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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806659/single-step-method-to-fabricate-durable-superliquiphobic-coating-on-aluminum-surface-with-self-cleaning-and-anti-fogging-properties
#1
D Nanda, P Varshney, M Satapathy, S S Mohapatra, B Bhushan, A Kumar
The development of self-cleaning and anti-fogging durable superliquiphobic coatings for aluminum surfaces has raised tremendous interest in materials science. In this study, a superliquiphobic coating is fabricated on an aluminum surface by a single-step dip-coating method using 1H,1H,2H,2H-Perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane-modified SiO2 nanoparticles. The successful implementation of the aforesaid coating in different applications requires extensive investigations of its characteristics and stability. To understand the properties of the coating, surface morphology, contact angle, self-cleaning, anti-fogging, and water repellency were investigated under perturbation conditions...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799377/ice-formation-on-kaolinite-insights-from-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#2
Gabriele C Sosso, Gareth A Tribello, Andrea Zen, Philipp Pedevilla, Angelos Michaelides
The formation of ice affects many aspects of our everyday life as well as important technologies such as cryotherapy and cryopreservation. Foreign substances almost always aid water freezing through heterogeneous ice nucleation, but the molecular details of this process remain largely unknown. In fact, insight into the microscopic mechanism of ice formation on different substrates is difficult to obtain even if state-of-the-art experimental techniques are used. At the same time, atomistic simulations of heterogeneous ice nucleation frequently face extraordinary challenges due to the complexity of the water-substrate interaction and the long time scales that characterize nucleation events...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799245/when-and-where-to-move-dynamic-occupancy-models-explain-the-range-dynamics-of-a-food-nomadic-bird-under-climate-and-land-cover-change
#3
Riddhika Kalle, Tharmalingam Ramesh, Colleen T Downs
Globally, long-term research is critical to monitor the responses of tropical species to climate and land cover change at the range scale. Citizen science surveys can reveal the long-term persistence of poorly known nomadic tropical birds occupying fragmented forest patches. We applied dynamic occupancy models to 13 years (2002-2014) of citizen science driven presence/absence data on Cape parrot (Poicephalus robustus), a food nomadic bird endemic to South Africa. We modelled its underlying range dynamics as a function of resource distribution, and change in climate and land cover through the estimation of colonization and extinction patterns...
August 11, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798377/peo-based-brush-type-amphiphilic-macro-raft-agents-and-their-assembled-polyhipe-monolithic-structures-for-applications-in-separation-science
#4
Aminreza Khodabandeh, R Dario Arrua, Fotouh R Mansour, Stuart C Thickett, Emily F Hilder
Polymerized High Internal Phase Emulsions (PolyHIPEs) were prepared using emulsion-templating, stabilized by an amphiphilic diblock copolymer prepared by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The diblock copolymer consisted of a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEO MA, average Mn 480) segment and a hydrophobic styrene segment, with a trithiocarbonate end-group. These diblock copolymers were the sole emulsifiers used in stabilizing "inverse" (oil-in-water) high internal phase emulsion templates, which upon polymerization resulted in a polyHIPE exhibiting a highly interconnected monolithic structure...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796571/the-fate-and-impact-of-internal-waves-in-nearshore-ecosystems
#5
C B Woodson
Internal waves are widespread features of global oceans that play critical roles in mixing and thermohaline circulation. Similarly to surface waves, internal waves can travel long distances, ultimately breaking along continental margins. These breaking waves can transport deep ocean water and associated constituents (nutrients, larvae, and acidic low-oxygen waters) onto the shelf and locally enhance turbulence and mixing, with important effects on nearshore ecosystems. We are only beginning to understand the role internal waves play in shaping nearshore ecosystems...
August 10, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793810/remote-sensing-tropical-coral-reefs-the-view-from-above
#6
Sam J Purkis
Carbonate precipitation has been a common life strategy for marine organisms for 3.7 billion years, as, therefore, has their construction of reefs. As favored by modern corals, reef-forming organisms have typically adopted a niche in warm, shallow, well-lit, tropical marine waters, where they are capable of building vast carbonate edifices. Because fossil reefs form water aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs, considerable effort has been dedicated to understanding their anatomy and morphology. Remote sensing has a particular role to play here...
