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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785344/citizen-science-data-suggest-that-a-novel-rig-improves-landing-rate-and-reduces-injury-and-handling-time-in-recreational-angling-with-artificial-lures-in-baltic-pike-esox-lucius
#1
Jens Jakob Bursell, Robert Arlinghaus
The optimal terminal gear in hook-and-line recreational fishing maximizes landing rates and minimizes injury to the fish because some fish will be released after capture. We designed a novel rig configuration in artificial lure fishing for top predators and examined its effectiveness in angling for Baltic northern pike ( Esox lucius ) using a citizen science approach based on observational data collected from volunteer anglers in the field. The novel rig included two changes to traditional rig designs common to artificial lure angling...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784806/restoration-of-paper-artworks-with-microemulsions-confined-in-hydrogels-for-safe-and-efficient-removal-of-adhesive-tapes
#2
Nicole Bonelli, Costanza Montis, Antonio Mirabile, Debora Berti, Piero Baglioni
The presence of pressure-sensitive tapes (PSTs) on paper artworks, either fortuitous or specifically applied for conservation purposes, is one of the most frequent and difficult issues encountered during restoration. Aged PSTs can damage or disfigure artworks, compromising structural integrity, readability, and enjoyment. Current procedures are often inherently hazardous for artistic media and paper support. Challenged by the necessity to remove PSTs from a contemporary and an ancient drawing (20th century, by artists da Silva and Hayter, and a 16th century drawing of one figure from the Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo), we addressed this issue from a physicochemical perspective, leveraging colloid and interface science...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780544/the-enhancement-and-suppression-of-immersion-mode-heterogeneous-ice-nucleation-by-solutes
#3
Thomas F Whale, Mark A Holden, Theodore W Wilson, Daniel O'Sullivan, Benjamin J Murray
Heterogeneous nucleation of ice from aqueous solutions is an important yet poorly understood process in multiple fields, not least the atmospheric sciences where it impacts the formation and properties of clouds. In the atmosphere ice-nucleating particles are usually, if not always, mixed with soluble material. However, the impact of this soluble material on ice nucleation is poorly understood. In the atmospheric community the current paradigm for freezing under mixed phase cloud conditions is that dilute solutions will not influence heterogeneous freezing...
May 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772899/honeycomb-like-plga-b-peg-structure-creation-with-t-junction-micro-droplets
#4
Merve Gultekinoglu, Xinyue Jiang, Cem Bayram, Kezban Ulubayram, Mohan Edirisinghe
Amphiphilic block copolymers are widely used in science owing to their versatile properties. In this study, amphiphilic block copolymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG) was used to create micro droplets in a T-junction microfluidic device with a well-defined geometry. In order to compare interfacial characteristics of micro droplets, dichloromethane (DCM) and chloroform were used to prepare PLGA-b-PEG solution as an oil phase. In the T-junction device water and oil phases were manipulated at variable flow rates from 50 µL/min to 300 µL/min by increments of 50 µL/min...
May 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771707/electrolytes-and-biochemical-changes-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-drowning-experimental-rabbit-model
#5
Melad G Paulis, Eman I Hasan
The diagnosis of drowning is still a difficult task in forensic science. Biochemical changes in different body fluids have been examined for the identification of drowning. However, none of them alone gives accurate results in the diagnosis of drowning and differentiation of saltwater and freshwater drowning. This study aimed to examine cerebrospinal fluid changes in drowned rabbits. Six groups of rabbits were used including immersed dead rabbits in freshwater or saltwater (as control groups), alive fully conscious rabbits drowned in freshwater and saltwater, and anesthetized rabbits drowned in freshwater and saltwater...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770427/near-infrared-laser-mediated-modulation-of-ice-crystallization-by-two-dimensional-nanosheets-enables-high-survival-recovery-of-biological-cells-from-cryogenic-temperatures
#6
Fazil Panhwar, Zhongrong Chen, S M Chapal Hossain, Meng Wang, Zeeshan Haider, Kashan Memon, Pengpeng Chen, Gang Zhao
Two-dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets (NSs) have been widely used as photothermal agents and as potential carriers of antitumor drugs. Their spatial thermal effects have been extensively explored for use at physiological and hyperthermic temperatures (37 to 46 °C). Furthermore, the modulation of the spatial thermal distributions with these NSs may have even more profound applications in the microstructural control of biomaterials at cryogenic temperatures (-196 to 37 °C)...
