Read by QxMD icon Read

water science

KwangHyok Jong, Ali A Hassanali
Herein, we use recently developed data-science algorithms to illustrate the complexity of the water network surrounding the hydrated peptide tri-alanine extracted from molecular dynamics simulations. We estimate the dimensionality of water variables and show that it is sensitive to the underlying secondary structure of the peptide. We show that water-wires threading the peptide, encode important information on the secondary structure. Interestingly, the free energy landscape as revealed by the water wires is very rough for alpha-configurations and rather smooth for beta-configurations...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Piet E J van Erp, Malou Peppelman, Denise Falcone
In this review we aim to give a concise and selective overview of noninvasive biophysical analysis techniques for skin barrier analysis (transepidermal water loss, electrical methods, confocal Raman microspectroscopy, sebumeter, reflectance spectrophotometry, tristimulus colorimetry, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy), including advantages and limitations. Rather than giving an exhaustive description of the many techniques currently available, we show the usefulness of a representative selection of techniques in the functional and morphological evaluation of the skin barrier...
July 17, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Nematollah Jaafarzadeh, Hamideh Rezazadeh, Zahra Ramezani, Sahand Jorfi, Mehdi Ahmadi, Huria Ghariby, Gelavizh Barzegar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Juan Pang, Ziyu Gao, Long Zhang, Huiming Wang, Xiaohong Hu
Azobenzene, a photo switcher, has attracted increasing interest due to its structural response to photo stimulus in the field of information science and chemical sensing in the recent decades. However, limited water solubility and cytotoxicity restrained their applications in the biomedical field. In research, HA-AZO has been designed as a water soluble photo switcher in biomedical application. Synthesized HA-AZO had good water-solubility and a stable π-π* transition absorbance peak trans-isomer. With exposure to UV, transformation from trans-isomer to cis-isomer of HA-AZO could be realized according to UV spectra...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
B L Werkhoven, J C Everts, S Samin, R van Roij
We theoretically study the electrokinetic problem of a pressure-induced liquid flow through a narrow long channel with charged walls, going beyond the classical Helmholtz-Schmolukowski picture by considering the surprisingly strong combined effect of (i) Stern-layer conductance and (ii) dynamic charge-regulating rather than fixed surface charges. We find that the water flow induces, apart from the well-known streaming potential, also a strongly heterogeneous surface charge and zeta potential on chemically homogeneous channel walls...
June 29, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Umair Azhar, Chuanyong Zong, Xiaozheng Wan, Anhou Xu, Zhang Yabin, Jitao Liu, Shuxiang Zhang, Bing Geng
Preparation of stable water-in-oil (W/O) high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) containing methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer as oil phase is a difficult task due to the significant solubility of MMA in water. Here, for the first time a fluorinated di-block copolymer (FDBC) poly (2-dimethylamino)ethylmethacrylate-b-poly (trifluoroethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA-b-PTFEMA) is proposed to stabilize HIPEs of MMA without the use of any co-stabilizer or thickening agent. Fluorinated segments in FDBC anchored well at oil/water interface of HIPE, offering high hydrophobicity to the partially hydrophilic MMA monomer and in turn stabilization to MMA-HIPE...
July 13, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Francisco Matilla, Yael Velleman, Wendy Harrison, Mandy Nevel
INTRODUCTION: Neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) have a significant impact on the livelihoods of the world's poorest populations, which often lack access to basic services. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programmes are included among the key strategies for achieving the World Health Organization's 2020 Roadmap for Implementation for control of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). There exists a lack of knowledge regarding the effect of animals on the effectiveness of WASH measures...
