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Lidiana Flora Vidoto da Costa, Anuska Marcelino Alvares-Saraiva, Paulo Ricardo Dell'Armelina Rocha, Diva Denelle Spadacci-Morena, Elizabeth Cristina Perez, Mario Mariano, Maria Anete Lallo
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an opportunist intracellular pathogen of mammals. The adaptive immune response is essential to eliminate E. cuniculi, but evidence is mounting that the response initiated by the innate immune response may ultimately define whether or not the parasite can survive. B-1 cells may act as antigen-presenting cells or differentiate into phagocytes, playing different roles in many infection models. However, the role of these cells in the dynamics of Encephalitozoon sp. infections is still unknown...
September 28, 2016: Immunobiology
P N Panigrahi, B N Mohanty, A R Gupta, R C Patra, S Dey
Acariotic mange in rabbits is one of the important constraints in rabbit husbandry. Sarcoptes scabies var. cuniculi and Psoroptes cuniculi are most common mites prevailed in rabbits, but Notoedres cati, is the rarest mite ever been reported in rabbit. Two New Zealand white rabbits were presented with clinical signs of pruritus, alopecia, scab and crust formation and lichenification on the upper lip, ear pinnae, eyelids, lower jaw and limbs. Deep skin scraping was taken separately from 4 to 5 different skin lesions from each rabbit, revealed mixed infestations of N...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Jinshan Xu, Qiang He, Zhenggang Ma, Tian Li, Xiaoyan Zhang, Bettina A Debrunner-Vossbrinck, Zeyang Zhou, Charles R Vossbrinck
The microsporidian parasite designated here as Nosema sp. Isolate YNPr was isolated from the cabbage butterfly Pieris rapae collected in Honghe Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The genome was sequenced by Illumina sequencing and compared to those of two related members of the Nosema/Vairimorpha clade, Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis. Based upon assembly statistics, the Nosema sp. YNPr genome is 3.36 x 106bp with a G+C content of 23.18% and 2,075 protein coding sequences. An "ACCCTT" motif is present approximately 50-bp upstream of the start codon, as reported from other members of the clade and from Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a sister taxon...
2016: PloS One
Xiaofei Shang, Yu Wang, Xuzheng Zhou, Xiao Guo, Shuwei Dong, Dongsheng Wang, Jiyu Zhang, Hu Pan, Yu Zhang, Xiaolou Miao
Oregano oil possesses marked antioxidant and antimicrobial activity and is widely applied in animal husbandry. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the acaricidal activities of oregano oil and its major component, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro and in vivo. The results revealed that oregano oil exhibited significant acaricidal effects against P. cuniculi that were dose- and time-dependent response. In in vitro test, concentrations of 0.05% and 0.02% (v/v) killed all of the mites within 1h and 6h, respectively...
August 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Rosa Casais, Victor Granda, Ana Balseiro, Ana Del Cerro, Kevin P Dalton, Roxana González, Pablo Bravo, J M Prieto, Maria Montoya
BACKGROUND: Vaccination is an attractive ecological alternative to the use of acaricides for parasite control. However, effective anti-parasite vaccines against sarcoptic mange have not yet been developed. The purpose of this study was first to identify Sarcoptes scabiei immunodominant antigens and second to evaluate them as vaccine candidates in a rabbit/S. scabiei var. cuniculi model. METHODS: The S. scabiei Ssλ15 immunodominant antigen was selected by immunoscreening of a S...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Lina Niu, Shan Lu, Shoukui Hu, Dong Jin, Xinhe Lai, Jing Yang, Cuixia Chen, Yi Wang, Yiting Wang, Xiangning Bai, Ruiting Lan, Gang Lv, Yingping Xie, Changyun Ye, Jianguo Xu
Five strains of a Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, α-hemolytic, coccus-shaped chain-forming organism were isolated separately from the lower respiratory tracts of 5 animals of Marmota himalayana in the endemic area of plague, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. Based on their morphological characteristics, biochemical features and molecular phylogenetic studies, they were placed as a new member of the genus Streptococcus. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies indicated that the type strain HTS5T shared 96...
