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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441600/microplastics-in-the-antarctic-marine-system-an-emerging-area-of-research
#1
REVIEW
Catherine L Waller, Huw J Griffiths, Claire M Waluda, Sally E Thorpe, Iván Loaiza, Bernabé Moreno, Cesar O Pacherres, Kevin A Hughes
It was thought that the Southern Ocean was relatively free of microplastic contamination; however, recent studies and citizen science projects in the Southern Ocean have reported microplastics in deep-sea sediments and surface waters. Here we reviewed available information on microplastics (including macroplastics as a source of microplastics) in the Southern Ocean. We estimated primary microplastic concentrations from personal care products and laundry, and identified potential sources and routes of transmission into the region...
April 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436674/general-dialdehyde-click-chemistry-for-amine-bioconjugation
#2
Sina Elahipanah, Paul J O'Brien, Dmitry Rogozhnikov, Muhammad N Yousaf
The development of methods for conjugating a range of molecules to primary amine functional groups has revolutionized the fields of chemistry, biology, and material science. The primary amine is a key functional group and one of the most important nucleophiles and bases used in all of synthetic chemistry. Therefore, tremendous interest in the synthesis of molecules containing primary amines and strategies to devise chemical reactions to react with primary amines has been at the core of chemical research. In particular, primary amines are a ubiquitous functional group found in biological systems as free amino acids, as key side chain lysines in proteins, and in signaling molecules and metabolites and are also present in many natural product classes...
April 24, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435877/design-and-function-of-biomimetic-multilayer-water-purification-membranes
#3
Shengjie Ling, Zhao Qin, Wenwen Huang, Sufeng Cao, David L Kaplan, Markus J Buehler
Multilayer architectures in water purification membranes enable increased water throughput, high filter efficiency, and high molecular loading capacity. However, the preparation of membranes with well-organized multilayer structures, starting from the nanoscale to maximize filtration efficiency, remains a challenge. We report a complete strategy to fully realize a novel biomaterial-based multilayer nanoporous membrane via the integration of computational simulation and experimental fabrication. Our comparative computational simulations, based on coarse-grained models of protein nanofibrils and mineral plates, reveal that the multilayer structure can only form with weak interactions between nanofibrils and mineral plates...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428874/population-assessment-using-multivariate-time-series-analysis-a-case-study-of-rockfishes-in-puget-sound
#4
Nick Tolimieri, Elizabeth E Holmes, Gregory D Williams, Robert Pacunski, Dayv Lowry
Estimating a population's growth rate and year-to-year variance is a key component of population viability analysis (PVA). However, standard PVA methods require time series of counts obtained using consistent survey methods over many years. In addition, it can be difficult to separate observation and process variance, which is critical for PVA. Time-series analysis performed with multivariate autoregressive state-space (MARSS) models is a flexible statistical framework that allows one to address many of these limitations...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419923/development-and-applications-of-two-colorimetric-and-fluorescent-indicators-for-hg-2-detection
#5
Ying Long, Mei-Pan Yang, Bing-Qin Yang
Two rhodamine-active probes RBAI (Rhodamine B-di-Aminobenzene-phenyl Isothiocyanate) and RGAI (Rhodamine 6G-di-Aminobenzene-phenyl Isothiocyanate) were designed, synthesized and characterized. The probes were developed as fluorescent and colorimetric chemodosimeters in ethanol-water solution with a broad pH span (5-10) and high selectivity toward Hg(2+) but no significant response toward other common competitive cations. The Hg(2+)-promoted ring opening of spirolactam of the rhodamine moiety induced cyclic guanylation of the thiourea moiety, which resulted in the dual chromo- and fluorogenic observation (off-on)...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419432/a-global-synthesis-of-managing-groundwater-dependent-ecosystems-under-sustainable-groundwater-policy
#6
Melissa M Rohde, Ray Froend, Jeanette Howard
Groundwater is a vital water supply worldwide for people and nature. However, species and ecosystems that depend on groundwater for some or all of their water needs, known as groundwater dependent ecosystems (GDEs), are increasingly becoming threatened worldwide due to growing human water demands. Over the past two decades, the protection and management of GDEs have been incorporated into several water management policy initiatives worldwide including jurisdictions within Australia, the European Union, South Africa, and the United States...
