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artificial grass

Andrey Giljov, Karina Karenina, Janeane Ingram, Yegor Malashichev
Robust lateralization in forelimb use has recently been found in bipedal, but not quadrupedal, marsupial mammals. The link between bipedality and handedness, occurring in both marsupials and primates, remains to be investigated. To shed light on the developmental origins of marsupial manual lateralization, infants of macropod marsupials were examined before and shortly after the acquisition of habitual bipedal posture and locomotion. Forelimb preferences were assessed in natural, not artificially evoked, behaviors of infant red-necked wallaby in the wild and infant eastern gray kangaroo in free-ranging captivity...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Babette M Pluim, Benjamin Clarsen, Evert Verhagen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in the prevalence of tennis injuries between the four most common court surfaces in the Netherlands, including hard court, clay, sand-fill artificial grass and red-sand-fill artificial grass. Natural grass was not included in this study. METHODS: This was a repeated cross-sectional study over 6 months, involving members of the Royal Netherlands Lawn Tennis Association (KNLTB). A monthly questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 20 000 KNLTB members, stratified by their club's playing surface...
February 16, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Zhengrui Qin, Jiajie Wu, Shuaifeng Geng, Nan Feng, Fengjuan Chen, Xingchen Kong, Gaoyuan Song, Kai Chen, Aili Li, Long Mao, Liang Wu
Appropriate flowering timing is crucial for plant reproductive success. The florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), interacts with 14-3-3 proteins and the bZIP transcription factor FD, functioning at core nodes in multiple flowering pathways. There are two FT homologues, FT1 and FT2, in Brachypodium distachyon. Here we show that FT2 undergoes age-dependent alternative splicing (AS), resulting in two splice variants (FT2α and FT2β). The FT2β-encoded protein cannot interact with FD or 14-3-3s but is able to form heterodimers with FT2α and FT1, thereby interfering with the florigen-mediated assembly of the flowering initiation complex...
February 1, 2017: Nature Communications
Sharon T Pochron, Andrew Fiorenza, Cassandra Sperl, Brianne Ledda, Charles Lawrence Patterson, Clara C Tucker, Wade Tucker, Yuwan Lisa Ho, Nicholas Panico
Municipalities have been replacing grass fields with artificial turf, which uses crumb rubber infill made from recycled tires. Crumb rubber contains hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and heavy metals. Water runoff from crumb rubber fields contains heavy metals. These components can damage the environment. We contaminated topsoil with new crumb rubber and measured its impact on earthworms and soil microbes. Specifically, we compared soil microbe activity and earthworm health, survivorship, and longevity in heat and light stress under two soil regimes: clean topsoil and clean topsoil contaminated with crumb rubber...
January 21, 2017: Chemosphere
Andrea L Joyce, Miguel Sermeno Chicas, Leopoldo Serrano Cervantes, Miguel Paniagua, Sonja J Scheffer, M Alma Solis
Diatraea lineolata and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are moths with stemboring larvae that feed and develop on economically important grasses. This study investigated whether these moths have diverged from a native host plant, corn, onto introduced crop plants including sorghum, sugarcane, and rice. Diatraea larvae were collected from these four host plants throughout the year in El Salvador and were reared on artificial diet until moths or parasitoids emerged. Adult moths were subsequently identified to species...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
K J McLean, M S Crouse, M R Crosswhite, D N Black, C R Dahlen, P P Borowicz, L P Reynolds, A K Ward, B W Neville, J S Caton
Endogenous retroviral gene elements have been implicated in development and formation of the feto-maternal interface. A variant of the syncytin endogenous retroviral envelope gene family, , was recently found in ruminants. We hypothesized that mRNA would be differentially expressed in utero-placental tissues and would fluctuate during key time points of early gestation in beef heifers. Commercial Angus crossbred heifers ( = 46; ∼15 mo of age; BW = 362.3 ± 34.7kg) housed in 6-animal pens were fed daily with native grass hay and supplemented with cracked corn to gain 0...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Michael C Meyers
BACKGROUND: Numerous injuries have been attributed to playing on artificial turf. More recently, newer generations of artificial turf have been developed to duplicate the playing characteristics of natural grass. Although artificial turf has been deemed safer than natural grass in some studies, few long-term studies have been conducted comparing match-related collegiate soccer injuries between the 2 playing surfaces. HYPOTHESIS: Collegiate male soccer athletes do not experience any difference in the incidence, mechanisms, or severity of match-related injuries between FieldTurf and natural grass...
