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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345103/incidence-of-common-cancers-in-users-of-antimuscarinic-medications-for-overactive-bladder-a-danish-nationwide-cohort-study
#1
Jesper Hallas, Andrea V Margulis, Anton Pottegård, Nina Sahlertz Kristiansen, Willem Jan Atsma, Kwame Appenteng, Stefan de Vogel, James A Kaye, Susana Perez-Gutthann, Alejandro Arana
The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence rate (IR) of 10 common cancers in new users of antimuscarinic overactive bladder (OAB) medications. We conducted a cohort study using data recorded in Danish registers for patients newly exposed to the OAB drugs darifenacin, fesoterodine, oxybutynin, solifenacin, tolterodine or trospium in years 2004-2012, aged ≥18 years and without cancer before treatment initiation. We estimated IRs for each study cancer (bladder, breast, colorectal, lung, melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, pancreas, prostate, renal and uterine), standardised by age and sex and explored IR trends over time since treatment initiation...
January 17, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344272/cancer-vaccine-learning-lessons-from-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#2
REVIEW
ZhenLong Ye, Qiming Qian, HuaJun Jin, QiJun Qian
Cancer vaccines have been exclusively studied all through the past decades, and have made exceptional achievements in cancer treatment. Few cancer vaccines have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), for instance, Provenge, which was approved for the treatment of prostate carcinoma in 2012. Moreover, more recently, T-VEC got approval for the treatment of melanoma. While, the overall therapeutic effects of cancer vaccines have been taken into consideration as below expectations, low antigenicity of targeting antigen and tumor heterogeneity are the two key limiting barriers encountered by the cancer vaccines...
2018: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343242/stage-of-cancer-diagnoses-among-migrants-from-the-former-soviet-union-in-comparison-to-the-german-population-are-diagnoses-among-migrants-delayed
#3
An Bin Cho, Philipp Jaehn, Bernd Holleczek, Heiko Becher, Volker Winkler
BACKGROUND: In this study, we compared stage at diagnosis, standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of most frequent cancer diagnoses between re-settlers (Aussiedler) from the former Soviet Union and the general population in the Saarland in Germany to assess possible delays in diagnosis of cancer among this migrant group. METHODS: Lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, malignant melanoma of the skin and stomach cancer diagnoses among a cohort of 18,619 re-settlers living in the Saarland between 1990 and 2009 were identified by the federal state's cancer registry...
January 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339377/robust-antitumor-responses-result-from-local-chemotherapy-and-ctla-4-blockade
#4
Charlotte E Ariyan, Mary Sue Brady, Robert H Siegelbaum, Jian Hu, Danielle M Bello, Jamie Green, Charles Fisher, Robert A Lefkowitz, Katherine S Panageas, Melissa Pulitzer, Marissa Vignali, Ryan Emerson, Christopher Tipton, Harlan Robins, Taha Merghoub, Jianda Yuan, Achim Jungbluth, Jorge Blando, Padmanee Sharma, Alexander Y Rudensky, Jedd D Wolchok, James P Allison
Clinical responses to immunotherapy have been associated with augmentation of preexisting immune responses, manifested by heightened inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. However, many tumors have a non-inflamed microenvironment, and response rates to immunotherapy in melanoma have been <50%. We approached this problem by utilizing immunotherapy (CTLA-4 blockade) combined with chemotherapy to induce local inflammation. In murine models of melanoma and prostate cancer, the combination of chemotherapy and CTLA-4 blockade induced a shift in the cellular composition of the tumor microenvironment, with infiltrating CD8+ and CD4+ T cells increasing the CD8/Foxp3 T-cell ratio...
January 16, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331323/regulation-of-inflammatory-factors-by-double-stranded-rna-receptors-in-breast-cancer-cells
#5
Amritha Venkatesh, Harika Nandigam, Maria Muccioli, Manindra Singh, Tiffany Loftus, Deana Lewis, Michelle Pate, Fabian Benencia
Malignant cells are not the only components of a tumor mass since other cells (e.g., fibroblasts, infiltrating leukocytes and endothelial cells) are also part of it. In combination with the extracellular matrix, all these cells constitute the tumor microenvironment. In the last decade the role of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression has gained increased attention and prompted efforts directed to abrogate its deleterious effects on anti-cancer therapies. The immune system can detect and attack tumor cells, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (particularly CD8 T cells) have been associated with improved survival or better response to therapies in colorectal, melanoma, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer patients among others...