April 17, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414913/lca-harmonization-and-soil-science-rankings-results-on-food-waste-management-methods
#7
Jeffrey Morris, Sally L Brown, Matthew Cotton, H Scott Matthews
This study reviewed 147 life cycle studies, with 28 found suitable for harmonizing food waste management methods' climate and energy impacts. 80 scientific soil productivity studies were assessed to rank management method soil benefits. Harmonized climate impacts per kilogram (kg) food waste range from -0.20 kg of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) for anaerobic digestion (AD) to 0.38 kg CO2e for landfill gas-to-energy (LFGTE). Aerobic composting (AC) is -0.10 kg CO2e. In-sink grinding (ISG) via a food waste disposer and flushing for management with other sewerage at a wastewater treatment plant emits 0...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412621/xanthium-strumarium-l-seed-hull-as-a-zero-cost-alternative-for-rhodamine-b-dye-removal
#8
Shraddha Khamparia, Dipika Kaur Jaspal
Treatment of polluted water has been considered as one of the most important aspects in environmental sciences. Present study explores the decolorization potential of a low cost natural adsorbent Xanthium strumarium L. seed hull for the adsorption of a toxic xanthene dye, Rhodamine B (RHB). The characterization of the adsorbent revealed the presence of high amount of carbon, when exposed to Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Further appreciable decolorization took place which was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis noticing shift in peaks...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411868/high-resolution-stream-water-quality-assessment-in-the-vancouver-british-columbia-region-a-citizen-science-study
#9
Scott M Shupe
Changing land cover and climate regimes modify water quantity and quality in natural stream systems. In regions undergoing rapid change, it is difficult to effectively monitor and quantify these impacts at local to regional scales. In Vancouver, British Columbia, one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Canada, 750 measurements were taken from a total of 81 unique sampling sites representing 49 streams located in urban, forest, and agricultural-dominant watersheds at a frequency of up to 12 times per year between 2013 and 2016...
April 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406202/finding-pathways-to-national-scale-land-sector-sustainability
#10
Lei Gao, Brett A Bryan
The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets under Agenda 2030 of the United Nations map a coherent global sustainability ambition at a level of detail general enough to garner consensus amongst nations. However, achieving the global agenda will depend heavily on successful national-scale implementation, which requires the development of effective science-driven targets tailored to specific national contexts and supported by strong national governance. Here we assess the feasibility of achieving multiple SDG targets at the national scale for the Australian land-sector...
April 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399497/performance-of-surface-and-subsurface-flow-constructed-wetlands-treating-eutrophic-waters
#11
C Hernández-Crespo, S Gargallo, V Benedito-Durá, Beatriz Nácher-Rodríguez, M A Rodrigo-Alacreu, M Martín
Three medium size constructed wetlands (CWs) with a total surface of 90ha are working since 2009 in the Albufera de Valencia Natural Park (Spain). Two of them are fed with eutrophic waters from l'Albufera Lake. Their objectives are both reduce the phytoplankton biomass and increase the biodiversity; consequently, improved water quality is returned to the lake. A "science based governance" of these CWs is ongoing inside the LIFE+12 Albufera Project to demonstrate the environmental benefits of these features...
April 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396895/multi-chamber-microfluidic-platform-for-high-precision-skin-permeation-testing
#12
M Alberti, Y Dancik, G Sriram, B Wu, Y L Teo, Z Feng, M Bigliardi-Qi, R G Wu, Z P Wang, P L Bigliardi
The established in vitro tool used for testing the absorption and penetration of chemicals through skin in pharmacology, toxicology and cosmetic science is the static Franz diffusion cell. While widespread, Franz cells are relatively costly, low-throughput and results may suffer from poor reproducibility. Microfluidics has the potential to overcome these drawbacks. In this paper, we present a novel microfluidic skin permeation platform and validate it rigorously against the Franz cell by comparing the transport of 3 model chemicals of varying lipophilicity: caffeine, salicylic acid and testosterone...
April 11, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395236/risk-aversion-and-willingness-to-pay-for-water-quality-the-case-of-non-farm-rural-residents
#13
Bruno Larue, Gale E West, Alphonse Singbo, Lota Dabio Tamini
Stated choice experiments are used to investigate the economic valuation of rural residents living in the province of Quebec for water quality improvements. In Quebec, rural residents played an important role in the setting of stricter environmental regulations. Unlike most stated choice experiments about the valuation of improvements in water quality, this study explicitly accounts for risk in the design and analysis of choice experiments. Risk in phosphorus and coliform reductions is introduced through a three-point uniform distribution in the choice sets...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393522/physical-chemistry-of-the-freezing-process-of-atmospheric-aqueous-drops
#14
Anatoli Bogdan, Mario J Molina
In supercooled aqueous solutions, ice nucleation is the initial stage of the freezing process. In this paper, we present experimental results that indicate that during the freezing of aqueous solutions, freeze-induced phase separation (FIPS) into pure ice and a freeze-concentrated solution (FCS) takes place. Our observations involve the use of an optical cryo-microscope (OC-M) to record images and movies. The results visually indicate for the first time that there are two freezing processes for (NH4)3H(SO4)2/H2O solutions: (i) contact freezing, as is the case for pure water drops, and (ii) the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process, which is the growth of frozen drops (ice) at the expense of liquid ones...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390237/methodological-approaches-for-monitoring-opportunistic-pathogens-in-premise-plumbing-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Hong Wang, Emilie Bédard, Michèle Prévost, Anne K Camper, Vincent R Hill, Amy Pruden
Opportunistic premise (i.e., building) plumbing pathogens (OPPPs, e.g., Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium complex, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acanthamoeba, and Naegleria fowleri) are a significant and growing source of disease. Because OPPPs establish and grow as part of the native drinking water microbiota, they do not correspond to fecal indicators, presenting a major challenge to standard drinking water monitoring practices. Further, different OPPPs present distinct requirements for sampling, preservation, and analysis, creating an impediment to their parallel detection...
