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LDH AND Oxamate

Álvaro Marín-Hernández, José S Rodríguez-Zavala, Isis Del Mazo-Monsalvo, Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez, Rafael Moreno-Sánchez, Emma Saavedra
Glycolysis provides precursors for the synthesis of macromolecules and may contribute to the ATP supply required for the constant and accelerated cellular duplication in cancer cells. In consequence, inhibition of glycolysis has been reiteratively considered as an anti-cancer therapeutic option. In previous studies, kinetic modeling of glycolysis in cancer cells allowed the identification of the main steps that control the glycolytic flux: glucose transporter, hexokinase (HK), hexose phosphate isomerase (HPI), and glycogen degradation in human cervix HeLa cancer cells and rat AS-30D ascites hepatocarcinoma...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Marcella Manerba, Lorenza Di Ianni, Marzia Govoni, Marinella Roberti, Maurizio Recanatini, Giuseppina Di Stefano
The inflammatory microenvironment is an essential component of neoplastic lesions and can significantly impact on tumor progression. Besides facilitating invasive growth, inflammatory cytokines were also found to reprogram cancer cell metabolism and to induce aerobic glycolysis. Previous studies did not consider the possible contribution played in these changes by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The A isoform of LDH (LDH-A) is the master regulator of aerobic glycolysis; it actively reduces pyruvate and causes enhanced lactate levels in tumor tissues...
September 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Ying-Jr Chen, Nathaniel G Mahieu, Xiaojing Huang, Manmilan Singh, Peter A Crawford, Stephen L Johnson, Richard W Gross, Jacob Schaefer, Gary J Patti
It is well established that lactate secreted by fermenting cells can be oxidized or used as a gluconeogenic substrate by other cells and tissues. It is generally assumed, however, that within the fermenting cell itself, lactate is produced to replenish NAD(+) and then is secreted. Here we explore the possibility that cytosolic lactate is metabolized by the mitochondria of fermenting mammalian cells. We found that fermenting HeLa and H460 cells utilize exogenous lactate carbon to synthesize a large percentage of their lipids...
November 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
Rafael Moreno-Sánchez, Álvaro Marín-Hernández, Isis Del Mazo-Monsalvo, Emma Saavedra, Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez
BACKGROUND: Exceedingly high therapeutic/experimental doses of metabolic drugs such as oxamate, aminooxyacetate (AOA) and dichloroacetate (DCA) are required to diminish growth, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) of different cancer cells. To identify the mechanisms of action of these drugs on cancer energy metabolism, a systematic analysis of their specificities was undertaken. METHODS: Hepatocarcinoma AS-30D cells were treated with the inhibitors and glycolysis and OxPhos enzyme activities, metabolites and fluxes were analyzed...
August 16, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Michael I Koukourakis, Christos Kakouratos, Dimitra Kalamida, Zoi Bampali, Sophia Mavropoulou, Efthimios Sivridis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki
PURPOSE: To assess whether anaerobic metabolism, proliferation activity and stem cell content are linked with radioresistance in bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue sections from 66 patients with invasive transitional cell bladder cancer treated with hypofractionated accelerated radiotherapy, was immunohistochemically analyzed for the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α (HIF1α) and the anaerobic glycolysis enzyme lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5). Proliferation index (Ki-67) and stem-cell marker (cluster of differentiation CD44, aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH1) expression was also examined...
July 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Qinghua He, Qinglian Zhang, Lin Huang, Jinhu Ma
Lactate dehydrogenase C4 (LDH-C4) is considered to be a target protein for the development of contraceptives. In this work, the characterization of plateau zokor LDH-C4 and the screening of a series of N-substituted oxamic acids as inhibitors against zokor LDH-C4 were reported. The cDNA of zokor LDH-C gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, from which the protein was purified and further characterized. The protein was a tetramer (LDH-C4) and thermally stable up to 62 °C with a K m of 63.9 μM for pyruvate and with optimal pH values of 7...
July 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Weiran Ye, Yijia Zheng, Shanshan Zhang, Li Yan, Hua Cheng, Muchao Wu
Oxamate (OXA) is a pyruvate analogue that directly inhibits the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-catalyzed conversion process of pyruvate into lactate. Earlier and recent studies have shown elevated blood lactate levels among insulin-resistant and type 2 diabetes subjects and that blood lactate levels independently predicted the development of incident diabetes. To explore the potential of OXA in the treatment of diabetes, db/db mice were treated with OXA in vivo. Treatment of OXA (350-750 mg/kg of body weight) for 12 weeks was shown to decrease body weight gain and blood glucose and HbA1c levels and improve insulin secretion, the morphology of pancreatic islets, and insulin sensitivity in db/db mice...