November 22, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329342/ternary-copper-ii-complex-nci60-screening-toxicity-studies-and-evaluation-of-efficacy-in-xenograft-models-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#6
Munirah Ahmad, Shazlan-Noor Suhaimi, Tai-Lin Chu, Norazlin Abdul Aziz, Noor-Kaslina Mohd Kornain, D S Samiulla, Kwok-Wai Lo, Chew-Hee Ng, Alan Soo-Beng Khoo
Copper(II) ternary complex, [Cu(phen)(C-dmg)(H2O)]NO3 was evaluated against a panel of cell lines, tested for in vivo efficacy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenograft models as well as for toxicity in NOD scid gamma mice. The Cu(II) complex displayed broad spectrum cytotoxicity against multiple cancer types, including lung, colon, central nervous system, melanoma, ovarian, and prostate cancer cell lines in the NCI-60 panel. The Cu(II) complex did not cause significant induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and 1A enzymes but moderately inhibited CYP isoforms 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2B6, 2C8 and 3A4...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304761/comparison-of-cancer-incidence-in-australian-farm-residents-45-years-and-over-compared-to-rural-non-farm-and-urban-residents-a-data-linkage-study
#7
Julie Depczynski, Timothy Dobbins, Bruce Armstrong, Tony Lower
BACKGROUND: It is not known if the incidence of common cancers in Australian farm residents is different to rural non-farm or urban residents. METHODS: Data from farm, rural non-farm and urban participants of the 45 and Up Study cohort in New South Wales, Australia, were linked with state cancer registry data for the years 2006-2009. Directly standardised rate ratios for cancer incidence were compared for all-cancer, prostate, breast, colorectal cancer, melanoma and non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)...
January 5, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300814/body-mass-index-and-20-specific-cancers-re-analyses-of-dose-response-meta-analyses-of-observational-studies
#8
E K Choi, H B Park, K H Lee, J H Park, M Eisenhut, H J van der Vliet, G Kim, J I Shin
Background: Objectives were to provide an overview and understand the strength of evidence and extent of potential biases and validity of claimed associations between Body Mass Index (BMI) and risk of developing cancer. Methods: We performed an umbrella review and comprehensively re-analysed the data of dose-response meta-analyses on associations between BMI and risk of 20-specific cancers (bladder, brain, breast, colonic, rectal, endometrial, gallbladder, gastric, leukemia, liver, lung, melanoma, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, oesophagus, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate, renal, thyroid) by adding big data or missed individual studies...
December 28, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290954/wee1-epigenetically-modulates-5-hmc-levels-by-py37-h2b-dependent-regulation-of-idh2-gene-expression
#9
Nupam P Mahajan, Pavani Malla, Shambhavi Bhagwat, Vasundhara Sharma, Amod Sarnaik, Jongphil Kim, Shari Pilon-Thomas, Jeffery Weber, Kiran Mahajan
Epigenetic signaling networks dynamically regulate gene expression to maintain cellular homeostasis. Previously, we uncovered that WEE1 phosphorylates histone H2B at tyrosine 37 (pY37-H2B) to negatively regulate global histone transcriptional output. Although pY37-H2B is readily detected in cancer cells, its functional role in pathogenesis is not known. Herein, we show that WEE1 deposits the pY37-H2B marks within the tumor suppressor gene, isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), to repress transcription in multiple cancer cells, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBMs), melanoma and prostate cancer...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277767/antitumor-memory-t-cells-become-functionally-mature-from-30-to-100-days-in-a-mouse-model-of-neoplasia
#10
Yanhua Gao, Mamdouha A Barmada, Ira Bergman
BACKGROUND: Late metastases develop from cancer of the breast, prostate, lung, kidney and malignant melanomas. Memory T-cells have excellent potential to prevent this devastating development in the same way that they routinely prevent emergence of latent viruses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A peritoneal tumor mouse model of viral oncotherapy was used to generate therapeutic antitumor memory T-cells. Functional in vivo and in vitro assays were used to study the temporal evolution of their anticancer effects...
