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water science

Ray Ison, Jason Alexandra, Phil Wallis
The Anthropocene imposes new challenges for governments, demanding capabilities for dealing with complexity and uncertainty. In this paper we examine how effective governing of social-biophysical dynamics is constrained by current processes and systems of government. Framing choices and structural determinants combine to create governance deficits in multiple domains, particularly in relation to the governing of complex larger-scale social-biophysical systems. Attempts to build capability for governing 'wicked problems' are relevant to sustainability science and Anthropocene governance, but these have mostly failed to become institutionalised...
2018: Sustainability science
Fanxu Meng, Yuan Gao, Qingyuan Feng
Finding chromium-accumulating plants is of great interest for phytoremediation of soil contaminated by chromium (Cr). Inspired by Traditional Chinese Medicine, we examined the Cr-resistance and Cr-accumulation of Lonicera japonica Thunb. After a two-phase study using both soil and water culture, we found that L. japonica could be a novel Cr-accumulating plant, which contains an average Cr(III) content of 1297.14 mg. kg-1 in its leaves. The Cr enrichment factor and the Cr transport coefficient of Lonicera japonica was 5...
September 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Michael R Kendrick, Alexander D Huryn, William B Bowden, Linda A Deegan, Robert H Findlay, Anne E Hershey, Bruce J Peterson, Josh Benes, Elissa Schuett
Rapidly increasing air temperatures across the Arctic are thawing permafrost and exposing vast quantities of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus to microbial processing. Shifts in the absolute and relative supplies of these elements will likely alter patterns of ecosystem productivity and change the way carbon and nutrients are delivered from upland areas to surface waters such as rivers and lakes. The ultra-oligotrophic nature of surface waters across the Arctic renders these ecosystems particularly susceptible to changes in productivity and food web dynamics as permafrost thaw alters terrestrial-aquatic linkages...
September 15, 2018: Global Change Biology
Vanessa W Simonds, Frances L Kim, Deborah LaVeaux, Velma Pickett, Jessica Milakovich, Jason Cummins
BACKGROUND: American Indian communities in the United States experience considerable health inequities, including increased exposure to environmental contaminants. Consequently, community members of the Apsáalooke (Crow) Nation identified the lack of water-related environmental knowledge among children as an area of concern. AIM: The purpose of this study was to provide a feasibility evaluation of an increasingly sophisticated environmental health literacy program for children...
September 14, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Tran Trung Luu, Zhong Yin, Arohi Jain, Thomas Gaumnitz, Yoann Pertot, Jun Ma, Hans Jakob Wörner
High-harmonic generation (HHG) in gases has been the main enabling technology of attosecond science since its discovery. Recently, HHG from solids has been demonstrated, opening a lively area of research. In contrast, harmonic generation from liquids has so far remained restricted to low harmonics in the visible regime. Here, we report the observation and detailed characterization of extreme ultraviolet HHG from liquid water and several alcohols extending beyond 20 eV. This advance was enabled by the implementation of the recent liquid flat-microjet technology, which we show to facilitate the spatial separation of HHG from the bulk liquid and the surrounding gas phase...
September 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Nicolas Gruber, Peter Landschützer, Nicole S Lovenduski
The CO2 uptake by the Southern Ocean (<35°S) varies substantially on all timescales and is a major determinant of the variations of the global ocean carbon sink. Particularly strong are the decadal changes characterized by a weakening period of the Southern Ocean carbon sink in the 1990s and a rebound after 2000. The weakening in the 1990s resulted primarily from a southward shift of the westerlies that enhanced the upwelling and outgassing of respired (i.e., natural) CO2 . The concurrent reduction in the storage rate of anthropogenic CO2 in the mode and intermediate waters south of 35°S suggests that this shift also decreased the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 ...
