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Marta Kicia, Magdalena Szydłowicz, Kamil Cebulski, Katarzyna Jakuszko, Paweł Piesiak, Aneta Kowal, Bohumil Sak, Magdalena Krajewska, Andrzej B Hendrich, Martin Kváč, Żaneta Kopacz
OBJECTIVES: Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are intracellular parasitic fungi from the phylum Microsporidia, which initially localize to intestine. As opportunistic pathogens, especially Encephalitozoons can disseminate, among others to the respiratory tract. Patients under life-long immunosuppression are at higher risk of such infections, mostly symptomatic. METHODS: Sputum samples and bronchial washings from 72 renal transplant recipients and 105 patients with various respiratory diseases were screened for Encephalitozoon spp...
October 26, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Ozcan Ozkan, Mehmet Eray Alcigir
Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a zoonotic and opportunistic pathogen, can cause latent infection, especially in lagomorphs. Nowadays, this member of the Eukaryotes has drawn significant attention in the fields of veterinary and public health. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of infection in a New Zealand rabbit farm that has a clinical history of neurological manifestations including head tilt ataxia, aggressiveness, seizures, and circling and rotational movements around the body length axis, but the general conditions and food intake were normal...
October 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Nur-Amirah Hassan, Yvonne A L Lim, Rohela Mahmud, Norashikin Mohd-Shaharuddin, Wan Yusoff Wan Sulaiman, Romano Ngui
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasitic fungi causing chronic diarrhea, particularly among immunocompromised patients. The current method used for diagnosis is based on conventional microscopy, which does not differentiate parasites at the species level. The present study was carried out to identify microsporidian species in immunocompromised patients. From March 2016 to March 2017, a total of 289 archived stool samples were examined microscopically for microsporidian spores using Gram-chromotrope Kinyoun (GCK) stain...
October 29, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Anastasia N Ignatieva, Aleksei V Gerus, Igor V Senderskiy, Svetlana M Malysh, Viktor I Dolzhenko, Yuri S Tokarev
Chorthippus loratus collected in Krasnodar Territory in 2017 was infected at 15% rate with a microsporidium possessing ovocylindrical binucleate spores, 2.6 × 1.2 μm in size. SSU RNA gene typing (Genbank accession # MH396491) showed its allocation to the genus Liebermannia. Degenerate primers based upon largest subunit RNA polymerase II (RPB1) sequences of closest relatives allowed amplifying the respective gene fragment of Liebermannia sp. (# MH396492). The present finding indicates world-wide distribution of the Liebermannia genus and parasitism in hosts with non-overlapping geographic ranges (representing Neotropical versus Palearctic fauna), while previous observations were restricted to Acridoidea endemic for South America...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Yuri S Tokarev, Sergei A Timofeev, Julia M Malysh, Alexander A Tsarev, Anastasia N Ignatieva, Oksana G Tomilova, Vyacheslav V Dolgikh
Hexokinase (HK) is a core glycolytic enzyme of Microsporidia which regulates host cell metabolic processes. The goal of the present study was to test for the utility of HK for molecular phylogenetics, species identification and molecular detection of microsporidia in infected insects. HK sequence-based reconstructions were essentially similar to those based upon largest subunit RNA polymerase (RPB1) gene sequences, as well as previously published rRNA gene and genome-based trees. Comparing HK sequences allowed clear differentiation of closely related taxa, such as Nosema bombycis and Nosema pyrausta...
October 15, 2018: Parasitology
Michaela Kotková, Bohumil Sak, Martin Kváč
Microsporidia are a group of obligate intracellular eukaryotic parasites, which are able to infect a wide range of animals, including humans. Four genotypes of Encephalitozoon cuniculi have been found to date. The different courses of microsporidiosis described in humans, which are dependent on immunological status of the host and genotype of E. cuniculi, have been successfully imitated in murine models. In the present study, we quantified the microsporidial burden in individual organs of a murine experimental model, using qPCR and we compared the parasitic load of two genotypes of E...