May 17, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765342/mind-control-how-parasites-manipulate-cognitive-functions-in-their-insect-hosts
#7
Frederic Libersat, Maayan Kaiser, Stav Emanuel
Neuro-parasitology is an emerging branch of science that deals with parasites that can control the nervous system of the host. It offers the possibility of discovering how one species (the parasite) modifies a particular neural network, and thus particular behaviors, of another species (the host). Such parasite-host interactions, developed over millions of years of evolution, provide unique tools by which one can determine how neuromodulation up-or-down regulates specific behaviors. In some of the most fascinating manipulations, the parasite taps into the host brain neuronal circuities to manipulate hosts cognitive functions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758626/balancing-selfishness-and-norm-conformity-can-explain-human-behavior-in-large-scale-prisoner-s-dilemma-games-and-can-poise-human-groups-near-criticality
#8
John Realpe-Gómez, Giulia Andrighetto, Luis Gustavo Nardin, Javier Antonio Montoya
Cooperation is central to the success of human societies as it is crucial for overcoming some of the most pressing social challenges of our time; still, how human cooperation is achieved and may persist is a main puzzle in the social and biological sciences. Recently, scholars have recognized the importance of social norms as solutions to major local and large-scale collective action problems, from the management of water resources to the reduction of smoking in public places to the change in fertility practices...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755363/an-evidence-based-approach-for-choosing-post-exercise-recovery-techniques-to-reduce-markers-of-muscle-damage-soreness-fatigue-and-inflammation-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#9
Olivier Dupuy, Wafa Douzi, Dimitri Theurot, Laurent Bosquet, Benoit Dugué
Introduction: The aim of the present work was to perform a meta-analysis evaluating the impact of recovery techniques on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), perceived fatigue, muscle damage, and inflammatory markers after physical exercise. Method: Three databases including PubMed, Embase , and Web-of-Science were searched using the following terms: ("recovery" or "active recovery" or "cooling" or "massage" or "compression garment" or "electrostimulation" or "stretching" or "immersion" or "cryotherapy") and ("DOMS" or "perceived fatigue" or "CK" or "CRP" or "IL-6") and ("after exercise" or "post-exercise") for randomized controlled trials, crossover trials, and repeated-measure studies...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752734/partition-coefficients-of-methylated-dna-bases-obtained-from-free-energy-calculations-with-molecular-electron-density-derived-atomic-charges
#10
A Lara, M Riquelme, E Vöhringer-Martinez
Partition coefficients serve in various areas as pharmacology and environmental sciences to predict the hydrophobicity of different substances. Recently, they have also been used to address the accuracy of force fields for various organic compounds and specifically the methylated DNA bases. In this study, atomic charges were derived by different partitioning methods (Hirshfeld and Minimal Basis Iterative Stockholder) directly from the electron density obtained by electronic structure calculations in a vacuum, with an implicit solvation model or with explicit solvation taking the dynamics of the solute and the solvent into account...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751304/heavy-metal-loss-from-agricultural-watershed-to-aquatic-system-a-scientometrics-review
#11
REVIEW
Wei Ouyang, Yidi Wang, Chunye Lin, Mengchang He, Fanghua Hao, Hongbin Liu, Weihong Zhu
Heavy metal pollution in soil and aquatic environments has attracted widespread attention due to its persistence, accumulation in the food chain and negative effects on ecological and human health. However, analyses of the watershed-scale migration mechanisms of heavy metal loss from agricultural systems to aquatic systems have seldom been studied systematically. Therefore, this review summarizes the available data in the literature (2003-2017) using CiteSpace software to provide insights into the specific characteristics of heavy metal loss from agricultural watersheds to aquatic systems and consequently shows global development trends that scientists can use for establishing future research directions...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748753/electrospun-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-matrices-containing-silver-sulfadiazine-complexed-with-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-as-a-new-pharmaceutical-dosage-form-to-wound-healing-preliminary-physicochemical-and-biological-evaluation
#12
Sarah Oliveira Lamas Souza, Monique Alvarenga Pinto Cotrim, Rodrigo Lambert Oréfice, Suzana Gonçalves Carvalho, Jessyca Aparecida Paes Dutra, Francisco de Paula Careta, Juliana Alves Resende, Janaina Cecília Oliveira Villanova
Cooperation between researchers in the areas of medical, pharmaceutical and materials science has facilitated the development of pharmaceutical dosage forms that elicit therapeutic effects and protective action with a single product. In addition to optimizing pharmacologic action, such dosage forms provide greater patient comfort and increase success and treatment compliance. In the present work, we prepared semipermeable bioactive electrospun fibers for use as wound dressings containing silver sulfadiazine complexed with β-cyclodextrin in a poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) nanofiber matrix aiming to reduce the direct contact between silver and skin and to modulate the drug release...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747389/liquid-marbles-from-industrial-to-medical-applications
#13
REVIEW
Roxana-Elena Avrămescu, Mihaela-Violeta Ghica, Cristina Dinu-Pîrvu, Denisa Ioana Udeanu, Lăcrămioara Popa
Liquid marbles are versatile structures demonstrating a pseudo-Leidenfrost wetting regime formed by encapsulating microscale volumes of liquid in a particle shell. The liquid core is completely separated from the exterior through air pockets. The external phase consists of hydrophobic particles, in most cases, or hydrophilic ones distributed as aggregates. Their interesting features arise from the double solid-fluid character. Thus, these interesting formations, also known as “dry waters”, have gained attention in surface science...