September 13, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Botao Song
Drug delivery systems with high drug encapsulation efficiency and controlled release are of great importance in biomedical fields. Herein, we report an ingenious approach inspired from the lotus leaf possessing the ability of strong repellency to water, which enables the rapid fabrication of drug-loaded calcium alginate (Ca-Alg) particles with high drug encapsulation efficiency and controlled drug delivery. The design is achieved by introducing aqueous droplets containing the mixture of dilute sodium alginate solution, dilute calcium chloride solution, and drug onto the superhydrophobic substrate...
September 3, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Vitaly V Chaban
Higher molecular weight dialkyl sulfoxides attract interest in the context of biomedical sciences due to their ability to penetrate phospholipid bilayers, dissolve drugs, and serve as cryoprotectants. Intermolecular interactions with water, a paramount component of the living cell, determine the performance of the sulfoxide-based artificial systems in their prospective applications. Herein, we simulated a wide composition range of sulfoxide/water mixtures, up to 85 w/w% sulfoxide, using classical molecular dynamics to determine structure, dynamics, and thermodynamics as a function of the mixture composition...
September 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Mei Sun, Xing Li, Zhiqiang Tang, Xianlong Wei, Qing Chen
Understanding the dissolution process and mechanism of materials in a liquid at the nanoscale is very important for both science and technology in many fields. Although the dissolution process of nanoparticles has been studied by many groups, the dissolution of one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials with a high aspect ratio has seldom been directly observed with a high spatial resolution. In this paper, the dissolution process of 1D nanowires (NWs), InAs NWs as an example, in radiolytic water is studied by in situ liquid cell transmission electron microscopy...
September 10, 2018: Nanoscale
Zhaomei Sun, Miaomiao Li, Zhaoxia Jin, Yumei Gong, Qingda An, Xiaohang Tuo, Jing Guo
Graft copolymer starch-graft-polyacrylonitrile (St-g-PAN) was synthesized by homo-grafting acrylonitrile (AN) from water soluble starch as Ce(IV) was used as an initiator. St-g-PAN nanofibers were prepared via electrospinning St-g-PAN solution in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The effects of the spinning parameters such as flow rate, spinning voltage, and collector distance on the St-g-PAN nanofiber diameter were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (13 C NMR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and surface morphology of the nanofibers...
September 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Rabi H Mohtar, Bassel Daher
Moving resource management and allocation away from sectoral silos to a paradigm founded in integration and leveraging cross-sectoral and trans-disciplinary synergies will result in expanded opportunities for economic development and improved social well-being (Mohtar, 2017; Mohtar and Daher, 2017). Interventions to address complex resource challenges must identify opportunities while cognizant of holistic, system level trade-offs (Daher and Mohtar, 2015; Daher et al., 2018a, b, c). These interventions must be contextualized locally: Texas has spatially varied water scarcity, energy resource abundance, and rapid population growth; in the northeastern United States water quality, drainage, and extreme weather events pose far greater challenges...
August 30, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
A S Ajiboye, D R Dawson, C H Fox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Jan Balajka, Jiri Pavelec, Mojmir Komora, Michael Schmid, Ulrike Diebold
The structure of the solid-liquid interface often defines the function and performance of materials in applications. To study this interface at the atomic scale, we extended an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) surface-science chamber with an apparatus that allows bringing a surface in contact with ultrapure liquid water without exposure to air. In this process, a sample, typically a single crystal prepared and characterized in UHV, is transferred into a separate, small chamber. This chamber already contains a volume of ultrapure water ice...
August 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Fatima Foflonker, Devin Mollegard, Meichin Ong, Hwan Su Yoon, Debashish Bhattacharya
Understanding how microalgae adapt to rapidly changing environments is not only important to science but can help clarify the potential impact of climate change on the biology of primary producers. We sequenced and analyzed the nuclear genome of multiple Picochlorum isolates (Chlorophyta) to elucidate strategies of environmental adaptation. It was previously found that coordinated gene regulation is involved in adaptation to salinity stress, and here we show that gene gain and loss also play key roles in adaptation...
