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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214519/detection-and-quantification-of-soil-transmitted-helminths-in-environmental-samples-a-review-of-current-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
Isaac Dennis Amoah, Gulshan Singh, Thor Axel Stenström, Poovendhree Reddy
It is estimated that over a billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) globally with majority occurring in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), and hookworms (Anclostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) are the main species infecting people. These infections are mostly gained through exposure to faecally contaminated water, soil or contaminated food and with an increase in the risk of infections due to wastewater and sludge reuse in agriculture...
February 15, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214118/optimizing-peri-urban-ecosystems-pure-to-re-couple-urban-rural-symbiosis
#2
REVIEW
Yong-Guan Zhu, Brian J Reid, Andrew A Meharg, Steve A Banwart, Bo-Jie Fu
Globally, rapid urbanization, along with economic development, is dramatically changing the balance of biogeochemical cycles, impacting upon ecosystem services and impinging on United Nation global sustainability goals (inter alia: sustainable cities and communities; responsible consumption and production; good health and well-being; clean water and sanitation, and; to protect and conserve life on land and below water). A key feature of the urban ecosystems is that nutrient stocks, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), are being enriched...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213127/quantitation-of-lead-210-210-pb-using-lead-203-203-pb-as-a-massless-yield-tracer
#3
D May, A N Nelson, M K Schultz
Determination of Pb-210 ((210)Pb) in aqueous solution is a common radioanalytical challenge in environmental science. Widely used methods for undertaking these analyses (e.g., ASTM D7535) rely on the use of stable lead (Pb) as a yield tracer that takes into account losses of (210)Pb that inevitably occur during elemental/radiochemical separations of the procedures. Although effective, these methods introduce technical challenges that can be difficult to track and potentially introduce uncertainty that can be difficult to quantify...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210734/ceria-based-model-catalysts-fundamental-studies-on-the-importance-of-the-metal-ceria-interface-in-co-oxidation-the-water-gas-shift-co2-hydrogenation-and-methane-and-alcohol-reforming
#4
REVIEW
José A Rodriguez, David C Grinter, Zongyuan Liu, Robert M Palomino, Sanjaya D Senanayake
Model metal/ceria and ceria/metal catalysts have been shown to be excellent systems for studying fundamental phenomena linked to the operation of technical catalysts. In the last fifteen years, many combinations of well-defined systems involving different kinds of metals and ceria have been prepared and characterized using the modern techniques of surface science. So far most of the catalytic studies have been centered on a few reactions: CO oxidation, the hydrogenation of CO2, and the production of hydrogen through the water-gas shift reaction and the reforming of methane or alcohols...
February 17, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205401/computer-aided-drug-design-to-explore-cyclodextrin-therapeutics-and-biomedical-applications
#5
Azizeh Abdolmaleki, Fatemeh Ghasemi, Jahan B Ghasemi
Cyclodextrin (CD) is a subset of the macrocyclic structural class, which is an important class of small organic agents that are useful functional excipients. They have wide range application possibilities in different fields of sciences such as material preparation, medicine, analytical chemistry, and separation processes. They are used widely in pharmaceutical formulations and drug delivery for increasing the water solubility of low soluble drugs and drug candidates. Due to the ring structure, they behave differently than smaller molecules and may be capable of hitting new classes of targets...
February 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202966/stable-colloids-in-molten-inorganic-salts
#6
Hao Zhang, Kinjal Dasbiswas, Nicholas B Ludwig, Gang Han, Byeongdu Lee, Suri Vaikuntanathan, Dmitri V Talapin
A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other...
February 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195575/a-land-data-assimilation-system-for-sub-saharan-africa-food-and-water-security-applications
#7
Amy McNally, Kristi Arsenault, Sujay Kumar, Shraddhanand Shukla, Pete Peterson, Shugong Wang, Chris Funk, Christa D Peters-Lidard, James P Verdin
Seasonal agricultural drought monitoring systems, which rely on satellite remote sensing and land surface models (LSMs), are important for disaster risk reduction and famine early warning. These systems require the best available weather inputs, as well as a long-term historical record to contextualize current observations. This article introduces the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), a custom instance of the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework. The FLDAS is routinely used to produce multi-model and multi-forcing estimates of hydro-climate states and fluxes over semi-arid, food insecure regions of Africa...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195410/design-of-na-selective-fluorescent-probes-a-systematic-study-of-the-na-complex-stability-and-the-na-k-selectivity-in-acetonitrile-and-water
#8
Hans-Jürgen Holdt
Overall, there is a tremendous demand for highly Na+-selective fluoroionophores to monitor the top analyte Na+ in life science. Herein, we report on a systematic route to develop highly Na+/K+ selective fluorescent probes. Thus, we synthesized a set of fluoroionophores to investigate the Na+/K+ selectivity and Na+-complex stability in CH3CN and H2O. These Na+-probes bearing different 15-crown-5 moieties to bind Na+ stronger than K+. Further, we found for the N-(o-methoxyphenyl)aza-15-crown-5 substituted fluoroionophores 2, 8 and 9 (see Scheme 1) in H2O an enhanced Na+-complex stability in the following order 8 > 2 > 9 and an increased Na+/K+ selectivity in the reverse order 9 > 2 > 8...
