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I F Abou-El-Naga, D E Said, M R Gaafar, S M Ahmed, S A El-Deeb
As the current therapies for intestinal microsporidiosis are either inconsistent in their efficacies or hampered by several adverse effects, alternative antimicrosporidial agents are being sought. The present study is the first that was designed to evaluate the potency of orlistat, an approved anti-obesity drug, against intestinal microsporidiosis caused by both Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis. Results were assessed through studying fecal and intestinal spore load, intestinal histopathological changes, viability, and infectivity of spores from treated animals...
February 24, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Shuai Wang, Zhijun Yao, Lingjuan Li, Yaoqian Pan, Pengju Li, Xiaoxu Nan, Qing Xie, Zhenchao Zhang
Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are frequently reared for meat production in China. The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Encephalitozoon cuniculi, and risk factors of infection in domestic rabbits raised in Henan province, central China. 1,213 serum samples of domestic rabbits were collected and tested for anti-T. gondii and anti-E. cuniculi antibodies using a modified agglutination test (MAT) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The serum positive rates of T...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Elham Kord-Sarkachi, Mehdi Tavalla, Moluok Beiromvand
Microsporidia is often considered as an opportunistic infection in patients with impaired immune systems such as patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, transplant recipients, children and old people. Due to the ability of the parasite to transmit from animals to human as well as the increasing prevalence of parasitic infections and immune deficiency diseases; therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate molecular diagnosis of microsporidia strains in slaughtered cows of southwest of Iran. Initially, 256 stool samples of cows were collected from 5 regions of Khuzestan province, southwest of Iran and stained by modified trichrome (weber)...
March 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Martin F Heyworth
With the transformation of HIV infection from an acutely life-threatening disease into a chronic condition (as a consequence of the development of effective antiretroviral medication), the perceived clinical importance of diagnosing and treating microsporidian infections diminished, at least in industrialized countries. In locales where effective antiretroviral therapy is not available, as well as in patients with immunodeficiency for reasons other than HIV infection (e.g., following organ transplantation), and in individuals with suspected ocular microsporidiosis, diagnosing microsporidian infections remains a clinical priority...
December 13, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Alicia M Nevárez-Garza, Uziel Castillo-Velázquez, Adolfo Soto-Domínguez, R Montes-de-Oca-Luna, Diana E Zamora-Ávila, Alfredo Wong-González, Luis E Rodríguez-Tovar
The expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α, interleukin (IL) -4 and IL-10, as well as apoptosis and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured in the brain and kidneys of immunocompetent and immunosuppressed New Zealand White rabbits infected with Encephalitozoon cuniculi. All of the animals had clinical signs histopathological lesions compatible with encephalitozoonosis and were E. cuniculi-positive by using a carbon immunoassay test. Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection promoted the expression of TNF-α and NO production in the kidneys of infected rabbits, and a synergic effect was observed in animal treated with dexamethasone...
April 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Martin Kvac, Lada Hofmannova, Ynes Ortega, Nikola Holubova, Michaela Horcickova, Marta Kicia, Lenka Hlaskova, Dana Kvetonova, Bohumil Sak, John McEvoy
Faecal samples were collected from cats kept as pets (n = 120) and stray cats (n = 135) in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia) and screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis (Kunstler, 1882), Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi Desportes, Le Charpentier, Galian, Bernard, Cochand-Priollet, Lavergne, Ravisse et Modigliani, 1985 by PCR analysis of the small-subunit of rRNA (Cryptosporidium spp. and G. intestinalis) and ITS (microsporidia) genes. Sequence analysis of targeted genes revealed the presence of C...
December 6, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
Rick F Sanchez, Richard Everson, Joanna Hedley, Charlotte Dawson, Richard Lam, Simon L Priestnall, Alejandra Garcia de Carellan, Cristina de Miguel, Christopher Seymour
OBJECTIVE: To describe the presentation of 15 rabbits with naturally occurring cataracts referred for phacoemulsification surgery, the procedure in 13 cases and the follow-up in 12. ANIMALS INCLUDED: Fifteen rabbits (30 eyes), nine of which stopped following visual cues in association with cataract progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rabbits underwent preoperative ophthalmic and ocular ultrasound examination. RESULTS: Thirteen rabbits (22 eyes) had mature cataracts...
