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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727960/perspectives-on-psychological-science-right-way-wrong-way-symposium
#1
Megan R Gunnar
In unpredictable times, it is perhaps even more important to contemplate the direction different fields of science are headed. In this article, I contemplate two directions of psychological science: the increasing integration of the study of psychology with other sciences and the concern of many sciences, including ours, with improving the reproducibility of our findings. Both of these are argued to be "right ways," but these directions also have challenges that, unless carefully addressed, could detract from our ability to move the science of psychology forward...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726128/on-the-response-of-the-baltic-proper-to-changes-of-the-total-phosphorus-supply
#2
Anders Stigebrandt
Using a time-dependent phosphorus (P) budget model for the Baltic proper, describing sources and sinks at the external borders of the water column, one may compute the e-folding time T of the adjustment of the winter surface water P concentration c 1 to abruptly changed total P supply. The restoration time TR = 3T is introduced as a practical measure of the time it takes to achieve 95% of the change of c 1 towards the final, equilibrium, state c 1e. The P budget model, including an internal source emanating from deep anoxic bottoms, also shows that c 1e is proportional to the total P supply to the water column...
July 19, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725218/all-new-faces-of-diatoms-potential-source-of-nanomaterials-and-beyond
#3
REVIEW
Meerambika Mishra, Ananta P Arukha, Tufail Bashir, Dhananjay Yadav, G B K S Prasad
Nature's silicon marvel, the diatoms have lately astounded the scientific community with its intricate designs and lasting durability. Diatoms are a major group of phytoplanktons involved in the biogeochemical cycling of silica and are virtually inherent in every environment ranging from water to ice to soil. The usage of diatoms has proved prudently cost effective and its handling neither requires costly materials nor sophisticated instruments. Diatoms can easily be acquired from the environment, their culture requires ambient condition and does not involve any costly media or expensive instruments, besides, they can be transported in small quantities and proliferated to a desirable confluence from that scratch, thus are excellent cost effective industrial raw material...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722059/nanofluidics-in-two-dimensional-layered-materials-inspirations-from-nature
#4
REVIEW
Jun Gao, Yaping Feng, Wei Guo, Lei Jiang
With the advance of chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology, significant progress has been achieved in the design and application of synthetic nanofluidic devices and materials, mimicking the gating, rectifying, and adaptive functions of biological ion channels. Fundamental physics and chemistry behind these novel transport phenomena on the nanoscale have been explored in depth on single-pore platforms. However, toward real-world applications, one major challenge is to extrapolate these single-pore devices into macroscopic materials...
July 19, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722036/quantitative-probing-of-subtle-interactions-among-h-bonds-in-alpha-hydroxy-carboxylic-acid-complexes
#5
Quanli Gu, Peifeng Su, Yong Xia, Zhijun Yang, Carl O Trindle, Joseph L Knee
Hydrogen (H) bonds are of fundamental importance in a wide range of molecular sciences. While the study of two-center H-bonding AH is well advanced, much remains to be learned in a quantitative and definitive manner for complexes with multiple H-bonds. Exemplary cases are in the category of alpha hydroxy carboxylic acids, i.e., the complexes of glycolic acid with water and formic acid. In glycolic acid, an intramolecular H-bond forms between the carboxyl group and the alpha OH group. The alpha OH stretching frequency may be affected upon complexing with water or formic acid...
July 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717412/diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-molecular-imaging-tool-caught-between-hope-hype-and-the-real-world-of-personalized-oncology
#6
REVIEW
Abhishek Mahajan, Sneha S Deshpande, Meenakshi H Thakur
"Personalized oncology" is a multi-disciplinary science, which requires inputs from various streams for optimal patient management. Humongous progress in the treatment modalities available and the increasing need to provide functional information in addition to the morphological data; has led to leaping progress in the field of imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging has undergone tremendous progress with various newer MR techniques providing vital functional information and is becoming the cornerstone of "radiomics/radiogenomics"...
June 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713501/removal-of-acid-orange-7-dye-from-aqueous-solutions-by-adsorption-onto-kenya-tea-pulps-granulated-shape
#7
Behnaz Naraghi, Fahimeh Zabihi, Mohammad Reza Narooie, Mahdi Saeidi, Hamed Biglari
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Water resources pollution control is one of the main challenges of our time for researchers. Colored wastewater discharges caused by textile industry activities has added to the concern. In this study, removal of Acid Orange 7 dye (AO7) using Kenya Tea residue absorbent (granular) has been studied. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016. In this work, initially, tea residue was prepared in three forms of raw, treated with concentrated phosphoric acid, and carbonated, at temperatures of 350, 450 and 500 °C in the chemistry laboratory of Gonabad University of Medical Sciences...