September 2018: Experimental Parasitology
S Kitz, F Grimm, S Wenger, J Hatt, A Kipar, U Hetzel
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an obligate intracellular microsporidian parasite that commonly induces subclinical infections in rabbits, but occurs also in a range of other species, including various rodents, carnivores, humans and birds. The present report describes encephalitozoonosis in a group of captive Barbary striped grass mice (Lemniscomys barbarus) in a zoo collection. The aetiology was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and PCR with subsequent sequencing. The source of infection is not known.
June 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Ellie Milnes, Pauline Delnatte, Hugh Y Cai, Nicole Nemeth
  A 2-mo-old Vancouver Island marmot ( Marmota vancouverensis), housed at a quarantined breeding facility, presented for acute obtundation and vestibular ataxia. Physical examination revealed poor growth compared with littermates, poor nutritional condition, and mild dehydration. The animal's condition deteriorated over 24 hr, and it was euthanized following the development of generalized seizures. No gross abnormalities were observed upon postmortem evaluation. Histologic evaluation revealed severe, multifocal, granulomatous and lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalomyelitis and interstitial nephritis, with intralesional, intracytoplasmic spore-filled, parasitophorous vacuoles and segmental, multi-organ, fibrinoid vasculitis (disseminated encephalitozoonosis)...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Itzhel García-Torres, Ignacio De la Mora-De la Mora, Gloria Hernández-Alcántara, Dora Molina-Ortiz, Silvia Caballero-Salazar, Alfonso Olivos-García, Gabriela Nava, Gabriel López-Velázquez, Sergio Enríquez-Flores
The microsporidia are a large group of intracellular parasites with a broad range of hosts, including humans. Encephalitozoon intestinalis is the second microsporidia species most frequently associated with gastrointestinal disease in humans, especially immunocompromised or immunosuppressed individuals, including children and the elderly. The prevalence reported worldwide in these groups ranges from 0 to 60%. Currently, albendazole is most commonly used to treat microsporidiosis caused by Encephalitozoon species...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Minke H W Huibers, Peter Moons, Nelson Maseko, Monfort B Gushu, Oluwadamilola H Iwajomo, Robert S Heyderman, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Eric A Brienen, Lisette van Lieshout, Job C J Calis
BACKGROUND: Intestinal protozoa are common opportunistic infections in HIV patients. Longitudinal studies on either the clinical relevance or the effect of immune reconstitution by antiretroviral therapy on intestinal protozoan infections in children are lacking however. This study investigates prevalence and clinical relevance of intestinal protozoa in HIV-infected Malawian children before and during their first year of antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: Stool samples collected at enrolment and during follow-up were tested for nonopportunistic (Giardia lamblia, Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica) and opportunistic protozoa (Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon spp...
September 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Radka Lukášová, Jiřina Marková, Eva Bártová, Jean-Benjamin Murat, Kamil Sedlák
Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi are important infectious agents, with T. gondii and E. cuniculi having zoonotic potential. There are two main clonal lineages (types I and II) of T. gondii in Europe, but little is known about genotypes of T. gondii in wild animals. The aim of our study was molecular detection of these three pathogens in tissues of wild red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes) from the Czech Republic. Using PCR (B1 gene), we detected T. gondii in 10% of the animals that we tested ( n=100); N...
October 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Trisha Peel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Marta Kicia, Maria Wesolowska, Zaneta Kopacz, Martin Kvác, Bohumil Sak, Magdalena Sokulska, Kamil Cebulski, Andrzej B Hendrich, Andrzej Pozowski
Background: Among patients with hip joint endoprosthesis, periprosthetic osteolysis is the most common complication following primary arthroplasty, and subsequent implant loosening is the leading cause of arthroplasty revision. Causes of stability loss, though not always evident, can be mechanical, allergic, or infectious (bacterial and fungal agents) in nature. Microsporidia, widespread opportunistic fungal pathogens that infect most human tissues, are a potential infectious cause of stability loss...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Ehsan Javanmard, Hamed Mirjalali, Maryam Niyyati, Esfandiar Jalilzadeh, Seyed Javad Seyed Tabaei, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad, Mohammad Reza Zali
BACKGROUND: Human-infecting microsporidia are a group of spore-forming eukaryotic microorganisms that can infect both animals and humans. Recent evidences indicate waterborne transmission of microsporidia spores to human via either drinking water or irrigation of vegetable farms with contaminated water resources. The current study aimed to evaluate the presence of human-infecting microsporidia in treated wastewater (TW) and vegetable farms irrigated with treated wastewater during a year...
