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water science

Leonardo Vidal Andreato, Braulio Henrique Magnani Branco, João Victor Esteves
Recently in the Journal of Sports Sciences, Schaun et al. published a study on the comparison of energy expenditure between high-intensity interval training and moderate continuous training performed in water. With this Letter to the Editor, we would like to comment on the methodological aspects that should be considered to analyze the results presented, as well as the conclusions. Abbreviations: CONT, moderate-intensity continuous training; EPOC, excess post-exercise oxygen consumption; HIIT, high-intensity interval training; VO2max, maximal oxygen consumption...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Euan D Reavie, Meijun Cai, Terry N Brown
This report provides a detailed set of historical stressor data for 60 watersheds comprising the Laurentian Great Lakes basin. Archival records were transcribed from public records to create quantitative data on human activities: population, mining, deforestation, and agriculture. Yearly records of stressors are provided from 1780 through 2010. These data may be used to track historical impacts on Great Lakes coastal and open water conditions. They may further be used to examine corresponding effects on response variables such as biological communities quantified during monitoring and palaeoecological programmes...
June 2018: Geoscience Data Journal
Frank Zelko
For the past seventy years, a host of scientific and public health bodies in the United States have strongly endorsed the practice of adding fluoride compounds to public water supplies as a prophylactic against dental caries. Throughout that period, a constant undercurrent of skepticism and outright opposition has slowed the adoption of the practice in the United States and limited its spread to just a handful of countries around the world. One of the attractions of water fluoridation is its affordability: the fluoride compounds are sourced from the phosphate and aluminum industries, for whom they would otherwise constitute an annoying toxic waste disposal problem...
November 15, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Kumar Manish, Maharaj K Pandit
The Himalaya is one of the youngest and the loftiest mountain chains of the world; it is also referred to as the water tower of Asia. The Himalayan region harbors nearly 10,000 plant species constituting approximately 2.5% of the global angiosperm diversity of which over 4,000 are endemics. The present-day Himalayan flora consists of an admixture of immigrant taxa and diversified species over the last 40 million years. The interesting questions about the Himalayan flora discussed here are: how did the Himalaya achieve high endemic plant diversity starting with immigrant taxa and what were the main drivers of this diversity? This contribution aims to answer these questions and raise some more...
2018: PeerJ
Rogério Lavanholi, Fabricio C Oliveira, Antonio P de Camargo, José A Frizzone, Bruno Molle, Nassim Ait-Mouheb, Séverine Tomas
Emitter clogging is a major problem in microirrigation systems, which may result from the isolated or combined effects of physical, chemical, and biological agents. Clogging caused by suspended solid particles is the most common plugging form of emitters. Water quality and emitter geometry are key aspects in clogging processes. Any suitable test procedure to assess the sensitivity of drippers to clogging should take into account the predominant factors that influence clogging and must reproduce the field conditions...
2018: TheScientificWorldJournal
Thomas S Hofer, Martin J Wiedemair
The dissociative water model developed by Garofalini and coworkers provides a versatile and effective approach to model proton transfer in a liquid water environment. This work presents the continuation of a previous study aiming at improving the transferability of this model, thereby enabling its application via third party simulation programs. In particular it is probed, whether a re-formulation of the non-coulombic interaction potential in the framework of the more common Lennard-Jones (LJ) and Buckingham formulation is feasible...
November 12, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Gregorio Guisado-Barrios, Michèle Soleilhavoup, Guy Bertrand
Classical carbenes are usually described as neutral compounds featuring a divalent carbon with only six electrons in their valence shell. It was only in 1988 that our group prepared the first isolable example, in which the carbene center was stabilized by a push-pull effect, using a phosphino and a silyl substituent. In the last 30 years, a myriad of acyclic and cyclic push-pull and push-push carbenes, bearing different heteroatom substituents, have been isolated. Among them, the so-called N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), which include cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbenes (CAACs), are arguably the most popular...