July 28, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Xiaofei Shang, Xiao Guo, Bing Li, Hu Pan, Jiyu Zhang, Yu Zhang, Xiaolou Miao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Peganum harmala L. is a perennial herbaceous, glabrous plant that grows in semi-arid conditions, steppe areas and sandy soils. It is used to treat fever, diarrhoea, subcutaneous tumours, arthralgia, rheumatism, cough, amnesia and parasitic diseases in folk medicines. In this paper, we aimed to develop a simpler and faster method for the extraction of three alkaloids from Peganum harmala L. than other conventional methods by optimizing the parameters of a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method, and to investigate the acaricidal activities of three compounds against Psoroptes cuniculi...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Lionel Schilliger, Véronique Mentré, Rachel E Marschang, Alexandra Nicolier, Barbara Richter
A 2-month-old juvenile central bearded dragon was presented for anorexia and cachexia. Another specimen from the same cage had died suddenly 2 weeks prior. Fecal analysis revealed a high quantity of Isospora amphiboluri and a few pinworm eggs. Other examinations were not performed and the animal died a few days later despite supportive care. A third individual from the same cage presented with anorexia and a distended cœlom and was euthanized. In this third dragon, histological examination revealed intestinal coccidiosis, basophilic intranuclear inclusions compatible with adenovirus infection, acute hepatic necrosis with intrahepatocytic and intraenteritic organisms typical of microsporidia and renal gout...
July 7, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Ryusuke Tsukada, Yuki Osaka, Tomomi Takano, Mizuki Sasaki, Mitsuhiro Inose, Hiromi Ikadai
Antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using E. cuniculi PTP2 recombinant protein from serum samples that had been collected from a total of 295 cats in Japan. Of these samples, 6.1% (18/295) had antibodies against E. cuniculi, which included 6.3% (6/96) of the male cats and 6.0% (12/199) of the female cats. The incidence was slightly higher in feral cats (8.3%, 11/132) compared to domesticated cats (4.3%, 7/163). This suggests the possibility that the cats of our country have become a reservoir of E...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Soykan Özkoç, Songül Bayram Delibaş, Çiler Akısü
INTRODUCTION: Microsporidia spp. are ubiquitous and infect a wide variety of intervertebrates and vertebrates, including humans. Pulmonary microsporidiosis, characterized by nonspecific symptoms like fever, cough and dyspnea, is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary infections in immunsupressed patients. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary microsporidiosis in iatrogenically immunosuppressed patients and to evaluate the patient characteristics...
March 2016: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
Valentina Virginia Ebani, Alessandro Poli, Guido Rocchigiani, Fabrizio Bertelloni, Simona Nardoni, Roberto Amerigo Papini, Francesca Mancianti
OBJECTIVE: To determine the exposure of wild brown hares [Lepus europaeus (L. europaeus), pallas] to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum), Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) sensu lato, Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi), Leishmania sp., Neospora caninum (N. caninum) and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). METHODS: Two hundred twenty-two blood serum samples of wild brown hares captured in protected areas of the province of Pisa (Central Italy) were tested to detect antibodies against the reported pathogens...
May 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Lixin Xiang, Fengguang Guo, Yonlan Yu, Lacy S Parson, Lloyd LaCoste, Anna Gibson, Steve M Presley, Markus Peterson, Thomas M Craig, Dale Rollins, Alan M Fedynich, Guan Zhu
We developed nested PCR protocols and performed a multi-year survey on the prevalence of several protozoan parasites in wild northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) in the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas and Oklahoma (i.e., fecal pellets, bird intestines and blood smears collected between 2010-2013). Coccidia, cryptosporidia and microsporidia were detected in 46.2%, 11.7% and 44.0% of the samples (n=687), whereas histomona and hematozoa were undetected. Coccidia consisted of one major and two minor Eimeria species...
May 25, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Luis E Rodríguez-Tovar, Uziel Castillo-Velázquez, Alma Y Arce-Mendoza, Alicia M Nevárez-Garza, Juan J Zarate-Ramos, Gustavo Hernández-Vidal, Heidi G Rodríguez-Ramírez, Armando Trejo-Chávez
Levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-10 were measured in the serum of immunocompetent and immunosuppressed New Zealand White rabbits naturally infected with Encephalitozoon cuniculi. IFN-γ levels were elevated in infected rabbits, and a synergic effect was observed in animals treated with the immunosuppressive agent dexamethasone (Dex). The role of IL-10 in infected rabbits remains unclear, as IL-10 levels were similar to those of negative controls. Dex appeared to exhibit a proinflammatory effect, as IFN-γ levels were elevated in infected immunosuppressed rabbits...
