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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146032/clinical-signs-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-encephalitozoon-cuniculi-infection-in-rabbits
#1
REVIEW
Frank Künzel, Peter G Fisher
Central vestibular dysfunction caused by Encephalitozoon cuniculi frequently mimics the condition of a peripheral disorder. A negative antibody titer rules out E cuniculi as the cause of present clinical signs. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis including polymerase chain reaction is considered an inappropriate diagnostic method for in vivo diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis. The usefulness of glucocorticoid anti-inflammatories in the treatment of encephalitozoonosis is called into question. Encouraging activity early in the course of disease and adding in therapeutic exercise may represent the most important part of therapy in rabbits with vestibular dysfunction associated with encephalitozoonosis...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113603/identification-of-a-novel-pyp-1-gene-in-sarcoptes-scabiei-and-its-potential-as-a-serodiagnostic-candidate-by-indirect-elisa
#2
Jing Xu, Xing Huang, Manli He, Yongjun Ren, Nengxing Shen, Chunyan Li, Ran He, Yue Xie, Xiaobin Gu, Bo Jing, Xuerong Peng, Guangyou Yang
Scabies is a parasitic disease caused by the ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei, affecting different mammalian species, including rabbits, worldwide. In the present study, we cloned and expressed a novel inorganic pyrophosphatase, Ssc-PYP-1, from S. scabiei var. cuniculi. Immunofluorescence staining showed that native Ssc-PYP-1 was localized in the tegument around the mouthparts and the entire legs, as well as in the cuticle of the mites. Interestingly, obvious staining was also observed on the fecal pellets of mites and in the integument of the mites...
November 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099899/-nephritis-in-a-staffordshire-terrier-puppy-caused-by-encephalitozoon-cuniculi-genotype-i
#3
Stephan Engelhardt, Astrid Buder, Katja Pfeil, Ulrike Schwittlick, Eva Klas, Barbara Hinney, Heike Aupperle-Lellbach, Ingo Pfeil
An 8-week-old puppy was presented to the clinic because of anorexia, polyuria, polydipsia and azotemia. The urinary sediment displayed large amounts of protozoan-like organisms, which could be identified by PCR as Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype I. In the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) an antibody titer against E. cuniculi of 1  :  2560 was found. The dog was treated with fenbendazole over 3 weeks. After 3 months, an antibody titer against E. cuniculi could no longer be detected. The dog recovered completely...
November 3, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091912/diabetes-mellitus-increases-the-susceptibility-to-encephalitozoonosis-in-mice
#4
Aldo Francisco Neto, Paulo Ricardo Dell'Armelina Rocha, Elizabeth Christina Perez, José Guilherme Xavier, Giovani Bravin Peres, Diva Denelle Spadacci-Morena, Anuska Marcelino Alvares-Saraiva, Maria Anete Lallo
Microsporidiosis are diseases caused by opportunistic intracellular fungi in immunosuppressed individuals, as well as in transplanted patients, the elderly and children, among others. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and decreased T cell response, neutrophil function, humoral immunity failure, increasing the susceptibility to infections. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetic and/or immunosuppressed mice to encephalitozoonosis by Encephalitozoon cuniculi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022542/streptococcus-azizii-sp-nov-isolated-from-na%C3%A3-ve-weanling-mice
#5
Patricia Lynn Shewmaker, Anne M Whitney, Christopher A Gulvik, Neil S Lipman
Three isolates of a previously reported novel catalase-negative, Gram-stain-positive, coccoid, alpha-haemolytic, Streptococcus species that were associated with meningoencephalitis in naïve weanling mice were further evaluated to confirm their taxonomic status and to determine additional phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed nearly identical intra-species sequence similarity (≥99.9 %), and revealed the closest phylogenetically related species, Streptococcus acidominimus and Streptococcus cuniculi, with 97...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969771/zoonotic-microsporidia-in-dogs-and-cats-in-poland
#6
Jolanta Piekarska, Marta Kicia, Maria Wesołowska, Żaneta Kopacz, Michał Gorczykowski, Barbara Szczepankiewicz, Martin Kváč, Bohumil Sak
This study investigated the prevalence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic concerns of microsporidia in household dogs and cats in Poland. A total of 126 (82 dogs and 44 cats) fecal specimens were analyzed for the presence of specific DNA of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. using a nested PCR protocol amplifying the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene. Microsporidia were found in 10 (7.9%) out of the 126 examined stool samples. Of the 82 dogs, 4 (4.9%) and 2 (2.4%) were positive for E...