May 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
I F Abou-El-Naga, D E Said, M R Gaafar, S M Ahmed, S A El-Deeb
As the current therapies for intestinal microsporidiosis are either inconsistent in their efficacies or hampered by several adverse effects, alternative antimicrosporidial agents are being sought. The present study is the first that was designed to evaluate the potency of orlistat, an approved anti-obesity drug, against intestinal microsporidiosis caused by both Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis. Results were assessed through studying fecal and intestinal spore load, intestinal histopathological changes, viability, and infectivity of spores from treated animals...
February 24, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Shuai Wang, Zhijun Yao, Lingjuan Li, Yaoqian Pan, Pengju Li, Xiaoxu Nan, Qing Xie, Zhenchao Zhang
Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are frequently reared for meat production in China. The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Encephalitozoon cuniculi, and risk factors of infection in domestic rabbits raised in Henan province, central China. 1,213 serum samples of domestic rabbits were collected and tested for anti-T. gondii and anti-E. cuniculi antibodies using a modified agglutination test (MAT) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The serum positive rates of T...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Elham Kord-Sarkachi, Mehdi Tavalla, Moluok Beiromvand
Microsporidia is often considered as an opportunistic infection in patients with impaired immune systems such as patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, transplant recipients, children and old people. Due to the ability of the parasite to transmit from animals to human as well as the increasing prevalence of parasitic infections and immune deficiency diseases; therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate molecular diagnosis of microsporidia strains in slaughtered cows of southwest of Iran. Initially, 256 stool samples of cows were collected from 5 regions of Khuzestan province, southwest of Iran and stained by modified trichrome (weber)...
March 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Martin F Heyworth
With the transformation of HIV infection from an acutely life-threatening disease into a chronic condition (as a consequence of the development of effective antiretroviral medication), the perceived clinical importance of diagnosing and treating microsporidian infections diminished, at least in industrialized countries. In locales where effective antiretroviral therapy is not available, as well as in patients with immunodeficiency for reasons other than HIV infection (e.g., following organ transplantation), and in individuals with suspected ocular microsporidiosis, diagnosing microsporidian infections remains a clinical priority...
September 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Alicia M Nevárez-Garza, Uziel Castillo-Velázquez, Adolfo Soto-Domínguez, R Montes-de-Oca-Luna, Diana E Zamora-Ávila, Alfredo Wong-González, Luis E Rodríguez-Tovar
The expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α, interleukin (IL) -4 and IL-10, as well as apoptosis and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured in the brain and kidneys of immunocompetent and immunosuppressed New Zealand White rabbits infected with Encephalitozoon cuniculi. All of the animals had clinical signs histopathological lesions compatible with encephalitozoonosis and were E. cuniculi-positive by using a carbon immunoassay test. Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection promoted the expression of TNF-α and NO production in the kidneys of infected rabbits, and a synergic effect was observed in animal treated with dexamethasone...
April 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Martin Kvac, Lada Hofmannova, Ynes Ortega, Nikola Holubova, Michaela Horcickova, Marta Kicia, Lenka Hlaskova, Dana Kvetonova, Bohumil Sak, John McEvoy
Faecal samples were collected from cats kept as pets (n = 120) and stray cats (n = 135) in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia) and screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis (Kunstler, 1882), Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi Desportes, Le Charpentier, Galian, Bernard, Cochand-Priollet, Lavergne, Ravisse et Modigliani, 1985 by PCR analysis of the small-subunit of rRNA (Cryptosporidium spp. and G. intestinalis) and ITS (microsporidia) genes. Sequence analysis of targeted genes revealed the presence of C...
December 6, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
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