January 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238222/the-burden-of-selected-cancers-in-the-us-health-behaviors-and-health-care-resource-utilization
#11
Laura Iadeluca, Jack Mardekian, Pratibha Chander, Markay Hopps, Geoffrey T Makinson
Objective: To characterize the disease burden among survivors of those cancers having the highest incidence in the US. Methods: Adult (≥18 years) survivors of the 11 most frequently diagnosed cancers were identified from publically available data sources, including the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results 9 1973-2012, National Health Interview Survey 2013, and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2011. Chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance were utilized to assess differences between cancer survivors and non-cancer controls in behavioral characteristics, symptoms and functions, preventative screenings, and health care costs...
2017: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221310/uniportal-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-left-upper-lobe-trisegmentectomy-using-flexible-tip-3d-video-scope
#12
Mathew Thomas
A 69-year-old male patient with a history of melanoma and prostate cancer was found to have a 2.6 cm PET-avid, slowly enlarging, left upper lobe lung nodule that was suspicious for either metastasis or primary lung cancer. Due to the deep location of the nodule, a wedge resection was not recommended. A diagnostic and therapeutic uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (U-VATS) left upper lobe trisegmentectomy was performed uneventfully. Final pathology confirmed the presence of metastasis from prostate cancer without lymph node involvement...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213157/immunotherapy-and-gene-therapy-as-novel-treatments-for-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Martha Montserrat Rangel-Sosa, Estuardo Aguilar-Córdova, Augusto Rojas-Martínez
The immune system interacts closely with tumors during the disease development and progression to metastasis. The complex communication between the immune system and the tumor cells can prevent or promote tumor growth. New therapeutic approaches harnessing protective immunological mechanisms have recently shown very promising results. This is performed by blocking inhibitory signals or by activating immunological effector cells directly. Immune checkpoint blockade with monoclonal antibodies directed against the inhibitory immune receptors CTLA-4 and PD-1 has emerged as a successful treatment approach for patients with advanced melanoma...
September 30, 2017: Colombia Médica: CM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212506/chromosome-9p-copy-number-gains-involving-pd-l1-are-associated-with-a-specific-proliferation-and-immune-modulating-gene-expression-program-active-across-major-cancer-types
#14
Jan Budczies, Carsten Denkert, Balázs Győrffy, Peter Schirmacher, Albrecht Stenzinger
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the PD-L1/PD-1 immune checkpoint axis represents one of the most promising approaches of immunotherapy for various cancer types. However, immune checkpoint inhibition is successful only in subpopulations of patients emphasizing the need for powerful biomarkers that adequately reflect the complex interaction between the tumor and the immune system. Recently, recurrent copy number gains (CNG) in chromosome 9p involving PD-L1 were detected in many cancer types including lung cancer, melanoma, bladder cancer, head and neck cancer, cervical cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, prostate cancer, gastric cancer, ovarian cancer, and triple-negative breast cancer...
December 6, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202718/google-as-a-cancer-control-tool-in-queensland
#15
Xiaodong Huang, Peter Baade, Danny R Youlden, Philippa H Youl, Wenbiao Hu, Michael G Kimlin
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in methodologies utilizing "big data" have allowed researchers to investigate the use of common internet search engines as a real time tool to track disease. Little is known about its utility with tracking cancer incidence. This study aims to investigate the potential correlates of monthly internet search volume indexes (SVIs) and observed monthly age standardised incidence rates (ASRs) for breast cancer, colorectal cancer, melanoma and prostate cancer. METHODS: The monthly ASRs for the four cancers in Queensland were calculated using data from the Queensland Cancer Registry between January 2006 and December 2012...
