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gut microbiota colorectal carcinoma

Nurdan Tözün, Eser Vardareli
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. These cancers are the end result of a complex interplay between gene and environment. Bacteria, parasites, and viruses have been implicated in some cancers. Recent data have put at focus the gut microbiome as the key player firing tumorigenesis. Experimental and human studies have provided evidence on the role of microbiota in cancer development. Although subject to changes in different settings such as antibiotic treatment, diet or lifestyle, our microbiome is quite stable and is capable of increasing susceptibility to cancer or decrease and halt its progression...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Vanessa L Hale, Jun Chen, Stephen Johnson, Sean C Harrington, Tracy C Yab, Thomas C Smyrk, Heidi Nelson, Lisa A Boardman, Brooke R Druliner, Theodore R Levin, Douglas K Rex, Dennis J Ahnen, Peter Lance, David A Ahlquist, Nicholas Chia
BACKGROUND: Adenomatous polyps are the most common precursor to colorectal cancer (CRC), the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. We sought to learn more about early events of carcinogenesis by investigating shifts in the gut microbiota of patients with adenomas. METHODS: We analyzed 16S rRNA gene sequences from the fecal microbiota of patients with adenomas (n=233) and without (n=547). RESULTS: Multiple taxa were significantly more abundant in patients with adenomas, including Bilophila, Desulfovibrio, pro-inflammatory bacteria in the genus Mogibacterium, and multiple Bacteroidetes species...
September 26, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Jun Li, Cecilia Ying Ju Sung, Nikki Lee, Yueqiong Ni, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Gianni Panagiotou, Hani El-Nezami
The beneficial roles of probiotics in lowering the gastrointestinal inflammation and preventing colorectal cancer have been frequently demonstrated, but their immunomodulatory effects and mechanism in suppressing the growth of extraintestinal tumors remain unexplored. Here, we adopted a mouse model and metagenome sequencing to investigate the efficacy of probiotic feeding in controlling s.c. hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the underlying mechanism suppressing the tumor progression. Our result demonstrated that Prohep, a novel probiotic mixture, slows down the tumor growth significantly and reduces the tumor size and weight by 40% compared with the control...
March 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Katsuhiko Nosho, Yasutaka Sukawa, Yasushi Adachi, Miki Ito, Kei Mitsuhashi, Hiroyoshi Kurihara, Shinichi Kanno, Itaru Yamamoto, Keisuke Ishigami, Hisayoshi Igarashi, Reo Maruyama, Kohzoh Imai, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Yasuhisa Shinomura
The human intestinal microbiome plays a major role in human health and diseases, including colorectal cancer. Colorectal carcinogenesis represents a heterogeneous process with a differing set of somatic molecular alterations, influenced by diet, environmental and microbial exposures, and host immunity. Fusobacterium species are part of the human oral and intestinal microbiota. Metagenomic analyses have shown an enrichment of Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) in colorectal carcinoma tissue. Using 511 colorectal carcinomas from Japanese patients, we assessed the presence of F...
January 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Susan A Joyce, Cormac G M Gahan
Bile acids have emerged as important signaling molecules in the host, as they interact either locally or systemically with specific cellular receptors, in particular the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. These signaling functions influence systemic lipid and cholesterol metabolism, energy metabolism, immune homeostasis, and intestinal electrolyte balance. Through defined enzymatic activities, the gut microbiota can significantly modify the signaling properties of bile acids and therefore can have an impact upon host health...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Vibeke Andersen, Katrine Svenningsen, Lina Almind Knudsen, Axel Kornerup Hansen, Uffe Holmskov, Allan Stensballe, Ulla Vogel
AIM: To evaluate ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in colonic pathophysiology as they had recently been related to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. METHODS: Literature search was conducted on PubMed using combinations of the following terms: ABC transporters, ATP binding cassette transporter proteins, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative, colitis, Crohn's disease, colorectal cancer, colitis, intestinal inflammation, intestinal carcinogenesis, ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp/CD243/MDR1), ABCC2/multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) and ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), Abcb1/Mdr1a, abcc2/Mrp2, abcg2/Bcrp, knock-out mice, tight junction, membrane lipid function...
November 7, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Chika Kasai, Kazushi Sugimoto, Isao Moritani, Junichiro Tanaka, Yumi Oya, Hidekazu Inoue, Masahiko Tameda, Katsuya Shiraki, Masaaki Ito, Yoshiyuki Takei, Kojiro Takase
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Japan. The etiology of CRC has been linked to numerous factors including genetic mutation, diet, life style, inflammation, and recently, the gut microbiota. However, CRC-associated gut microbiota is still largely unexamined. This study used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) to analyze and compare gut microbiota of Japanese control subjects and Japanese patients with carcinoma in adenoma...