March 25, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390234/metallic-iron-for-safe-drinking-water-provision-considering-a-lost-knowledge
#16
REVIEW
Hezron T Mwakabona, Arnaud Igor Ndé-Tchoupé, Karoli N Njau, Chicgoua Noubactep, Kerstin D Wydra
Around year 1890, the technology of using metallic iron (Fe(0)) for safe drinking water provision was already established in Europe. The science and technology to manufacture suitable Fe(0) materials were known and further developed in this period. Scientists had then developed skills to (i) explore the suitability of individual Fe(0) materials (e.g. iron filling, sponge iron) for selected applications, and (ii) establish treatment processes for households and water treatment plants. The recent (1990) discovery of Fe(0) as reactive agent for environmental remediation and water treatment has not yet considered this ancient knowledge...
March 2, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382585/when-pasteurian-science-went-to-sea-the-birth-of-marine-microbiology
#17
Antony Adler, Erik Dücker
In the late nineteenth century, French naturalists were global leaders in microbial research. Louis Pasteur advanced sterilization techniques and demonstrated that dust particles in the air could contaminate a putrefiable liquid. Pasteur's discoveries prompted a new research program for the naturalists of the Talisman and Travailleur expeditions: to recover uncontaminated water and mud samples from the deep sea. French naturalists Adrien Certes and Paul Regnard both independently conducted experiments to address the question of whether microorganisms inhabited the oceans and whether organic material in the deep sea was subject to decomposition...
April 5, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382192/bacteriological-aspects-of-hand-washing-a-key-for-health-promotion-and-infections-control
#18
REVIEW
Ramezan Ali Ataee, Mohammad Hosein Ataee, Ali Mehrabi Tavana, Mahmud Salesi
The aim of this review is to show the historical aspects of hands washing for healthy life and explains how can reduce the transmission of community-acquired infectious agents by healthcare workers and patients. This review article is prepared based on available database. The key words used were hands washing, risk assessment, hands hygiene, bacterial flora, contamination, infection, nosocomial, tap water, sanitizer, bacterial resistance, hands bacterial flora, washing methods, antiseptics, healthcare workers, healthcare personnel, from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380959/revisiting-short-wave-infrared-swir-bands-for-atmospheric-correction-in-coastal-waters
#19
Nima Pahlevan, Jean-Claude Roger, Ziauddin Ahmad
The shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands on the existing Earth Observing missions like MODIS have been designed to meet land and atmospheric science requirements. The future geostationary and polar-orbiting ocean color missions, however, require highly sensitive SWIR bands (> 1550nm) to allow for a precise removal of aerosol contributions. This will allow for reasonable retrievals of the remote sensing reflectance (R<sub>rs</sub>) using standard NASA atmospheric corrections over turbid coastal waters...
March 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377993/electrocoagulation-process-to-chemical-and-biological-oxygen-demand-treatment-from-carwash-grey-water-in-ahvaz-megacity-iran
#20
Mohammad Javad Mohammadi, Afshin Takdastan, Sahand Jorfi, Abdolkazem Neisi, Majid Farhadi, Ahmad Reza Yari, Sina Dobaradaran, Yusef Omidi Khaniabadi
In this work, we present the result of an electric coagulation process with iron and aluminum electrodes for removal of chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD and BOD) from grey water in different car washes of Ahvaz, Iran. Nowadays, one of the important dangerous that can contaminate water resources for drinking, agriculture and industrial is Car wash effluent [1,2]. In this study, initial COD and BOD concentration, pH of the solution, voltage power and reaction time was investigated. The concentration level of remaining COD and BOD in samples was measured, using DR/5000 UV-vis HACH spectrophotometer [3,4]...
April 2017: Data in Brief
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