May 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745173/-silver-nanoparticles-in-natural-water-environment-source-analysis-and-transformation
#14
Yue Suo Yang, Chen Wang, Xue Mei Yuan, Chang Wei An, Xin Yao Yang
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as one of the most widely used metal nanomaterials can enter soil and water environment via various pathways, exert toxicity on water-borne organisms and deteriorate the aquatic eco-environment. With complex composition of natural water, the physicochemical property of AgNPs as nano materials makes their transformation process more complicated in water system. Therefore, understanding of the fate and transport of AgNPs in aqueous environment is extremely important for water quality management and protection of the eco-environment...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741876/exploiting-chromophore-protein-interactions-through-linker-engineering-to-tune-photoinduced-dynamics-in-a-biomimetic-light-harvesting-platform
#15
Milan Delor, Jing Dai, Trevor D Roberts, Julia R Rogers, Samia M Hamed, Jeffrey B Neaton, Phillip L Geissler, Matthew B Francis, Naomi S Ginsberg
Creating artificial systems that mimic and surpass those found in nature is one of the great challenges of modern science. In the context of photosynthetic light harvesting, the difficulty lies in attaining utmost control over the energetics, positions and relative orientations of chromophores in densely packed arrays to transfer electronic excitation energy to desired locations with high efficiency. Toward achieving this goal, we use a highly versatile biomimetic protein scaffold from the tobacco mosaic virus coat protein on which chromophores can be attached at precise locations via linkers of differing lengths and rigidities...
May 9, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727983/citizen-science-pioneers-in-kenya-a-crowdsourced-approach-for-hydrological-monitoring
#16
B Weeser, J Stenfert Kroese, S R Jacobs, N Njue, Z Kemboi, A Ran, M C Rufino, L Breuer
Although water is involved in many ecosystem services, the absence of monitoring data restricts the development of effective water management strategies especially in remote regions. Traditional monitoring networks can be expensive, with unaffordable costs in many low-income countries. Involving citizens in monitoring through crowdsourcing has the potential to reduce these costs but remains uncommon in hydrology. This study evaluates the quality and quantity of data generated by citizens in a remote Kenyan basin and assesses whether crowdsourcing is a suitable method to overcome data scarcity...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725937/public-lab-community-based-approaches-to-urban-and-environmental-health-and-justice
#17
Pablo Rey-Mazón, Hagit Keysar, Shannon Dosemagen, Catherine D'Ignazio, Don Blair
This paper explores three cases of Do-It-Yourself, open-source technologies developed within the diverse array of topics and themes in the communities around the Public Laboratory for Open Technology and Science (Public Lab). These cases focus on aerial mapping, water quality monitoring and civic science practices. The techniques discussed have in common the use of accessible, community-built technologies for acquiring data. They are also concerned with embedding collaborative and open source principles into the objects, tools, social formations and data sharing practices that emerge from these inquiries...
May 3, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720280/exposures-associated-with-infection-with-cryptosporidium-in-industrialised-countries-a-systematic-review-protocol
#18
Caoimhe McKerr, Sarah J O'Brien, Rachel M Chalmers, Roberto Vivancos, Robert M Christley
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite of humans and other animals worldwide and is one of the greatest contributors to human diarrhoeal illness. Transmission can occur indirectly via contaminated food or water, or directly via contact with animals or other infected people. Risk exposures are often identified from outbreak investigations, but a subset of cases remains unexplained, and sources for sporadic disease and pathways to infection are still unclear. Given the few systematic syntheses of reported evidence in industrialised populations, the aim of this review is to consolidate the literature to describe exposures associated with human cryptosporidiosis in industrialised countries, specifically including the UK, and describe any differences between outbreak-associated and sporadic disease...
May 2, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714214/active-underwater-detection-with-an-array-of-atomic-magnetometers
#19
Cameron Deans, Luca Marmugi, Ferruccio Renzoni
We report on a 2×2 array of radio-frequency atomic magnetometers in a magnetic induction tomography configuration. Active detection, localization, and real-time tracking of conductive, nonmagnetic targets are demonstrated in air and saline water. Penetration in different media and detection are achieved thanks to the sensitivity and tunability of the sensors, and to the active nature of magnetic induction probing. We obtained a 100% success rate for automatic detection and a 93% success rate for automatic localization in air and water, up to 190 mm away from the sensor plane (100 mm underwater)...
April 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713112/bayesian-modeling-of-nmr-data-quantifying-longitudinal-relaxation-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-with-a-tissue-water-relaxation-mimic-crosslinked-bovine-serum-albumin
#20
Kelsey Meinerz, Scott C Beeman, Chong Duan, G Larry Bretthorst, Joel R Garbow, Joseph J H Ackerman
Recently, a number of MRI protocols have been reported that seek to exploit the effect of dissolved oxygen (O2 , paramagnetic) on the longitudinal 1 H relaxation of tissue water, thus providing image contrast related to tissue oxygen content. However, tissue water relaxation is dependent on a number of mechanisms, and this raises the issue of how best to model the relaxation data. This problem, the model selection problem, occurs in many branches of science and is optimally addressed by Bayesian probability theory...
January 2018: Applied Magnetic Resonance
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