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water science

M Hrubý, J Kučka, J Pánek, P Štěpánek
For many important research topics in polymer science the use of radionuclides brings significant benefits concerning nanotechnology, polymer drug delivery systems, tissue engineering etc. This contribution describes important achievements of the radionuclide laboratory at Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (IMC) in the area of polymers for biomedical applications. Particular emphasis will be given to water-soluble polymer carriers of radionuclides, thermoresponsive polymer radionuclide carriers, thermoresponsive polymers for local brachytherapy, polymer scaffolds modified with (radiolabeled) peptides and polymer copper chelators for the therapy of Wilson´s disease...
October 20, 2016: Physiological Research
Kirti M Yenkie, WenZhao Wu, Ryan L Clark, Brian F Pfleger, Thatcher W Root, Christos T Maravelias
Microbial conversion of renewable feedstocks to high-value chemicals is an attractive alternative to current petrochemical processes because it offers the potential to reduce net CO2 emissions and integrate with bioremediation objectives. Microbes have been genetically engineered to produce a growing number of high-value chemicals in sufficient titer, rate, and yield from renewable feedstocks. However, high-yield bioconversion is only one aspect of an economically viable process. Separation of biologically synthesized chemicals from process streams is a major challenge that can contribute to >70% of the total production costs...
October 15, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Helen R Sofaer, Susan K Skagen, Joseph J Barsugli, Benjamin S Rashford, Gordon C Reese, Jennifer A Hoeting, Andrew W Wood, Barry R Noon
Climate change poses major challenges for conservation and management because it alters the area, quality, and spatial distribution of habitat for natural populations. To assess species' vulnerability to climate change and target ongoing conservation investments, researchers and managers often consider the effects of projected changes in climate and land use on future habitat availability and quality and the uncertainty associated with these projections. Here, we draw on tools from hydrology and climate science to project the impact of climate change on the density of wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of the USA, a critical area for breeding waterfowl and other wetland-dependent species...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Airek R Mathews, Shane S Que Hee
The aim was to develop a whole glove permeation method for cyclohexanol to generate permeation parameter data for a non-moving dextrous robot hand (normalized breakthrough time tb, standardized breakthrough time ts, steady state permeation rate Ps, and diffusion coefficient D). Four types of disposable powderless, unsupported and unlined nitrile gloves from the same producer were investigated: Safeskin Blue, and Kimtech Science Blue, Purple, and Sterling. The whole glove method developed involved a peristaltic pump for water circulation through chemically resistant Viton tubing to continually wash the inner surface of the test glove via holes in the tubing, a dextrous robot hand operated by a microprocessor, a chemically protective nitrile glove to protect the robot hand, an incubator to maintain 35°C temperature, and a hot plate to maintain 35°C at the sampling point of the circulating water...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Ulrich Förstner, Henner Hollert, Markus Brinkmann, Kathrin Eichbaum, Roland Weber, Wim Salomons
A critical review of the last 25 years of dioxin policy in the Elbe river catchment is presented along seven main theses of the River Basin Community (RBC)-Elbe background document "Pollutants" for the Management Plan 2016-2021. In this period, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/-furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) will play a major role: (i) as new priority substances for which environmental quality standards (EQSs) need to be derived (Directive 2013/39/EC); (ii) in the search for innovative solutions in sediment remediation (i...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Giorgia Olivieri, Alok Goel, Armin Kleibert, Dean Cvetko, Matthew A Brown
Despite the ubiquitous nature of aqueous solutions across the chemical, biological and environmental sciences our experimental understanding of their electronic structure is rudimentary-qualitative at best. One of the most basic and seemingly straightforward properties of aqueous solutions-ionization energies-are (qualitatively) tabulated at the water-air interface for a mere handful of solutes, and the manner in which these results are obtained assume the aqueous solutions behave like a gas in the photoelectron experiment (where the vacuum levels of the aqueous solution and of the photoelectron analyzer are equilibrated)...