September 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
S M Aboelhadid, Lilian N Mahrous, Shimaa A Hashem, E M Abdel-Kafy, Robert J Miller
The effect of lemon oil (Citrus limon) on Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The mite samples were collected from naturally infected rabbits. The lemon oil was prepared in six concentrations by dilution with distilled water (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 %). In vitro application was done in five replicates for each concentration in petri dishes in the laboratory. The treated mites were observed at 1, 12, and 24 h post application (PA) for lemon oil effect. In addition, oxidative stress profile was evaluated for the treated mite...
August 2016: Parasitology Research
Mritunjay Kumar, Bhabatosh Pal, R D Purkayastha, Joybrath Roy
The objective of the present study was to investigate the clinico-pathological changes and therapeutic evaluation of gamma-benzene hexachloride and cetrimide along with vit A, D3, E and H in Black Bengal goat infested Psoroptes cuniculi mange. The study was conducted on 14 Black Bengal goats; 6 clinically infested with Psoroptes mange (group I) and 8 healthy goats (group II). Haemato-biochemical profile viz., haemoglobulin concentration, packed cell volume, total leukocyte count, albumin and albumin globulin ratio revealed significantly (P < 0...
March 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Anna Mynářová, Ivona Foitová, Martin Kváč, Dana Květoňová, Michael Rost, Helen Morrogh-Bernard, Wisnu Nurcahyo, Cathleen Nguyen, Supriyadi Supriyadi, Bohumil Sak
BACKGROUND: Orangutans are critically endangered primarily due to loss and fragmentation of their natural habitat. This could bring them into closer contact with humans and increase the risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission. AIMS: To describe the prevalence and diversity of Cryptosporidium spp., microsporidia and Giardia intestinalis in orangutans at seven sites on Sumatra and Kalimantan, and to evaluate the impact of orangutans' habituation and location on the occurrence of these zoonotic protists...
2016: PloS One
Luis E Rodríguez-Tovar, Alicia M Nevárez-Garza, Armando Trejo-Chávez, Carlos A Hernández-Martínez, Gustavo Hernández-Vidal, Juan J Zarate-Ramos, Uziel Castillo-Velázquez
This is the first confirmed report of Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) in farm meat rabbits located in Northern Mexico. Eighty young rabbits exhibited clinical signs of this zoonotic emerging disease, like torticollis, ataxia, paresis, circling, and rolling. Samples of brain, kidney, and liver were examined for histology lesions. For the first time the lesions caused by E. cuniculi were graded according to their severity (I, II, and III) and the size of the granulomas (Types A, B, and C). The main cerebral injuries were Grade III, coinciding with the presence of Type C granulomas...
2016: Journal of Pathogens
A Pelin, H Moteshareie, B Sak, M Selman, A Naor, M-È Eyahpaise, L Farinelli, A Golshani, M Kvac, N Corradi
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a model microsporidian species with a mononucleate nucleus and a genome that has been extensively studied. To date, analyses of genome diversity have revealed the existence of four genotypes in E. cuniculi (EcI, II, III and IV). Genome sequences are available for EcI, II and III, and are all very divergent, possibly diploid and genetically homogeneous. The mechanisms that cause low genetic diversity in E. cuniculi (for example, selfing, inbreeding or a combination of both), as well as the degree of genetic variation in their natural populations, have been hard to assess because genome data have been so far gathered from laboratory-propagated strains...
May 2016: Heredity
M Kicia, M Wesolowska, Z Kopacz, K Jakuszko, B Sak, D Květonová, M Krajewska, M Kváč
Transplant recipients have been identified as a new risk group for microsporidia infection. We characterize for the first time the prevalence of microsporidia in intestinal and urinary tracts of renal transplant recipients. Molecular examination of 86 patients showed that 25.5% of them were infected; 86% were confirmed to have pathogens in their urine and 45.5% in stool. Among positive patients, 32% had microsporidia confirmed in both urine and stool. Genotyping revealed Encephalitozoon cuniculi (59%) and Enterocytozoon bieneusi (23%) monoinfections as well as coinfections with both species (18%)...
May 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Christopher L Carter, Joleen K Adams, Jane A Czarra, Patricia N Coan
Here we describe a case of pseudopregnancy in a New Zealand White rabbit as a result of pair housing with an aggressive conspecific. Clinical signs included fur pulling and nest building that developed shortly after separation from the aggressor. An ovariohysterectomy was performed, and histopathologic findings support the diagnosis of pseudopregnancy. When introducing adult female rabbits to pair housing, stable pairs may be difficult to achieve because of the dominance-associated behavior that can occur as hierarchal relationships are formed...
January 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
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