February 14, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194931/influence-of-scaffold-design-on-3d-printed-cell-constructs
#9
Auryn Souness, Fernanda Zamboni, Gavin M Walker, Maurice N Collins
Additive manufacturing is currently receiving significant attention in the field of tissue engineering and biomaterial science. The development of precise, affordable 3D printing technologies has provided a new platform for novel research to be undertaken in 3D scaffold design and fabrication. In the past, a number of 3D scaffold designs have been fabricated to investigate the potential of a 3D printed scaffold as a construct which could support cellular life. These studies have shown promising results; however, few studies have utilized a low-cost desktop 3D printing technology as a potential rapid manufacturing route for different scaffold designs...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192995/morphology-controlled-coating-of-colloidal-particles-with-silica-influence-of-particle-surface-functionalization
#10
Xu Dong, Pan Wu, Goetz Peter Hellmann, Changchun Wang, Christian G Schäfer
We present a general, convenient and efficient synthetic concept for the coating of colloidal particles with a silica (SiO2) shell of well-defined and precisely controlled morphology and porosity. Monodisperse submicroscopic polystyrene (PS) particles were synthesized via two-stage emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization and subsequent swelling polymerization, enabling selective particle surface modification by the incorporation of ionic (methacrylic acid, MAA) or nonionic (hydroxyethyl methacrylate, HEMA or methacrylamide, MAAm) comonomers, which could be proven by zeta potential measurements as well as by determining the three-phase contact angle of the colloidal particles adsorbed at the air-water and n-decane-water interface...
February 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192368/erratum-water-science-and-technology-74-8-1845-1854-toward-an-operational-tool-to-simulate-green-roof-hydrological-impact-at-the-basin-scale-a-new-version-of-the-distributed-rainfall-runoff-model-multi-hydro-pierre-antoine-versini-et-al-doi-10-2166-wst-2016
#11
Pierre-Antoine Versini, Auguste Gires, Ioulia Tchiguirinskaia, Daniel Schertzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191579/synthetic-mimics-of-biotin-strept-avidin
#12
Wenqi Liu, Soumen K Samanta, Bradley D Smith, Lyle Isaacs
Biotin/(strept)avidin self-assembly is a powerful platform for nanoscale fabrication and capture with many different applications in science, medicine, and nanotechnology. However, biotin/(strept)avidin self-assembly has several well-recognized drawbacks that limit performance in certain technical areas and there is a need for synthetic mimics that can either become superior replacements or operational partners with bio-orthogonal recognition properties. The goal of this tutorial review is to describe the recent progress in making high affinity synthetic association partners that operate in water or biological media...
February 13, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190572/prioritising-local-action-for-water-quality-improvement-using-citizen-science-a-study-across-three-major-metropolitan-areas-of-china
#13
Ian Thornhill, Jonathan G Ho, Yuchao Zhang, Huashou Li, Kin Chung Ho, Leticia Miguel-Chinchilla, Steven A Loiselle
Streams in urban areas are prone to degradation. While urbanization-induced poor water quality is a widely observed and well documented phenomenon, the mechanism to pinpoint local drivers of urban stream degradation, and their relative influence on water quality, is still lacking. Utilizing data from the citizen science project FreshWater Watch, we use a machine learning approach to identify key indicators, potential drivers, and potential controls to water quality across the metropolitan areas of Shanghai, Guangzhou and Hong Kong...
February 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187682/polychaeta-orbiniidae-from-antarctica-the-southern-ocean-the-abyssal-pacific-ocean-and-off-south-america
#14
James A Blake
The orbiniid polychaetes chiefly from Antarctic and subantarctic seas and off South America are described based on collections of the National Museum of Natural History and new material from surveys conducted by the United States Antarctic Program and other federal and privately funded sources as well as participation in international programs. A total of 44 species of Orbiniidae distributed in 10 genera are reported from the Pacific Ocean and waters off South America and Antarctica. Twenty-one species are new to science; one species is renamed...