November 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942047/the-course-of-infection-caused-by-encephalitozoon-cuniculi-genotype-iii-in-immunocompetent-and-immunodeficient-mice
#7
Michaela Kotková, Bohumil Sak, Lenka Hlásková, Martin Kváč
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is probably the most common microsporidia which infects a wide range of vertebrates, including human. So far, four genotypes of this parasite have been identified based on the rRNA internal transcribed spacer variations. The course of infection caused by E. cuniculi III had very massive onset in immunocompetent host characterized by the presence of this parasite in all organs and tissues within one week after peroral infection. Encephalitozoonosis caused by E. cuniculi III had very progressive spreading into all organs within first week post inoculation in immunocompromised SCID mice and led to the death of the host...
November 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869156/molecular-diagnosis-of-potentially-human-pathogenic-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-and-encephalitozoon-species-in-exotic-birds-in-southwestern-iran
#8
Mehdi Tavalla, Masoumeh Mardani-Kateki, Rahman Abdizadeh, Shahrzad Soltani, Jasem Saki
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites that produce spores. The infections caused by these parasites are mostly considered to be opportunistic in immunodeficient patients. Because of the zoonotic nature of microsporidia as well as the increasing prevalence of immunodeficiency diseases, the aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular diagnosis of Enterocytozoon bieneusi (E. bieneusi) and Encephalitozoon spp. in exotic birds in southwestern Iran. Initially, 816 stool specimens were collected and stained by modified trichrome (Weber) staining...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852108/expression-and-characterisation-of-a-sarcoptes-scabiei-protein-tyrosine-kinase-as-a-potential-antigen-for-scabies-diagnosis
#9
Nengxing Shen, Ran He, Yuqing Liang, Jing Xu, Manli He, Yongjun Ren, Xiaobin Gu, Weimin Lai, Yue Xie, Xuerong Peng, Guangyou Yang
Scabies is a disease that harms humans and other animals that is caused by the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing into the stratum corneum of the skin. In the early stages of scabies, symptoms are often subclinical and there are no effective diagnostic methods. Herein, we cloned, expressed and characterised an S. scabiei protein tyrosine kinase (SsPTK) and evaluated its diagnostic value as a recombinant antigen in rabbit during the early stages of Sarcoptes infestation. The SsPTK protein is ~30 kDa, lacks a signal peptide, and shares high homology with a PTK from the rabbit ear mite Psoroptes ovis cuniculi...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826405/genomic-analysis-of%C3%A2-methanogenic-archaea%C3%A2-reveals-a-shift-towards-energy-conservation
#10
Sean P Gilmore, John K Henske, Jessica A Sexton, Kevin V Solomon, Susanna Seppälä, Justin I Yoo, Lauren M Huyett, Abe Pressman, James Z Cogan, Veronika Kivenson, Xuefeng Peng, YerPeng Tan, David L Valentine, Michelle A O'Malley
BACKGROUND: The metabolism of archaeal methanogens drives methane release into the environment and is critical to understanding global carbon cycling. Methanogenesis operates at a very low reducing potential compared to other forms of respiration and is therefore critical to many anaerobic environments. Harnessing or altering methanogen metabolism has the potential to mitigate global warming and even be utilized for energy applications. RESULTS: Here, we report draft genome sequences for the isolated methanogens Methanobacterium bryantii, Methanosarcina spelaei, Methanosphaera cuniculi, and Methanocorpusculum parvum...
