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Kelly M Loyet, Philip E Hass, Wendy Sandoval, Ashley Morando, Peter Liu, Whitney Shatz, Leslie Dickmann, Margaret Kenrick, Jeremy Good, Teresa Davancaze, Alyssa M Morimoto, Robert Franklin Kelley, Justin M Scheer
The collection of aqueous humor (phase 1b/2 Mahalo study) from patients dosed intravitreally with anti-factor D (AFD; FCFD4514S, lampalizumab), a humanized antibody fragment previously under investigation to treat geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration, presented a unique opportunity to examine AFD properties in clinical samples. We investigated AFD stability and target-binding characteristics to set up strategies for engineering and evaluating optimized molecules that enable less frequent dosing...
November 16, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Kazuya Yamashita, Shin Hatou, Emi Inagaki, Kazunari Higa, Kazuo Tsubota, Shigeto Shimmura
Unlike humans, rabbit corneal endothelial wounds are known to spontaneously heal. The current study was aimed to develop a new rabbit bullous keratopathy model using corneal endothelial cells that were induced to undergo endothelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT). EMT was induced in rabbit corneal endothelial cells (RCECs) by culturing with TGFβ and basic FGF Supplemented Medium. The corneal endothelia in recipient rabbits were mechanically scraped from the corneal endothelial surface inside an 8 mm mark...
November 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Naoyuki Fukuda, Masayuki Kanazawa, Kanji Tsuru, Akira Tsuchiya, Sunarso, Riki Toita, Yoshihide Mori, Yasuharu Nakashima, Kunio Ishikawa
This study was aimed to investigate the osseointegration ability of poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) implants with modified surface roughness and/or surface chemistry. The roughened surface was prepared by a sandblast method, and the phosphate groups on the substrates were modified by a two-step chemical reaction. The in vitro osteogenic activity of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the developed substrates was assessed by measuring cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin expression, and bone-like nodule formation...
November 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vasanth Ravikumar, Elizabeth M Annoni, Siva K Mulpuru, Henri Roukoz, Elena G Tolkacheva
Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is most common cardiac arrhythmia. It is associated with increased risk of stroke, heart failure and sudden cardiac death. Catheter ablation is a treatment used to control AF and has had suboptimal success for patients with persistent AF, which is primarily maintained by rotors outside of the pulmonary veins (PV) region. The pivot point (core) of the rotor is considered an efficient target for ablation. Currently available electro-anatomical mapping systems cannot accurately predict the exact location of the pivot point of rotors outside of the PV region, so there is a need for novel approaches to accurately identify and distinguish sites for ablation...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Paul Werginz, Maesoon Im, Alex E Hadjinicolaou, Shelley I Fried
Electric stimulation of the retina via retinal implants is currently the only commercially available method to restore vision in patients suffering from a wide range of outer retinal degenerations. To improve the quality of retinal implants, it is desirable to better understand how different retinal cell classes and types respond to electric stimuli so that more effective stimulation strategies can be developed. Here, we measured the response of seven major types of retinal ganglion cells to electric stimulation...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Jungmin Seo, Jeong-Whun Kim, Sung Woo Cho, Shinyong Shim, Jin-Woo Choi, Sung June Kim
A fully-implantable device for treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is conceptually suggested using soft palate stimulation. In this research, two in vivo studies were conducted to demonstrate electrical and physical feasibilities of the suggested device. First, electrical stimulation was delivered to the soft palate of a rabbit using a stimulator ASIC. The stimulation frequencies were swept from 20 Hz to 200 Hz to find out the appropriate parameter. Also, threshold level of the current pulse was evaluated to be 1...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Davide Meroni, Dario Bovio, Massimo Gualtieri, Andrea Aliverti
The electrical properties of biological tissues differ depending on their structural characteristics. In literature, a lot of study have been carried out with the intent of taking advantage of bioimpedance analysis. Unfortunately, many apparatuses used during these evaluations were not always designed for measurements on living tissues. As a consequence, data could be affected by electrode polarization. In 2016, we presented a new impedance meter, developed for measurements on living tissues. Initially, it was tested only on ex-vivo rabbit's tissues with promising results...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205928.].