March 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Sonali Mohapatra, Snigdha Jyotsna Dandapat, Hrudayanath Thatoi
Acid as well as ultrasono-assisted acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass of two Pennisetum sp.; Denanath grass (DG) and Hybrid Napier grass (HNG) have been investigated for enhanced delignification and maximum exposure of cellulose for production of bioethanol. Screening of pretreatment with different acids such as H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4 and H2NO3 were optimized for different temperature, soaking time and acid concentrations using Taguchi orthogonal array and the data obtained were statistically validated using artificial neural networking...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
A L Zezeski, V L McCracken, R K Poole, A Al Naib, J K Smith, M A McCann, M L Rhoads
In an effort to better understand the consequences of early weaning (EW) for replacement beef heifers, a two-phase experiment was conducted investigating the impact on metabolic function and documenting reproductive characteristics. In phase 1, Angus×Simmental heifers (n=35) were stratified by BW and sire, and randomly assigned to either a normal weaning (NW, n=18) or EW (n=17) treatment. EW heifers were weaned at 107±3 days of age and provided access to a concentrate-based ration ad libitum with limit-fed mixed grass hay...
November 10, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Juli Carrillo, Evan Siemann
Plant competition may mediate the impacts of herbivory on invasive plant species through effects on plant growth and defense. This may predictably depend on whether herbivory occurs above or below ground and on relative plant competitive ability. We simulated the potential impact of above- or belowground damage by biocontrol agents on the growth of a woody invader (Chinese tallow tree, Triadica sebifera) through artificial herbivory, with or without competition with a native grass, little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium)...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Wei Li, Lorenzo Katin-Grazzini, Sanalkumar Krishnan, Chandra Thammina, Rania El-Tanbouly, Huseyin Yer, Emily Merewitz, Karl Guillard, John Inguagiato, Richard J McAvoy, Zongrang Liu, Yi Li
When subjected to shade, plants undergo rapid shoot elongation, which often makes them more prone to disease and mechanical damage. Shade-tolerant plants can be difficult to breed; however, they offer a substantial benefit over other varieties in low-light areas. Although perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a popular species of turf grasses because of their good appearance and fast establishment, the plant normally does not perform well under shade conditions. It has been reported that, in turfgrass, induced dwarfism can enhance shade tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
A M Rosales-Torres, Z B López-Cedillo, C G Hernández-Coronado, J V Rosete-Fernández, G D Mendoza, A Guzmán
The objective of this study was to evaluate if short-term dietary concentrate supplementation increased IGF-I serum concentration and resulted in a reproductive response during estrus synchronization treatment in non-lactating beef cows. Thirty non-lactating beef cows (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) were allocated to the same pastureland and fed native tropical grasses as a basal diet. Cows were synchronized using a 7-day CO-Synch plus controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol and received fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI)...
January 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Solaiman Shokur, Simone Gallo, Renan C Moioli, Ana Rita C Donati, Edgard Morya, Hannes Bleuler, Miguel A L Nicolelis
Spinal cord injuries disrupt bidirectional communication between the patient's brain and body. Here, we demonstrate a new approach for reproducing lower limb somatosensory feedback in paraplegics by remapping missing leg/foot tactile sensations onto the skin of patients' forearms. A portable haptic display was tested in eight patients in a setup where the lower limbs were simulated using immersive virtual reality (VR). For six out of eight patients, the haptic display induced the realistic illusion of walking on three different types of floor surfaces: beach sand, a paved street or grass...
