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water science

Zhen Zhang, Yifeng Wu, Guangge Sun, Jing Zhang, Jiaxin Li, Chongyang Qiu, Xin Zheng, Botao Wang, Lei Yang, Ximo Wang
BACKGROUND: Colonoscopy is one of the excellent tools for screening colorectal cancer. There were four colonoscopy techniques containing air insufflation, CO2 insufflation, water exchange, and water immersion. Some studies reported that these methods are better than the criterion standard (air insufflation), while some studies showed not. In order to evaluate the efficacy of four colonoscopy techniques, a network meta-analysis was performed in present study. METHODS: We searched randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to September 2017 from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, and Web of Science...
January 15, 2018: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
Fumio Hirata, Masatake Sugita, Masasuke Yoshida, Kazuyuki Akasaka
The thermodynamics hypothesis, casually referred to as "Anfinsen's dogma," is described theoretically in terms of a concept of the structural fluctuation of protein or the first moment (average structure) and the second moment (variance and covariance) of the structural distribution. The new theoretical concept views the unfolding and refolding processes of protein as a shift of the structural distribution induced by a thermodynamic perturbation, with the variance-covariance matrix varying. Based on the theoretical concept, a method to characterize the mechanism of folding (or unfolding) is proposed...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
H Drouineau, C Carter, M Rambonilaza, G Beaufaron, G Bouleau, A Gassiat, P Lambert, S le Floch, S Tétard, E de Oliveira
Ecosystem fragmentation is a serious threat to biodiversity and one of the main challenges in ecosystem restoration. River continuity restoration (RCR) has often targeted diadromous fishes, a group of species supporting strong cultural and economic values and especially sensitive to river fragmentation. Yet it has frequently produced mixed results and diadromous fishes remain at very low levels of abundance. Against this background, this paper presents the main challenges for defining, evaluating and achieving effective RCR...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Management
Alma Fernanda Sánchez-Maldonado, Alvin Lee, Jeffrey M Farber
Low-moisture foods (LMFs) have been defined as those food products with a water activity (aw) less than 0.85 and are generally considered less susceptible to microbial spoilage and the growth of foodborne pathogens. However, in recent years, outbreaks linked to LMFs have increased, with Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Cronobacter sakazakii, Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 E. coli, and Staphylococcus aureus being the principal pathogens involved. Because of the new concerns raised as a result of recent outbreaks, new approaches need to be developed to control foodborne pathogens in LMFs...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Valeria Amendola, Ana Miljkovic, Laura Legnani, Lucio Toma, Daniele Dondi, Simone Lazzaroni
In this work, we employed for the first time a dinuclear bis[tris(2-aminoethyl)amine] cryptate to obtain the self-assembly of pseudorotaxane structures in an aqueous solution. The goal was achieved by exploiting the well-known affinity of the dicopper azacryptate with diphenyl spacers for the terephthalate anion. In particular, a series of molecular threads were synthesized by appending either alkyl or polyoxyethylene chains on both sides of the terephthalate benzene ring. The obtained dicarboxylic acids were precipitated as sodium salts, and their affinity toward the dicopper azacryptate was determined in a methanol/water mixture (pH 7)...
January 12, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Dariush Naghipour, Seyed Davoud Ashrafi, Ali Mojtahedi, Masoud Vatandoost, Loghman Hosseinzadeh, Esmail Roohbakhsh
In this research, we measured various parameters related to drinking water quality include turbidity, temperature, pH, EC, TDS, Alkalinity, fecal and total coliform, heterotrophic plate count (HPC), free chlorine, Mn, Ca, Mg, Fe, Na, Cl-, F-, HCO3, in the inlet and outlet of household water treatment devices according to the standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (W.E. Federation and Association and A.P.H., 2005) [1]. Sixty four inlet and outlet water samples were taken from thirty two household water treatment devices from eight different residential blocks in Golsar town of Rasht, Iran...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Markus Antonietti, Alexandr Savateev
Water splitting to its elements, either by electrochemistry or by solar light, is among the most covered areas in nanostructured functional materials. This personal account article analyzes potential downstream translation problems and reviews alternative chemistries with a potential higher return. Liberation of oxygen for accepting the holes is a kinetically demanding half reaction afflicted with kinetic hindrances and high overpotentials, while at the same time no marketable value is created (atmospheric oxygen is free to use)...
