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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448269/circulating-cell-free-micrornas-as-clinical-cancer-biomarkers
#1
REVIEW
Virginie Armand-Labit, Anne Pradines
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that are master regulators of genic expression and consequently of many cellular processes. But their expression is often deregulated in human tumors leading to cancer development. Recently miRNAs were discovered in body fluids (serum, plasma and others) and their levels have often been reported to be altered in patients. Circulating miRNAs became one of the most promising biomarkers in oncology for early diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic response prediction. Here we describe the origins and roles of miRNAs, and summarize the most recent studies focusing on their usefulness as cancer biomarkers in lung, breast, colon, prostate, ovary cancers and melanoma...
April 27, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444227/incidence-and-prognosis-of-patients-with-brain-metastases-at-diagnosis-of-systemic-malignancy-a-population-based-study
#2
Daniel N Cagney, Allison M Martin, Paul J Catalano, Amanda J Redig, Nancy U Lin, Eudocia Q Lee, Patrick Y Wen, Ian F Dunn, Wenya Linda Bi, Stephanie E Weiss, Daphne A Haas-Kogan, Brian M Alexander, Ayal A Aizer
Background: Brain metastases are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Population-level data describing the incidence and prognosis of patients with brain metastases are lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize the incidence and prognosis of patients with brain metastases at diagnosis of systemic malignancy using recently released data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Methods: We identified 1,302,166 patients diagnosed with non-hematologic malignancies originating outside of the central nervous system between 2010-2013 and described the incidence proportion and survival of patients with brain metastases...
April 24, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439153/supraclavicular-metastases-from-distant-primary-solid-tumours-a-retrospective-study-of-41%C3%A2-years
#3
Keyvan Sagheb, Asina Manz, Stefan B Albrich, Katherine J Taylor, Georg Hess, Christian Walter
OBJECTIVES: Approximately 1 % of all malignant solid tumours of the head and neck area are metastases from primary tumours beneath the clavicles. The aim of this study was to analyse the distribution of primary tumours since meta-analyses might have been biased due to the usually extraordinary character of case reports. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patient files from 1970 to 2012 from the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery unit at a University Hospital were analysed regarding the existence of metastases to the head and neck area from distant primaries...
June 2017: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434095/patient-reported-outcomes-in-cancer-survivors-a-population-wide-cross-sectional-study
#4
Michael Jefford, Andrew C Ward, Karolina Lisy, Karen Lacey, Jon D Emery, Adam W Glaser, Hannah Cross, Mei Krishnasamy, Sue-Anne McLachlan, Jim Bishop
PURPOSE: There is a lack of robust population-based data regarding the lived experience of cancer survivors. This study assessed the quality of life (QoL) of survivors of breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma or melanoma 1, 3 and 5 years post-diagnosis. Associations between various demographic and disease-related factors and QoL were assessed. METHODS: A cross-sectional postal survey was undertaken. Eligible participants were identified from a population-based cancer registry...
April 22, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431765/immune-modulation-by-vitamin-d-special-emphasis-on-its-role-in-prevention-and-treatment-of-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Franco Pandolfi, Laura Franza, Claudia Mandolini, Pio Conti
PURPOSE: Vitamin D has been known to be involved in mineral and bone homeostasis for many years. In the past its main use was in treating osteoporosis and rickets. In recent years it was found that vitamin D is an immune-modulating agent and may also have a role in several diseases, including autoimmune diseases. The immune-modulating effects appear to be mediated by vitamin D interaction with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) that has transcriptional effects and is expressed on various cell types, especially those of the immune system...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428642/-technology-and-prevention-in-the-era-of-mobile-health-applications-for-cancer-screening-programs
#6
Fabrizio Bert, Maria Rosaria Gualano, Salvatore Clemente, Giulia Villa, Roberta Siliquini
The Italian national health system provides screening to detect breast, colorecatal and cervical cancers, however, population adherence is not as high as expected. Smartphones and their applications (apps) could be used as a tool to communicate with the population and to help improve adherence. The aim of this study was to analyze the features and functions of smartphone applications aimed at secondary prevention of oncological diseases. In February 2016, we reviewed online app stores, using specific key-words, to search for available apps for cancer screening...
January 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426539/the-effect-of-cancer-patients-and-their-family-caregivers-physical-and-emotional-symptoms-on-caregiver-burden
#7
Safora Johansen, Milada Cvancarova, Cornelia Ruland
BACKGROUND: Although there is significant evidence that the family caregivers (FCs) of cancer patients can experience significant caregiver burden and symptoms, less is known about the relationships between FCs and patient characteristics that influence caregiver burden. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cancer patients' and FCs' symptoms and demographic characteristics on caregiver burden at initiation of the patients' radiation treatment...