December 4, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Denise Langanke Dos Santos, Anuska Marcelino Alvares-Saraiva, José Guilherme Xavier, Diva Denelle Spadacci-Morena, Giovani Bravin Peres, Paulo Ricardo Dell'Armelina Rocha, Elizabeth Cristina Perez, Maria Anete Lallo
Microsporidia are intracellular pathogens that cause severe disease in immunocompromised humans and animals. We recently demonstrated that XID mice are more susceptible to Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection by intraperitoneal route, evidencing the role of B-1 cells in resistance against infection. The present study investigated the resistance and susceptibility against E. cuniculi oral infection, including the role of B-1 cells. BALB/c and BALB/c XID (B-1 cells deficient) mice were orally infected with E...
December 1, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Frank Künzel, Peter G Fisher
Central vestibular dysfunction caused by Encephalitozoon cuniculi frequently mimics the condition of a peripheral disorder. A negative antibody titer rules out E cuniculi as the cause of present clinical signs. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis including polymerase chain reaction is considered an inappropriate diagnostic method for in vivo diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis. The usefulness of glucocorticoid anti-inflammatories in the treatment of encephalitozoonosis is called into question. Encouraging activity early in the course of disease and adding in therapeutic exercise may represent the most important part of therapy in rabbits with vestibular dysfunction associated with encephalitozoonosis...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Fernando Izquierdo, Hercules Moura, Fernando Jorge Bornay-Llinares, Rama Sriram, Carolina Hurtado, Ángela Magnet, Soledad Fenoy, Govinda Visvesvara, Carmen Del Aguila
BACKGROUND: Microsporidia are intracellular obligate parasites traditionally associated with immunosuppressed patients; their detection in immunocompetent patients has increased, highlighting their possible importance as emerging pathogens. Detection of spores in stools, urine, body fluids and tissues is difficult and immunological techniques such as immunofluorescence have proved to be a useful and reliable tool in the diagnosis of human microsporidiosis. For this reason, we have produced and characterized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for Encephalitozoon intestinalis (the second most frequent microsporidian infecting humans), and other Encephalitozoon species, that can be used in different diagnostic techniques...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Stephan Engelhardt, Astrid Buder, Katja Pfeil, Ulrike Schwittlick, Eva Klas, Barbara Hinney, Heike Aupperle-Lellbach, Ingo Pfeil
An 8-week-old puppy was presented to the clinic because of anorexia, polyuria, polydipsia and azotemia. The urinary sediment displayed large amounts of protozoan-like organisms, which could be identified by PCR as Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype I. In the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) an antibody titer against E. cuniculi of 1  :  2560 was found. The dog was treated with fenbendazole over 3 weeks. After 3 months, an antibody titer against E. cuniculi could no longer be detected. The dog recovered completely...
November 3, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Aldo Francisco Neto, Paulo Ricardo Dell'Armelina Rocha, Elizabeth Christina Perez, José Guilherme Xavier, Giovani Bravin Peres, Diva Denelle Spadacci-Morena, Anuska Marcelino Alvares-Saraiva, Maria Anete Lallo
Microsporidiosis are diseases caused by opportunistic intracellular fungi in immunosuppressed individuals, as well as in transplanted patients, the elderly and children, among others. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and decreased T cell response, neutrophil function, humoral immunity failure, increasing the susceptibility to infections. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetic and/or immunosuppressed mice to encephalitozoonosis by Encephalitozoon cuniculi...
2017: PloS One
Kojiro Shibasaki, Toshihiro Tokiwa, Akihiro Sukegawa, Hirotaka Kondo, Kenichi Tamukai, Yumiko Haga, Kazunori Ike
Introduction.Encephalitozoon pogonae is a newly described pathogen belonging to the phylum Microsporidia. In Austria and the USA, this species has been isolated from fatal and disseminated cases of captive-bred inland bearded dragons. Here, we report the case of fatal disseminated microsporidiosis caused by E. pogonae in two bearded dragons in Japan. Case Presentation. The two lizards from different private households in Tokyo, Japan, had been brought to an animal hospital for examination. In both cases, the animal presented with a history of weight loss for several weeks...