2016: Scientific Reports
Juliane Grass, Robert Miller, Esther H D Carlitz, Fabian Patrovsky, Wei Gao, Clemens Kirschbaum, Tobias Stalder
Hair cortisol concentrations (hairF) are considered to be relatively robust to various confounding influences. However, a potentially important covariate factor that has received little attention in this context is hair exposure to ultraviolet/sunlight radiation. We conducted a detailed experimental investigation to examine the effects of light exposure on hair cortisol. In study I, a hydrocortisone-containing solution was subjected to short-term artificial light irradiation for 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, or 30min to evaluate the stability of cortisol molecules due to radiant energy...
November 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Michael C Meyers, Kayla M Miller, Kristin M Shuman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Yosra Habachi-Houimli, Yosra Khalfallah, Hanem Makni, Mohamed Makni, Dhia Bouktila
In the present study, we have screened 71, 713, 525, 119 and 241 mature miRNA variants from Hordeum vulgare, Oryza sativa, Brachypodium distachyon, Triticum aestivum, and Sorghum bicolor, respectively, and classified them with respect to their conservation status and expression levels. These Poaceae non-redundant miRNA species (1,669) were distributed over a total of 625 MIR families, among which only 54 were conserved across two or more plant species, confirming the relatively recent evolutionary differentiation of miRNAs in grasses...
September 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Ying Fang, Ren-tian Ma, Shao-shan An, Jun-feng Zhao, Li Xiao
Choosing the soils under different vegetation recovery of Heidaigou dump as the research objects, we mainly analyzed their basic physical and chemical properties and enzyme activities with the method of Analysis of Variance as well as their relations using Pearson correlation analysis and path analysis hoping to uncover the driving factors of the differences between soil enzyme activities under different vegetation restoration, and provide scientific suggestions for the plant selection as well as make a better evaluation to the reclamation effect...
March 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Mario Voltaggio, Massimo Spadoni, Serena Carloni, Daniela Guglietta
(212)Pb concentration in outdoor air is closely correlated with fine suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere. Thanks to this association, this isotope can be used to trace the sinking processes of particulate matter due to the vegetation, also providing accurate estimations of the deposition velocity on foliar surfaces. This approach is particularly effective in areas with high thoron fluxes and, consequently, high (212)Pb fluxes from soil. The contribution of vegetation to the improvement of air quality (AQImp) in the municipality area (MA) of Rome (Latium, Italy), almost entirely located on Th-enriched volcanic soils, was estimated by studying (212)Pb deposition velocity on the grasses (0...
November 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Gerald Juma, Gilles Clément, Peter Ahuya, Ahmed Hassanali, Sylvie Derridj, Cyrile Gaertner, Romain Linard, Bruno Le Ru, Brigitte Frérot, Paul-André Calatayud
The chemical composition of plant surfaces plays a role in selection of host plants by herbivorous insects. Once the insect reaches the plant, these cues determine host acceptance. Laboratory studies have shown that the stem borer Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important pest of sorghum and maize in sub-Saharan Africa, is able to differentiate between host and non-host plant species. However, no information is available on the cues used by this insect to seek and accept the host plant. Thus, the role of surface phytochemical stimuli on host selection and oviposition by B...
May 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
David Pacheco-Villalobos, Sara M Díaz-Moreno, Alja van der Schuren, Takayuki Tamaki, Yeon Hee Kang, Bojan Gujas, Ondrej Novak, Nina Jaspert, Zhenni Li, Sebastian Wolf, Claudia Oecking, Karin Ljung, Vincent Bulone, Christian S Hardtke
The long-standing Acid Growth Theory of plant cell elongation posits that auxin promotes cell elongation by stimulating cell wall acidification and thus expansin action. To date, the paucity of pertinent genetic materials has precluded thorough analysis of the importance of this concept in roots. The recent isolation of mutants of the model grass species Brachypodium distachyon with dramatically enhanced root cell elongation due to increased cellular auxin levels has allowed us to address this question. We found that the primary transcriptomic effect associated with elevated steady state auxin concentration in elongating root cells is upregulation of cell wall remodeling factors, notably expansins, while plant hormone signaling pathways maintain remarkable homeostasis...
May 2016: Plant Cell
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