May 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710211/occupational-risk-for-legionella-infection-among-dental-healthcare-workers-meta-analysis-in-occupational-epidemiology
#8
Stefano Petti, Matteo Vitali
OBJECTIVE: The occupational risk for Legionella infection among dental healthcare workers (DHCWs) is conjectured because of the risk of routine inhalation of potentially contaminated aerosols produced by the dental instruments. Nevertheless, occupational epidemiology studies are contrasting. This meta-analysis assessed the level of scientific evidence regarding the relative occupational risk for Legionella infection among DHCWs. METHODS: Literature search was performed without time and language restrictions, using broad data banks (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, GOOGLE Scholar) and generic keywords ('legionella' AND 'dent*')...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709097/effects-of-land-use-and-climate-change-on-ecosystem-services-in-central-asia-s-arid-regions-a-case-study-in-altay-prefecture-china
#9
Qi Fu, Bo Li, Ying Hou, Xu Bi, Xinshi Zhang
The sustainable use of ecosystem services (ES) can contribute to enhancing human well-being. Understanding the effects of land use and climate change on ES can provide scientific and targeted guidance for the sustainable use of ES. The objective of this study was to reveal the way in which land use and climate change influence the spatial and temporal variations of ES in the mountain-oasis-desert system (MODS). In this study, we assessed water yield, soil conservation, crop production, and sand fixation in 1990, 2000, and 2010 in Altay Prefecture, which is representative of the MODS, based on widely used biophysical models...
July 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704676/trehs-an-open-access-software-tool-for-investigating-and-evaluating-temporary-river-regimes-as-a-first-step-for-their-ecological-status-assessment
#10
Francesc Gallart, Núria Cid, Jérôme Latron, Pilar Llorens, Núria Bonada, Justin Jeuffroy, Sara-María Jiménez-Argudo, Rosa-María Vega, Carolina Solà, Maria Soria, Mònica Bardina, Antoni-Josep Hernández-Casahuga, Aránzazu Fidalgo, Teodoro Estrela, Antoni Munné, Narcís Prat
When the regime of a river is not perennial, there are four main difficulties with the use of hydrographs for assessing hydrological alteration: i) the main hydrological features relevant for biological communities are not quantitative (discharges) but qualitative (phases such as flowing water, stagnant pools or lack of surface water), ii) stream flow records do not inform on the temporal occurrence of stagnant pools, iii) as most of the temporary streams are ungauged, their regime has to be evaluated by alternative methods such as remote sensing or citizen science, and iv) the biological quality assessment of the ecological status of a temporary stream must follow a sampling schedule and references adapted to the flow- pool-dry regime...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696678/benchmarking-water-quality-from-wastewater-to-drinking-waters-using-reduced-transcriptome-of-human-cells
#11
Pu Xia, Xiaowei Zhang, Hanxin Zhang, Pingping Wang, Mingming Tian, Hongxia Yu
One of the major challenge in environmental science is how to monitor and assess the risk of complex environmental mixtures. In vitro bioassays with limited key toxicological endpoints have been shown to be suitable to evaluate mixtures of organic pollutants in wastewater and recycled water. Omics approaches such as transcriptomics can monitor biological effects at genome-scale. However, few studies have applied omics approach in the assessment of mixtures of organic micropollutants. Here, an omics approach was developed for profiling bioactivity of ten water samples ranging from wastewater to drinking water in human cells by a reduced human transcriptome (RHT) method and dose response modeling...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683540/composition-tunable-optical-properties-of-zn-x-cd-1%C3%A2-%C3%A2-x-s-quantum-dot-carboxymethylcellulose-conjugates-towards-one-pot-green-synthesis-of-multifunctional-nanoplatforms-for-biomedical-and-environmental-applications
#12
Alexandra A P Mansur, Herman S Mansur, Anderson J Caires, Rafael L Mansur, Luiz C Oliveira
Quantum dots (QDs) are colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals with unique properties that can be engineered by controlling the nanoparticle size and chemical composition by doping and alloying strategies. However, due to their potential toxicity, augmenting their biocompatibility is yet a challenge for expanding to several biomedical and environmentally friendly applications. Thus, the main goal of this study was to develop composition-tunable and biocompatible Zn x Cd1 - x S QDs using carboxymethylcellulose polysaccharide as direct capping ligand via green colloidal aqueous route at neutral pH and at room temperature for potential biomedical and environmental applications...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683457/mir-9-regulates-the-expression-of-bace1-in-dementia-induced-by-chronic-brain-hypoperfusion-in-rats
#13
Hailong Xie, Ying Zhao, You Zhou, Lin Liu, Yueting Liu, Dongxue Wang, Shuang Zhang, Mingyan Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MicroRNA-9 (miR-9) plays important roles in nervous system diseases such as glioblastoma and neurodegenerative disorders. However, how miR-9 contributes to dementia requires further study. In this study, we evaluated the role of miR-9 in dementia and the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects. METHODS: A rat model of dementia was created by occlusion of the bilateral common carotid artery (2VO) for 8 weeks. Learning and memory were assessed using the Morris Water Maze (MWM)...