December 4, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192307/trends-in-cancer-survival-by-health-insurance-status-in-california-from-1997-to-2014
#16
Libby Ellis, Alison J Canchola, David Spiegel, Uri Ladabaum, Robert Haile, Scarlett Lin Gomez
Importance: There have been substantial improvements in the early detection, treatment, and survival from cancer in the United States, but it is not clear to what extent patients with different types of health insurance have benefitted from these advancements. Objective: To examine trends in cancer survival by health insurance status from January 1997 to December 2014. Design, Setting, and Participants: California Cancer Registry (a statewide cancer surveillance system) data were used to estimate population-based survival by health insurance status in 3 calendar periods: January 1997 to December 2002, January 2003 to December 2008, and January 2009 to December 2014 with follow-up through 2014...
November 30, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180476/a-potent-metabolically-stable-tubulin-inhibitor-targets-the-colchicine-binding-site-and-overcomes-taxane-resistance
#17
Kinsie E Arnst, Yuxi Wang, Dong-Jin Hwang, Yi Xue, Terry Costello, David Hamilton, Qiang Chen, Jinliang Yang, Frank Park, James T Dalton, Duane D Miller, Wei Li
Antimitotics that target tubulin are among the most useful chemotherapeutic drugs, but their clinical activity is often limited by the development of multidrug resistance. We recently discovered the novel small molecule DJ101 as a potent and metabolically stable tubulin inhibitor that can circumvent the drug efflux pumps responsible for multidrug resistance of existing tubulin inhibitors. In this study, we determined the mechanism of action of this drug. The basis for its activity was illuminated by solving the crystal structure of DJ101 in complex with tubulin at a resolution of 2...
November 27, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175263/missing-data-and-chance-variation-in-public-reporting-of-cancer-stage-at-diagnosis-cross-sectional-analysis-of-population-based-data-in-england
#18
Matthew E Barclay, Georgios Lyratzopoulos, David C Greenberg, Gary A Abel
BACKGROUND: The percentage of cancer patients diagnosed at an early stage is reported publicly for geographically-defined populations corresponding to healthcare commissioning organisations in England, and linked to pay-for-performance targets. Given that stage is incompletely recorded, we investigated the extent to which this indicator reflects underlying organisational differences rather than differences in stage completeness and chance variation. METHODS: We used population-based data on patients diagnosed with one of ten cancer sites in 2013 (bladder, breast, colorectal, endometrial, lung, ovarian, prostate, renal, NHL, and melanoma)...
November 23, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172261/knowledge-of-evidence-based-cancer-risk-factors-remains-low-among-new-zealand-adults-findings-from-two-cross-sectional-studies-2001-and-2015
#19
Rosalina Richards, Bronwen McNoe, Ella Iosua, Anthony I Reeder, Richard Egan, Louise Marsh, Lindsay Robertson, Brett Maclennan, Anna TF Latu, Robin Quigg, Anne-Cathrine Petersen
Objective: Cancer risk reduction messages are a part of cancer control efforts around the world. The complex reality is that risk factors differ for different types of cancer, making clear communication of desired behavioural changes more difficult. This study aims to describe awareness of risk factors for breast, bowel, cervical, prostate and lung cancer and cutaneous melanoma among New Zealanders in 2014/15 and identify changes in awareness since 2001. Methods: Two national telephone surveys, the first (CAANZ01) conducted in 2001, included 438 adults (231 females and 207 males, 64% response rate)...
November 26, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164319/cancer-incidence-in-stockholm-firefighters-1958-2012-an-updated-cohort-study
#20
Cecilia Kullberg, Tomas Andersson, Per Gustavsson, Jenny Selander, Göran Tornling, Annika Gustavsson, Carolina Bigert
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies on firefighters indicate an increased risk of cancer although findings regarding which cancer sites are in excess have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the cancer incidence among Swedish firefighters. METHODS: This updated cohort study included 1080 men who worked at least 1 year as a firefighter in the city of Stockholm, Sweden during 1931-1983. First-time diagnoses of cancer were identified through the Swedish Cancer Registry from 1958 until 2012...
November 21, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
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