2016: PloS One
Yang Wang, Lian Wei, Lin-na Wei, Xiao Li, Li-na Xu, Deng-bang Wei
OBJECTIVE: To explore the intergrating of N-isopropyl oxamate and serum protein and establish a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) detection method of N-isopropyl oxamate (specific inhibitor of testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4)) in the blood of plateau pikas. METHODS: Twenty highland pika 150-200 g, were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10): control group and inhibitor group. Different concentrations of N-isopropyl oxamate were added to examine the intergrating of N-isopropyl oxamate and serum protein...
September 2015: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Zhongjian Liu, Yang Sun, Shirui Tan, Liang Liu, Suqiong Hu, Hongyu Huo, Meizhang Li, Qinghua Cui, Min Yu
Although the Warburg effect is a dominant metabolic phenotype observed in cancers, the metabolic changes and adaptation occurring in tumors have been demonstrated to extend beyond the Warburg effect and thus considered a secondary effect to the transformation process of carcinogenesis, including nutritional deficiencies. However, the role of nutritional deficiencies in this metabolic reprogramming (e. g., oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)/glycolysis interconversion) is not completely known yet. Here, we showed that under regular culture condition, the proliferation of U251 cells, but not other tumor cell lines, preferentially performed the Warburg effect and was remarkably inhibited by oxamic acid which can inhibit the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); whereas under serum starvation, glycolysis was depressed, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) was enhanced, and the activity of OXPHOS was reinforced to maintain cellular ATP content in a high level, but interestingly, we observed a decreased expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
May 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Huo-Lei Peng, Tsuyoshi Egawa, Eric Chang, Hua Deng, Robert Callender
The mechanism of thermal adaptation of enzyme function at the molecular level is poorly understood but is thought to lie within the structure of the protein or its dynamics. Our previous work on pig heart lactate dehydrogenase (phLDH) has determined very high resolution structures of the active site, via isotope edited IR studies, and has characterized its dynamical nature, via laser-induced temperature jump (T-jump) relaxation spectroscopy on the Michaelis complex. These particular probes are quite powerful at getting at the interplay between structure and dynamics in adaptation...
December 10, 2015: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Yang Wang, Lian Wei, Dengbang Wei, Xiao Li, Lina Xu, Linna Wei
LDH-C4 is a lactate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. In mammals, ldh-c was originally thought to be expressed only in testis and spermatozoa. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae), which belongs to the genus Ochotona of the Ochotonidea family, is a hypoxia tolerant mammal living 3000-5000 m above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, an environment which is strongly hypoxic. Ldh-c is expressed not only in testis and sperm but also in somatic tissues of plateau pika. In this study, the effects of N-propyl oxamate and N-isopropyl oxamate on LDH isozyme kinetics were compared to screens for a selective inhibitor of LDH-C4...
August 2015: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Chrysi Xintaropoulou, Carol Ward, Alan Wise, Hugh Marston, Arran Turnbull, Simon P Langdon
Many cancer cells rely on aerobic glycolysis for energy production and targeting of this pathway is a potential strategy to inhibit cancer cell growth. In this study, inhibition of five glycolysis pathway molecules (GLUT1, HKII, PFKFB3, PDHK1 and LDH) using 9 inhibitors (Phloretin, Quercetin, STF31, WZB117, 3PO, 3-bromopyruvate, Dichloroacetate, Oxamic acid, NHI-1) was investigated in panels of breast and ovarian cancer cell line models. All compounds tested blocked glycolysis as indicated by increased extracellular glucose and decreased lactate production and also increased apoptosis...
September 22, 2015: Oncotarget
Xiao Li, Lian Wei, Yang Wang, Li-Na Xu, Lin-Na Wei, Deng-Bang Wei
The plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) has a strong adaptability to hypoxic plateau environment. We found that the sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4) gene Ldh-c expressed in plateau pika cardiac muscle. In order to shed light on the effect of LDH-C4 on the anaerobic glycolysis in plateau pika cardiac muscle, 20 pikas were randomly divided into the inhibitor group and the control group, and the sample size of each group was 10. The pikas of inhibitor group were injected with 1 mL 1 mol/L N-isopropyl oxamate, a specific LDH-C4 inhibitor, in biceps femoris muscle of hind legs, each leg with 500 μL...