July 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kate Louise Thompson, Matthew J Derry, Fiona Louise Hatton, Steven P Armes
High pressure microfluidization is used to prepare a series of oil-in-water Pickering nanoemulsions using a bespoke sterically-stabilized diblock copolymer nanoparticles as the Pickering emulsifier. The droplet phase comprised either n-octane, n-decane, n-dodecane or n-tetradecane. This series of oils enabled the effect of aqueous solubility on Ostwald ripening to be studied, which is the primary instability mechanism for such nanoemulsions. Analytical centrifugation (LUMiSizer instrument) was used to evaluate the long-term stability of these Pickering nanoemulsions over time scales of weeks/months...
July 12, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Jaleh Varshosaz, Erfaneh Ghassami, Fatemeh Ahmadipour
BACKGROUND: Crystal engineering is dealing with the creation of new structures and new properties in drug molecules through inter-molecular interactions. Researchers of pharmaceutical sciences have used this knowledge to alter the structure of crystalline medications in order to remedy the problems of more than 40% of the new designed drugs which suffer from low solubility and consequently, low bioavailability which have limited their clinical application. METHODS: This review covers a broad spectrum of aspects of the application of crystal engineering in pharmaceutics and includes a comprehensive wide range of different techniques used in crystal engineering of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) to compensate the low water solubility and bioavailability of drugs related specially to class II of biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS)...
July 11, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Braulio Sánchez-Ureña, Daniel Rojas-Valverde, Randall Gutiérrez-Vargas
Cold water immersion (CWI) has become a highly used recovery method in sports sciences, which seeks to minimize fatigue and accelerate recovery processes; however, tensiomyography (TMG) is a new method to analyze the muscle mechanical response as a recovery indicator after CWI protocols, this relative new tool of muscle function assessment, can lead to new information of understand fatigue recovery trough CWI. The objective of the study was to compare the effect of two CWI protocols, on neuromuscular function recovery...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Tammi L Richardson
Carbon fixation by phytoplankton near the surface and the sinking of this particulate material to deeper waters are key components of the biological carbon pump. The efficiency of the biological pump is influenced by the size and taxonomic composition of the phytoplankton community. Large, heavily ballasted taxa such as diatoms sink quickly and thus efficiently remove fixed carbon from the upper ocean. Smaller, nonballasted species such as picoplanktonic cyanobacteria are usually thought to contribute little to export production...
July 11, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Hayrol Azril Mohamed Shaffril, Steven Eric Krauss, Samsul Farid Samsuddin
Climate change in Asia is affecting farmers' daily routines. Much of the focus surrounding climate change has targeted the economic and environmental repercussions on farming. Few systematic reviews have been carried out on the social impacts of climate change among farmers in Asia. The present article set out to analyse the existing literature on Asian farmers' adaptation practices towards the impacts of climate change. Guided by the PRISMA Statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) review method, a systematic review of the Scopus and Web of Science databases identified 38 related studies...
July 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jo-Anne Lee Geere, Moa Cortobius, Jonathan Harold Geere, Charlotte Christiane Hammer, Paul R Hunter
Introduction: The work of carrying water falls mainly on women and children, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and rural areas. While concerns have been raised, how water carriage is associated with health of the water carrier is not clear. The aim of this review is to summarise evidence on whether, and how, water carriage is associated with the water carrier's health. Methods: A systematic review of literature was conducted, searching Embase; Medline; Web of Science Social Sciences Citation Index; Web of Science Arts and Humanities Citation Index; International Initiative for Impact Evaluation website; WHO Virtual Health Sciences Library and WHO African index medicus, from inception to 8 November 2017...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Tao Luo, Zhaochu Hu, Wen Zhang, Yongsheng Liu, Keqing Zong, Lian Zhou, Junfeng Zhang, Shenghong Hu
The U-Pb geochronologic analysis of accessory minerals has played an important role in Earth and solar system science in constraining the ages of a wide variety of rocks and minerals. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is one of the most popular techniques for U-Pb geochronologic analysis. Currently, the significant matrix effects observed between different accessory minerals and the lack of high-quality standards for many minerals of interest are the major limitations of its geochronological applications...