August 9, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792755/the-dynamics-and-kinetics-of-water-interactions-with-a-condensed-nopinone-surface
#7
Sofia M Johansson, Xiangrui Kong, Erik S Thomson, Mattias Hallquist, Jan B C Pettersson
Water and organic molecules are omnipresent in the environment and their interactions are of central importance in many Earth system processes. Here we investigate molecular-level interactions between water and a nopinone surface using an environmental molecular beam (EMB) technique. Nopinone is a major reaction product formed during oxidation of β-pinene, a prominent compound emitted by coniferous trees, which has been found in both the gas and particle phases of atmospheric aerosol. The EMB method enables detailed studies of the dynamics and kinetics of D2O molecules interacting with a solid nopinone surface at 202 K...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783885/performance-of-life-support-breathing-apparatus-for-under-ice-diving-operations
#8
Michael A Lang, John R Clarke
INTRODUCTION: Single-hose scuba regulators dived in very cold water may suffer first- or second-stage malfunction, yielding complete occlusion of air flow or massive freeflow that rapidly expends a diver's air supply. PURPOSE: This study, conducted in Antarctica, evaluated the under-ice performance of a sampling of commercially available regulators. METHODS: Seventeen science divers logged a total of 305 dives in -1.86°C seawater under 6-meter-thick Antarctic fast-ice over two field seasons in 2008 and 2009...
July 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776923/observation-and-identification-of-an-atomic-oxygen-structure-on-catalytic-gold-nanoparticles
#9
Kai Liu, Tao Chen, Shuyue He, Jason P Robbins, Simon G Podkolzin, Fei Tian
Interactions between oxygen and gold surfaces are fundamentally important in diverse areas of science and technology. Here, an oxygen dimer structure was identified on gold nanoparticles in catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water. This structure, different from isolated atomic or molecular oxygen structures, was observed with in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic measurements and identified with density functional theory calculations. The measurements were performed using monodisperse gold particles supported on silica with liquid-phase hydrogen and deuterium peroxides...
August 3, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772838/in-depth-analysis-of-the-structure-and-properties-of-two-varieties-of-natural-luffa-sponge-fibers
#10
Yuxia Chen, Na Su, Kaiting Zhang, Shiliu Zhu, Lei Zhao, Fei Fang, Linyan Ren, Yong Guo
The advancement in science and technology has led to luffa sponge (LS) being widely used as a natural material in industrial application because of its polyporous structure and light texture. To enhance the utility of LS fibers as the reinforcement of lightweight composite materials, the current study investigates their water absorption, mechanical properties, anatomical characteristics and thermal performance. Hence, moisture regain and tensile properties of LS fiber bundles were measured in accordance with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards while their structural characteristics were investigated via microscopic observation...
April 29, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771375/recent-development-and-biomedical-applications-of-self-healing-hydrogels
#11
Yinan Wang, Christian K Adokoh, Ravin Narain
Hydrogels are of special importance, owing to their high-water content and various applications in biomedical and bio-engineering research. Self-healing properties is a common phenomenon in living organisms. Their endowed property of being able to self-repair after physical/chemical/mechanical damage to fully or partially its original properties demonstrates their prospective therapeutic applications. Due to complicated preparation and selection of suitable materials, the application of many host-guest supramolecular polymeric hydrogels are so limited...
August 3, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771351/photo-induced-reversible-electron-transfer-between-the-benzhydryl-radical-and-benzhydryl-cation-in-amorphous-water-ice
#12
Soumya Radhakrishnan, Joel Mieres Perez, Murthy S Gudipati, Wolfram Sander
The benzhydryl radical is generated in high yields by flash vacuum thermolysis of 1,1,2,2-tetraphenylethane with subsequent trapping of the product in argon or amorphous water at 3 - 4 K. Photoionization of the radical with various UV light and electron sources produces the benzhy-dryl cation which was identified by IR and UV-vis spectroscopy. In solid argon, the formation of the benzhydryl cation is irreversible, whereas in amorphous water ice the electron transfer is reversible, and irradiation into the major absorption band at 443 nm of the cation leads back to the radical by electron attachment...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764326/comprehensive-study-of-the-flow-control-strategy-in-a-wirelessly-charged-centrifugal-microfluidic-platform-with-two-rotation-axes
#13
Yunzeng Zhu, Yiqi Chen, Xiangrui Meng, Jing Wang, Ying Lu, Youchun Xu, Jing Cheng
Centrifugal microfluidics has been widely applied in the sample-in-answer-out systems for the analyses of nucleic acids, proteins, and small molecules. However, the inherent characteristic of unidirectional fluid propulsion limits the flexibility of these fluidic chips. Providing an extra degree of freedom to allow the unconstrained and reversible pumping of liquid is an effective strategy to address this limitation. In this study, a wirelessly charged centrifugal microfluidic platform with two rotation axes has been constructed and the flow control strategy in such platform with two degrees of freedom was comprehensively studied for the first time...