January 10, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Sakar Mohan, Nguyen Chinh-Chien, Vu Manh-Hiep, Trong-On Do
The photo-assisted catalytic reaction, conventionally known as photocatalysis, is blooming into the field of energy and environmental applications. It is widely known that the discovery of TiO2-assited photochemical reactions has led to achieve several unique applications such as degradation of pollutants in water and air, hydrogen production through water splitting, fuel conversion, cancer treatment, anti-bacterial activity, self-cleaning glasses and concrete, etc. These multifaceted applications of this phenomenon can be enriched and expanded further if this process is equipped with more tools and functions...
January 8, 2018: ChemSusChem
Yueliang Wang, Lingling Fang, Gaoli Chen, Lei Song, Zhaoxiang Deng
Despite the versatile forms of colloidal aggregates, these spontaneously formed structures are often hard to find a suitable application in nanotechnology and materials science. A determinate reason is the lack of a suitable method to capture the transiently formed and quickly evolving colloidal structures in solution. To address this challenge, a simple but highly efficient strategy is herein reported to capture the dynamic and metastable colloidal assemblies formed in an aqueous or nonaqueous solution. This process takes advantage of a recently developed Ag ion soldering reaction to realize a rapid fixation of as-formed metastable assemblies...
January 9, 2018: Small
Ciara Chun Chen, Dave Ta Fu Kuo
This study presents a bioconcentration model for non-ionic, polar, and ionizable organic compounds in amphipod based on first-order kinetics. Uptake rate constant k1 is modeled as log k1=10.81logKOW+0.15 (root mean square error, RMSE = 0.52). Biotransformation rate constant kM is estimated using an existing polyparameter linear free energy relationship model. Respiratory elimination k2 is calculated as modeled k1 over theoretical biota-water partition coefficient Kbiow considering the contributions of lipid, protein, carbohydrate and water...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
David J Waters, Emily C Chiang
Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality among men living in developed countries, making the development of safe, practical approaches to prostate cancer risk reduction a high research priority. The relationship between prostate cancer risk and selenium, an essential nutrient required for a number of metabolically important enzymes including glutathione peroxidases, has been investigated, but a satisfactory integration of results has proven elusive. Dogs, like men, naturally develop prostate cancer during aging, providing an appropriate context to study the effects of selenium supplementation on the dysregulation of homeostasis that drives cancer development within the aging prostate...
January 2, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Ahmad Kayvani Fard, Gordon McKay, Anita Buekenhoudt, Huda Al Sulaiti, Filip Motmans, Marwan Khraisheh, Muataz Atieh
Inorganic membrane science and technology is an attractive field of membrane separation technology, which has been dominated by polymer membranes. Recently, the inorganic membrane has been undergoing rapid development and innovation. Inorganic membranes have the advantage of resisting harsh chemical cleaning, high temperature and wear resistance, high chemical stability, long lifetime, and autoclavable. All of these outstanding properties made inorganic membranes good candidates to be used for water treatment and desalination applications...