November 12, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Kelsey Pieper, Min Tang, Charles Nathan Jones, Stephanie Weiss, Andrew Greene, Hisyam Mohsin, Jeffrey Parks, Marc A Edwards
Increased road salt use and resulting source water contamination has widespread implications for corrosion of drinking water infrastructure, including chloride acceleration of galvanic corrosion and other premature plumbing failures. In this study, we utilized citizen science sampling, bench-scale corrosion studies, and state-level spatial modeling to examine the potential extent of chloride concentrations in groundwater and the resulting impact on private wells in New York. Across the sampled community, chloride levels varied spatially, with the highest levels in private wells downgradient of a road salt storage facility followed by wells within 30 m of a major roadway...
November 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Liangcong Fan, Yuemei Yuan, Zechun Ying, Shu Kee Lam, Lu Liu, Xinchao Zhang, Hongbin Liu, Baojing Gu
Agricultural non-point source pollution causes global warming and the deterioration of air and water quality. It is difficult to identify and monitor the emission sources of agricultural pollution due to the large number of farms in China. Many studies focus on the technological aspect of achieving agricultural sustainability, but its socioeconomic aspect is poorly understood. Here, we report how group size (number of farms in a certain region) affects agricultural pollution governance through conducting a social science experiment...
November 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Junyong Park, Patrick S Doyle
Hierarchical assembly of heterogeneous particles is of great importance to interface and colloid science. In this work, a facile but powerful approach for the large-scale production of multifunctional hydrogel particles armored with biological colloidal species is developed by combining Pickering stabilization and photopolymerization. Biocompatible hollow pollen grains extracted from naturally occurring pollen species with an average diameter of ~32 μm serve as universal solid emulsifiers dispersed in an oil phase, and are self-assembled at the interface between an oil phase and a photocrosslinkable hydrogel to make water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion droplets...
November 6, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Zhe Deng, Dehong Liu, Tingping Fu, Wenqiang Jiang, Min Qiu, Xiaoyong Xiao, Ji Xu, Yongwen Feng, Danhui Li, Hongke Zeng
BACKGROUND: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is associated with a large number of central nervous system and systemic disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the dynamic change of BBB changes during traumatic shock and resuscitation as well as the mechanisms involved. METHODS: The experiments were carried out on male Sprague Dawley rats anaesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. To produce traumatic shock, the rats were subjected to bilateral femoral traumatic fracture and blood withdrawal from the femoral artery to decrease mean arterial pressure (MAP) to 35 mmHg...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Xuanbo Zhu, Junran Hao, Bin Bao, Yahong Zhou, Haibo Zhang, Jinhui Pang, Zhenhua Jiang, Lei Jiang
The development of membrane science plays a fundamental role in harvesting osmotic power, which is considered a future clean and renewable energy source. However, the existing designs of the membrane cannot handle the low conversion efficiency and power density. Theory has predicted that the Janus membrane with ionic diode-type current would be the most efficient material. Therefore, rectified ionic transportation in a hypersaline environment (the salt concentration is at least 0.5 M in sea) is highly desired, but it still remains a challenge...
October 2018: Science Advances
David M Lapola, Patricia Pinho, Carlos A Quesada, Bernardo B N Strassburg, Anja Rammig, Bart Kruijt, Foster Brown, Jean P H B Ometto, Adriano Premebida, José A Marengo, Walter Vergara, Carlos A Nobre
Large uncertainties still dominate the hypothesis of an abrupt large-scale shift of the Amazon forest caused by climate change [Amazonian forest dieback (AFD)] even though observational evidence shows the forest and regional climate changing. Here, we assess whether mitigation or adaptation action should be taken now, later, or not at all in light of such uncertainties. No action/later action would result in major social impacts that may influence migration to large Amazonian cities through a causal chain of climate change and forest degradation leading to lower river-water levels that affect transportation, food security, and health...
