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Fat embolism children

Shilpa Jain, Nitya Bakshi, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti
Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a frequent cause of acute lung disease in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Patients may present with ACS or may develop this complication during the course of a hospitalization for acute vaso-occlusive crises (VOC). ACS is associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased risk of respiratory failure, and the potential for developing chronic lung disease. ACS in SCD is defined as the presence of fever and/or new respiratory symptoms accompanied by the presence of a new pulmonary infiltrate on chest X-ray...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
O Boyer, V Baudouin, E Bérard, C Dossier, V Audard, V Guigonis, I Vrillon
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is defined by massive proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia, with resulting hyperlipidemia and edema. The most common cause of NS in children is idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS), also called nephrosis. Its annual incidence has been estimated to 1-4 per 100,000 children and varies with age, race, and geography. Many agents or conditions have been reported to be associated with INS such as infectious diseases, drugs, allergy, vaccinations, and malignancies. The disease may occur during the 1st year of life, but it usually starts between the ages of 2 and 7 years...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
H J A Van Ruiten, C Marini Bettolo, T Cheetham, M Eagle, H Lochmuller, V Straub, K Bushby, M Guglieri
INTRODUCTION: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common inherited muscle disease in children. Recent years have seen an increase in age of survival into adulthood following the introduction of proactive standards of care. We reviewed mortality in DMD in our population in order to identify potential underlying risk factors for premature death and improve clinical care. METHOD: A retrospective case note review of all deaths in the DMD population over the last 10 years in North East England...
November 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Virender Sachdeva, Ravi Garg, Avinash Pathengay, Ramesh Kekunnaya
Ophthalmic artery occlusion usually presents as a sudden onset profound decrease in vision in the middle-aged and elderly patients following periocular procedures (retrobulbar injection/glabellar fat injection), embolism from the heart or after prolonged systemic surgery. In this report, we describe three children with spontaneous ophthalmic artery occlusion who presented with unilateral loss of vision and diagnosed elsewhere as optic atrophy whose detailed history and examination were suggestive of ophthalmic artery occlusion...
May 2015: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
Juan C Lopez-Gutierrez, Juan A Tovar
Leakage of lymph from the lymphatic ducts causes chylothorax (CT) or chylous ascitis (CA). This may happen for unknown reasons during fetal life or after birth and may also be caused by trauma after thoracic surgery or by other conditions. Fetal CT and CA may be lethal particularly in cases with fetal hydrops that sometimes benefit of intra-uterine instrumentation. After birth, symptoms are related to the amount of accumulated fluid. Sometimes, severe cardio-respiratory compromise prompts active therapy. Most patients with CT or CA benefit from observation, rest, and supportive measures alone...
October 2014: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Ada Lo Schiavo, Roberto Cozzi, Rossella Alfano, Francesca Romano, Maddalena La Montagna, Tobia Caccavale, Raffaella Capasso, Eugenia Elisabetta Mea, Stefano Caccavale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Cayce B Nawaf, Derek M Kelly, William C Warner, James H Beaty, Leslie Rhodes, Jeffrey R Sawyer
Fat embolism syndrome (FES) occurs most commonly in adults with high-energy trauma, especially fractures of the long-bones and pelvis. Because of unique age-related physiologic differences in the immature skeleton, as well as differences in fracture management in pediatric patients, FES is rare in children. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of FES occurring before surgical fixation of a closed tibial shaft fracture in an adolescent. A 16-year-old, 109 kg, Caucasian adolescent boy developed FES after closed diaphyseal fractures of the distal tibia and fibula, showing signs of respiratory distress and mental status changes...
December 2012: American Journal of Orthopedics
Roger W Byard
Lethal embolic events in children are an uncommon occurrence that may be first detected at autopsy. Emboli consist of thrombi, tumours, infective organisms, fat, air and foreign body material. The most significant circulations that may be obstructed are the pulmonary, coronary and cerebral. Rare conditions such as arteriovenous malformations may act as sources for emboli in children, and the brain is at particular risk from paradoxical embolism. The latter is facilitated by right to left communications in the heart such as atrial and ventricular septal defects and also from pulmonary vascular abnormalities such as hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome) and arteriovenous fistulas...
January 2013: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Scott T Miller
Acute chest syndrome describes new respiratory symptoms and findings, often severe and progressive, in a child with sickle cell disease and a new pulmonary infiltrate. It may be community-acquired or arise in children hospitalized for pain or other complications. Recognized etiologies include infection, most commonly with atypical bacteria, and pulmonary fat embolism (PFE); the cause is often obscure and may be multifactorial. Initiation of therapy should be based on clinical findings. Management includes macrolide antibiotics, supplemental oxygen, modest hydration and often simple transfusion...
May 19, 2011: Blood
Chi-Di Liang, Sheung-Fat Ko, Ying-Jui Lin, Chih Yuan Fang
A left circumflex coronary artery fistula (CAF) is a rare anomaly. This report describes two young children with progressive left coronary artery dilation due to left CAF demonstrated by serial echocardiography. Cardiac catheterization performed for both children confirmed the presence of a markedly tortuous and dilated left circumflex artery, with the CAF draining directly into the right ventricle. Transcatheter closure of the CAF using the Amplatzer vascular plug was successfully accomplished without any complications...
