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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644011/development-of-silver-nanoparticles-decorated-emulsion-templated-hierarchically-porous-poly-1-vinylimidazole-beads-for-water-treatment
#1
Muhammad Ahmad Mudassir, Syed Zajif Hussain, Asma Rehman, Wasif Zaheer, Syeda Tasmia Asma, Asim Jilani, Mohammad Aslam, Haifei Zhang, Tariq Mahmood Ansari, Irshad Hussain
Water, the driver of nature, has always been polluted by the blind hurling of highly toxic contaminants, but human-friendly science continuously been presenting better avenues to help solve these challenging issues. In this connection, the present study introduces novel nanocomposites comprised of emulsion-templated hierarchically porous poly(1-vinylimidazole) beads loaded with the silver nanoparticles generated via an in-situ approach. These nanocomposites have been thoroughly characterized by FTIR, TGA, BET and FESEM...
June 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642741/the-hyperarid-core-of-the-atacama-desert-an-extremely-dry-and-carbon-deprived-habitat-of-potential-interest-for-the-field-of-carbon-science
#2
Armando Azua-Bustos, Carlos González-Silva, Gino Corsini
The Atacama Desert in Chile is the driest and oldest desert on Earth, also considered one of the best Mars analog models. Here, several heterotrophic microbial communities have been discovered in its driest regions, with the ones present in the soil subsurface being one of the most interesting due to its existence in a habitat with almost no water available and almost undetectable organic carbon sources. Our recent discovery of the driest site of the Atacama known to date (and the heterotrophic microbial species that are able to survive in this site) reaffirms the opportunity to better characterize the physiological and molecular mechanisms that these species use to detect, mobilize, incorporate and use carbon under these extremely harsh conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642517/green-dentistry-the-art-and-science-of-sustainable-practice
#3
P Mulimani
Dentistry is highly energy and resource intensive with significant environmental impact. Factors inherent in the profession such as enormous electricity demands of electronic dental equipment, voluminous water requirements, environmental effects of biomaterials (before, during and after clinical use), the use of radiation and the generation of hazardous waste involving mercury, lead etc have contributed towards this. With rising temperatures across the world due to global warming, efforts are being made worldwide to mitigate the effects of environmental damage by resorting to sustainability concepts and green solutions in a myriad of ways...
June 23, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640618/dynamic-roughness-ratio-based-framework-for-modeling-mixed-mode-of-droplet-evaporation
#4
Madhu Ranjan Gunjan, Rishi Raj
The spatio-temporal evolution of an evaporating sessile droplet and its effect on lifetime is crucial to various disciplines of science and technology. While experimental investigations suggest three distinct modes through which a droplet evaporates, namely, the constant contact radius (CCR), the constant contact angle (CCA), and the mixed, only the CCR and the CCA modes have been modeled reasonably. Here we use experiments with water droplets on flat and micropillared silicon substrates to characterize the mixed mode...
June 22, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632970/hexaazatriphenylene-based-hydrogen-bonded-organic-framework-with-permanent-porosity-and-single-crystallinity-synthesis-structural-uptaking-and-photophysical-characterization
#5
Ichiro Hisaki, Nobuaki Ikenaka, Eduardo Gomez, Boiko Cohen, Norimitsu Tohnai, Abderrazzak Douhal
Hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks (HOFs) have drawn unprecedented interests because of their high crystallinity as well as facile process for construction, deconstruction, and reassembly arising from reversible bond formation-dissociation. However, structural fragility and low stability frequently prevent formation of robust HOFs with permanent porosity. Herein, we report that hexakis(4-carboxyphenyl)-hexaazatriphenylene (CPHAT) forms three dimensionally networked H-bonded framework CPHAT-1. Interestingly, the activated framework CPHAT-1a retains not only permanent porosity but single-crystallinity, enabling precise structural characterization and property evaluation on a single crystal...
June 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629648/ten-reasons-to-embrace-scientism
#6
Rik Peels
A strong version of scientism, such as that of Alex Rosenberg, says, roughly, that natural science reliably delivers rational belief or knowledge, whereas common sense sources of belief, such as moral intuition, memory, and introspection, do not. In this paper I discuss ten reasons that adherents of scientism have or might put forward in defence of scientism. The aim is to show which considerations could plausibly count in favour of scientism and what this implies for the way scientism ought to be formulated...