June 25, 2015: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Marcella Manerba, Lorenza Di Ianni, Luigi Fiume, Marinella Roberti, Maurizio Recanatini, Giuseppina Di Stefano
Up-regulation of glycolysis, a well recognized hallmark of cancer cells, was also found to be predictive of poor chemotherapy response. This observation suggested the attempt of sensitizing cancer cells to conventional chemotherapeutic agents by inhibiting glucose metabolism. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibition can be a way to hinder glycolysis of cancer cells without affecting the metabolism of normal tissues, which usually does not require this enzymatic activity. In this paper, we showed that two LDH inhibitors (oxamate and galloflavin) can increase the efficacy of cisplatin in cultured Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells and that this potentiating effect is not exerted in proliferating normal lymphocytes...
July 10, 2015: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Khaja Shameem Mohammed Abdul, Sofija Jovanović, Qingyou Du, Andriy Sukhodub, Aleksandar Jovanović
High-altitude residents have lower mortality rates for ischaemic heart disease and this is ascribed to cardiac gene remodelling by chronic hypoxia. SUR2A is a cardioprotective ABC protein serving as a subunit of sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. The purpose of this study was to determine whether SUR2A is regulated by mild hypoxia in vivo and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Mice were exposed to either 21% (control) or 18% (mild hypoxia) oxygen for 24h. Exposure to 18% oxygen did not affect partial pressure of O(2) (PO(2)) and CO(2) (PCO(2)) in the blood, haematocrit or level of ATP in the heart...
May 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Zhi Zhao, Fanghai Han, Shibin Yang, Jianhai Wu, Wenhua Zhan
Cancer cells produce a substantial amount of energy through aerobic glycolysis even in the presence of adequate oxygen. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a key regulator of glycolysis, reversibly catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. Recently, oxamate, an inhibitor of LDH, has been shown to be a promising anticancer agent. However, the detailed mechanism remains largely unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that oxamate inhibits the viability of human gastric cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
March 1, 2015: Cancer Letters
Xiaojun Liu, Zhongxia Yang, Zhaofeng Chen, Rui Chen, Da Zhao, Yongning Zhou, Liang Qiao
Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A), which regulates glycolytic flux by catalyzing pyruvate to lactate in the cytoplasm, is believed to be one of the highly attractive therapeutic targets for cancers. Firstly, we detected the expression of LDH-A in gastric cancer (GC) cells. LDH-A inhibitor oxamate was then used to suppress the LDH-A activity in GC cells. Cell proliferation, lactic acid production, Transwell migration assay and apoptosis were assessed, respectively. The results showed that inhibition of LDH-A by oxamate decreased the lactate production...
January 2015: Oncology Reports
Yang Yang, Dan Su, Lin Zhao, Dan Zhang, Jiaying Xu, Jianmei Wan, Saijun Fan, Ming Chen
Higher rate of glycolysis has been long observed in cancer cells, as a vital enzyme in glycolysis, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) has been shown with great potential as an anti-cancer target. Accumulating evidence indicates that inhibition of LDH-A induces apoptosis mediated by oxidative stress in cancer cells. To date, it's still unclear that whether autophagy can be induced by LDH-A inhibition. Here, we investigated the effects of oxamate, one classic inhibitor of LDH-A in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells as well as normal lung epithelial cells...
December 15, 2014: Oncotarget
Balamurugan Sundaram, Nandan Mysore Varadarajan, Pradeep Annamalai Subramani, Susanta Kumar Ghosh, Viswanathan Arun Nagaraj
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax (Pv), serves as a drug target and immunodiagnostic marker. The LDH cDNA generated from total RNA of a clinical isolate of the parasite was cloned into pRSETA plasmid. Recombinant his-tagged PvLDH was over-expressed in E. coli Rosetta2DE3pLysS and purified using Ni(2+)-NTA resin giving a yield of 25-30 mg/litre bacterial culture. The recombinant protein was enzymatically active and its catalytic efficiency for pyruvate was 5.4 × 10(8) min(-1) M(-1), 14...
December 2014: Biotechnology Letters
Joaquín Cordero-Martínez, Charmina Aguirre-Alvarado, Carlos Wong, Lorena Rodríguez-Páez
The present study evaluates the effect of oxamate derivatives (N-ethyl, N-propyl, N-butyl oxamates) on functional murine sperm parameters, towards a new male non-hormonal contraceptive. These derivatives are selective inhibitors of lactate dehydrogenase-C4 (LDH-C4). LDH-C4 is a sperm-specific enzyme that plays an important role in ATP production for maintaining progressive motility as well as to induce capacitation and hyperactivation. The results demonstrate that all oxamate derivatives selectively inhibited LDH-C4 in mouse sperm extracts...
August 2014: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
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