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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146032/clinical-signs-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-encephalitozoon-cuniculi-infection-in-rabbits
#1
REVIEW
Frank Künzel, Peter G Fisher
Central vestibular dysfunction caused by Encephalitozoon cuniculi frequently mimics the condition of a peripheral disorder. A negative antibody titer rules out E cuniculi as the cause of present clinical signs. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis including polymerase chain reaction is considered an inappropriate diagnostic method for in vivo diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis. The usefulness of glucocorticoid anti-inflammatories in the treatment of encephalitozoonosis is called into question. Encouraging activity early in the course of disease and adding in therapeutic exercise may represent the most important part of therapy in rabbits with vestibular dysfunction associated with encephalitozoonosis...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121996/production-and-characterization-of-monoclonal-antibodies-against-encephalitozoon-intestinalis-and-encephalitozoon-sp-spores-and-their-developmental-stages
#2
Fernando Izquierdo, Hercules Moura, Fernando Jorge Bornay-Llinares, Rama Sriram, Carolina Hurtado, Ángela Magnet, Soledad Fenoy, Govinda Visvesvara, Carmen Del Aguila
BACKGROUND: Microsporidia are intracellular obligate parasites traditionally associated with immunosuppressed patients; their detection in immunocompetent patients has increased, highlighting their possible importance as emerging pathogens. Detection of spores in stools, urine, body fluids and tissues is difficult and immunological techniques such as immunofluorescence have proved to be a useful and reliable tool in the diagnosis of human microsporidiosis. For this reason, we have produced and characterized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for Encephalitozoon intestinalis (the second most frequent microsporidian infecting humans), and other Encephalitozoon species, that can be used in different diagnostic techniques...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099899/-nephritis-in-a-staffordshire-terrier-puppy-caused-by-encephalitozoon-cuniculi-genotype-i
#3
Stephan Engelhardt, Astrid Buder, Katja Pfeil, Ulrike Schwittlick, Eva Klas, Barbara Hinney, Heike Aupperle-Lellbach, Ingo Pfeil
An 8-week-old puppy was presented to the clinic because of anorexia, polyuria, polydipsia and azotemia. The urinary sediment displayed large amounts of protozoan-like organisms, which could be identified by PCR as Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype I. In the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) an antibody titer against E. cuniculi of 1  :  2560 was found. The dog was treated with fenbendazole over 3 weeks. After 3 months, an antibody titer against E. cuniculi could no longer be detected. The dog recovered completely...
November 3, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091912/diabetes-mellitus-increases-the-susceptibility-to-encephalitozoonosis-in-mice
#4
Aldo Francisco Neto, Paulo Ricardo Dell'Armelina Rocha, Elizabeth Christina Perez, José Guilherme Xavier, Giovani Bravin Peres, Diva Denelle Spadacci-Morena, Anuska Marcelino Alvares-Saraiva, Maria Anete Lallo
Microsporidiosis are diseases caused by opportunistic intracellular fungi in immunosuppressed individuals, as well as in transplanted patients, the elderly and children, among others. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and decreased T cell response, neutrophil function, humoral immunity failure, increasing the susceptibility to infections. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetic and/or immunosuppressed mice to encephalitozoonosis by Encephalitozoon cuniculi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026616/first-report-of-fatal-disseminated-microsporidiosis-in-two-inland-bearded-dragons-pogona-vitticeps-in-japan
#5
Kojiro Shibasaki, Toshihiro Tokiwa, Akihiro Sukegawa, Hirotaka Kondo, Kenichi Tamukai, Yumiko Haga, Kazunori Ike
Introduction.Encephalitozoon pogonae is a newly described pathogen belonging to the phylum Microsporidia. In Austria and the USA, this species has been isolated from fatal and disseminated cases of captive-bred inland bearded dragons. Here, we report the case of fatal disseminated microsporidiosis caused by E. pogonae in two bearded dragons in Japan. Case Presentation. The two lizards from different private households in Tokyo, Japan, had been brought to an animal hospital for examination. In both cases, the animal presented with a history of weight loss for several weeks...
April 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969771/zoonotic-microsporidia-in-dogs-and-cats-in-poland
#6
Jolanta Piekarska, Marta Kicia, Maria Wesołowska, Żaneta Kopacz, Michał Gorczykowski, Barbara Szczepankiewicz, Martin Kváč, Bohumil Sak
This study investigated the prevalence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic concerns of microsporidia in household dogs and cats in Poland. A total of 126 (82 dogs and 44 cats) fecal specimens were analyzed for the presence of specific DNA of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. using a nested PCR protocol amplifying the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene. Microsporidia were found in 10 (7.9%) out of the 126 examined stool samples. Of the 82 dogs, 4 (4.9%) and 2 (2.4%) were positive for E...
November 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942047/the-course-of-infection-caused-by-encephalitozoon-cuniculi-genotype-iii-in-immunocompetent-and-immunodeficient-mice
#7
Michaela Kotková, Bohumil Sak, Lenka Hlásková, Martin Kváč
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is probably the most common microsporidia which infects a wide range of vertebrates, including human. So far, four genotypes of this parasite have been identified based on the rRNA internal transcribed spacer variations. The course of infection caused by E. cuniculi III had very massive onset in immunocompetent host characterized by the presence of this parasite in all organs and tissues within one week after peroral infection. Encephalitozoonosis caused by E. cuniculi III had very progressive spreading into all organs within first week post inoculation in immunocompromised SCID mice and led to the death of the host...