October 17, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Fernanda de Mattos, Neiva Leite, Arthur Pitta, Paulo Cesar Barauce Bento
Water-based exercises are recommended for people with osteoarthritis (OA), due to the beneficial effects on physical function, quality of life and symptom reduction. However, the effects on muscle strength are still controversial. The aim of this review was to assess and compare the effects of Aquatic Exercise Programs on muscle strength and physical function in people with OA. A systematic search was performed at Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Clinical trials with interventions involving Aquatic Exercises for individuals with OA were included...
September 28, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
David Costantini, Shona Smith, Shaun S Killen, Julius Nielsen, John F Steffensen
The free radical theory of ageing predicts that long-lived species should be more resistant to oxidative damage than short-lived species. Although many studies support this theory, recent studies found notable exceptions that challenge the generality of this theory. In this study, we have analysed the oxidative status of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus), which has recently been found as the longest living vertebrate animal known to science with a lifespan of at least 272years. As compared to other species, the Greenland shark had body mass-corrected values of muscle glutathione peroxidase and red blood cells protein carbonyls (metric of protein oxidative damage) above 75 percentile and below 25 percentile, respectively...
October 4, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Amanda M Achberger, Brent C Christner, Alexander B Michaud, John C Priscu, Mark L Skidmore, Trista J Vick-Majors
Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW) is located beneath ∼800 m of ice on the Whillans Ice Stream in West Antarctica and was sampled in January of 2013, providing the first opportunity to directly examine water and sediments from an Antarctic subglacial lake. To minimize the introduction of surface contaminants to SLW during its exploration, an access borehole was created using a microbiologically clean hot water drill designed to reduce the number and viability of microorganisms in the drilling water. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes (rDNA) amplified from samples of the drilling and borehole water allowed an evaluation of the efficacy of this approach and enabled a confident assessment of the SLW ecosystem inhabitants...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
M V Kirov
Recently a new mechanism of proton tunneling in a prism-like water hexamer was revealed [Richardson et al., Science, 2016, 351, 1310]. The tunneling motion involves the concerted breaking of two hydrogen bonds and rotations of two nearest water molecules. Eventually, this structural transformation means flipping one of the hydrogen bonds without the creation of defects in the hydrogen bond network. On the surface of polyhedral water clusters, there are five essentially different types of hydrogen bonds, and only two of them can be changed in this manner...
October 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Mohammad Al-Saidi, Nadir Ahmed Elagib
The water, energy and food nexus (WEF nexus) is currently quite popular in environmental management. The concept found a fertile ground in science and policymaking, but there is no consistent view on the meaning of integration within the nexus. Here, a wealth of publications is reviewed in an endeavour to: (1) reveal the lines of justification for the need of the WEF nexus debate and (2) identify the range of tools for analysing the interdependent resource issues of the nexus using an integrated framework of science and policy...
October 3, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Yun Lu, Hongwei Liu, Runan Gao, Shaoliang Xiao, Ming Zhang, Yafang Yin, Siqun Wang, Jian Li, Dongjiang Yang
Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) has received increasing attention in science and technology due not only to the availability of large amounts of cellulose in nature but also to its unique structural and physical features. These high aspect ratio nanofibers have potential applications as water remediation, reinforcing scaffold in composites, coatings, and porous materials due to their fascinating properties. In this work, highly porous NFC aerogels were prepared based on tert-butanol freeze-drying of ultrasonic isolated bamboo NFC with 20-80 nm diameters...
October 6, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
James Barber
Photosystem II is the chlorophyll containing enzyme in which the very first chemical energy storing reaction of photosynthesis occurs. It does so by splitting water into molecular oxygen and hydrogen equivalents at a catalytic centre composed of four Mn ions and one Ca2+. All the oxygen in the atmosphere is derived from this reaction and without it the biosphere, as we know it, would not exist. Indeed its appearance about 3 billion years ago gave rise to the "big bang of evolution". Thus understanding the structure and functioning of this metal cluster is a major topic in science and here I discuss it in terms of research over of the last twelve years dating back to when it was first proposed to be a Mn3CaO4 cubane with the fourth Mn attached to cubane by one of its oxo bridging bonds...