January 2016: Oncology Reports
Tatsunari Sasada, Takao Hinoi, Yasufumi Saito, Tomohiro Adachi, Yuji Takakura, Yasuo Kawaguchi, Yusuke Sotomaru, Kazuhiro Sentani, Naohide Oue, Wataru Yasui, Hideki Ohdan
The gastrointestinal tract is continuously exposed to a variety of chemicals and commensal bacteria. Recent studies have shown that changes in gut microbial populations caused by chlorine or other chemicals in the drinking water influence the development of human colorectal cancer, although the mechanism of tumorigenesis in the gut epithelium is obfuscated by the diversity of microflora and complexity of the tumor microenvironment. In this regard, mouse models that recapitulate human colorectal cancer are an invaluable tool...
2015: PloS One
Kosuke Mima, Yasutaka Sukawa, Reiko Nishihara, Zhi Rong Qian, Mai Yamauchi, Kentaro Inamura, Sun A Kim, Atsuhiro Masuda, Jonathan A Nowak, Katsuhiko Nosho, Aleksandar D Kostic, Marios Giannakis, Hideo Watanabe, Susan Bullman, Danny A Milner, Curtis C Harris, Edward Giovannucci, Levi A Garraway, Gordon J Freeman, Glenn Dranoff, Andrew T Chan, Wendy S Garrett, Curtis Huttenhower, Charles S Fuchs, Shuji Ogino
IMPORTANCE: Evidence indicates a complex link between gut microbiome, immunity, and intestinal tumorigenesis. To target the microbiota and immunity for colorectal cancer prevention and therapy, a better understanding of the relationship between microorganisms and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment is needed. Experimental evidence suggests that Fusobacterium nucleatum may promote colonic neoplasia development by downregulating antitumor T cell-mediated adaptive immunity. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a greater amount of F nucleatum in colorectal carcinoma tissue is associated with a lower density of T cells in tumor tissue...
August 2015: JAMA Oncology
Heidi J Zapata, Vincent J Quagliarello
Advances in bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing allow for characterization of the human commensal bacterial community (microbiota) and its corresponding genome (microbiome). Surveys of healthy adults reveal that a signature composite of bacteria characterizes each unique body habitat (e.g., gut, skin, oral cavity, vagina). A myriad of clinical changes, including a basal proinflammatory state (inflamm-aging), that directly interface with the microbiota of older adults and enhance susceptibility to disease accompany aging...
April 2015: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Qiang Feng, Suisha Liang, Huijue Jia, Andreas Stadlmayr, Longqing Tang, Zhou Lan, Dongya Zhang, Huihua Xia, Xiaoying Xu, Zhuye Jie, Lili Su, Xiaoping Li, Xin Li, Junhua Li, Liang Xiao, Ursula Huber-Schönauer, David Niederseer, Xun Xu, Jumana Yousuf Al-Aama, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Karsten Kristiansen, Manimozhiyan Arumugam, Herbert Tilg, Christian Datz, Jun Wang
Colorectal cancer, a commonly diagnosed cancer in the elderly, often develops slowly from benign polyps called adenoma. The gut microbiota is believed to be directly involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. The identity and functional capacity of the adenoma- or carcinoma-related gut microbe(s), however, have not been surveyed in a comprehensive manner. Here we perform a metagenome-wide association study (MGWAS) on stools from advanced adenoma and carcinoma patients and from healthy subjects, revealing microbial genes, strains and functions enriched in each group...
2015: Nature Communications
Zhiguang Gao, Bomin Guo, Renyuan Gao, Qingchao Zhu, Huanlong Qin
The dysbiosis of the human intestinal microbiota is linked to sporadic colorectal carcinoma (CRC). The present study was designed to investigate the gut microbiota distribution features in CRC patients. We performed pyrosequencing based analysis of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region to investigate microbiota of the cancerous tissue and adjacent non-cancerous normal tissue in proximal and distal CRC samples. The results revealed that the microbial structures of the CRC patients and healthy individuals differed significantly...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
Carlos Sebastián, Raul Mostoslavsky
Dietary composition has an important role in shaping the gut microbiota. In turn, changes in the diet directly impinge on bacterial metabolites present in the intestinal lumen. Whether such metabolites play a role in intestinal cancer has been a topic of hot debate. In this issue of Cancer Discovery, Donohoe and colleagues show that dietary fiber protects against colorectal carcinoma in a microbiota-dependent manner. Furthermore, fiber-derived butyrate acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor, inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells experiencing the Warburg effect...