January 12, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183098/sponges-of-the-guyana-shelf
#15
Rob W M VAN Soest
Sponges collected on the Guyana Shelf, predominantly in Suriname offshore waters, by Dutch HMS 'Snellius' O.C.P.S. 1966, HMS 'Luymes' O.C.P.S. II 1969, and HMS 'Luymes' Guyana Shelf 1970 expeditions are described in this study. Sponges were obtained by trawling, dredging or grabbing on sandy, muddy, shelly, and fossil reef bottoms at 88 stations between 19 and 681 m depth. A total of 351 samples were identified to species level, each consisting of one or more specimens of a given species from each individual station (together comprising 547 individuals and fragments)...
January 12, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177221/highly-selective-and-repeatable-surface-enhanced-resonance-raman-scattering-detection-for-epinephrine-in-serum-based-on-interface-self-assembled-2d-nanoparticles-arrays
#16
Binbin Zhou, Xiaoyun Li, Xianghu Tang, Pan Li, LiangBao Yang, Jinhuai Liu
Target analyte detection in complex system with high selectivity and repeatability is crucial to analytical technology and science. Here we present a two-dimensional (2D) surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) platform, which takes advantage of self-assembled of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) arrays at cyclohexane/water interface, for detecting trace Epinephrine (EP) in the serum. To realize sensitive and selective detection of EP in complex system, Au NPs is modified with -nitriloacetic acid and Fe(NO3)3 to form the Au NP-(Fe-NTA) sensor, as consequence, EP can be rapidly captured by sen-sor on the surface of Au NPs, then delivered at cyclohexane/water interface...
February 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173789/participatory-science-and-innovation-for-improved-sanitation-and-hygiene-process-and-outcome-evaluation-of-project-shine-a-school-based-intervention-in-rural-tanzania
#17
Erin Hetherington, Matthijs Eggers, Joyce Wamoyi, Jennifer Hatfield, Mange Manyama, Susan Kutz, Sheri Bastien
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in low and middle income countries with children being disproportionately affected. Project SHINE (Sanitation & Hygiene INnovation in Education) is a grassroots participatory science education and social entrepreneurship model to engage youth and the wider community in the development of sustainable strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene. METHODS: Based in rural and remote Tanzania, this pilot study engaged pastoralist high-school students and communities in the development and evaluation of culturally and contextually relevant strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene...
February 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170093/topical-treatments-for-blepharokeratoconjunctivitis-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Michael O'Gallagher, Catey Bunce, Melanie Hingorani, Frank Larkin, Stephen Tuft, Annegret Dahlmann-Noor
BACKGROUND: Blepharokeratoconjunctivitis (BKC) is a type of inflammation of the surface of the eye and eyelids that involves changes of the eyelids, dysfunction of the meibomian glands, and inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea. Chronic inflammation of the cornea can lead to scarring, vascularisation and opacity. BKC in children can cause significant symptoms including irritation, watering, photophobia and loss of vision from corneal opacity, refractive error or amblyopia.Treatment of BKC is directed towards modification of meibomian gland disease and the bacterial flora of lid margin and conjunctiva, and control of ocular surface inflammation...
February 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169029/the-contribution-of-volunteer-based-monitoring-data-to-the-assessment-of-harmful-phytoplankton-blooms-in-brazilian-urban-streams
#19
Davi Gasparini Fernandes Cunha, Simone Pereira Casali, Patrícia Bortoletto de Falco, Ian Thornhill, Steven Arthur Loiselle
Urban streams are vulnerable to a range of impacts, leading to the impairment of ecosystem services. However, studies on phytoplankton growth in tropical lotic systems are still limited. Citizen science approaches use trained volunteers to collect environmental data. We combined data on urban streams collected by volunteers with data obtained by professional scientists to identify potential drivers of phytoplankton community and determine thresholds for Cyanobacteria development. We combined datasets (n=117) on water quality and environmental observations in 64 Brazilian urban streams with paired data on phytoplankton...
February 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168720/external-morphogenesis-of-the-tardigrade-hypsibius-dujardini-as-revealed-by-scanning-electron-microscopy
#20
Vladimir Gross, Irene Minich, Georg Mayer
Tardigrada, commonly called water bears, is a taxon of microscopic panarthropods with five-segmented bodies and four pairs of walking legs. Although tardigrades have been known to science for several centuries, questions remain regarding many aspects of their biology, such as embryogenesis. Herein, we used scanning electron microscopy to document the external changes that occur during embryonic development in the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini (Eutardigrada, Parachela, Hypsibiidae). Our results show an accelerated development of external features, with approximately 30 hrs separating the point at which external structures first become recognizable and a fully formed embryo...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Morphology
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