April 20, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423659/targeting-hox-pbx-dimers-in-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Richard Morgan, Mohamed El-Tanani, Keith D Hunter, Kevin J Harrington, Hardev S Pandha
The HOX and PBX gene families encode transcription factors that have key roles in establishing the identity of cells and tissues in early development. Over the last 20 years it has become apparent that they are also dysregulated in a wide range of solid and haematological malignancies and have a predominantly pro-oncogenic function. A key mode of transcriptional regulation by HOX and PBX proteins is through their interaction as a heterodimer or larger complex that enhances their binding affinity and specificity for DNA, and there is growing evidence that this interaction is a potential therapeutic target in malignancies that include prostate, breast, renal, ovarian and lung cancer, melanoma, myeloma, and acute myeloid leukaemia...
March 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416823/-identification-of-a-new-pro-invasion-factor-in-tumor-microenvironment-progress-in-function-and-mechanism-of-extracellular-atp
#9
W G Fang, X X Tian
Up to 90% of all cancer related morbidity and mortality can be attributed to metastasis. In recent years the study of tumor microenvironment, its cellular and molecular components, and how they can affect neoplastic progression toward metastasis, has become a hot focus in cancer research. Accumulated evidence shows that the formation of metastasis is a multi-step sequential process, in which, the tumor cells continuously interact with the host microenvironment. Host derived factors, i.e. growth factors/inhibitors, angiogenic factors, chemokines, etc...
April 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416604/oncogenic-characterization-and-pharmacologic-sensitivity-of-activating-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-fgfr-genetic-alterations-to-the-selective-fgfr-inhibitor-erdafitinib
#10
Jayaprakash D Karkera, Gabriela Martinez Cardona, Katherine Bell, Dana Gaffney, Joseph C Portale, Ademi Santiago-Walker, Christopher Moy, Peter King, Michael Sharp, Rastilav Bahleda, Feng R Luo, John D Alvarez, Matthew V Lorenzi, Suso J Platero
Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genetic alterations are frequently observed in cancer, suggesting that FGFR inhibition may be a promising therapy in patients harboring these lesions.  Identification of predictive and pharmacodynamic biomarkers to select and monitor patients most likely to respond to FGFR inhibition will be the key to clinical development of this class of agents.  Sensitivity to FGFR inhibition and correlation with FGFR pathway activation status were determined in molecularly annotated panels of cancer cell lines and xenograft models...
April 17, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412093/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-as-a-second-primary-among-patients-with-previous-malignancy-who-is-at-risk
#11
Geena X Wu, Rebecca A Nelson, Jae Y Kim, Dan J Raz
BACKGROUND: Patients with previous malignancies could be at increased risk of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the extent of the risk is unknown for many cancer types; thus, it is unclear who might benefit from screening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data set from 1992 to 2012 was used to identify patients with previous malignancies who received a diagnosis of NSCLC ≥ 6 months after their initial cancer diagnosis...
March 2, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408492/cd81-as-a-tumor-target
#12
REVIEW
Felipe Vences-Catalán, Caroline Duault, Chiung-Chi Kuo, Ranjani Rajapaksa, Ronald Levy, Shoshana Levy
CD81 participates in a variety of important cellular processes such as membrane organization, protein trafficking, cellular fusion and cell-cell interactions. In the immune system, CD81 regulates immune synapse, receptor clustering and signaling; it also mediates adaptive and innate immune suppression. CD81 is a gateway in hepatocytes for pathogens such as hepatitis C virus and Plasmodium; it also confers susceptibility to Listeria infection. These diverse biological roles are due to the tendency of CD81 to associate with other tetraspanins and with cell-specific partner proteins, which provide the cells with a signaling platform...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405511/nk-cells-control-breast-cancer-and-related-cancer-stem-cell-hematological-spread
#13
Rossana Tallerico, Laura Conti, Stefania Lanzardo, Rosa Sottile, Cinzia Garofalo, Arnika K Wagner, Maria H Johansson, Costanza Maria Cristiani, Klas Kärre, Ennio Carbone, Federica Cavallo
The growth and recurrence of a number of cancers is driven by a scarce population of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are resistant to most current therapies. It has been shown previously that natural killer (NK) cells recognize human glioma, melanoma, colon and prostate CSCs in vitro. We herein show that human and mouse breast CSCs are also susceptible to NK cytotoxic activity in vitro. Moreover, CSC induced autologous NK cell activation and expansion in vivo, which correlate with the inhibition of CSC metastatic spread...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403777/potential-molecular-targets-of-ampelopsin-in-prevention-and-treatment-of-cancers
#14
Xianjuan Kou, Jingjing Fan, Ning Chen
Cancers have increasing threat to human health due to the limited treatment efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy with a series of toxicity and side effects; therefore, the development and utilization of natural products with potential preventive and therapeutic efficacy, and less toxicity and side effects will be beneficial to promote the health of cancer patients. In this article, the activity of ampelopsin as a natural flavonoid and its underlying molecular mechanisms for the prevention and treatments of hepatic carcinoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma through inhibiting cell proliferation, accelerating apoptosis, inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, suppressing angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, and synergizing the efficacy of other anti-cancer drugs have been summarized...