November 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mark A Caudell, Colette Mair, Murugan Subbiah, Louise Matthews, Robert J Quinlan, Marsha B Quinlan, Ruth Zadoks, Julius Keyyu, Douglas R Call
BACKGOUND: Improved antimicrobial stewardship, sanitation, and hygiene are WHO-inspired priorities for restriction of the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Prioritisation among these objectives is essential, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries, but the factors contributing most to antimicrobial resistance are typically unknown and could vary substantially between and within countries. We aimed to identify the biological and socioeconomic risk factors associated with carriage of resistant Escherichia coli in three culturally diverse ethnic groups in northern Tanzania...
November 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Borys I Ostapienko, Domenico Lopez, Svetlana V Komarova
Biologically guided precipitation of calcium phosphates is important for the formation of calcified human tissues, such as bone and teeth, and is of practical significance in numerous industrial and agricultural processes, such as wastewater treatment and dairy ultrafiltration. Mineral precipitation is physicochemically complex and becomes even more complex in the presence of biological materials. The theoretical foundation of phase transition in general has been developed and is vital for many applications, such as metallurgy and weather prediction...
November 2, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Qian-Nan Li, Li Li, Guanmei Hou, Zhen-Bo Wang, Yi Hou, Zhong-Hua Liu, Heide Schatten, Qing-Yuan Sun
STUDY QUESTION: What is the impact of glucocorticoid (GC) on female reproduction? SUMMARY ANSWER: Corticosterone (CORT) exposure causes little damage to oocyte quality or developmental competence but has an adverse effect on the uterus, which causes decreased implantation, embryo death and subsequent infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Chronic treatment with high GC doses is effective in controlling most allergic diseases but may lead to metabolic disorders such as obesity that are closely related with reproductive function...
November 2, 2018: Human Reproduction
Kazunari Yoshizawa, Hiroyuki Murata, Hiromasa Tanaka
Adhesion is one of the most interesting subjects in interface phenomena from the viewpoint of wide-range applications as well as basic science. Interfacial water has significant effects on coatings, adhesives, and fiber-reinforced polymer composites, often causing adhesion loss. The way of thinking based on quantum mechanics is essential for a better understanding of physical and chemical properties of adhesive interfaces. In this work, the molecular mechanism of the adhesion interaction between epoxy resin and hydroxylated alumina surface in the presence of interfacial water molecules is investigated by using density-functional tight-binding calculations...
November 12, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Salvatore Surdo, Francesca Carpignano, Sabina Merlo, Giuseppe Barillaro
Aqueous solutions of alcohols are used in several applications, from pharmaceutics and biological sciences, to chemical, biofuel, and food industries. Nonetheless, development of a simple, inexpensive, and portable sensing device for the quantification of water in water-ethanol mixtures remains a significant challenge. Photonic crystals (PhCs) operating at very high-order bandgaps (PBGs) offer remarkable opportunities for the realization of chemical sensors with high sensitivity and low detection limit. Nonetheless, high- order PhC structures have been mostly confined to mere theoretical speculations so far, their effective realization requiring microfabrication tools enabling the control of periodic refractive index modulations at the sub-micrometric scale with extremely high both accuracy and precision...
October 31, 2018: ACS Sensors
Xu Wang, Larysa Baraban, Anh Nguyen, Jin Ge, Vyacheslav R Misko, Jacques Tempere, Franco Nori, Petr Formanek, Tao Huang, Gianaurelio Cuniberti, Jürgen Fassbender, Denys Makarov
Visible light-driven nano/micromotors are promising candidates for biomedical and environmental applications. This study demonstrates blue light-driven Ag/AgCl-based spherical Janus micromotors, which couple plasmonic light absorption with the photochemical decomposition of AgCl. These micromotors reveal high motility in pure water, i.e., mean squared displacements (MSD) reaching 800 µm2 within 8 s, which is 100× higher compared to previous visible light-driven Janus micromotors and 7× higher than reported ultraviolet (UV) light-driven AgCl micromotors...
October 7, 2018: Small
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