-great-lakes-of-north-america-terrestrial-exposure-and-biodilution
#7
Zhe Lu, Amila O De Silva, Daryl McGoldrick, Wenjia Zhou, Thomas E Peart, Cyril J Cook, Gerald Tetreault, Pamela A Martin, Shane Raymond de Solla
Substituted diphenylamine antioxidants (SDPAs) and benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BZT-UVs) are industrial additives of emerging environmental concern. However, the bioaccumulation, biomagnification and spatial distribution of these contaminants in the Great Lakes of North America are unknown. The present study addresses these knowledge gaps by reporting SDPAs and BZT-UVs in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and their food web in the Great Lakes for the first time. Herring gull eggs showed much higher detection frequency and concentrations of target SDPAs and 2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-di-tert-pentylphenol(UV328) than that of the whole body fish homogenate...
December 29, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284222/primary-and-secondary-prevention-of-breast-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Agnieszka Kolak, Marzena Kamińska, Katarzyna Sygit, Agnieszka Budny, Dariusz Surdyka, Bożena Kukiełka-Budny, Franciszek Burdan
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and is the second cancer frequently occurring worldwide of newly-diagnosed cancers. There is much evidence showing the influence of life style and environmental factors on the development of mammary gland cancer (high-fat diet, alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise), the elimination of which (primary prevention) may contribute to a decrease in morbidity and mortality. Secondary prevention, comprising diagnostic tests (e...
December 23, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274999/sensing-and-signaling-mechanisms-linking-dietary-methionine-restriction-to-the-behavioral-and-physiological-components-of-the-response
#9
REVIEW
Laura A Forney, Kirsten P Stone, Desiree Wanders, Thomas W Gettys
Dietary methionine restriction (MR) is implemented using a semi-purified diet that reduces methionine by ∼80% and eliminates dietary cysteine. Within hours of its introduction, dietary MR initiates coordinated series of transcriptional programs and physiological responses that include increased energy intake and expenditure, decreased adiposity, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and reduction in circulating and tissue lipids. Significant progress has been made in cataloguing the physiological responses to MR in males but not females, but identities of the sensing and communication networks that orchestrate these responses remain poorly understood...
December 21, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274983/effects-of-prepartum-dietary-cation-anion-difference-and-source-of-vitamin-d-in-dairy-cows-health-and-reproductive-responses
#10
N Martinez, R M Rodney, E Block, L L Hernandez, C D Nelson, I J Lean, J E P Santos
The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate the effects of feeding diets with distinct dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) levels and supplemented with 2 sources of vitamin D during the prepartum transition period on postpartum health and reproduction in dairy cows. The hypotheses were that feeding acidogenic diets prepartum would reduce the risk of hypocalcemia and other diseases, and the benefits of a negative DCAD treatment on health would be potentiated by supplementing calcidiol compared with cholecalciferol...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249928/the-antioxidant-cofactor-alpha-lipoic-acid-may-control-endogenous-formaldehyde-metabolism-in-mammals
#11
Anastasia V Shindyapina, Tatiana V Komarova, Ekaterina V Sheshukova, Natalia M Ershova, Vadim N Tashlitsky, Alexander V Kurkin, Ildar R Yusupov, Garik V Mkrtchyan, Murat Y Shagidulin, Yuri L Dorokhov
The healthy human body contains small amounts of metabolic formaldehyde (FA) that mainly results from methanol oxidation by pectin methylesterase, which is active in a vegetable diet and in the gastrointestinal microbiome. With age, the ability to maintain a low level of FA decreases, which increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. It has been shown that 1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid or alpha lipoic acid (ALA), a naturally occurring dithiol and antioxidant cofactor of mitochondrial α-ketoacid dehydrogenases, increases glutathione (GSH) content and FA metabolism by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) thus manifests a therapeutic potential beyond its antioxidant property...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248734/eosinophilic-esophagitis-reference-score-accurately-identifies-disease-activity-and-treatment-effects-in-children
#12
J B Wechsler, S Bolton, K Amsden, B K Wershil, I Hirano, A F Kagalwalla
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The endoscopic reference score (EREFS) is used to determine severity of 5 endoscopic findings: edema, rings, exudates, furrows, and strictures. Little is known about the relationship between EREFSs and histologic markers of disease activity in children with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). We aimed to determine whether the EREFS can be used to identify children with EoE and how it changes with treatment. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of consecutive children (ages 2-17 years) undergoing diagnostic or post-treatment endoscopy scored real-time with EREFS from December 2012 through 2016...
December 14, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238902/dietary-therapy-for-eosinophilic-esophagitis-elimination-and-reintroduction
#13
REVIEW
Kara L Kliewer, Alison M Cassin, Carina Venter
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a food antigen-mediated disorder of the esophagus characterized by eosinophil predominant inflammation and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Dietary antigen elimination induces clinical and histological remission in patients with EoE. The most restrictive of elimination diets (the elemental diet) removes all possible food antigens while empiric elimination diets remove all (or a subset) of food antigens most commonly reported to cause esophageal eosinophilia and food allergies (milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, or legumes)...
