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microbiota NF-kB

Pieter Van den Abbeele, Bernard Taminiau, Iris Pinheiro, Cindy Duysburgh, Heidi Jacobs, Loek Pijls, Massimo Marzorati
Fecal batch fermentations coupled to cocultures of epithelial cells and macrophages were used to compare how arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) and inulin modulate gut microbial activity and composition of three different human donors and subsequently the epithelial permeability and immune response. Both inulin and AXOS decreased the pH during incubation (-1.5 pH units), leading to increased productions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Differences in terms of metabolites production could be linked to specific microbial alterations at genus level upon inulin/AXOS supplementation (i...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yaw Duah Boakye, Laura Groyer, Elke H Heiss
BACKGROUND: An extract of Phyllanthus muellerianus and its constituent geraniin have been reported to exert anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. However, orally consumed geraniin, an ellagitannin, shows low bioavailability and undergoes metabolization to urolithins by gut microbiota. This study aimed at comparing geraniin and urolithin A with respect to inhibition of M1 (LPS) polarization of murine J774.1 macrophages and shedding more light on possible underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Photometric, fluorimetric as well as luminescence-based assays monitored production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), cell viability or reporter gene expression...
January 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Huahai Chen, Yeshi Yin, Yanling Wang, Xin Wang, Charlie Xiang
Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are known modulators of the mammalian immune system. Currently, the technology for investigating SFB culture in vitro is immature, and as a result, the mechanisms of SFB colonization and immune regulation are not yet fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the gene diversity and host specificity of SFB flagellin genes. The fliC1 and fliC2 genes are relatively conserved, while the fliC3 and fliC4 genes are more variable, especially at the central and C-terminal regions...
September 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Páraic Ó Cuív, Tomas de Wouters, Rabina Giri, Stanislas Mondot, Wendy J Smith, Hervé M Blottière, Jakob Begun, Mark Morrison
The gut microbiota is increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) although the identity of the bacteria that underpin these diseases has remained elusive. The pathobiont Bacteroides vulgatus has been associated with both diseases although relatively little is known about how its growth and functional activity might drive the host inflammatory response. We identified an ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) export system and lipoprotein in B. vulgatus ATCC 8482 and B...
June 3, 2017: Anaerobe
Laura Giusti, Morena Gabriele, Giuseppe Penno, Monia Garofolo, Vincenzo Longo, Stefano Del Prato, Daniela Lucchesi, Laura Pucci
Endogenous and exogenous signals derived by the gut microbiota such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) orchestrate inflammatory responses contributing to development of the endothelial dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), bone marrow derived stem cells, promote recovery of damaged endothelium playing a pivotal role in cardiovascular repair. Since healthy nutrition improves EPCs functions, we evaluated the effect of a fermented grain, Lisosan G (LG), on early EPCs exposed to LPS...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Torsten Bohn
Carotenoid dietary intake, especially within fruits/vegetables and their plasma levels have been associated in many epidemiological studies with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases, including type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, several types of cancer, and agerelated macular degeneration. However, intervention trials with isolated carotenoids (as supplements) have fallen short of fulfi lling the hopes that were placed in these lipophilic pigments, often producing no positive or even adverse effects, such as increased lung cancer rate or total mortality...
February 10, 2017: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
Rheinallt M Jones, Andrew S Neish
The microbiota that inhabits the mammalian intestine can influence a range of physiological functions, including the modulation of immune responses, enhancement epithelial barrier function, and the stimulation of cell proliferation. While the mechanisms by which commensal prokaryotes stimulate immune signaling networks are well-characterized, less is known about the mechanistic control over homeostatic pathways within tissues. Recent reports by our research group have demonstrated that contact between the gut epithelia and some groups of enteric commensal bacteria prompts the rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within host cells...
April 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Pierre Larraufie, Joël Doré, Nicolas Lapaque, Hervé M Blottière
The intestinal epithelium is an active barrier separating the host from its microbiota. It senses microbial compounds through expression of a wide range of receptors including the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs have been shown to regulate epithelium permeability or secretion of defensin by Paneth cells. However, the expression and function of TLRs in enteroendocrine L-cells, a specific subtype of intestinal cells secreting PYY and GLP-1, have not yet been assessed. PYY and GLP-1 are implicated in regulation of gut motility, food intake and insulin secretion, and are of great interest regarding obesity and type 2 diabetes...
February 2017: Cellular Microbiology
Ying Hu, Richard K Le Leu, Claus T Christophersen, Roshini Somashekar, Michael A Conlon, Xing Q Meng, Jean M Winter, Richard J Woodman, Ross McKinnon, Graeme P Young
This study evaluated whether dietary resistant starch (RS) and green tea extract (GTE), which have anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties, protect against colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) using a rat model, also investigated potential mechanisms of action of these agents including their effects on the gut microbiota. Rats were fed a control diet or diets containing 10% RS, 0.5% GTE or a combination of the two (RS + GTE). CAC was initiated with 2 weekly azoxymethane (AOM) injections (10mg/kg) followed by 2% dextran sodium sulphate in drinking water for 7 days after 2 weeks on diets...
April 2016: Carcinogenesis
Christine L Sansone, Jonathan Cohen, Ari Yasunaga, Jie Xu, Greg Osborn, Harry Subramanian, Beth Gold, Nicolas Buchon, Sara Cherry
Enteric pathogens must overcome intestinal defenses to establish infection. In Drosophila, the ERK signaling pathway inhibits enteric virus infection. The intestinal microflora also impacts immunity but its role in enteric viral infection is unknown. Here we show that two signals are required to activate antiviral ERK signaling in the intestinal epithelium. One signal depends on recognition of peptidoglycan from the microbiota, particularly from the commensal Acetobacter pomorum, which primes the NF-kB-dependent induction of a secreted factor, Pvf2...