July 10, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Julia Moreira Pescarini, Agostino Strina, Joilda Silva Nery, Lacita Menezes Skalinski, Kaio Vinicius Freitas de Andrade, Maria Lucia F Penna, Elizabeth B Brickley, Laura C Rodrigues, Mauricio Lima Barreto, Gerson Oliveira Penna
Over 200,000 new cases of leprosy are detected each year, of which approximately 7% are associated with grade-2 disabilities (G2Ds). For achieving leprosy elimination, one of the main challenges will be targeting higher risk groups within endemic communities. Nevertheless, the socioeconomic risk markers of leprosy remain poorly understood. To address this gap we systematically reviewed MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, LILACS and Web of Science for original articles investigating the social determinants of leprosy in countries with > 1000 cases/year in at least five years between 2006 and 2016...
July 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Christoph Lauer, Stefanie Schmier, Thomas Speck, Klaus G Nickel
According to the Weibull theory for brittle materials, the mean experimental strength decreases with test specimen size. For the brittle parts of an organism this would mean that becoming larger in size results automatically in reducing strength. This unfavorable relationship was investigated for two porous, biological materials that are promising concept generators for crack deflective and energy dissipative applications in compressive overloading: the quasi-brittle coconut endocarp and the brittle spines of the sea urchin Heterocentrotus mamillatus...
July 4, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Christopher Lant, Jacopo Baggio, Megan Konar, Alfonso Mejia, Benjamin Ruddell, Richard Rushforth, John L Sabo, Tara J Troy
Food, energy, and water (FEW) are interdependent and must be examined as a coupled natural-human system. This perspective essay defines FEW systems and outlines key findings about them as a blueprint for future models to satisfy six key objectives. The first three focus on linking the FEW production and consumption to impacts on Earth cycles in a spatially specific manner in order to diagnose problems and identify potential solutions. The second three focus on describing the evolution of FEW systems to identify risks, thus empowering the FEW actors to better achieve the goals of resilience and sustainability...
July 6, 2018: Ambio
Per Amstrup Pedersen, Frederik Bühring Bjørkskov, Simon Alvisse, Claus Hélix-Nielsen
Biomimetic membrane technology, based on the use of nano-scale functional additives in the form of channel proteins or artificially made channel structures, represents an attractive way of optimizing membrane separation technology. However, the nano-scale nature of the additives inherently points to the challenge in up-scaling the membranes to square meter areas. Thus, the ability to up-scale the processes involved in manufacturing will be crucial for translating the protein/nano-science into technology. Here we discuss how highly selective aquaporin proteins can be used to enhance the performance of the classical thin film composite membrane, and how this can be used in relevant membrane elements and module form factors...
July 5, 2018: Faraday Discussions
Meina Xiao, Anli Xu, Tongtong Zhang, Liangzhi Hong
Pickering emulsions are water or oil droplets that are stabilized by colloidal particles and have been intensely studied since the late 90s. The surfactant-free nature of these emulsions has little adverse effects such as irritancy and contamination of environment and typically exhibit enhanced stability compared to surfactant-stabilized emulsions. Therefore, they offer promising applications in cosmetics, food science, controlled release, and the manufacturing of microcapsules and porous materials. The wettability of the colloidal particles is the main parameter determining the formation and stability of Pickering emulsions...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Neli Mintcheva, Ali A Aljulaih, Wilfried Wunderlich, Sergei A Kulinich, Satoru Iwamori
This work aimed to prepare nanostructures of ZnO with various lasers, testing them as photocatalysts, and comparing their morphology and activity in the degradation of organic pollutants in aqueous media. ZnO nanospheres (ns-ZnO) and ZnO nanorods (ms-ZnO) were prepared via the laser ablation of a Zn metal plate in water using nanosecond- and millisecond-pulsed lasers, respectively. The obtained materials were characterized using a set of optical, structural, and surface-science techniques, such as UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
July 3, 2018: Materials
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"