December 14, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226408/editorial-long-term-effectiveness-of-elimination-diet-therapy-for-eosinophilic-oesophagitis-is-the-glass-half-full-or-half-empty
#14
N Gonsalves, I Hirano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220483/prenatal-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-disrupts-naturally-occurring-bimodal-dna-methylation-at-proximal-promoter-of-fggy-an-obesity-relevant-gene-encoding-a-carbohydrate-kinase-in-gonadal-white-adipose-tissues-of-cd-1-mice
#15
Julia A Taylor, Keiko Shioda, Shino Mitsunaga, Shiomi Yawata, Brittany M Angle, Susan C Nagel, Frederick S Vom Saal, Toshi Shioda
Exposure of mammalian fetuses to endocrine disruptors can increase the risk of adult-onset diseases. For example, we previously showed that exposure of mouse fetuses to bisphenol A (BPA) caused adult-onset obesity. To obtain insights into roles of epigenetic changes in the delayed toxic effects of endocrine disruption, we determined effects of fetal mouse exposure to BPA on genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression in gonadal white adipose tissues by deep sequencing (MBD-seq and RNA-seq), bisulfite pyrosequencing, and real-time qPCR...
December 6, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214472/host-choice-reduces-but-does-not-eliminate-the-negative-effects-of-a-multi-species-diet%C3%A2-for-an-herbivorous-beetle
#16
William C Wetzel, Jennifer S Thaler
A consequence of plant diversity is that it can allow or force herbivores to consume multiple plant species, which studies indicate can have major effects on herbivore fitness. An underappreciated but potentially important factor modulating the consequences of multi-species diets is the extent to which herbivores can choose their diets versus being forced to consume specific host-plant sequences. We examined how host-selection behavior alters the effects of multi-species diets using the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) and diets of potato plants (Solanum tuberosum), tomato plants (S...
December 6, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211905/effect-of-different-concentrations-of-dietary-p-and-ca-on-plasma-inorganic-p-and-urinary-p-excretion-using-noncolostomized-and-colostomized-broilers
#17
Megharaja K Manangi, Pramir Maharjan, Craig N Coon
Two 5-d bioassays were conducted to explore the P physiological threshold in broilers based on plasma inorganic P (iP), urinary P and Ca, and excreta P and Ca measurements in non-colostomized and colostomized broilers fed with different concentrations of non-phytate P (NPP) and Ca. In Experiment 1, 80 40-day-old Cobb 500 non-colostomized male broilers were assorted into 8 groups consisting of 10 broilers each and placed in individual metabolic cages. Similarly, 8 colostomized broilers of same age were allotted to 8 individual metabolic cages...
December 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206754/abdominal-ultrasound-does-not-reveal-significant-alterations-in-patients-with-nonceliac-wheat-sensitivity
#18
Maurizio Soresi, Pasquale Mansueto, Antonino Terranova, Alberto D'Alcamo, Francesco La Blasca, Francesca Cavataio, Rosario Iacobucci, Antonio Carroccio
GOALS: The goal of this study was (A) to evaluate abdominal ultrasound signs in nonceliac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) patients for features useful in diagnosis and (B) to compare these aspects with those of celiac patients to assess whether ultrasound can be useful in the differential diagnosis between NCWS and celiac disease (CD). BACKGROUND: NCWS diagnosis is difficult as no biomarkers of this condition have as yet been identified. In CD ultrasound aspects have been identified that have a good diagnostic accuracy...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203088/ontogenetic-prey-size-selection-in-snakes-predator-size-and-functional-limitations-to-handling-minimum-prey-sizes
#19
Paul M Hampton
As body size increases, some predators eliminate small prey from their diet exhibiting an ontogenetic shift toward larger prey. In contrast, some predators show a telescoping pattern of prey size in which both large and small prey are consumed with increasing predator size. To explore a functional explanation for the two feeding patterns, I examined feeding effort as both handling time and number of upper jaw movements during ingestion of fish of consistent size. I used a range of body sizes from two snake species that exhibit ontogenetic shifts in prey size (Nerodia fasciata and N...
November 21, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198743/apigenin-and-luteolin-display-differential-hypocholesterolemic-mechanisms-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#20
Tsz Yan Wong, Yan Qin Tan, Shu-Mei Lin, Lai K Leung
Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis. High blood cholesterol can be the result of increased biosynthesis or reduced elimination of cholesterol in the system. Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables is recommended for patients suffering from hypercholesterolemia. The plant food flavones apigenin and luteolin have previously been shown to suppress the synthesis of cholesterol in human hepatocytes. The effectiveness of these two flavones in controlling blood cholesterol was examined in a mouse model in the present study...
November 30, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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