2018: PloS One
Banala Rajkiran Reddy, Vemuri Satish Kumar, Dar Ghulam Hassan, Palanisamy Vijayanand, P Murahari, M V Surekha, A V Gurava Reddy, Nalam Madhusudhana Rao, Gpv Subbaiah
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: One of the common causes of LBP is intervertebral disc degeneration. The pathophysiology of disc degeneration involves apoptosis of nucleus pulposes (NP) cells and degradation of extra cellular matrix (ECM). Caspase 3 plays a central role in apoptosis and the ADAMTS 5 (A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin motifs) gene plays a critical role in ECM degradation. Hence, we hypothesized that if one can silence these two genes, both apoptosis and ECM degradation can be prevented, thereby preventing the progression and even reverse disc degeneration...
November 12, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Ijaz Bano, Muhammad Arshad, Tariq Yasin, Muhammad Afzal Ghauri
Chitosan like natural polymers have been widely used in burn wound management. Novel low molecular weight chitosan-PVA soft membranes have been studied for antibacterial and wound healing properties. The effectiveness of antibacterial activity was carried against bacterial pathogens while wound healing nature of chitosan was conducted in second degree burns on rabbits as model animal. Rabbits were divided into three groups; control untreated, treated with commercial Fusidic acid (Fu-A) cream and chitosan-PVA membranes...
November 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sachiho Nagashio, Kumiko Ajima, Daisuke Maejima, Hideki Sanjo, Ryo Kajihara, Moyuru Hayashi, Tomomi Watanabe-Asaka, Maki Kaidoh, Yumiko Yokoyama, Shinshuke Taki, Yoshiko Kawai, Toshio Ohhashi
The traditional Japanese health care custom recommends that a suitable volume of water is consumed. However, physiological and immunological mechanisms in support of this practice are unknown. Therefore, we conducted rat and rabbit in vivo experiments to investigate the effects of intragastric administration of distilled water on the jejunal-originated lymph flow, and the concentrations and total flux of cells, albumin, long-chain fatty acids, and innate lymphoid cell 3 (ILC-3)-secreted interleukin-22 (IL-22) through mesenteric lymph vessels...
November 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Sheng Zhao, Wei Li, Fan Cheng, Ting Rao, Weimin Yu, Yuan Ruan, Run Yuan, Xiaobing Yao, Jinzhuo Ning
The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effect of high‑pressure carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum on kidneys with severe hydronephrosis and to investigate the possible underlying mechanism. A total of 18 rabbits underwent a surgical procedure inducing severe hydronephrosis. Rabbits were then divided at random into three groups (n=6 each) and subjected to intraabdominal pressure of 0, 8 or 18 mmHg, respectively. CO2 inflation lasted for 90 min in the pneumoperitoneum groups...
November 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Xiong-Bin Hu, Rong-Rong Kang, Tian-Tian Tang, Yong-Jiang Li, Jun-Yong Wu, Jie-Min Wang, Xin-Yi Liu, Da-Xiong Xiang
The aim of this study was to develop a microemulsion-based hydrogel (MBH) formulation of 3,5,4'-trimethoxy-trans-stilbene (BTM) as topical delivery system for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed to optimize the microemulsion (ME) formulation. The ME formulation containing 18.8% Cremopher EL35 (surfactant), 9.4% Transcutol HP (co-surfactant), 3.1% LABRAFIL M 1944 CS (oil), and 68.7% water was selected. The obtained BTM-loaded ME (BTM-ME) had a spherical morphology (17...
November 14, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Jiaju Lu, Xuezhen Shen, Xun Sun, Heyong Yin, Shuhui Yang, Changfeng Lu, Yu Wang, Yifan Liu, Yingqi Huang, Zijin Yang, Xianqi Dong, Chenhao Wang, Quanyi Guo, Lingyun Zhao, Xiaodan Sun, Shibi Lu, Antonios G Mikos, Jiang Peng, Xiumei Wang
Even small cartilage defects could finally degenerate to osteoarthritis if left untreated, owing to the poor self-healing ability of articular cartilage. Stem cell transplantation has been well implemented as a common approach in cartilage tissue engineering but has technical complexity and safety concerns. The stem cell homing-based technique emerged as an alternative promising therapy for cartilage repair to overcome traditional limitations. In this study, we constructed a composite hydrogel scaffold by combining an oriented acellular cartilage matrix (ACM) with a bone marrow homing peptide (BMHP)-functionalized self-assembling peptide (SAP)...