November 11, 2015: Cell Host & Microbe
Álvaro Gil Ferreira, Huw Naylor, Sara Santana Esteves, Inês Silva Pais, Nelson Eduardo Martins, Luis Teixeira
Pathogen entry route can have a strong impact on the result of microbial infections in different hosts, including insects. Drosophila melanogaster has been a successful model system to study the immune response to systemic viral infection. Here we investigate the role of the Toll pathway in resistance to oral viral infection in D. melanogaster. We show that several Toll pathway components, including Spätzle, Toll, Pelle and the NF-kB-like transcription factor Dorsal, are required to resist oral infection with Drosophila C virus...
December 2014: PLoS Pathogens
R Grande, S Pacella, M Di Giulio, M Rapino, V Di Valerio, L Cellini, A Cataldi
PURPOSE: In vitro studies have evidenced the cytotoxic effect of HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), the most common component of dental resin-based restorative material, which is released within the oral cavity, on eukaryotic cells such as gingival fibroblast and epithelial cells. However, since the presence of microorganisms within the oral cavity cannot be excluded and little is known about the interactions occurring between eukaryotic cells and the human oral microbiota, our attention has been addressed to investigate the effect of 3 mM HEMA on the molecular mechanisms driving the response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) co-cultured with Streptococcus mutans...
May 2015: Clinical Oral Investigations
Bhumika Prajapati, Prasant Kumar Jena, Parth Rajput, Kaveri Purandhar, Sriram Seshadri
Obesity and Type 2 diabetes are leading health problems which are characterized by low-grade inflammation with an increase in inflammatory cytokines along with the change in the gut microbiota population. Toll like Receptors (TLRs) and NOD like Receptors (NLRs) are very prominent pathogen recognition receptors, which play a significant role in the innate immune system. Both TLRs and NLRs pathways are mediated through different adaptor proteins; commonly found to activate the NF-kB, which induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines...
May 2014: Current Diabetes Reviews
Martin Trapecar, Ales Goropevsek, Mario Gorenjak, Lidija Gradisnik, Marjan Slak Rupnik
The early establishment of a complete microbiome has been shown to play an integral part in the development and maintenance of an intact intestine and its immune system, although much remains unknown about the specific mechanisms of immune modulation in newborns. In our study we show in a co-culture model of the undeveloped small intestine that members of Lactobacillus spp. influence STAT1 and NF-kB p65 nuclear translocation in both intestinal epithelial cells as well as underlying macrophages. Moreover, by using imaging flow cytometry we were able to monitor each individual cell and create a framework of the percentage of cells in which translocation occurred in challenged versus control cell populations...
2014: PloS One
I Topol, A Kamyshny
The present study was conducted to investigate of the influence of chronic social stress (CSS) and modulation of the composition of intestinal microflora on the distribution of TLR2+-, TLR4+- and Nf-kB+-cells in the GALT of ileum of the rats. Researchers have been conducted on 84 rats (female) of Wistar line, which were divided on 7 experimental groups: control rats (group 1); rats, which were modeled CSS1 by means of three weeks social isolation and prolong psychoemotional influence (group2); rats, which having CSS 2 modeling by means of keeping animals in over populated cages with every day change of grouping (group 3); rats with CSS1 and CSS2, which were made the modeling of intestinal microflora by means of administrations of aminoglycosed antibiotic kanamycin (group 4 and 5, accordingly); rats with CSS1 and CSS2, which were made the modeling of intestinal microflora by means of everyday administrations of lactobacterine (groups 6 and 7, accordingly)...
December 2013: Georgian Medical News
Galliano Zanello, Ashleigh Goethel, Katharina Forster, Kaoru Geddes, Dana J Philpott, Kenneth Croitoru
Although the etiology of Crohn's disease (CD) remains elusive this disease is characterized by T cell activation that leads to chronic inflammation and mucosal damage. A potential role for maladaptation between the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune response is suggested by the fact that mutations in the pattern recognition receptor Nod2 are associated with higher risks for developing CD. Although Nod2 deletion in CD4(+) T cells has been shown to impair the induction of colitis in the murine T cell transfer model, the analysis of T cell intrinsic Nod2 function in T cell differentiation and T cell-mediated immunity is inconsistent between several studies...
2013: PloS One
Omar Lakhdari, Julien Tap, Fabienne Béguet-Crespel, Karine Le Roux, Tomas de Wouters, Antonietta Cultrone, Malgorzata Nepelska, Fabrice Lefèvre, Joël Doré, Hervé M Blottière
The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in modulation of mucosal immune responses. To seek interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and commensal bacteria, we screened 49 commensal strains for their capacity to modulate NF-κB. We used HT-29/kb-seap-25 and Caco-2/kb-seap-7 intestinal epithelial cells and monocyte-like THP-1 blue reporter cells to measure effects of commensal bacteria on cellular expression of a reporter system for NF-κB. Bacteria conditioned media (CM) were tested alone or together with an activator of NF-κB to explore its inhibitory potentials...
2011: Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology
Omar Lakhdari, Antonietta Cultrone, Julien Tap, Karine Gloux, Françoise Bernard, S Dusko Ehrlich, Fabrice Lefèvre, Joël Doré, Hervé M Blottière
BACKGROUND/AIM: The human intestinal microbiota plays an important role in modulation of mucosal immune responses. To study interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and commensal bacteria, a functional metagenomic approach was developed. One interest of metagenomics is to provide access to genomes of uncultured microbes. We aimed at identifying bacterial genes involved in regulation of NF-κB signaling in IECs. A high throughput cell-based screening assay allowing rapid detection of NF-κB modulation in IECs was established using the reporter-gene strategy to screen metagenomic libraries issued from the human intestinal microbiota...
2010: PloS One
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