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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893795/chromosome-identification-and-reconstruction-of-evolutionary-rearrangements-in-brachypodium-distachyon-b-stacei-and-b-hybridum
#1
Joanna Lusinska, Joanna Majka, Alexander Betekhtin, Karolina Susek, Elzbieta Wolny, Robert Hasterok
Background and Aims: The Brachypodium genus represents a useful model system to study grass genome organization. Palaeogenomic analyses (e.g. Murat F, Armero A, Pont C, Klopp C, Salse J. 2017. Reconstructing the genome of the most recent common ancestor of flowering plants. Nature Genetics49: 490-496) have identified polyploidization and dysploidy as the prime mechanisms driving the diversity of plant karyotypes and nested chromosome fusions (NCFs) crucial for shaping grass chromosomes...
June 8, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752764/analysis-of-gli-d2-locus-identifies-a-genetic-target-for-simultaneously-improving-the-breadmaking-and-health-related-traits-of-common-wheat
#2
Da Li, Huaibing Jin, Kunpu Zhang, Zhaojun Wang, Faming Wang, Yue Zhao, Naxin Huo, Xin Liu, Yong Q Gu, Daowen Wang, Lingli Dong
Gliadins are a major component of wheat seed proteins. However, the complex homoeologous Gli-2 loci (Gli-A2, -B2 and -D2) encoding the α-gliadins in commercial wheat are still poorly understood. Here we analyzed the Gli-D2 locus of Xiaoyan 81 (Xy81), a winter wheat cultivar. A total of 421.091 kb of Gli-D2 sequence was assembled from sequencing multiple bacterial artificial clones, and 10 α-gliadin genes were annotated. Comparative genomic analysis showed that Xy81 carried only eight of the α-gliadin genes of the D genome donor Ae...
May 11, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748213/time-optimized-path-choice-in-the-termite-hunting-ant-megaponera-analis
#3
Erik T Frank, Philipp O Hönle, K Eduard Linsenmair
Trail network systems among ants have received a lot of scientific attention due to their various applications in problem solving of networks. Recent studies have shown that ants select the fastest available path when facing different velocities on different substrates, rather than the shortest distance. The progress of decision-making by these ants is determined by pheromone-based maintenance of paths, which is a collective decision. However, path optimization through individual decision-making remains mostly unexplored...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743678/genome-sequence-of-the-progenitor-of-wheat-a-subgenome-triticum-urartu
#4
Hong-Qing Ling, Bin Ma, Xiaoli Shi, Hui Liu, Lingli Dong, Hua Sun, Yinghao Cao, Qiang Gao, Shusong Zheng, Ye Li, Ying Yu, Huilong Du, Ming Qi, Yan Li, Hongwei Lu, Hua Yu, Yan Cui, Ning Wang, Chunlin Chen, Huilan Wu, Yan Zhao, Juncheng Zhang, Yiwen Li, Wenjuan Zhou, Bairu Zhang, Weijuan Hu, Michiel J T van Eijk, Jifeng Tang, Hanneke M A Witsenboer, Shancen Zhao, Zhensheng Li, Aimin Zhang, Daowen Wang, Chengzhi Liang
Triticum urartu (diploid, AA) is the progenitor of the A subgenome of tetraploid (Triticum turgidum, AABB) and hexaploid (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) wheat1,2 . Genomic studies of T. urartu have been useful for investigating the structure, function and evolution of polyploid wheat genomes. Here we report the generation of a high-quality genome sequence of T. urartu by combining bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-by-BAC sequencing, single molecule real-time whole-genome shotgun sequencing 3 , linked reads and optical mapping4,5 ...
May 9, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732251/pollen-sleuthing-for-terrestrial-plant-surveys-locating-plant-populations-by-exploiting-pollen-movement
#5
Lesley G Campbell, Stephanie J Melles, Eric Vaz, Rebecca J Parker, Kevin S Burgess
Premise of the Study: We present an innovative technique for sampling, identifying, and locating plant populations that release pollen, without extensive ground surveys. This method (1) samples pollen at random locations within the target species' habitat, (2) detects species' presence using morphological pollen analysis, and (3) uses kriging to predict likely locations of populations to focus future search efforts. Methods: To demonstrate, we applied the pollen sleuthing system to search for artificially constructed populations of Brassica rapa in an old field...