August 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779899/effects-of-selected-indonesian-plant-extracts-on-e-%C3%A2-cuniculi-infection-in%C3%A2-vivo
#11
Bohumil Sak, Anna Jandová, Karel Doležal, Martin Kváč, Dana Květoňová, Lenka Hlásková, Michael Rost, Milan Olšanský, Wisnu Nurcahyo, Ivona Foitová
The present study was conducted to evaluate the methanolic extracts from several plant leaves widely used in traditional medicine to cure digestive tract disorders and in the self-medication of wild animals such as non-human primates, namely Archidendron fagifolium, Diospyros sumatrana, Shorea sumatrana, and Piper betle leaves, with regard to their antimicrosporidial activity against Encephalitozoon cuniculi in immunocompetent BALB/c mice determined using molecular detection of microsporidial DNA (qPCR) in various tissues and body fluids of infected, treated mice...
October 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754285/dynamics-of-parasitophorous-vacuoles-formed-by-the-microsporidian-pathogen-encephalitozoon-cuniculi
#12
Soo Chan Lee, Joseph Heitman
It has been a long-standing debate if sexual development occurs in the microsporidian lineages. Previous studies, including morphological observations, ploidy analysis, and the presence of a sex-related locus, provided evidence of possible extant of sexual development. This study presents another line of evidence by monitoring the parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs) formed by Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Time lapse observations of infection cycles of E. cuniculi revealed that multiple PVs can be formed in a single host cell and the PVs in the single cell can merge (fusion) or split (fission)...
October 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723944/application-of-mass-spectrometry-to-elucidate-the-pathophysiology-of-encephalitozoon-cuniculi-infection-in-rabbits
#13
Guillaume Desoubeaux, Maria Del Carmen Piqueras, Ana Pantin, Sanjoy K Bhattacharya, Roman Peschke, Anja Joachim, Carolyn Cray
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidian species which can induce subclinical to serious disease in mammals including rabbits, a definitive natural host. The pathophysiology of infection has not been comprehensively elucidated. In this exploratory study, we utilized two mass spectrometry approaches: first, the analysis of the humoral response by profiling the microsporidian antigens as revealed by Western blot screening, and second, implementing the iTRAQ®-labeling protocol to focus on the changes within the host proteome during infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635524/serology-and-protein-electrophoresis-for-evidence-of-exposure-to-12-mink-pathogens-in-free-ranging-american-mink-neovison-vison-in-argentina
#14
Pablo Eduardo Martino, Luis Ernesto Samartino, Néstor Oscar Stanchi, Nilda Esther Radman, Eduardo Joaquín Parrado
BACKGROUND: Basic pathologic characteristics for farmed minks were previously reported worldwide. However, its status in the wild has not been studied in detail. OBJECTIVE: Serology and electrophoresis were carried out for evidence of exposure to 12 mink pathogens on two different locations. ANIMALS AND METHODS: Serology was done in 87 wild minks by reference techniques against Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Neospora caninum, Brucella abortus, Mycobacterium bovis, Leptospira interrogans, canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus (CAV), canine parvovirus (CPV), rabies virus (RV), Influenza A virus (FLUAV) and Aleutian disease virus (ADV)...
December 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615854/sarcoptic-mange-infestation-in-rabbits-in-an-organized-farm-at-tamil-nadu
#15
M Arul Prakash, C Soundararajan, K Nagarajan, P Tensingh Gnanaraj, V Ramesh Saravanakumar
Sarcoptes scabiei are burrowing mites which causes major constraints in rabbit production. Eighty-eight rabbits were examined for mange infestation at University Research Farm, Tamil Nadu. Overall incidence of mange infestation in rabbit was 23.6 %. On microscopical examination, the mite was identified as Sacoptes scabiei var cuniculi. Among the breeds, Soviet Chinchilla were found to be infested more (57.14 %) followed by New Zealand White (28.57 %) and White Giant (28.57 %). Among the age groups, adults (33...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576339/the-toxicity-and-the-acaricidal-mechanism-against-psoroptes-cuniculi-of-the-methanol-extract-of-adonis-coerulea-maxim
#16
Xiaofei Shang, Xiao Guo, Feng Yang, Bing Li, Hu Pan, Xiaolou Miao, Jiyu Zhang
SCOPE: Adonis coerulea Maxim. is a perennial herbaceous plant that grows in scrub, grassy slope areas, and as traditional medicine it has been used to treat animal acariasis for thousands of years. In this paper, we aimed to study the acute toxicity and cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of A. coerulea (MEAC) in vivo and in vitro for supporting the clinic uses. The acaricidal activity and the mechanism of action against Psoroptes cuniculi were investigated. RESULTS: The results showed that isoorientin, luteolin and apigenin were the primary compounds in MEAC...