April 12, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401443/prevalence-of-hypophysitis-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-metastatic-melanoma-and-prostate-cancer-treated-with-ipilimumab
#15
Lucia Brilli, Riccardo Danielli, Cristina Ciuoli, Luana Calabrò, Anna Maria Di Giacomo, Alfonso Cerase, Patrizia Paffetti, Fausta Sestini, Brunetta Porcelli, Michele Maio, Furio Pacini
OBJECTIVE: Ipilimumab is a human monoclonal antibody directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, that has been shown to significantly improve survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. Blocking cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 elicits T cell activation, proliferation and anti-tumor response, but can also trigger immune-related adverse events. Among immune-related endocrinopathies, hypophysitis represents the most frequent, with an incidence up to 17% in patients treated with ipilimumab...
April 12, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376158/role-of-antigen-spread-and-distinctive-characteristics-of-immunotherapy-in-cancer-treatment
#16
James L Gulley, Ravi A Madan, Russell Pachynski, Peter Mulders, Nadeem A Sheikh, James Trager, Charles G Drake
Immunotherapy is an important breakthrough in cancer. US Food and Drug Administration-approved immunotherapies for cancer treatment (including, but not limited to, sipuleucel-T, ipilimumab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab) substantially improve overall survival across multiple malignancies. One mechanism of action of these treatments is to induce an immune response against antigen-bearing tumor cells; the resultant cell death releases secondary (nontargeted) tumor antigens. Secondary antigens prime subsequent immune responses (antigen spread)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374973/cancer-risk-in-patients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a%C3%A2-population-based-study-in-sweden
#17
Xiangdong Liu, Yanqing Chen, Youxin Wang, Xiaohua Dong, Junming Wang, Jianhua Tang, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist, Jianguang Ji
Increased risks of certain cancers have been observed in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, data on other cancer sites/types are lacking. We analyzed systematically the risk of developing 35 common cancers in patients with HCV infection using a nationwide Swedish database. Patients with HCV infection were identified from the Swedish Hospital Inpatient and Outpatient Register and Primary Health Care Database, and followed until the diagnosis of cancer. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for subsequent 35 common cancer sites/types between 1990 and 2010 in patients with HCV infection in Sweden...
April 4, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373448/defining-new-colorectal-cancer-syndromes-in-a-population-based-cohort-of-the-disease
#18
Anna Forsberg, Anne Keränen, Susanna VON Holst, Simone Picelli, Nikos Papadogiannakis, Sam Ghazi, Annika Lindblom
BACKGROUND/AIM: Most known cancer syndromes confer an increased risk of more than one tumour types, and families with more than one colorectal cancer often segregate other cancers as well. The aim of this study was to examine if there is a general increased risk of other cancers in colorectal cancer families, which are defined as having two or more cases of colorectal cancer in close relatives. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study used a detailed family history of cancer diagnoses in a cohort of more than 3,000 consecutive colorectal cancer cases...
April 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371753/a-microfluidic-platform-for-drug-screening-in-a-3d-cancer-microenvironment
#19
Hardik J Pandya, Karan Dhingra, Devbalaji Prabhakar, Vineethkrishna Chandrasekar, Siva Kumar Natarajan, Anish S Vasan, Ashish Kulkarni, Hadi Shafiee
Development of resistance to chemotherapy treatments is a major challenge in the battle against cancer. Although a vast repertoire of chemotherapeutics is currently available for treating cancer, a technique for rapidly identifying the right drug based on the chemo-resistivity of the cancer cells is not available and it currently takes weeks to months to evaluate the response of cancer patients to a drug. A sensitive, low-cost diagnostic assay capable of rapidly evaluating the effect of a series of drugs on cancer cells can significantly change the paradigm in cancer treatment management...
August 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370075/cancer-incidence-after-initiation-of-antimuscarinic-medications-for-overactive-bladder-in-the-united-kingdom-evidence-for-protopathic-bias
#20
James A Kaye, Andrea V Margulis, Joan Fortuny, Lisa J McQuay, Estel Plana, Jennifer L Bartsch, Christine L Bui, Susana Perez-Gutthann, Alejandro Arana
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of 10 common cancers among patients treated with antimuscarinic medications for overactive bladder (AMOAB). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. DATA SOURCE: United Kingdom's Clinical Practice Research Datalink. PATIENTS: A total of 119,912 adults with no previous cancer diagnosis who were new users of AMOABs-darifenacin, fesoterodine, oxybutynin, solifenacin, tolterodine, or trospium-between January 2004 and December 2012...
March 31, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
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