2018: Theranostics
Mu Chen, Dong-Zhu Xu, Adonis Z Wu, Shuai Guo, Juyi Wan, Dechun Yin, Shien-Fong Lin, Zhenhui Chen, Michael Rubart-von der Lohe, Thomas H Everett, Zhilin Qu, James N Weiss, Peng-Sheng Chen
The mechanisms of J wave syndrome (JWS) are incompletely understood. Here, we showed that the concomitant activation of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) current (IKAS) and inhibition of sodium current by cyclohexyl-[2-(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-methyl-pyrimidin-4-yl]-amine (CyPPA) recapitulate the phenotypes of JWS in Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. CyPPA induced significant J wave elevation and frequent spontaneous ventricular fibrillation (SVF), as well as sinus bradycardia, atrioventricular block, and intraventricular conduction delay...
November 15, 2018: JCI Insight
Patricia Bogdanov, Olga Simó-Servat, Joel Sampedro, Cristina Solà-Adell, Marta Garcia-Ramírez, Hugo Ramos, Marta Guerrero, Josep Maria Suñé-Negre, Josep Ramon Ticó, Bruno Montoro, Vicente Durán, Luís Arias, Cristina Hernández, Rafael Simó
Experimental evidence suggests that endothelin 1 (ET-1) is involved in the development of retinal microvascular abnormalities induced by diabetes. The effects of ET-1 are mediated by endothelin A- and B-receptors (ETA and ETB). Endothelin B-receptors activation mediates retinal neurodegeneration but there are no data regarding the effectiveness of ETB receptor blockage in arresting retinal neurodegeneration induced by diabetes. The main aim of the present study was to assess the usefulness of topical administration of bosentan (a dual endothelin receptor antagonist) in preventing retinal neurodegeneration in diabetic (db/db) mice...
November 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Benjamin C Riordan, Kate B Carey
For new students, university can be a wonderland of opportunity. But the first few weeks of the university experience are also typified by change, stress and uncertainty. From a health promotion perspective, the first few weeks of the university experience present an important yet understudied opportunity for alcohol misuse prevention. In this narrative review, we distinguish students' alcohol use during their first year at university from what is known about their use in the first few weeks on campus. First, we outline the developmental context of the first year experience and the descriptive epidemiology of alcohol use and consequences...
November 14, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Landry Blanc, Isaac B Daudelin, Brendan K Podell, Pei-Yu Chen, Matthew Zimmerman, Amanda J Martinot, Rada M Savic, Brendan Prideaux, Veronique Anne Dartois
Understanding the distribution patterns of antibiotics at the site of infection is paramount to selecting adequate drug regimens and developing new antibiotics. Tuberculosis (TB) lung lesions are made of various immune cell types, some of which harbor persistent forms of the pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis . By combining high resolution MALDI MSI with histology staining and quantitative image analysis in rabbits with active TB, we have mapped the distribution of a fluoroquinolone at high resolution, and identified the immune-pathological factors driving its heterogeneous penetration within TB lesions, in relation to where bacteria reside...
November 14, 2018: ELife
A C MacFadyen, I Drigo, E M Harrison, J Parkhill, M A Holmes, G K Paterson
Strain 82T , a Gram-stain-positive, coagulase-negative staphylococcus was isolated from an air sample obtained from an industrial rabbit holding in Italy. It is phylogenetically closely related to the coagulase-negative species Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus edaphicus. However, it could be distinguished from these species by sequence differences between the 16S rRNA, hsp60, rpoB, dnaJ and gap genes. At the whole genome level, the isolate had an average nucleotide identity of <95 % and an inferred DNA-DNA hybridization of <70 % when compared to these species...
November 14, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Gabrielle Deprés-Tremblay, Anik Chevrier, Martyn Snow, Scott Rodeo, Michael D Buschmann
Rotator cuff tears result in shoulder pain, stiffness, weakness and loss of motion. After surgical repair, high failure rates have been reported based on objective imaging and it is recognized that current surgical treatments need improvement. The aim of the study was to assess whether implants composed of freeze-dried chitosan (CS) solubilized in autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can improve rotator cuff repair in a rabbit model. Complete tears were created bilaterally in the supraspinatus tendon of New Zealand White rabbits ( n = 4 in a pilot feasibility study followed by n = 13 in a larger efficacy study), which were repaired using transosseous suturing...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
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