June 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438442/molecular-identification-of-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-and-encephalitozoon-spp-in-immunodeficient-patients-in-ahvaz-southwest-of-iran
#17
Mehdi Tavalla, Masoumeh Mardani-Kateki, Rahman Abdizadeh, Roohangiz Nashibi, Abdollah Rafie, Shahram Khademvatan
Microsporidia are often considered as an opportunistic infection in patients with impaired immune systems such as transplant recipients and patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Due to the increasing prevalence of parasitic infections and immunodeficiency diseases; the aim of the study is to evaluate molecular identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. in immunodeficient patients in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. At first, 310 stool samples were collected from patients with immunodeficiency...
August 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399300/diversity-of-flea-siphonaptera-parasites-on-red-foxes-vulpes-vulpes-in-romania
#18
P Foley, J Foley, A D Sándor, A M Ionica, I A Matei, G D'Amico, C M Gherman, C Dom A, A D Mihalca
Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes (L.)) are widespread across Europe, tolerant of synanthropic ecosystems, and susceptible to diseases potentially shared with humans and other animals. We describe flea fauna on red foxes in Romania, a large, ecologically diverse country, in part because fleas may serve as an indicator of the risk of spillover of vector-borne disease. We found 912 individual fleas of seven species on the 305 foxes assessed, for an infestation prevalence of 49.5%. Mean flea load per fox was 5.8 (range 0-44 fleas), and flea detections were most abundant in fall and early spring...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361965/transcriptomics-and-proteomic-studies-reveal-acaricidal-mechanism-of-octadecanoic-acid-3-4-tetrahydrofuran-diester-against-sarcoptes-scabiei-var-cuniculi
#19
Xu Song, Zhenzhen Chen, Renyong Jia, Mei Cao, Yuanfeng Zou, Lixia Li, Xiaoxia Liang, Lizi Yin, Changliang He, Guizhou Yue, Zhongqiong Yin
In our previous study, a new compound, octadecanoic acid-3, 4-tetrahydrofuran diester, possessing potent acaricidal activity was obtained from neem oil. This study performed RNA-seq transcriptomics and iTRAQ proteomics to uncover the acaricidal mechanism of the compound against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi. The results of transcriptomics indicated that after treatment with octadecanoic acid-3, 4-tetrahydrofuran diester, genes related to "Energy metabolism" were significantly up-/down-regulated, including citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation pathway and fatty acid metabolism...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342673/therapeutic-use-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-in-the-treatment-of-psoroptic-mange-in-naturally-infested-new-zealand-rabbits
#20
Emmanuel Dunstand-Guzmán, Claudia Hallal-Calleros, Jorge Morales-Montor, Víctor Manuel Hernández-Velázquez, Juan José Zárate-Ramos, Kurt L Hoffman, Guadalupe Peña-Chora, Fernando Iván Flores-Pérez
Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacteria known for its bioinsecticidal toxins and it has been proposed as an alternative in the treatment of several parasites that infect domestic animals (helminths, ticks, mites). In this work, we evaluated the clinical efficiency of the Bacillus thuringiensis GP532 strain in the treatment of six rabbits naturally infested with the P. cuniculi mite. GP532 extract (10mg/ml) was applied by aspersion in both pinna, with a second application after seven days, and the therapeutic effect was measured in both qualitative and quantitative manner...
April 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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