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water science

Katie E McGibbon, D B Pyne, M E Shephard, K G Thompson
BACKGROUND: Pacing strategy, or how energy is distributed during exercise, can substantially impact athletic performance and is considered crucial for optimal performance in many sports. This is particularly true in swimming given the highly resistive properties of water and low mechanical efficiency of the swimming action. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to determine the pacing strategies utilised by competitive swimmers in competition and their reproducibility, and to examine the impact of different pacing strategies on kinematic, metabolic and performance variables...
March 20, 2018: Sports Medicine
Yaowen Xing, Mengdi Xu, Xiahui Gui, Yijun Cao, Bent Babel, Martin Rudolph, Stefan Weber, Michael Kappl, Hans-Jürgen Butt
During the past years, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has matured to an indispensable tool to characterize nanomaterials in colloid and interface science. For imaging, a sharp probe mounted near to the end of a cantilever scans over the sample surface providing a high resolution three-dimensional topographic image. In addition, the AFM tip can be used as a force sensor to detect local properties like adhesion, stiffness, charge etc. After the invention of the colloidal probe technique it has also become a major method to measure surface forces...
February 6, 2018: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Ashley L Bolden, Kim Schultz, Katherine E Pelch, Carol F Kwiatkowski
BACKGROUND: In the last decade unconventional oil and gas (UOG) extraction has rapidly proliferated throughout the United States (US) and the world. This occurred largely because of the development of directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing which allows access to fossil fuels from geologic formations that were previously not cost effective to pursue. This process is known to use greater than 1,000 chemicals such as solvents, surfactants, detergents, and biocides. In addition, a complex mixture of chemicals, including heavy metals, naturally-occurring radioactive chemicals, and organic compounds are released from the formations and can enter air and water...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Maziar Derakhshandeh, Brandy K Pilapil, Ben Workman, Milana Trifkovic, Steven L Bryant
Emulsions are widely used in industrial applications, including in food sciences, cosmetics, and enhanced oil recovery. For these industries, an in depth understanding of the stability and rheological properties of emulsions under both static and dynamic conditions is vital to their successful application. Presented here is a thorough assessment of a model nanoparticle (NP) stabilized dodecane-in-water emulsion as a route to improved understanding of the relationship between NP properties, microstructure and droplet-droplet interactions on the stability and rheological properties of emulsions...
March 20, 2018: Soft Matter
Eatimad Shalabi-Abbas, Saba Dweikat, Israa Al Gazawy, Sajeda Draghmah
BACKGROUND: Menstruation is a natural phenomenon that occurs throughout the reproductive life of every woman. The aim of this study was to explore knowledge and self-care practices among Palestinian adolescent girls during their menstrual period. Reproductive health issues in adolescent girls is an important but neglected area of Palestinian research. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study we recruited girls from grades seven, eight, and nine in the three biggest schools for girls in Nablus district...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
P Nishy, Renuka Saroja
Water quality has emerged as a fast-developing research area. Regular assessment of research activity is necessary for the successful R&D promotion. Water quality research work carried out in different countries increased over the years, and the USA ranked first in productivity while India stands in the seventh position in quantity and occupies the ninth position in quality of the research output. India observes a steady growth in the water quality research. Four thousand six hundred sixteen articles from India assessed from the aspect of citations received distributions of source countries, institutes, journals, impact factor, words in the title, author keywords...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jacek A Koziel, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas D Glanville, Timothy S Frana, J Hans van Leeuwen, Lam T Nguyen
Nearly 55,000 outbreaks of animal disease were reported to the World Animal Health Information Database between 2005 and 2016. To suppress the spread of disease, large numbers of animal mortalities often must be disposed of quickly and are frequently buried on the farm where they were raised. While this method of emergency disposal is fast and relatively inexpensive, it also can have undesirable and lasting impacts (slow decay, concerns about groundwater contamination, pathogens re-emergence, and odor). Following the 2010 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak, the Republic of Korea's National Institute of Animal Science funded research on selected burial alternatives or modifications believed to have potential to reduce undesirable impacts of burial...