July 3, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682101/premenstrual-symptoms-and-factors-implicated-in-smoking-cessation-among-woman-smokers
#14
Raina D Pang, Nafeesa Andrabi, Adam M Leventhal
Premenstrual symptoms (PMS) may reduce smoking cessation success. Yet, little is known about the factors that may impact smoking cessation among women with elevated PMS, leaving little data to guide smoking cessation science and practice for this population. This cross-sectional study is a secondary analysis of data from laboratory studies focused on menstrual cycle effects and smoking. Premenopausal woman daily smokers (n = 157) completed self-report measures of tobacco dependence and other cessation-relevant factors (i...
July 6, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674837/a-novel-method-for-constructing-continuous-intrinsic-surfaces-of-nanoparticles
#15
Daniel T Allen, Christian D Lorenz
In recent years, the field of nanotechnology has become increasingly prevalent in the disciplines of science and engineering due to it's abundance of application areas. Therefore, the ability to study and characterize these materials is more relevant than ever. Despite the wealth of simulation and modeling studies of nanoparticles reported in the literature, a rigorous description of the interface of such materials is rarely included in analyses which are pivotal to understanding interfacial behavior. We propose a novel method for constructing the continuous intrinsic surface of nanoparticles, which has been applied to a model system consisting of a sodium dodecyl sulfate micelle in the presence of testosterone propionate...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674145/the-strataa-study-protocol-a-programme-to-assess-the-burden-of-enteric-fever-in-bangladesh-malawi-and-nepal-using-prospective-population-census-passive-surveillance-serological-studies-and-healthcare-utilisation-surveys
#16
Thomas C Darton, James E Meiring, Susan Tonks, Md Arifuzzaman Khan, Farhana Khanam, Mila Shakya, Deus Thindwa, Stephen Baker, Buddha Basnyat, John D Clemens, Gordon Dougan, Christiane Dolecek, Sarah J Dunstan, Melita A Gordon, Robert S Heyderman, Kathryn E Holt, Virginia E Pitzer, Firdausi Qadri, K Zaman, Andrew J Pollard
INTRODUCTION: Invasive infections caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Paratyphi A are estimated to account for 12-27 million febrile illness episodes worldwide annually. Determining the true burden of typhoidal Salmonellae infections is hindered by lack of population-based studies and adequate laboratory diagnostics.The Strategic Typhoid alliance across Africa and Asia study takes a systematic approach to measuring the age-stratified burden of clinical and subclinical disease caused by typhoidal Salmonellae infections at three high-incidence urban sites in Africa and Asia...
July 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671216/cellulose-nanocrystals-by-acid-vapour-towards-more-effortless-isolation-of-cellulose-nanocrystals
#17
Marcel Lorenz, Stefan Sattler, Mehedi Reza, Alexander Bismarck, Eero Kontturi
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are topical in materials science but their full potential is yet to be fulfilled because of bottlenecks in the production: the process consumes huge amounts of water, recycling the strong acid catalyst is difficult, and purification steps are cumbersome, particularly with lengthy dialysis. Production of CNCs with HCl vapour overcomes many of these difficulties but the dispersion of CNCs from the already hydrolysed fibre matrix is a formidable challenge. This study is a fundamental effort to explore very basic means to facilitate CNC dispersion from cotton linter fibres (filter paper), hydrolysed to levelling off degree of polymerization by HCl vapour...
July 3, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668347/managing-hazards-in-place-the-risks-of-residual-risks
#18
Ellen K Silbergeld
Managing hazards in place (MHP) is a policy instrument in environmental health that allows less than complete removal, abatement, or remediation of environmental hazards. The practice of minimizing exposure to hazards rather than removing them is widely recognized as part of the toolbox of environmental protection for human and ecosystem health. The concept of managing hazards in place is embedded in several environmental statutes and regulations in the US notably the waste management regulations, as well as in the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Clean Water Act...
June 28, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668069/revealing-isomerism-in-sodium-water-clusters-photoionization-spectra-of-na-h2o-n-n-2-90
#19
Christoph W Dierking, Florian Zurheide, Thomas Zeuch, Jakub Med, Stanislav Parez, Petr Slavíček
Soft ionization of sodium tagged polar clusters is increasingly used as a powerful technique for sizing and characterization of small aerosols with possible application, e.g., in atmospheric chemistry or combustion science. Understanding the structure and photoionization of the sodium doped clusters is critical for such applications. In this work, we report on measurements of photoionization spectra for sodium doped water clusters containing 2-90 water molecules. While most of the previous studies focused on the ionization threshold of the Na(H2O)n clusters, we provide for the first time full photoionization spectra, including the high-energy region, which are used as reference for a comparison with theory...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666249/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-efficacy-of-different-exercise-programs-in-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-models
#20
REVIEW
Muneeb Iqbal, Md Saidur Rahman, Salman Zafar, Xin-Lin Chen, Jian-Xin Liu, Yong Liu
PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies testing exercise in animal models of pilocarpine induced status epilepticus (SE) and to compare the efficacy of different training strategies used in those studies. METHODS: We searched 2 online databases (Pubmed and Web of Science) for studies analyzing the efficacy of different trainings in pilocarpine-induced SE models. Training was categorized into forced physical training (PT), voluntary PT and resistance PT...
June 27, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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