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Guillaume Desoubeaux, Ana Pantin, Roman Peschke, Anja Joachim, Carolyn Cray
Diagnosis of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits remains a major veterinary issue. ELISA or immunofluorescence assays are the current reference standards of serological tests. However, these conventional techniques suffer from a lack of accuracy for distinguishing active from past infections, as a positive serostatus is common in clinically normal rabbits. In this study, we assessed the diagnostic performance of Western blot (WB) to detect both anti-E. cuniculi immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) in comparison with ELISA and to address the intensity of the immune response through a quantitative approach...
December 13, 2016: Parasitology Research
Paulina Coria, Claudia Urízar, Andrea Alba, Isabel Noemí, Anita Pino, José Luis Cerva
INTRODUCTION: The hospital water supply is a reservoir of a variety of potentially pathogenic microorganisms that can particularly affect children and immunocompromised patients. Potentially pathogenic Microsporidium spp. have been identified in water. Microsporidiosis is an emerging parasitic and opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: to describe an outbreak of nosocomial diarrhea due to Microsporidium, species Encephalitozoon intestinalis...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
S S Abu-Akkada, S S Oda
This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of oral administration of fenbendazole (20 mg/kg body weight) prior to and after experimental infection of immunosuppressed rabbits with Encephalitozoon cuniculi. A total of thirty rabbits were divided into five groups: NN (non-immunosuppressed; non-infected), IN (immunosuppressed; non-infected), IPI (immunosuppressed; protected-infected), ITI (immunosuppressed; treated-infected), and II (immunosuppressed; infected) groups. Fenbendazole was administered as a prophylactic for seven successive days before infection with E...
2016: Iranian journal of veterinary research
Lidiana Flora Vidoto da Costa, Anuska Marcelino Alvares-Saraiva, Paulo Ricardo Dell'Armelina Rocha, Diva Denelle Spadacci-Morena, Elizabeth Cristina Perez, Mario Mariano, Maria Anete Lallo
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an opportunist intracellular pathogen of mammals. The adaptive immune response is essential to eliminate E. cuniculi, but evidence is mounting that the response initiated by the innate immune response may ultimately define whether or not the parasite can survive. B-1 cells may act as antigen-presenting cells or differentiate into phagocytes, playing different roles in many infection models. However, the role of these cells in the dynamics of Encephalitozoon sp. infections is still unknown...
February 2017: Immunobiology
Jinshan Xu, Qiang He, Zhenggang Ma, Tian Li, Xiaoyan Zhang, Bettina A Debrunner-Vossbrinck, Zeyang Zhou, Charles R Vossbrinck
The microsporidian parasite designated here as Nosema sp. Isolate YNPr was isolated from the cabbage butterfly Pieris rapae collected in Honghe Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The genome was sequenced by Illumina sequencing and compared to those of two related members of the Nosema/Vairimorpha clade, Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis. Based upon assembly statistics, the Nosema sp. YNPr genome is 3.36 x 106bp with a G+C content of 23.18% and 2,075 protein coding sequences. An "ACCCTT" motif is present approximately 50-bp upstream of the start codon, as reported from other members of the clade and from Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a sister taxon...
2016: PloS One
Ülfet Çetinkaya, Süleyman Yazar, Salih Kuk, Eda Sivcan, Leylagül Kaynar, Duran Arslan, İzzet Şahin
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis in different patient groups consisting of immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The stool samples of 100 patients consisting of 25 patients receiving chemotherapy and with acute gastrointestinal complaints, 25 with bone marrow transplant and acute gastrointestinal complaints, 25 with urticaria, and 25 with growth retardation were included in the study...
June 23, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Lionel Schilliger, Véronique Mentré, Rachel E Marschang, Alexandra Nicolier, Barbara Richter
A 2-month-old juvenile central bearded dragon was presented for anorexia and cachexia. Another specimen from the same cage had died suddenly 2 weeks prior. Fecal analysis revealed a high quantity of Isospora amphiboluri and a few pinworm eggs. Other examinations were not performed and the animal died a few days later despite supportive care. A third individual from the same cage presented with anorexia and a distended cœlom and was euthanized. In this third dragon, histological examination revealed intestinal coccidiosis, basophilic intranuclear inclusions compatible with adenovirus infection, acute hepatic necrosis with intrahepatocytic and intraenteritic organisms typical of microsporidia and renal gout...