March 13, 2018: Waste Management
Corinne Gibble, Rebecca Duerr, Barbara Bodenstein, Kirsten Lindquist, Jackie Lindsey, Jessie Beck, Laird Henkel, Jan Roletto, Jim Harvey, Raphael Kudela
From August through December 2015, beachcast bird survey programs reported increased deposition of common murres ( Uria aalge) on central and northern California beaches, but not on southern California beaches. Coastal wildlife rehabilitation centers received more than 1,000 live, stranded, and debilitated murres from Sonoma County to San Luis Obispo County during August-October. Approximately two-thirds of admitted birds were after-hatch-year birds in emaciated body condition and in various stages of molt, with extremely worn plumage...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Rafael Leite Rubim, Margarida Abrantes Barros, Thomas Missègue, Kévin Bougis, Laurence Navailles, Frédéric Nallet
Since the discovery of graphene oxide (GO), the most accessible of the precursors of graphene, this material has been widely studied for applications in science and technology. In this work, we describe a procedure to obtain GO dispersions in water at high concentrations, these highly dehydrated dispersions being in addition fully redispersible by dilution. With the availability of such concentrated samples, it was possible to investigate the structure of hydrated GO sheets in a previously unexplored range of concentrations, and to evidence a structural phase transition...
March 15, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Valentina Camomilla, Elena Bergamini, Silvia Fantozzi, Giuseppe Vannozzi
Recent technological developments have led to the production of inexpensive, non-invasive, miniature magneto-inertial sensors, ideal for obtaining sport performance measures during training or competition. This systematic review evaluates current evidence and the future potential of their use in sport performance evaluation. Articles published in English (April 2017) were searched in Web-of-Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Sport-Discus databases. A keyword search of titles, abstracts and keywords which included studies using accelerometers, gyroscopes and/or magnetometers to analyse sport motor-tasks performed by athletes (excluding risk of injury, physical activity, and energy expenditure) resulted in 2040 papers...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Zachary H Levine
A measurement of a thermophysical property of water is made using items found in the author's home. Specifically, the ratio of the energy required to heat water from the melting point to boiling to the energy required to completely boil away the water is found to be 5.7. This may be compared to the standard value of 5.5. The close agreement is not representative of the actual uncertainties in this simple experiment. Heating water in a microwave oven can let a student apply the techniques of quantitative science based on questions generated by his or her scientific curiosity...
February 2018: Phys Teach
Yu Moriguchi, Dae-Sung Lee, Ryota Chijimatsu, Khair Thamina, Kazuto Masuda, Dai Itsuki, Hideki Yoshikawa, Satoshi Hamaguchi, Akira Myoui
In the physiochemical sciences, plasma is used to describe an ionized gas. Previous studies have implicated plasma surface treatment in the enhancement of hydrophilicity of implanted musculoskeletal reconstructive materials. Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics, widely used in bone tissue regeneration, have made great advancements to skeletal surgery. In the present study, we investigate the impact of low-pressure plasma on the interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite (IP-CHA) both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, when used with oxygen, can augment the hydrophilicity of non-porous HA surfaces and the osteoconductivity of the IP-CHA disc via increased water penetration of inner porous structures, as demonstrated through microfocus computed tomography (μCT) assay...
2018: PloS One
Stefan Iglauer, Maxim Lebedev
Physical, chemical and mechanical pore-scale (i.e. micrometer-scale) mechanisms in rock are of key importance in many, if not all, subsurface processes. These processes are highly relevant in various applications, e.g. hydrocarbon recovery, CO2 geo-sequestration, geophysical exploration, water production, geothermal energy production, or the prediction of the location of valuable hydrothermal deposits. Typical examples are multi-phase flow (e.g. oil and water) displacements driven by buoyancy, viscous or capillary forces, mineral-fluid interactions (e...
December 28, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Lu Wang, Yanan Wu, Jia Xie, Sheng Wu, Zhenqiang Wu
The green synthesis of nanoparticles has become increasingly promising due to their potential applications in nanomedicine and materials science. In this study, silver nanoparticles (P-AgNPs) were synthesized from aqueous extracts of P. guajava L. leaf. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-vis spectrophotometry at 438 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and zetasizer analyses showed that the average sizes of the P-AgNPs were 20-35 nm, 25 nm, and 25-35 nm, respectively...