December 2014: Cancer Discovery
Herbert Tilg, Alexander R Moschen
Obesity and obesity-related disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes exhibit an increased risk of developing various gastrointestinal cancers. These malignancies include mainly esophageal, gastric, colorectal, pancreatic and hepatocellular carcinoma. Whereas underlying pathomechanisms remain unclear, chronic inflammation accompanying obesity has evolved in the last years as a crucial contributing factor. Obesity is also commonly characterized by inflammation in the organ where those cancers appear...
August 2014: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Amy M Sheflin, Alyssa K Whitney, Tiffany L Weir
Humans depend on our commensal bacteria for nutritive, immune-modulating, and metabolic contributions to maintenance of health. However, this commensal community exists in careful balance that, if disrupted, enters dysbiosis; this has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of colon, gastric, esophageal, pancreatic, laryngeal, breast, and gallbladder carcinomas. This development is closely tied to host inflammation, which causes and is aggravated by microbial dysbiosis and increases vulnerability to pathogens...
October 2014: Current Oncology Reports
Joseph P Zackular, Mary A M Rogers, Mack T Ruffin, Patrick D Schloss
Recent studies have suggested that the gut microbiome may be an important factor in the development of colorectal cancer. Abnormalities in the gut microbiome have been reported in patients with colorectal cancer; however, this microbial community has not been explored as a potential screen for early-stage disease. We characterized the gut microbiome in patients from three clinical groups representing the stages of colorectal cancer development: healthy, adenoma, and carcinoma. Analysis of the gut microbiome from stool samples revealed both an enrichment and depletion of several bacterial populations associated with adenomas and carcinomas...
November 2014: Cancer Prevention Research
Paul Lochhead, Andrew T Chan, Edward Giovannucci, Charles S Fuchs, Kana Wu, Reiko Nishihara, Michael O'Brien, Shuji Ogino
Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) is an integrative molecular and population health science that addresses the molecular pathogenesis and heterogeneity of disease processes. The MPE of colonic and rectal premalignant lesions (including hyperplastic polyps, tubular adenomas, tubulovillous adenomas, villous adenomas, traditional serrated adenomas, sessile serrated adenomas/sessile serrated polyps, and hamartomatous polyps) can provide unique opportunities for examining the influence of diet, lifestyle, and environmental exposures on specific pathways of carcinogenesis...
August 2014: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Helena Tlaskalova-Hogenova, Luca Vannucci, Klara Klimesova, Renata Stepankova, Jiri Krizan, Miloslav Kverka
The mammalian microbiota plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Thanks to recent advances in metagenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, microbiome composition and metabolic activity can now be studied in detail. Results obtained by such fascinating and provocative studies would be meaningless without considering the perspective of the whole organism. Our work using gnotobiology as the major tool to unravel the mechanisms of host-microbe interaction has demonstrated the crucial role of microbiota in the initiation and progression of inflammation-associated colorectal neoplasia...
May 2014: Cancer Journal
Qingchao Zhu, Zhiming Jin, Wen Wu, Renyuan Gao, Bomin Guo, Zhiguang Gao, Yongzhi Yang, Huanlong Qin
Recent reports have suggested that multiple factors such as host genetics, environment and diet can promote the progression of healthy mucosa towards sporadic colorectal carcinoma. Accumulating evidence has additionally associated intestinal bacteria with disease initiation and progression. In order to examine and analyze the composition of gut microbiota in the absence of confounding influences, we have established an animal model of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer. Using this model, we have performed pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes in this study to determine the diversity and breadth of the intestinal microbial species...
2014: PloS One
Mathilde Bonnet, Emmanuel Buc, Pierre Sauvanet, Claude Darcha, Damien Dubois, Bruno Pereira, Pierre Déchelotte, Richard Bonnet, Denis Pezet, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud
PURPOSE: The intestinal microbiota is potentially involved in the development of colorectal carcinoma via various mechanisms. Escherichia coli are commensal bacteria of the human gut microbiota, but some pathogenic strains have acquired the ability to induce chronic inflammation and/or produce toxins, such as cyclomodulin, which could participate in the carcinogenesis process. Here, we analyzed the E. coli population associated with mucosa of patients with colon cancer in relation to clinicopathologic characteristics...
February 15, 2014: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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