September 1, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Academic Authors John Sullivan, Sharon Croisant, Marilyn Howarth, Gilbert T Rowe, Harshica Fernando, Amanda Phillips-Savoy, Dan Jackson, John Prochaska, Ghulam A S Ansari, Trevor M Penning, Cornelis Elferink
When the Deepwater Horizon oil rig blew out in 2010, the immediate threats to productive deep water and estuarial fisheries and the region's fishing and energy economies were obvious. Less immediately obvious, but equally unsettling, were risks to human health posed by potential damage to the regional food web. This paper describes grassroots and regional efforts by the Gulf Coast Health Alliance: health risks related to the Macondo Spill Fishermen's Citizen Science Network project. Using a community-based participatory research approach and a citizen science structure, the multiyear project measured exposure to petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, researched the toxicity of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, and communicated project findings and seafood consumption guidelines throughout the region (coastal Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama)...
September 4, 2018: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
Oliver R Gittus, Guido Falk von Rudorff, Kevin M Rosso, Jochen Blumberger
The interface between transition metal oxides (TMO) and liquid water plays a crucial role in environmental chemistry, catalysis, and energy science. Yet, the mechanism and energetics of chemical transformations at solvated TMO surfaces is often unclear, largely because of the difficulty to characterize the active surface species experimentally. The hematite (α-Fe2 O3 )-liquid water interface is a case in point. Here we demonstrate that ab initio molecular dynamics is a viable tool for determining the protonation states of complex interfaces...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
John Sullivan, Beth Rosenberg
The Houma Nation was a major community hub for the Citizen Science Network seafood sampling conducted as part of the Gulf Coast Health Alliance: Health Risks Related to the Macondo Spill (GC-HARMS) research project. They also managed a clinical cohort to facilitate wellness checkups and collection of biological samples during the project. In this interview, Thomas Dardar, Principal Chief of the Houma Nation, outlines the historical and evolving changes-cultural as well as geophysical-that the Houma Nation must address in an uncharted era of climate-related impacts on weather patterns, sea levels, and sustainable land uses...
September 3, 2018: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
Sharon Croisant, John Sullivan
Gulf Coast Health Alliance: Health Risks Related to the Macondo Spill (GC-HARMS) began in 2011 as a component project of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences' (NIEHS) Deep Water Horizon (DWH) Research Consortia program. This Gulf-wide consortium created regional community-university research partnerships focused on addressing health impacts resulting from oil spill exposures. Findings from this trans-National Institutes of Health program have helped enhance and refine community disaster preparedness and reinforced local-regional disaster response networks...
September 3, 2018: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
Alicia L Lanier, Jillian R Drabik, Tanya Heikkila, Jessica Bolson, Michael C Sukop, David W Watkins, Jennifer Rehage, Ali Mirchi, Victor Engel, David Letson
Interdisciplinary research is increasingly called upon to find solutions to complex sustainability problems, yet co-creating usable knowledge can be challenging. This article offers broad lessons for conducting interdisciplinary science from the South Florida Water, Sustainability, and Climate Project (SFWSC), a 5-year project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). The goal was to develop a holistic decision-making framework to improve understanding of the complex natural-social system of South Florida water allocation and its threats from climate change, including sea level rise, using a water resources optimization model as an integration mechanism...
August 31, 2018: Environmental Management
Gustavo Fuertes, Niccolo Banterle, Kiersten M Ruff, Aritra Chowdhury, Rohit V Pappu, Dmitri I Svergun, Edward A Lemke
Editors at Science requested our input on the above discussion (comment by Best et al and response by Riback et al ) because both sets of authors use our data from Fuertes et al (2017) to support their arguments. The topic of discussion pertains to the discrepant inferences drawn from SAXS versus FRET measurements regarding the dimensions of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) in aqueous solvents. Using SAXS measurements on labeled and unlabeled proteins, we ruled out the labels used for FRET measurements as the cause of discrepant inferences between the two methods...
August 31, 2018: Science
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