October 12, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Ryusuke Tsukada, Yuki Osaka, Tomomi Takano, Mizuki Sasaki, Mitsuhiro Inose, Hiromi Ikadai
Antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using E. cuniculi PTP2 recombinant protein from serum samples that had been collected from a total of 295 cats in Japan. Of these samples, 6.1% (18/295) had antibodies against E. cuniculi, which included 6.3% (6/96) of the male cats and 6.0% (12/199) of the female cats. The incidence was slightly higher in feral cats (8.3%, 11/132) compared to domesticated cats (4.3%, 7/163). This suggests the possibility that the cats of our country have become a reservoir of E...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Soykan Özkoç, Songül Bayram Delibaş, Çiler Akısü
INTRODUCTION: Microsporidia spp. are ubiquitous and infect a wide variety of intervertebrates and vertebrates, including humans. Pulmonary microsporidiosis, characterized by nonspecific symptoms like fever, cough and dyspnea, is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary infections in immunsupressed patients. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary microsporidiosis in iatrogenically immunosuppressed patients and to evaluate the patient characteristics...
March 2016: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
Valentina Virginia Ebani, Alessandro Poli, Guido Rocchigiani, Fabrizio Bertelloni, Simona Nardoni, Roberto Amerigo Papini, Francesca Mancianti
OBJECTIVE: To determine the exposure of wild brown hares [Lepus europaeus (L. europaeus), pallas] to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum), Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) sensu lato, Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi), Leishmania sp., Neospora caninum (N. caninum) and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). METHODS: Two hundred twenty-two blood serum samples of wild brown hares captured in protected areas of the province of Pisa (Central Italy) were tested to detect antibodies against the reported pathogens...
May 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Lixin Xiang, Fengguang Guo, Yonglan Yu, Lacy S Parson, Lloyd LaCoste, Anna Gibson, Steve M Presley, Markus Peterson, Thomas M Craig, Dale Rollins, Alan M Fedynich, Guan Zhu
We developed nested PCR protocols and performed a multiyear survey on the prevalence of several protozoan parasites in wild northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) in the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas and Oklahoma (i.e. fecal pellets, bird intestines and blood smears collected between 2010 and 2013). Coccidia, cryptosporidia, and microsporidia were detected in 46.2%, 11.7%, and 44.0% of the samples (n = 687), whereas histomona and hematozoa were undetected. Coccidia consisted of one major and two minor Eimeria species...
January 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Ujjala Ghoshal, Sonali Khanduja, Priyannk Pant, Uday C Ghoshal
Detection of microsporidia at the species level is important for therapeutic purpose. The available techniques, modified trichrome (MT) staining cannot differentiate between species, while polymerase chain reaction (PCR) requires a reference laboratory and skilled technical staff. Immunoflourescence antibody (IFA) assay is another technique, which can differentiate among commonest species of microsporidia. However, there are very limited studies on its efficacy worldwide. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate IFA assay for the detection of microsporidia and differentiation among commonest species, Enterocytozoon bieneusi (E...
October 2016: Parasitology Research
Luis E Rodríguez-Tovar, Uziel Castillo-Velázquez, Alma Y Arce-Mendoza, Alicia M Nevárez-Garza, Juan J Zarate-Ramos, Gustavo Hernández-Vidal, Heidi G Rodríguez-Ramírez, Armando Trejo-Chávez
Levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-10 were measured in the serum of immunocompetent and immunosuppressed New Zealand White rabbits naturally infected with Encephalitozoon cuniculi. IFN-γ levels were elevated in infected rabbits, and a synergic effect was observed in animals treated with the immunosuppressive agent dexamethasone (Dex). The role of IL-10 in infected rabbits remains unclear, as IL-10 levels were similar to those of negative controls. Dex appeared to exhibit a proinflammatory effect, as IFN-γ levels were elevated in infected immunosuppressed rabbits...
September 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Sonali Khanduja, Ujjala Ghoshal, Vikas Agarwal, Priyannk Pant, Uday C Ghoshal
Microsporidia cause diarrhea among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients worldwide. Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are the most common species infecting HIV patients. Various genotypes of E. bieneusi are transmitted from human to human (anthroponotic route) or from animal to human (zoonotic route). However, there is no study from India on genotypes of E. bieneusi among infected hosts. Therefore, we aimed to (a) study the prevalence, clinical symptoms, and species identification of microsporidia among HIV infected patients and (b) perform a genotypic analysis of E...