April 2017: JMM Case Reports
Jolanta Piekarska, Marta Kicia, Maria Wesołowska, Żaneta Kopacz, Michał Gorczykowski, Barbara Szczepankiewicz, Martin Kváč, Bohumil Sak
This study investigated the prevalence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic concerns of microsporidia in household dogs and cats in Poland. A total of 126 (82 dogs and 44 cats) fecal specimens were analyzed for the presence of specific DNA of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. using a nested PCR protocol amplifying the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene. Microsporidia were found in 10 (7.9%) out of the 126 examined stool samples. Of the 82 dogs, 4 (4.9%) and 2 (2.4%) were positive for E...
November 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Michaela Kotková, Bohumil Sak, Lenka Hlásková, Martin Kváč
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is probably the most common microsporidia which infects a wide range of vertebrates, including human. So far, four genotypes of this parasite have been identified based on the rRNA internal transcribed spacer variations. The course of infection caused by E. cuniculi III had very massive onset in immunocompetent host characterized by the presence of this parasite in all organs and tissues within one week after peroral infection. Encephalitozoonosis caused by E. cuniculi III had very progressive spreading into all organs within first week post inoculation in immunocompromised SCID mice and led to the death of the host...
November 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Cory A Leonard, J Russell Hayman
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular, spore-forming, fungal-related pathogens that employ a unique organelle, the polar tube, to transfer infectious spore contents into host cells to initiate infection. Spore adherence to host cells may provide the proximity required for polar tube/host cell interaction during in vivo infection. In previous in vitro studies, host sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or recombinant microsporidia endospore protein (EnP1) was implicated in the pathogen adherence and infection process; however, complete ablation of spore adherence and infection could not be achieved, suggesting that additional or alternative spore and host cell determinants of adherence and infection may exist...
September 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Mehdi Tavalla, Masoumeh Mardani-Kateki, Rahman Abdizadeh, Shahrzad Soltani, Jasem Saki
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites that produce spores. The infections caused by these parasites are mostly considered to be opportunistic in immunodeficient patients. Because of the zoonotic nature of microsporidia as well as the increasing prevalence of immunodeficiency diseases, the aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular diagnosis of Enterocytozoon bieneusi (E. bieneusi) and Encephalitozoon spp. in exotic birds in southwestern Iran. Initially, 816 stool specimens were collected and stained by modified trichrome (Weber) staining...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Bohumil Sak, Anna Jandová, Karel Doležal, Martin Kváč, Dana Květoňová, Lenka Hlásková, Michael Rost, Milan Olšanský, Wisnu Nurcahyo, Ivona Foitová
The present study was conducted to evaluate the methanolic extracts from several plant leaves widely used in traditional medicine to cure digestive tract disorders and in the self-medication of wild animals such as non-human primates, namely Archidendron fagifolium, Diospyros sumatrana, Shorea sumatrana, and Piper betle leaves, with regard to their antimicrosporidial activity against Encephalitozoon cuniculi in immunocompetent BALB/c mice determined using molecular detection of microsporidial DNA (qPCR) in various tissues and body fluids of infected, treated mice...
October 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Soo Chan Lee, Joseph Heitman
It has been a long-standing debate if sexual development occurs in the microsporidian lineages. Previous studies, including morphological observations, ploidy analysis, and the presence of a sex-related locus, provided evidence of possible extant of sexual development. This study presents another line of evidence by monitoring the parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs) formed by Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Time lapse observations of infection cycles of E. cuniculi revealed that multiple PVs can be formed in a single host cell and the PVs in the single cell can merge (fusion) or split (fission)...
October 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Guillaume Desoubeaux, Maria Del Carmen Piqueras, Ana Pantin, Sanjoy K Bhattacharya, Roman Peschke, Anja Joachim, Carolyn Cray
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidian species which can induce subclinical to serious disease in mammals including rabbits, a definitive natural host. The pathophysiology of infection has not been comprehensively elucidated. In this exploratory study, we utilized two mass spectrometry approaches: first, the analysis of the humoral response by profiling the microsporidian antigens as revealed by Western blot screening, and second, implementing the iTRAQ®-labeling protocol to focus on the changes within the host proteome during infection...
2017: PloS One
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