January 2018: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717184/strong-contributions-of-local-background-climate-to-the-cooling-effect-of-urban-green-vegetation
#6
Zhaowu Yu, Shaobin Xu, Yuhan Zhang, Gertrud Jørgensen, Henrik Vejre
Utilization of urban green vegetation (UGV) has been recognized as a promising option to mitigate urban heat island (UHI) effect. While we still lack understanding of the contributions of local background climate to the cooling effect of UGV. Here we proposed and employed a cooling effect framework and selected eight typical cities located in Temperate Monsoon Climate (TMC) and Mediterranean Climate (MC) demonstrate that local climate condition largely affects the cooling effect of UGV. Specifically, we found increasing (artificial) rainfall and irrigation contribute to improving the cooling intensity of grassland in both climates, particularly in the hot-dry environment...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688495/supplementing-ca-salts-of-soybean-oil-after-artificial-insemination-increases-pregnancy-success-in-bos-taurus-beef-cows
#7
A P Brandão, R F Cooke, K M Schubach, R S Marques, D W Bohnert, R S Carvalho, N W Dias, C L Timlin, S Clark-Deener, J F Currin, D B Jump, K G Pohler, R L A Cerri, V R G Mercadante
Two experiments investigated the effects of supplementing Ca salts of soybean oil (CSSO) during early gestation on reproductive function and pregnancy rates to artificial insemination (AI) in Bos taurus beef cows. In Exp. 1, 771 suckled, lactating, multiparous Angus cows were divided into 22 groups of approximately 35 cows/group, and timed-inseminated on d 0. After AI, groups were assigned randomly to receive (as-fed basis) 100 g of ground corn + 100 g of soybean meal per cow/d, in addition to: 1) 100 g/cow daily of CSSO (n = 11), or 2) 87 g of prilled saturated fat + 13 g of limestone per cow/d (CON; n = 11)...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675915/monthly-population-density-and-structure-patterns-of-an-endangered-seahorse-hippocampus-capensis-a-comparison-between-natural-and-artificial-habitats
#8
L Claassens, A N Hodgson
This study investigated aspects of the population ecology of the endangered Knysna seahorse Hippocampus capensis within different habitat types. High densities of H. capensis were found within artificial Reno mattress habitat, within the Knysna Estuary, South Africa. Monthly surveys at three sites were conducted from October 2015 to August 2016 to compare population densities of H. capensis in this artificial habitat with natural eel grass Zostera capensis habitat. Hippocampus capensis densities varied significantly across all sites and highest population densities were consistently observed within the Reno mattress habitat...
June 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627419/health-risk-assessment-of-heavy-metals-in-freshwater-fish-in-the-central-and-eastern-north-china
#9
Wenjue Zhong, Yanfeng Zhang, Zihao Wu, Rongyan Yang, Xinyue Chen, Jing Yang, Lingyan Zhu
The distribution and potential health risks of eight heavy metals (Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni)) in 16 freshwater systems from central and eastern North China, were investigated. The fish were divided as wild fish, which grew naturally without artificially feeding, and farmed fish. The total concentrations of the eight heavy metals ranged from 82.9 to 226 μg/L in the surface water samples and 3.32-27.6 mg/kg dw in the fish samples...
August 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619795/switching-between-pitch-surfaces-practical-applications-and-future-perspectives-for-soccer-training
#10
Vincenzo Rago, João R Silva, João Brito, Daniel Barreira, Magni Mohr, Peter Krustrup, António N Rebelo
Soccer training and completion is conventionally practiced on natural grass (NG) or artificial turf (AT). Recently, AT pitches for training / competition, and of unstable surfaces for injury prevention training has increased. Therefore, soccer players are frequently exposed to variations in pitch surface during either training or competition. These ground changes may impact physical and physiological responses, adaptations as well as the injury. The aim of this review was to summarize the acute physical and physiological responses, chronic adaptations, and injury risk associated with exercising on different pitch surfaces in soccer...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599754/generalized-growth-of-estuarine-household-and-clinical-isolates-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#11
Kelly E Diaz, Susanna K Remold, Ogochukwu Onyiri, Maura Bozeman, Peter A Raymond, Paul E Turner
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen of particular concern to immune-compromised people, such as cystic fibrosis patients and burn victims. These bacteria grow in built environments including hospitals and households, and in natural environments such as rivers and estuaries. However, there is conflicting evidence whether recent environments like the human lung and open ocean affect P. aeruginosa growth performance in alternate environments. We hypothesized that bacteria recently isolated from dissimilar habitats should grow differently in media containing artificial versus natural resources...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595083/playing-surface-and-uk-professional-rugby-union-injury-risk
#12
Craig Ranson, Jonathan George, James Rafferty, John Miles, Isabel Moore
Artificial rugby union playing surface installation is increasing. This prospective cohort study aimed to examine the effect of playing surface on match injury types within 157 players of two UK professional rugby union clubs playing 209 matches (96 on artificial surfaces and 113 on grass) over three seasons. There was no difference in overall injury risk between the two playing surfaces with injury incidence on artificial 80.2 (CI 69.9-91.7) and on grass 81.9 per 1000 match-hours (CI 72.2-92.5), with an incidence rate ratio (RR) of 0...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479994/characteristics-of-goalkeepers-injuries-retrospective-self-reported-study-among-adolescence-football-players
#13
Aleksander Błażkiewicz, Monika Grygorowicz, Arkadiusz Białostocki, Dariusz Czaprowski
BACKGROUND: Characteristic types of actions and training/matches loads of football goalkeepers show that goalkeeper's performance differs from other football's formations. Such situation may predispose to the occurrence of other kinds of injuries in this position. The aim of this study was to analyse epidemiology of injuries in young football goalkeepers. METHODS: 48 football goalkeepers (aged:15.2±1.9 years) were filled the questionnaire aimed at collecting information about all injuries sustained within 12 months before the data collection...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363348/reliability-of-internal-and-external-load-parameters-in-recreational-football-soccer-for-health
#14
Marco Beato, Mikael Jamil, Gavin Devereux
There is limited research focussed around the analysis of internal and external load parameters during football health programmes. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of internal and external load parameters in this activity. Thrity subjects were enrolled (mean ± SDs; age = 43 ± 3 years, weight = 84 ± 14 kg, height = 176 ± 7 cm, BMI = 27.1 ± 3, VO2 max = 40.7 ± 3.4 ml. kg. min-1 ). The football matches (five a-side) took place on an artificial grass outdoor field (pitch size of 36 × 18...