November 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903465/role-of-host-cell-integrins-in-the-microsporidium-encephalitozoon-intestinalis-adherence-and-infection-in-vitro
#8
Cory A Leonard, J Russell Hayman
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular, spore-forming, fungal-related pathogens that employ a unique organelle, the polar tube, to transfer infectious spore contents into host cells to initiate infection. Spore adherence to host cells may provide the proximity required for polar tube/host cell interaction during in vivo infection. In previous in vitro studies, host sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or recombinant microsporidia endospore protein (EnP1) was implicated in the pathogen adherence and infection process; however, complete ablation of spore adherence and infection could not be achieved, suggesting that additional or alternative spore and host cell determinants of adherence and infection may exist...
September 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869156/molecular-diagnosis-of-potentially-human-pathogenic-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-and-encephalitozoon-species-in-exotic-birds-in-southwestern-iran
#9
Mehdi Tavalla, Masoumeh Mardani-Kateki, Rahman Abdizadeh, Shahrzad Soltani, Jasem Saki
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites that produce spores. The infections caused by these parasites are mostly considered to be opportunistic in immunodeficient patients. Because of the zoonotic nature of microsporidia as well as the increasing prevalence of immunodeficiency diseases, the aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular diagnosis of Enterocytozoon bieneusi (E. bieneusi) and Encephalitozoon spp. in exotic birds in southwestern Iran. Initially, 816 stool specimens were collected and stained by modified trichrome (Weber) staining...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779899/effects-of-selected-indonesian-plant-extracts-on-e-%C3%A2-cuniculi-infection-in%C3%A2-vivo
#10
Bohumil Sak, Anna Jandová, Karel Doležal, Martin Kváč, Dana Květoňová, Lenka Hlásková, Michael Rost, Milan Olšanský, Wisnu Nurcahyo, Ivona Foitová
The present study was conducted to evaluate the methanolic extracts from several plant leaves widely used in traditional medicine to cure digestive tract disorders and in the self-medication of wild animals such as non-human primates, namely Archidendron fagifolium, Diospyros sumatrana, Shorea sumatrana, and Piper betle leaves, with regard to their antimicrosporidial activity against Encephalitozoon cuniculi in immunocompetent BALB/c mice determined using molecular detection of microsporidial DNA (qPCR) in various tissues and body fluids of infected, treated mice...
October 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754285/dynamics-of-parasitophorous-vacuoles-formed-by-the-microsporidian-pathogen-encephalitozoon-cuniculi
#11
Soo Chan Lee, Joseph Heitman
It has been a long-standing debate if sexual development occurs in the microsporidian lineages. Previous studies, including morphological observations, ploidy analysis, and the presence of a sex-related locus, provided evidence of possible extant of sexual development. This study presents another line of evidence by monitoring the parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs) formed by Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Time lapse observations of infection cycles of E. cuniculi revealed that multiple PVs can be formed in a single host cell and the PVs in the single cell can merge (fusion) or split (fission)...
October 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723944/application-of-mass-spectrometry-to-elucidate-the-pathophysiology-of-encephalitozoon-cuniculi-infection-in-rabbits
#12
Guillaume Desoubeaux, Maria Del Carmen Piqueras, Ana Pantin, Sanjoy K Bhattacharya, Roman Peschke, Anja Joachim, Carolyn Cray
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidian species which can induce subclinical to serious disease in mammals including rabbits, a definitive natural host. The pathophysiology of infection has not been comprehensively elucidated. In this exploratory study, we utilized two mass spectrometry approaches: first, the analysis of the humoral response by profiling the microsporidian antigens as revealed by Western blot screening, and second, implementing the iTRAQ®-labeling protocol to focus on the changes within the host proteome during infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635524/serology-and-protein-electrophoresis-for-evidence-of-exposure-to-12-mink-pathogens-in-free-ranging-american-mink-neovison-vison-in-argentina
#13
Pablo Eduardo Martino, Luis Ernesto Samartino, Néstor Oscar Stanchi, Nilda Esther Radman, Eduardo Joaquín Parrado
BACKGROUND: Basic pathologic characteristics for farmed minks were previously reported worldwide. However, its status in the wild has not been studied in detail. OBJECTIVE: Serology and electrophoresis were carried out for evidence of exposure to 12 mink pathogens on two different locations. ANIMALS AND METHODS: Serology was done in 87 wild minks by reference techniques against Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Neospora caninum, Brucella abortus, Mycobacterium bovis, Leptospira interrogans, canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus (CAV), canine parvovirus (CPV), rabies virus (RV), Influenza A virus (FLUAV) and Aleutian disease virus (ADV)...