October 5, 2016: Biochemistry
William D Jr Anderson, Brian D Greene, Luiz A Rocha
In May 2014, a group of ichthyologists from the California Academy of Sciences and the Bishop Museum collecting fishes off the coast of Batangas, Luzon, Philippine Islands, obtained, in a depth of ca. 150 meters, four specimens of a species of Grammatonotus previously unknown to science. This new species, Grammatonotus brianne, is distinguishable from its described congeners by the following combination of characters: short anal-fin spines, rhomboid shaped caudal fin, lateral line usually disjunct, and live coloration...
October 4, 2016: Zootaxa
Anna W Mccallum, Patricia Cabezas, Nikos Andreakis
Six species of Paramunida are reported from the continental margin of north-western Australia. Three species are new to science: Paramunida christinae sp. nov., P. ioannis sp. nov., and P. spiniantennata sp. nov. Two species are reported for the first time from Australian waters, P. evexa Macpherson, 1996 and P. tricarinata (Alcock, 1894). These species were confirmed by molecular evidence from the mitochondrial markers ND1 and 16S. We also examine phylogenetic relationships within the genus, and provide an identification key for all known Paramunida species...
October 4, 2016: Zootaxa
Ryan P Kelly, James L O'Donnell, Natalie C Lowell, Andrew O Shelton, Jameal F Samhouri, Shannon M Hennessey, Blake E Feist, Gregory D Williams
Despite decades of work in environmental science and ecology, estimating human influences on ecosystems remains challenging. This is partly due to complex chains of causation among ecosystem elements, exacerbated by the difficulty of collecting biological data at sufficient spatial, temporal, and taxonomic scales. Here, we demonstrate the utility of environmental DNA (eDNA) for quantifying associations between human land use and changes in an adjacent ecosystem. We analyze metazoan eDNA sequences from water sampled in nearshore marine eelgrass communities and assess the relationship between these ecological communities and the degree of urbanization in the surrounding watershed...
2016: PeerJ
François Bizet, A Glyn Bengough, Irène Hummel, Marie-Béatrice Bogeat-Triboulot, Lionel X Dupuy
Strong regions and physical barriers in soils may slow root elongation, leading to reduced water and nutrient uptake and decreased yield. In this study, the biomechanical responses of roots to axial mechanical forces were assessed by combining 3D live imaging, kinematics and a novel mechanical sensor. This system quantified Young's elastic modulus of intact poplar roots (32MPa), a rapid <0.2 mN touch-elongation sensitivity, and the critical elongation force applied by growing roots that resulted in bending...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Chen-Lu Liu, Wen-Tian Sun, Wen Liao, Wen-Xin Lu, Qi-Wen Li, Yunho Jeong, Jun Liu, Zhi-He Zhao
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the colour stabilities of three types of orthodontic clear aligners exposed to staining agents in vitro. Sixty clear orthodontic aligners produced by three manufacturers (Invisalign, Angelalign, and Smartee) were immersed in three staining solutions (coffee, black tea, and red wine) and one control solution (distilled water). After 12-h and 7-day immersions, the aligners were washed in an ultrasonic cleaner and measured with a colourimeter. The colour changes (ΔE*) were calculated on the basis of the Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage L*a*b* colour system (CIE L*a*b*), and the results were then converted into National Bureau of Standards (NBS) units...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Oral Science
Holger Kirchmann, Gunnar Börjesson, Thomas Kätterer, Yariv Cohen
The composition of municipal wastewater and sewage sludge reflects the use and proliferation of elements and contaminants within society. In Sweden, official statistics show that concentrations of toxic metals in municipal sewage sludge have steadily decreased, by up to 90 %, since the 1970s, due to environmental programmes and statutory limits on metals in sludge and soil. Results from long-term field experiments show that reduced metal pollution during repeated sewage sludge application has reversed negative trends in soil biology...
September 20, 2016: Ambio
Christian Coelho, Franck Bagala, Régis D Gougeon, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin
Capillary electrophoresis appeared to be a powerful and reliable technique to analyze the diversity of wine compounds. Wine presents a great variety of natural chemicals coming from the grape berry extraction and the fermentation processes. The first and more abundant after water, ethanol has been quantified in wines via capillary electrophoresis. Other families like organic acids, neutral and acid sugars, polyphenols, amines, thiols, vitamins, and soluble proteins are electrophoretically separated from the complex matrix...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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