November 2009: Pediatric Cardiology
Rosendo A Rodriguez, Dean Belway
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of two different extracorporeal circuits on the counts of high-intensity transient signals (HITS) during pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). METHODS: Transcranial Doppler was used to detect HITS associated with extracorporeal sources during the period of aortic crossclamping in the middle cerebral artery of children undergoing CPB. Based on body size, children were assigned one of two extracorporeal circuits (A or B). Circuit A included a D-705 oxygenator and associated reservoir, and circuit B included a Lilliput oxygenator and reservoir...
December 2006: Perfusion
Małgorzata Sawicka-Zukowska, Maryna Krawczuk-Rybak, Katarzyna Muszyńska-Rosłan
Osteonecrosis (avascular necrosis, AVN, aseptic necrosis) is the consequence of the disturbance of blood supply to specific bone area. AVN occurs as a result of many different conditions such as fracture, thrombosis, mechanical vessel injury, fat embolism and many others. The most frequent location is the femoral head, but aseptic necrosis can also affect epiphysis of long bones and small bones of upper and lower limb. Avascular necrosis is also one of the serious long-term complications of antineoplastic treatment, including high dose steroids, specific cytostatics and radiotherapy...
September 2006: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Michael H Stroud, Richard E McCarthy, David M Parham, Stephen M Schexnayder
OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a fatal pulmonary fat embolism as a complication of spinal fusion surgery. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit at a freestanding tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENT: An adolescent female with neuromuscular scoliosis who underwent spinal fusion surgery with instrumentation and suffered a fatal pulmonary fat embolism. CONCLUSION: Spinal fusion surgery for neuromuscular scoliosis is a common operative procedure...
May 2006: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Cage S Johnson
Recent large clinical studies of the acute chest syndrome (ACS) have improved our understanding of its pathophysiology and epidemiology. However, there is still a need for better methods of distinguishing vaso-occlusion from fibrin or fat embolism, for rapid diagnostic tests to make positive identifications of microbial infection, for adjunctive therapies that would affect prognosis, and for identification of factors that influence prognosis. The difference in clinical course and severity between children and adults supports the results of current studies indicating multiple causes for ACS...
October 2005: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
Paul S Babyn, Harpal K Gahunia, Patricia Massicotte
Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is uncommonly diagnosed in the pediatric patient, and indeed often only discovered on autopsy. The incidence of pediatric PTE depends upon the associated underlying disease, diagnostic tests used, and index of suspicion. Multiple risk factors can be found including: peripartum asphyxia, dyspnea, haemoptysis, chest pain, dehydration, septicemia, central venous lines (CVLs), trauma, surgery, ongoing hemolysis, vascular lesions, malignancy, renal disease, foreign bodies or, uncommonly, intracranial venous sinus thrombosis, burns, or nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis...
March 2005: Pediatric Radiology
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 1964: Langenbecks Archiv Für Klinische Chirurgie ... Vereinigt mit Deutsche Zeitschrift Für Chirurgie
Chi Di Liang, Sheung Fat Ko, Song Chei Huang, Chien Fu Huang, Chen Kuan Niu
BACKGROUND: In patients with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) after Gianturco coil embolization, vocal cord paralysis (VCP) had not been previously described. This study investigates the risk factors of coil embolization associated with VCP. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of all patients who had undergone transcatheter closure of PDA with a Gianturco coil between March 1998 and May 2001, and 75 patients (age range, 6 months to 55 years; mean age, 5.5 years) were identified...
August 2003: American Heart Journal
G Shapiro, D W Green, N S Fatica, O Boachie-Adjei
Several medical complications can occur after scoliosis surgery in children and adolescents. They include the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone; pancreatitis; cholelithiasis; superior mesenteric artery syndrome; ileus; pnemothorax; hemothorax; chylothorax; and fat embolism. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the various conditions that occur after correction of spinal deformity. Attention is given to recent literature specifically related to scoliosis surgery...
February 2001: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
C Golden, L Styles, E Vichinsky
Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is the presence of a new pulmonary infiltrate in combination with fever or respiratory symptoms in a patient with sickle cell disease. ACS is the leading cause of death in sickle cell disease, and many patients suffer from multiple, severe episodes. Age has a striking effect on the clinical course and outcome of ACS, with children having milder disease that often is infectious. Adults often have severe disease, and pulmonary fat embolism is frequently a component of severe ACS. Rapid diagnosis and appropriate therapy including antibiotics for atypical infections, fluids, aerosolized beta agonists, and adequate pain control are necessary to reduce morbidity...
March 1998: Current Opinion in Hematology
K A Kolquist, C L Vnencak-Jones, L Swift, D L Page, J E Johnson, M R Denison
Anemia, mental status changes, and fatal respiratory failure complicated a febrile illness in a previously healthy 14-year-old black female. At autopsy, widespread fat emboli and bone marrow necrosis were found. Hemoglobin electrophoresis on an antemortem, pretransfusion specimen revealed hemoglobin S/beta+ thalassemia. Acute parvovirus B19 (PV B19) infection was suspected. Postmortem serum and a variety of paraffin-embedded tissues were assayed for PV B19 DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The expected PCR product was identified in the serum specimen and in paraffin-embedded sections of bone marrow, kidney, spleen, parathyroid, thyroid, adrenal, and gastrointestinal tract: lung, liver, ovary, fallopian tube, uterus, brain, heart, and pancreas were negative...
January 1996: Pediatric Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
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