January 5, 2018: Materials
C Nicholas Cuneo, Richard Sollom, Chris Beyrer
The 2008-2009 Zimbabwe cholera epidemic resulted in 98,585 reported cases and caused more than 4,000 deaths. In this study, we used a mixed-methods approach that combined primary qualitative data from a 2008 Physicians for Human Rights-led investigation with a systematic review and content analysis of the scientific literature. Our initial investigation included semi-structured interviews of 92 key informants, which we supplemented with reviews of the social science and human rights literature, as well as international news reports...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
Maria Teresinha Gomes Casavechia, Gessilda de Alcântara Nogueira de Melo, Andrea Claudia Bekner Da Silva Fernandes, Karin Reinhold De Castro, Raissa Bocchi Pedroso, Thaís Da Silva Santos, Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence and factors associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection in Brazil. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science and Latin-American and Caribbean System on Health Sciences Information (LILACS) databases, scientific publications articles, according to The PRISMA Statement, from 2000 to 2016. A total of 27 studies were included according to the established criteria. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection varied widely, from 0·1 to 73·1%, based on Kato-Katz technique...
January 3, 2018: Parasitology
Norbert W Lutz, Monique Bernard
We recently suggested a new paradigm for statistical analysis of thermal heterogeneity in (semi-)aqueous materials by 1H NMR spectroscopy, using water as a temperature probe. Here, we present a comprehensive in silico and in vitro validation that demonstrates the ability of this new technique to provide accurate quantitative parameters characterizing the statistical distribution of temperature values in a volume of (semi-)aqueous matter. First, line shape parameters of numerically simulated water 1H NMR spectra are systematically varied to study a range of mathematically well-defined temperature distributions...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Ricardo Pérez de Tudela, Dominik Marx
The dissociation of acids in aqueous environments at low temperatures in the presence of a limited amount of water is underlying a wealth of processes from atmospheric to interstellar science. For the paradigmatic case of HCl(H_{2}O)_{n} clusters, our extensive ab initio path integral simulations quantify in terms of free energy differences and barriers that n=4 water molecules are indeed required to dissociate HCl at low temperatures. Increasing the temperature, however, reverses the process and thus counteracts dissociation by fluctuation-driven recombination...
December 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Raj Bahadur Singh, Sanjay Choubey, Ria Mehra
Background: Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC), a water soluble salt when mixed in saliva is 80% nonionized; making it the only opioid suitable for transmucosal absorption. OTFC has rapid onset of action (3-5 min) with peak effect at 20-40 min and total duration of activity is 2-3 h. Aims: This study aims to determine the efficacy of OTFC as premedicant in patients scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia (GA) and to assess the effects of OTFC on anxiety, sedation...
October 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Yi Yao, Yosuke Kanai
Accurate molecular simulation of aqueous ionic solutions is arguably one of the most important challenges in modern physical chemistry with far-reaching implications in various other areas of science. At the same time, molecular dynamics simulation of prototypical NaCl solution remains highly challenging partly because there exist two distinct minima in the free energy profile, corresponding to the so-called solvent-shared ion pair and the contact ion pair. Accurate description of NaCl free energy profile remains quite challenging at the standard GGA level of density functional theory in first-principles molecular dynamics, and development of better force fields for classical molecular dynamics simulations also suffer from having limited information available on the extent to which charge transfer is important...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Olivia Campana, Donald Wlodkowic
Biological and environmental sciences are, more than ever, becoming highly dependent on technological and multidisciplinary approaches that warrant advanced analytical capabilities. Microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip technologies are perhaps one the most groundbreaking offshoots of bioengineering, enabling design of an entirely new generation of bioanalytical instrumentation. They represent a unique approach to combine micro-scale engineering and physics with specific biological questions, providing technological advances that allow for fundamentally new capabilities in the spatio-temporal analysis of molecules, cells, tissues and even small metazoan organisms...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Godfrey Bwire, Mohammad Ali, David A Sack, Anne Nakinsige, Martha Naigaga, Amanda K Debes, Moise C Ngwa, W Abdullah Brooks, Christopher Garimoi Orach
BACKGROUND: Despite advance in science and technology for prevention, detection and treatment of cholera, this infectious disease remains a major public health problem in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda inclusive. The aim of this study was to identify cholera hotspots in Uganda to guide the development of a roadmap for prevention, control and elimination of cholera in the country. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We obtained district level confirmed cholera outbreak data from 2011 to 2016 from the Ministry of Health, Uganda...
December 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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