June 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628402/calcium-bioavailability-from-mineral-waters-with-different-mineralization-in-comparison-to-milk-and-a-supplement
#7
Theresa Greupner, Inga Schneider, Andreas Hahn
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of calcium from 3 mineral waters with different concentrations of minerals with that of milk and a calcium supplement. METHODS: A single-center, randomized controlled trial with a crossover design with 21 healthy men and women was conducted at the Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University Hannover. The participants consumed the 5 test products providing 300 mg of calcium each on 5 examination days with 1-week wash-out phases in between...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624727/the-biogeochemical-implications-of-massive-gull-flocks-at-landfills
#8
R Scott Winton, Mark River
Gulls have long been observed concentrating in flocks of tens to hundreds of thousands at the anthropogenic food sources provided by landfills. Yet, the biogeochemical implications of the landfill gull phenomenon have been largely ignored. This study has two goals: 1) to understand the magnitude and geographic extent of landfill gulls in North America, and 2) to quantify the amount of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) transported from landfills to gull roosting sites in order to understand their potential impacts on water quality and methane (CH4) emission...
June 8, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624548/glucocorticoids-and-gut-bacteria-the-galf-hypothesis-in-the-metagenomic-era
#9
REVIEW
David J Morris, Jason M Ridlon
A new concept is emerging in biomedical sciences: the gut microbiota is a virtual 'organ' with endocrine function. Here, we explore the literature pertaining to the role of gut microbial metabolism of endogenous adrenocorticosteroids as a contributing factor in the etiology of essential hypertension. A body of literature demonstrates that bacterial products of glucocorticoid metabolism are absorbed into the portal circulation, and pass through the kidney before excretion into urine. Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess (AME) syndrome patients were found to have congenital mutations resulting in non-functional renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11β-HSD2) and severe hypertension often lethal in childhood...
June 14, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623832/a-review-on-in-situ-phytoremediation-of-mine-tailings
#10
REVIEW
Li Wang, Bin Ji, Yuehua Hu, Runqing Liu, Wei Sun
Mine tailings are detrimental to natural plant growth due to their physicochemical characteristics, such as high pH, high salinity, low water retention capacity, high heavy metal concentrations, and deficiencies in soil organic matter and fertility. Thus, the remediation of mine tailings has become a key issue in environmental science and engineering. Phytoremediation, an in situ cost-effective technology, is emerging as the most promising remediation method for mine tailings by introducing tolerant plant species...
June 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623662/advances-in-the-analysis-of-water-and-wastewater-samples-using-various-sensing-protocols-and-microfluidic-devices-based-on-pad-and-%C3%AE-tas-systems
#11
Krzysztof Piaskowski, Renata Świderska-Dąbrowska, Aleksandra Kaleniecka, Paweł K Zarzycki
The main goal of this review is to summarize practical approaches concerning the application of microfluidic systems for the analysis of various biomarkers and pollutants, as well as microbes, in water and wastewater matrixes. This problem involves multidisciplinary expertise combining research knowledge from various areas, including wet chemistry, biochemistry, physical chemistry, molecular biology, genetics, signal processing, microelectronics material science, and separation science. It has been documented that fairly primitive but fast and inexpensive screening methods involving paper-based analytical devices (PADs) and micro total analytical systems (μTAS) can be considered as serious alternatives to their more advanced counterparts such as GC, HPLC, and capillary electrophoresis coupled to various sophisticated detectors (e...
June 16, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620711/evaluating-expected-outcomes-of-acid-remediation-in-an-intensively-mined-appalachian-watershed
#12
Andrew S Watson, George T Merovich, J Todd Petty, J Brady Gutta
Assessments of watershed-based restoration efforts are rare but are essential for the science of stream restoration to advance. We conducted a watershed scale assessment of Abram Creek before and after implementation of a watershed-based plan designed to maximize ecological recovery from acid mine drainage (AMD) impairment. We surveyed water chemistry, physical habitat, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish community structure in three stream types: AMD-impacted (14 streams), AMD-treated (13 streams), and unimpaired reference (4 streams)...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618317/citizen-science-for-water-quality-monitoring-data-implications-of-citizen-perspectives
#13
Ashlee Jollymore, Morgan J Haines, Terre Satterfield, Mark S Johnson
Citizen science, where citizens play an active role in the scientific process, is increasingly used to expand the reach and scope of scientific research while also achieving engagement and educational goals. Despite the emergence of studies exploring data outcomes of citizen science, the process and experience of engaging with citizens and citizen-lead groups through participatory science is less explored. This includes how citizen perspectives alter data outcomes, a critical upshot given prevalent mistrust of citizen versus scientist data...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617292/corrigendum-water-science-and-technology-75-4-987-997-evaluation-of-the-relative-roles-of-a-vegetative-filter-strip-and-a-biofiltration-swale-in-a-treatment-train-for-road-runoff-kelsey-flanagan-philippe-branchu-david-ramier-and-marie-christine-gromaire-doi
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616863/contrasting-effects-of-phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-pip2-on-cloned-tmem16a-and-tmem16b-channels
#15
Chau M Ta, Kathryn E Acheson, Nils J G Rorsman, Remco C Jongkind, Paolo Tammaro
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) are gated open by a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ), typically provoked by Gq -protein coupled receptor activation (Gq PCR). Gq PCR activation initiates depletion of plasmalemmal phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 ). Here we ask whether PIP2 acts as a signalling lipid for CaCCs coded by the TMEM16A and TMEM16B genes. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Patch-clamp electrophysiology, in conjunction with genetically-encoded systems to control cellular PIP2 content, was used to define the mechanism of action of PIP2 on TMEM16A and TMEM16B channels...