May 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Nastassia V Patin, Zoe A Pratte, Matthew Regensburger, Eric Hall, Kailen Gilde, Alistair D M Dove, Frank J Stewart
Artificial habitats for animals have high commercial and societal value. Microbial communities (microbiomes) in such habitats may play ecological roles similar to those in nature. However, this hypothesis remains largely untested. Georgia Aquarium's Ocean Voyager (OV) exhibit is a closed-system aquatic habitat that mimics the oligotrophic open ocean and houses thousands of large marine animals, including fish, sea turtles, and whale sharks. We present a 14-month time series characterizing the OV water column microbiome...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Idan Ashur, Hyla Allouche-Arnon, Amnon Bar-Shir
Inorganic nanocrystals (NCs) have been extensively developed for a variety of uses. The ability to obtain high-resolution NMR signals from the core nuclei of NCs in solution could offer new opportunities in materials sciences and MR imaging. Here, we demonstrate that small, water-soluble 19F-ionic NCs can average out homonuclear dipolar interactions, enabling one to obtain high-resolution 19F-NMR signals in solution that reflect the MR properties of F- in the crystal core. Decorating 19F-NC surfaces with a biocompatible polyethylene-glycol coating maintains colloidal stability in water while preserving the NC high-resolution 19F-NMR properties, even after further functionalization...
March 8, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
William Syrmis, Russell Richard, Sue Jenkins-Marsh, Siew C Chia, Phillip Good
BACKGROUND: Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) is a common problem in patients with intra-abdominal cancer. Oral water soluble contrast (OWSC) has been shown to be useful in the management of adhesive small bowel obstruction in identifying patients who will recover with conservative management alone and also in reducing the length of hospital stay. It is not clear whether the benefits of OWSC in adhesive small bowel obstruction are also seen in patients with MBO. OBJECTIVES: To determine the reliability of OWSC media and follow-up abdominal radiographs in predicting the success of conservative treatment in resolving inoperable MBO with conservative management...
March 7, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yuncong Chen, Weijie Zhang, Zheng Zhao, Yuanjing Cai, Junyi Gong, Ryan T K Kwok, Jacky W Y Lam, Herman H Y Sung, Ian D Williams, Ben Zhong Tang
Ionic fluorophores are powerful tools for the study of environmental science and bio-imaging. However, traditional ionic dyes usually require long synthetic steps and suffer from aggregation-caused quenching effect. Here we report a water-soluble ionic aggregation-induced emission luminogen called DBTA, which is readily accessed by a novel one-step reaction. The switchable emission manipulated by hydrogen bonding provided solid evidence for the restriction of intramolecular motions as the mechanism of AIE phenomenon...
March 7, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Dan Luo, Feng Wang, Jianfa Chen, Fanghao Zhang, Luo Yu, Dezhi Wang, Richard C Willson, Zhaozhong Yang, Zhifeng Ren
Maintaining colloidal stability in unfriendly environments, while retaining surface chemical properties, is challenging for fundamental science and crucial for many applications. Here, we report for the first time, that by using a low concentration of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS), graphene-based amphiphilic Janus nanosheets (AJNs) can be stabilized in high-salt brine (3 wt% NaCl and 0.5 wt% CaCl2 ), while the interfacial behavior of the nanosheets is not affected. The adsorption of PSS on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces of AJNs in brine was investigated experimentally and by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations...
March 6, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
David Goodwin, Adeyemi S Adeleye, Lipiin Sung, Kay T Ho, Robert M Burgess, Elijah J Petersen
An increase in production of commercial products containing graphene-family nanomaterials (GFNs) has led to concern over their release into the environment. The fate and potential ecotoxicological effects of GFNs in the environment are currently unclear, partially due to the limited analytical methods for GFN measurements. In this review, the unique properties of GFNs that are useful for their detection and quantification are discussed. The capacity of several classes of techniques to identify and/or quantify GFNs in different environmental matrices (water, soil, sediment, and organisms), after environmental transformations, and after release from a polymer matrix of a product is evaluated...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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