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depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, psychosis, antipsychotic

Ragnar Nesvåg, Jørgen G Bramness, Marte Handal, Ingeborg Hartz, Vidar Hjellvik, Svetlana Skurtveit
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic drug use among children and adolescents is increasing, and there is growing concern about off-label use and adverse effects. The present study aims to investigate the incidence, psychiatric co-morbidity and pharmacological treatment of severe mental disorder in Norwegian children and adolescents. METHODS: We obtained data on mental disorders from the Norwegian Patient Registry on 0-18 year olds who during 2009-2011 were diagnosed for the first time with schizophrenia-like disorder (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes F20-F29), bipolar disorder (F30-F31), or severe depressive episode with psychotic symptoms (F32...
March 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Agnieszka Jankowska, Anna Wesołowska, Maciej Pawłowski, Grażyna Chłoń-Rzepa
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive cognitive impairments and chronic inflammation that affects over 30 million people all over the world. Most of Alzheimer's patients also suffer from psychosis, aggression, agitation, depression, anxiety, and many other behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Unfortunately, currently available anti-AD drugs provide modest symptomatic relief, and do not reverse the neurodegeneration. Consequently, the average life expectancy after diagnosis is between six to ten years...
May 29, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Louise Marston, Irwin Nazareth, Irene Petersen, Kate Walters, David P J Osborn
OBJECTIVE: To examine the recorded indication for antipsychotic prescriptions in UK primary care. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Primary care. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals prescribed antipsychotics between 2007 and 2011. MEASURES: The proportion of individuals prescribed antipsychotics with a diagnosis of (1) psychosis and bipolar disorder, (2) other diagnoses including depression, anxiety and dementia and (3) none of these diagnoses...
December 18, 2014: BMJ Open
Hamid Mostafavi Abdolmaleky, Shabnam Nohesara, Mohammad Ghadirivasfi, Arthur W Lambert, Hamidreza Ahmadkhaniha, Sait Ozturk, Chen Khuan Wong, Rahim Shafa, Ashraf Mostafavi, Sam Thiagalingam
INTRODUCTION: Dysfunctional serotonin signaling has been linked to the pathogenesis of autism, obsessive compulsive disorder, mood disorders and schizophrenia. While the hypo-activity of serotonin signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of depression, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder; LSD, an agonist of serotonin type 2 receptor (5-HTR2A) induces psychosis. Therefore, anxiety and depressive disorders are treated by SSRIs which inhibit serotonin transporter (5-HTT) while psychotic disorders are controlled by drugs that block serotonin and/or dopamine receptors...
February 2014: Schizophrenia Research
Douglas L Leslie, Somaia Mohamed, Robert A Rosenheck
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of prescribing antipsychotics to adults without schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and to identify factors associated with such off-label use. METHODS: Patients with at least one prescription for an antipsychotic medication from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) during fiscal year (FY) 2007 were identified in national VA administrative databases. Rates of off-label antipsychotic use were determined along with average doses...
September 2009: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Terry E Goldberg, Roman Kotov, Annette T Lee, Peter K Gregersen, Todd Lencz, Evelyn Bromet, Anil K Malhotra
A 44 base pair insertion ("l")/deletion ("s") polymorphism (called 5-HTTLPR) in the 5' promoter region of the human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) modulates expression and has been associated to anxiety and depressive traits in otherwise healthy individuals. In individuals with psychiatric diagnoses, including schizophrenia, it seems to modulate symptom severity. Thus, it may be a disease modifying gene. In this study, 92 patients with psychosis (including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar psychosis, and major depression) were assessed at their first hospital admission...
June 2009: Schizophrenia Research
Paola Salvatore, Chaya Bhuvaneswar, Daniel Ebert, Carlo Maggini, Ross J Baldessarini
Emil Kraepelin proposed to separate psychiatric disorders with psychotic features into two major categories, dementia praecox (later schizophrenia) and manic-depressive insanity (later bipolar disorder and major depression). Over the past century, there have been many efforts to categorize conditions that do not fit readily in either group. These conditions include many cases of acute psychotic illnesses of limited duration, with recovery between recurrences. For some of these conditions, Karl Kleist proposed the term cycloid psychosis: acute features were psychotic, as in schizophrenia, but the course was episodic, as in manic-depression...
2008: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Juan Carlos Pascual, Joaquim Soler, Dolors Puigdemont, Rosario Pérez-Egea, Thais Tiana, Enrique Alvarez, Víctor Pérez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of ziprasidone in the treatment of adult patients with borderline personality disorder. METHOD: Sixty DSM-IV borderline personality disorder patients were included from March 2004 to April 2006 in a 12-week, single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The subjects were randomly assigned to ziprasidone or placebo in a 1:1 ratio following a 2-week baseline period...
April 2008: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Wendy Neil, Stephen Curran, John Wattis
Antipsychotic medications have made a significant contribution to the care of the mentally ill people over the past 50 years, with good evidence that both typical and atypical agents are effective in the treatment of schizophrenia and related conditions. In addition they are widely used to good effect in other disorders including psychotic depression, dementia and delirium. Both typical and atypical agents may cause severe side-effects and, in the elderly in particular, there is an increased propensity for drug interactions...
September 2003: Age and Ageing
C J Wintz
The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in primary care is approximately 22%. These disorders include major depressive disorder, panic disorder, alcohol dependence/abuse, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The deinstitutionalization movement has placed an increasing number of severe and persistently mentally ill persons, defined as those with schizophrenia, psychosis, bipolar, and unipolar disorders, into the community. Nurses working in acute primary care, home health, and long-term medical settings can expect to encounter patients who are using prescriptive psychotropic medications; these patients may be experiencing adverse reactions...
March 1998: Nursing Clinics of North America
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