June 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614812/the-discovery-of-water-channels-aquaporins
#16
Dennis Brown
The movement of water into and out of cells is a fundamental biological process that is essential for life. Such water movement not only regulates the activity of individual cells but also is responsible for the functioning of many organ systems and for maintaining whole body water balance. It had long been suspected that water movement across biological cell membranes was in some way enhanced or facilitated by pores or channels, but the search to identify these channels was long and tedious. As is often the case in science, the secret of the water channel was eventually discovered by chance in 1992 by Peter Agre and his colleagues at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, who were working on red blood cell membrane proteins...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612838/drinking-water-consumption-patterns-among-adults-sms-as-a-novel-tool-for-collection-of-repeated-self-reported-water-consumption
#17
Melle Säve-Söderbergh, Jonas Toljander, Irene Mattisson, Agneta Åkesson, Magnus Simonsson
Studies have shown that the average drinking water consumption ranges between 0.075 and 3 L/day for adults with both national and regional differences. For exposure assessment of drinking water hazards, country-specific drinking water consumption data including sources of the consumed water may therefore be warranted. To estimate the amount and source of drinking water consumed among adults in Sweden, we collected self-reported estimates using both traditional methods (telephone interviews, web questionnaire) and a novel method (Short Message Service, SMS questionnaires) in a population from an average sized Swedish municipality...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605645/novel-in-vivo-experimental-viability-assays-with-high-sensitivity-and-throughput-capacity-using-a-bdelloid-rotifer
#18
Zita Olah, Ashley I Bush, David Aleksza, Bence Galik, Eszter Ivitz, Lilla Macsai, Zoltan Janka, Zoltan Karman, Janos Kalman, Zsolt Datki
Rotifers have been used in biological research as well-characterized models of aging. Their multi-organ characters and their sensitivity for chemicals and environmental changes make them useful as in vivo toxicological and lifespan models. Our aim was to create a bdelloid rotifer model to use in high-throughput viability and non-invasive assays. In order to identify our species Philodina acuticornis odiosa (PA), 18S rDNA-based phylogenetic analysis was carried out and their species-specific morphological markers identified...
June 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602188/mapping-of-the-spatial-distribution-of-silver-nanoparticles-in-root-tissues-of-vicia-faba-by-laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy-libs
#19
L Krajcarová, K Novotný, M Kummerová, J Dubová, V Gloser, J Kaiser
The manuscript presents a procedure for optimal sample preparation and the mapping of the spatial distribution of metal ions and nanoparticles in plant roots using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in a double-pulse configuration (DP LIBS) in orthogonal reheating mode. Two Nd:YAG lasers were used; the first one was an ablation laser (UP-266 MACRO, New Wave, USA) with a wavelength of 266nm, and the second one (Brilliant, Quantel, France), with a fundamental wavelength of 1064nm, was used to reheat the microplasma...
October 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596597/smart-microparticles-with-a-ph-responsive-macropore-for-targeted-oral-drug-delivery
#20
Ankit Kumar, Carlo Montemagno, Hyo-Jick Choi
The development of a smart microencapsulation system programmed to actively respond to environmental pH change has long been recognized a key technology in pharmaceutical and food sciences. To this end, we developed hollow microparticles (MPs) with self-controlled macropores that respond to environmental pH change, using an Oil-in-Water emulsion technique, for oral drug delivery. We observed that freeze-drying of MPs induced closure of macropores. The closing/opening behavior of macropores was confirmed by exposing MPs encapsulating different ingredients (sulforhodamine b, fluorescent nanoparticles, and lactase) to simulated gastrointestinal (GI) fluids...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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