April 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363031/effect-of-intermittent-operation-model-on-the-function-of-soil-infiltration-system
#15
Lizhu Hou, Bill X Hu, Mengmeng He, Xue Xu, Wenjing Zhang
To enhance denitrification in a process of solute infiltration through a soil, a two-section mixed-medium soil infiltration system (TMSIS) for urban non-point pollution was developed. The artificial aerobic respiration and nitrification took place in the upper aerobic section (AES), while grass powders and sawdust were mixed in the bottom anaerobic section (ANS) to supply organic carbon source for denitrification bacteria, and the reduction was increased by iron addition in the ANS. Measured resident concentrations from the bottom of each ANS column were assumed to represent mean values averaged over the column cross-sectional area...
April 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314414/an-ortholog-of-curly-leaf-enhancer-of-zeste-like-1-is-required-for-proper-flowering-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#16
Aaron Lomax, Daniel P Woods, Yinxin Dong, Frédéric Bouché, Ying Rong, Kevin S Mayer, Xuehua Zhong, Richard M Amasino
Many plants require prolonged exposure to cold to acquire the competence to flower. The process by which cold exposure results in competence is known as vernalization. In Arabidopsis thaliana, vernalization leads to the stable repression of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C via chromatin modification, including an increase of trimethylation on lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) by Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). Vernalization in pooids is associated with the stable induction of a floral promoter, VERNALIZATION 1 (VRN1)...
March 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283689/physiological-and-physical-responses-according-to-the-game-surface-in-a-soccer-simulation-protocol
#17
Jorge Lopez-Fernandez, Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, Jorge García-Unanue, José Luis Felipe, Enrique Colino-Acevedo, Leonor Gallardo
PURPOSE: Recent studies have shown that soccer player's responses are similar on natural grass (NG) and artificial turf (AT), but they did not control the mechanical properties of these surfaces. This work aimed to analyse the influence of the game surface on amateur soccer player's physical and physiological responses using a soccer simulation protocol (SSP). METHODS: Sixteen amateur players performed three bouts of the SSP on AT and NG. The mechanical properties of both surfaces were recorded...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160900/fusarium-graminearum-pathogen-or-endophyte-of-north-american-grasses
#18
Lotus A Lofgren, Nicholas R LeBlanc, Amanda K Certano, Jonny Nachtigall, Kathryn M LaBine, Jakob Riddle, Karen Broz, Yanhong Dong, Bianca Bethan, Christopher W Kafer, H Corby Kistler
Mycotoxin-producing Fusarium graminearum and related species cause Fusarium head blight on cultivated grasses, such as wheat and barley. However, these Fusarium species may have had a longer evolutionary history with North American grasses than with cultivated crops and may interact with the ancestral hosts in ways which are biochemically distinct. We assayed 25 species of asymptomatic native grasses for the presence of Fusarium species and confirmed infected grasses as hosts using re-inoculation tests. We examined seed from native grasses for the presence of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species and evaluated the ability of these fungi to produce mycotoxins in both native grass and wheat hosts using biochemical analysis...
February 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128769/erosion-induced-losses-of-carbon-nitrogen-phosphorus-and-heavy-metals-from-agricultural-soils-of-contrasting-organic-matter-management
#19
Pu Shi, Rainer Schulin
Water erosion on agricultural land preferentially carries away fine particles. Due to the generally high specific density of sorption sites of these particles, their displacement can be associated with substantial particle-bound transfer also of nutrients and pollutants with low solubility. Organic matter amendments can reduce soil erosion, but to what extent they affect the erosion-induced element losses has not been studied much. Here, we carried out field rainfall experiments on three pairs of soil plots (1...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095037/the-heat-strain-of-various-athletic-surfaces-a-comparison-between-observed-and-modeled-wet-bulb-globe-temperatures
#20
J Luke Pryor, Riana R Pryor, Andrew Grundstein, Douglas J Casa
CONTEXT:   The National Athletic Trainers' Association recommends using onsite wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) measurement to determine whether to modify or cancel physical activity. However, not all practitioners do so and instead they may rely on the National Weather Service (NWS) to monitor weather conditions. OBJECTIVE:   To compare regional NWS WBGT estimates with local athletic-surface readings and compare WBGT measurements among various local athletic surfaces...
November 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
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