December 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567444/toxoplasma-gondii-maf1b-binds-the-host-cell-mib-complex-to-mediate-mitochondrial-association
#14
Felice D Kelly, Brian M Wei, Alicja M Cygan, Michelle L Parker, Martin J Boulanger, John C Boothroyd
Many diverse intracellular pathogens, such as Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydia psittaci, Encephalitozoon sp., and Toxoplasma gondii, manipulate and relocate host cell organelles, including mitochondria. Toxoplasma tachyzoites use a secreted protein, mitochondrial association factor 1b (MAF1b), to drive the association between the host mitochondria and the membrane of the parasitophorous vacuole, in which the parasites grow. The identity of the host partner in this interaction, however, has not previously been identified...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502260/the-first-study-on-opportunistic-intestinal-microsporidiosis-in-ibd-patients-receiving-immunosuppressive-medications-in-iran
#15
Z Hasani, H Asadzadeh Aghdaei, H Balaii, M Azimirad, E S Mirsamadi, H Mirjalali, M R Zali
Microsporida are known as opportunistic unicellular organisms and have recently been reclassified as fungi that have been frequently reported from patients with congenital and acquired immunity failure disorders, worldwide. However, use of immunosuppressive medications in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients significantly decreases overall immunity, and increases their susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Totally, 71 stool samples were collected from IBD patients consisted of 69 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and two Crohn's disease (CD) patients...
July 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438442/molecular-identification-of-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-and-encephalitozoon-spp-in-immunodeficient-patients-in-ahvaz-southwest-of-iran
#16
Mehdi Tavalla, Masoumeh Mardani-Kateki, Rahman Abdizadeh, Roohangiz Nashibi, Abdollah Rafie, Shahram Khademvatan
Microsporidia are often considered as an opportunistic infection in patients with impaired immune systems such as transplant recipients and patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Due to the increasing prevalence of parasitic infections and immunodeficiency diseases; the aim of the study is to evaluate molecular identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. in immunodeficient patients in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. At first, 310 stool samples were collected from patients with immunodeficiency...
August 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426751/the-role-of-microsporidian-polar-tube-protein-4-ptp4-in-host-cell-infection
#17
Bing Han, Valérie Polonais, Tatsuki Sugi, Rama Yakubu, Peter M Takvorian, Ann Cali, Keith Maier, Mengxian Long, Matthew Levy, Herbert B Tanowitz, Guoqing Pan, Frédéric Delbac, Zeyang Zhou, Louis M Weiss
Microsporidia have been identified as pathogens that have important effects on our health, food security and economy. A key to the success of these obligate intracellular pathogens is their unique invasion organelle, the polar tube, which delivers the nucleus containing sporoplasm into host cells during invasion. Due to the size of the polar tube, the rapidity of polar tube discharge and sporoplasm passage, and the absence of genetic techniques for the manipulation of microsporidia, study of this organelle has been difficult and there is relatively little known regarding polar tube formation and the function of the proteins making up this structure...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339881/genetic-aspects-and-environmental-sources-of-microsporidia-that-infect-the-human-gastrointestinal-tract
#18
Martin F Heyworth
Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are microsporidia that infect the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Each of these microsporidia has been shown to infect various non-human hosts (mammalian and avian), raising the possibility of inter-species transmission, for example, from such hosts to human subjects via waterborne dispersal of microsporidian spores. During the past two decades, genome sequencing has delineated more than 90 genotypes of Ent. bieneusi, and has led to the conclusion that not all the genotypes of this organism infect human subjects...
January 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338834/comparative-genomics-of-microsporidian-genomes-reveals-a-minimal-non-coding-rna-set-and-new-insights-for-transcription-in-minimal-eukaryotic-genomes
#19
Abdel Belkorchia, Jean-François Pombert, Valérie Polonais, Nicolas Parisot, Frédéric Delbac, Jean-François Brugère, Pierre Peyret, Christine Gaspin, Eric Peyretaillade
Microsporidia are ubiquitous intracellular pathogens whose opportunistic nature led to their increased recognition with the rise of the AIDS pandemic. As the RNA world was largely unexplored in this parasitic lineage, we developed a dedicated in silico methodology to carry out exhaustive identification of ncRNAs across the Encephalitozoon and Nosema genera. Thus, the previously missing U1 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) targeting only the LSU rRNA were highlighted and were further validated using 5' and 3'RACE-PCR experiments...
June 1, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321967/comparative-analysis-of-the-proteins-with-tandem-repeats-from-8-microsporidia-and-characterization-of-a-novel-endospore-wall-protein-colocalizing-with-polar-tube-from-nosema-bombycis
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ying Wang, Huixia Geng, Xiaoqun Dang, Heng Xiang, Tian Li, Guoqing Pan, Zeyang Zhou
As a common feature of eukaryotic proteins, tandem amino acid repeat has been studied extensively in both animal and plant proteins. Here, a comparative analysis focusing on the proteins having tandem repeats was conducted in eight microsporidia, including four mammal-infecting microsporidia (Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Encephalitozoon hellem and Encephalitozoon bieneusi) and four insect-infecting microsporidia (Nosema apis, Nosema ceranae, Vavraia culicis and Nosema bombycis). We found that the proteins with tandem repeats were abundant in these species...
September 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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