April 18, 2016: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Anna Mynářová, Ivona Foitová, Martin Kváč, Dana Květoňová, Michael Rost, Helen Morrogh-Bernard, Wisnu Nurcahyo, Cathleen Nguyen, Supriyadi Supriyadi, Bohumil Sak
BACKGROUND: Orangutans are critically endangered primarily due to loss and fragmentation of their natural habitat. This could bring them into closer contact with humans and increase the risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission. AIMS: To describe the prevalence and diversity of Cryptosporidium spp., microsporidia and Giardia intestinalis in orangutans at seven sites on Sumatra and Kalimantan, and to evaluate the impact of orangutans' habituation and location on the occurrence of these zoonotic protists...
2016: PloS One
Luis E Rodríguez-Tovar, Alicia M Nevárez-Garza, Armando Trejo-Chávez, Carlos A Hernández-Martínez, Gustavo Hernández-Vidal, Juan J Zarate-Ramos, Uziel Castillo-Velázquez
This is the first confirmed report of Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) in farm meat rabbits located in Northern Mexico. Eighty young rabbits exhibited clinical signs of this zoonotic emerging disease, like torticollis, ataxia, paresis, circling, and rolling. Samples of brain, kidney, and liver were examined for histology lesions. For the first time the lesions caused by E. cuniculi were graded according to their severity (I, II, and III) and the size of the granulomas (Types A, B, and C). The main cerebral injuries were Grade III, coinciding with the presence of Type C granulomas...
2016: Journal of Pathogens
J Rosell, M Máinez, E S Didier, L C Bowers, A Marco, C Juan-Sallés
A European goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis), a canary (Serinus canaria), and a lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) captive-bred at three different private aviaries in Spain were submitted for necropsy with a history of weakness and ruffled feathers, weight loss associated with glossitis, and respiratory disease, respectively. Microscopically, enterocytes in the jejunum and ileum contained colonies of gram- and Stamp-positive, oval to elliptical microorganisms within parasitophorous vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm...
March 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Carmen E Bernal, Maria M Zorro, Jelver Sierra, Katherine Gilchrist, Jorge H Botero, Andres Baena, Jose R Ramirez-Pineda
Microsporidia are a group of intracellular pathogens causing self-limited and severe diseases in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals, respectively. A cellular type 1 adaptive response, mediated by IL-12, IFNγ, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells has been shown to be essential for host resistance, and dendritic cells (DC) play a key role at eliciting anti-microsporidial immunity. We investigated the in vitro response of DC and DC precursors/progenitors to infection with Encephalitozoon intestinalis (Ei), a common agent of human microsporidosis...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
A Pelin, H Moteshareie, B Sak, M Selman, A Naor, M-È Eyahpaise, L Farinelli, A Golshani, M Kvac, N Corradi
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a model microsporidian species with a mononucleate nucleus and a genome that has been extensively studied. To date, analyses of genome diversity have revealed the existence of four genotypes in E. cuniculi (EcI, II, III and IV). Genome sequences are available for EcI, II and III, and are all very divergent, possibly diploid and genetically homogeneous. The mechanisms that cause low genetic diversity in E. cuniculi (for example, selfing, inbreeding or a combination of both), as well as the degree of genetic variation in their natural populations, have been hard to assess because genome data have been so far gathered from laboratory-propagated strains...
May 2016: Heredity
M Kicia, M Wesolowska, Z Kopacz, K Jakuszko, B Sak, D Květonová, M Krajewska, M Kváč
Transplant recipients have been identified as a new risk group for microsporidia infection. We characterize for the first time the prevalence of microsporidia in intestinal and urinary tracts of renal transplant recipients. Molecular examination of 86 patients showed that 25.5% of them were infected; 86% were confirmed to have pathogens in their urine and 45.5% in stool. Among positive patients, 32% had microsporidia confirmed in both urine and stool. Genotyping revealed Encephalitozoon cuniculi (59%) and Enterocytozoon bieneusi (23%) monoinfections as well as coinfections with both species (18%)...
May 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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