August 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764075/size-exclusion-chromatography-hplc-sec-technique-optimization-by-simplex-method-to-estimate-molecular-weight-distribution-of-agave-fructans
#14
Lorena Moreno-Vilet, Stéphane Bostyn, Jose-Luis Flores-Montaño, Rosa-María Camacho-Ruiz
Agave fructans are increasingly important in food industry and nutrition sciences as a potential ingredient of functional food, thus practical analysis tools to characterize them are needed. In view of the importance of the molecular weight on the functional properties of agave fructans, this study has the purpose to optimize a method to determine their molecular weight distribution by HPLC-SEC for industrial application. The optimization was carried out using a simplex method. The optimum conditions obtained were at column temperature of 61...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763960/water-activity-in-liquid-food-systems-a-molecular-scale-interpretation
#15
Andrew J Maneffa, Richard Stenner, Avtar S Matharu, James H Clark, Nobuyuki Matubayasi, Seishi Shimizu
Water activity has historically been and continues to be recognised as a key concept in the area of food science. Despite its ubiquitous utilisation, it still appears as though there is confusion concerning its molecular basis, even within simple, single component solutions. Here, by close examination of the well-known Norrish equation and subsequent application of a rigorous statistical theory, we are able to shed light on such an origin. Our findings highlight the importance of solute-solute interactions thus questioning traditional, empirically based "free water" and "water structure" hypotheses...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761488/intestinal-helminths-in-different-species-of-rodents-in-north-khorasan-province-northeast-of-iran
#16
Kourosh Arzamani, Mitra Salehi, Iraj Mobedi, Amir Adinezade, Hamid Hasanpour, Mohammad Alavinia, Jamshid Darvish, Mohammad Reza Shirzadi, Zeinolabedin Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Rodents are an important source of zoonotic diseases for human. The aim of this study was to determine the infectivity of rodents with intestinal helminths in North Khorasan Province, Iran. METHODS: One hundred and thirteen rodents were collected using different collection methods such as kill and live traps, digging of their burrow, filling of their hiding places with water and hand net during 2011-2013. Their alimentary canals were removed in the laboratory and helminths were determined in the department of parasitology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757498/iatrochemistry-and-the-evaluation-of-mineral-waters-in-france-1600-1750
#17
Michael Bycroft
Existing literature on mineral springs in early modern France suggests that composition played a minor role in the evaluation of those springs. In fact it played a major role from at least the beginning of the seventeenth century. Composition was studied by a wide range of actors, from physicians in the provinces to chemists at the Paris Academy of Science, with a view to establishing the efficacy of particular springs against particular diseases. Iatrochemistry played a complex role in these evaluations. Followers of Paracelsus and van Helmont were among the first to perform chemical analyses on mineral waters...
2017: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756626/myths-and-methodologies-making-sense-of-exercise-mass-and-water-balance
#18
Samuel N Cheuvront, Scott J Montain
What is the topic of this review? There is a need to revisit the basic principles of exercise mass and water balance, the use of common equations and the practice of interpreting outcomes. What advances does it highlight? We propose use of the following equation as a way of simplifying exercise mass and water balance calculations in conditions where food is not consumed and waste is not excreted: ∆body mass - 0.20 g/kcal(-1)  = ∆body water. The relative efficacy of exercise drinking behaviours can be judged using the following equation: percentage dehydration = [(∆body mass - 0...
July 30, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756321/enhanced-nucleation-of-diamond-on-three-dimensional-tools-via-stabilized-colloidal-nanodiamond-in-electrostatic-self-assembly-seeding-process
#19
Tao Wang, Stephan Handschuh-Wang, Songquan Zhang, Xuechang Zhou, Yongbing Tang
Nanocrystalline diamond particles are promising candidates for copious applications in materials science, biology and electronics. In this work, diamond nucleation density was unprecedentedly enhanced via a non-invasive electrostatic self-assembly seeding approach. By addition of glutamic acid to the nanodiamond seeding solution, the positively charged amino-group of glutamic acid, which is adsorbed on nanodiamond particles, enhances the adsorption on negative charged cemented carbide substrate. The highest nucleation density (1...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748176/global-epidemiology-of-dengue-outbreaks-in-1990-2015-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Congcong Guo, Zixing Zhou, Zihao Wen, Yumei Liu, Chengli Zeng, Di Xiao, Meiling Ou, Yajing Han, Shiqi Huang, Dandan Liu, Xiaohong Ye, Xiaoqian Zou, Jing Wu, Huanyu Wang, Eddy Y Zeng, Chunxia Jing, Guang Yang
Dengue is an arthropod-borne infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) infection and transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Approximately 50-100 million people are infected with DENV each year, resulting in a high economic burden on both governments and individuals. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize information regarding the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and serotype distribution and risk factors for global dengue outbreaks occurring from 1990 to 2015. We searched the PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases through December 2016 using the term "dengue outbreak...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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