keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

water science

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139499/the-role-of-phase-separation-and-related-topography-in-the-exceptional-ice-nucleating-ability-of-alkali-feldspars
#1
Thomas F Whale, Mark A Holden, Alexander N Kulak, Yi-Yeoun Kim, Fiona C Meldrum, Hugo K Christenson, Benjamin J Murray
Our understanding of crystal nucleation is a limiting factor in many fields, not least in the atmospheric sciences. It was recently found that feldspar, a component of airborne desert dust, plays a dominant role in triggering ice formation in clouds, but the origin of this effect was unclear. By investigating the structure/property relationships of a wide range of feldspars, we demonstrate that alkali feldspars with certain microtextures, related to phase separation into Na and K-rich regions, show exceptional ice-nucleating abilities in supercooled water...
November 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137670/modelling-and-mapping-tick-dynamics-using-volunteered-observations
#2
Irene Garcia-Martí, Raúl Zurita-Milla, Arnold J H van Vliet, Willem Takken
BACKGROUND: Tick populations and tick-borne infections have steadily increased since the mid-1990s posing an ever-increasing risk to public health. Yet, modelling tick dynamics remains challenging because of the lack of data and knowledge on this complex phenomenon. Here we present an approach to model and map tick dynamics using volunteered data. This approach is illustrated with 9 years of data collected by a group of trained volunteers who sampled active questing ticks (AQT) on a monthly basis and for 15 locations in the Netherlands...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137112/elucidating-direct-photolysis-mechanisms-of-different-dissociation-species-of-norfloxacin-in-water-and-mg-2-effects-by-quantum-chemical-calculations
#3
Se Wang, Zhuang Wang
The study of pollution due to combined antibiotics and metals is urgently needed. Photochemical processes are an important transformation pathway for antibiotics in the environment. The mechanisms underlying the effects of metal-ion complexation on the aquatic photochemical transformation of antibiotics in different dissociation forms are crucial problems in science, and beg solutions. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms of direct photolysis of norfloxacin (NOR) in different dissociation forms in water and metal ion Mg(2+) effects using quantum chemical calculations...
November 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136878/highly-sensitive-and-selective-turn-on-fluorescent-chemosensors-for-hg-2-based-on-thioacetal-modified-pyrene
#4
Yunyan Gao, Tuotuo Ma, Zhize Ou, Wenjiao Cai, Guoqiang Yang, Yi Li, Moheng Xu, Qingqing Li
This work reports a facile strategy for the synthesis of water-soluble fluorescent probes Pyr1 and Pyr2, which have carboxyl and hydroxyl group in the side chain of thioacetal moiety, respectively. Pyr1-2 exhibit exclusively selective turn-on fluorescence response towards Hg(2+) over other cations, based on intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) mechanism. Upon addition of Hg(2+), the thioacetal moiety in Pyr1-2 can be converted to aldehyde group, which is confirmed by (1)H NMR titrations. The detection limits for Pyr1-2 are less than 1...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134520/benchmarking-the-scientific-research-on-wastewater-energy-nexus-by-using-bibliometric-analysis
#5
Tianlong Zheng, Pengyu Li, Zhining Shi, Jianguo Liu
With an exponential increase in urbanization and industrialization, water pollution is an inevitable consequence of relatively lagging wastewater treatment facilities. The conventional activated sludge process for wastewater treatment primarily emphasizes the removal of harmful substances to maintain increasingly stringent effluent discharged standards, which is considered an energy-intensive technique. Therefore, innovative and sustainable wastewater treatment should pay more attention to energy and resource recovery in dealing with fossil fuel depletion, global-scale energy security, and climate change...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131947/on-line-differential-thermal-isotope-analysis-of-hydration-water-in-minerals-by-cavity-ring-down-laser-spectroscopy
#6
Thomas K Bauska, Gregory Walters, Fernando Gázquez, David Hodell
We have developed a new method for measuring the isotopic composition (δ18O and δD) of different types of bonded water (e.g., molecular water, hydroxyl) contained in hydrated minerals by coupling a thermal gravimeter (TG) and a cavity ringdown laser spectrometer (CRDS). The method involves precisely step-heating a mineral sample, allowing the separation of the different types of waters that are released at different temperatures. Simultaneously, the water vapor evolved from the mineral sample is analysed for oxygen and hydrogen isotopes by CRDS...
November 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131563/sustained-codelivery-of-cisplatin-and-paclitaxel-via-an-injectable-prodrug-hydrogel-for-ovarian-cancer-treatment
#7
Wenjia Shen, Xiaobin Chen, Jiabin Luan, Danni Wang, Lin Yu, Jiandong Ding
The sustained release of both the hydrophilic drug and hydrophobic drug from one delivery system remains challenging in pharmaceutics and biomaterials science. The combination of hydrophilic cisplatin and hydrophobic paclitaxel (PTX) exhibits a clinical survival advantage compared with the individual drug therapy against various tumors such as ovarian cancer. In this study, a localized, long-term codelivery system of cisplatin and PTX was developed using an injectable and thermosensitive polymer-platinum(IV) conjugate hydrogel as the carrier...
November 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128537/biomaterials-for-articular-cartilage-tissue-engineering-learning-from-biology
#8
REVIEW
A R Armiento, M J Stoddart, M Alini, D Eglin
Articular cartilage is commonly described as a tissue made of up to 80% water, devoid of blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics, and populated by only one cell type: at first glance, an easy tissue for clinicians to repair and for scientists to reproduce in a laboratory. Yet, chondral and osteochondral defects currently remain an open challenge in orthopedics and tissue engineering of the musculoskeletal system, without considering osteoarthritis. Why do we fail in repairing and regenerating articular cartilage? Behind its simple and homogenous appearance articular cartilage hides a heterogeneous composition, a high level of organisation and specific biomechanical properties that taken together make articular cartilage a unique material that we are not able yet to repair or reproduce with high fidelity...
November 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127067/understanding-the-structural-drivers-governing-glass-water-interactions-in-borosilicate-based-model-bioactive-glasses
#9
Nicholas Stone-Weiss, Eric M Pierce, Randall E Youngman, Ozgur Gulbiten, Nicholas J Smith, Jincheng Du, Ashutosh Goel
The past decade has witnessed a significant upsurge in the development of borate and borosilicate based resorbable bioactive glasses owing to their faster degradation rate in comparison to their silicate counterparts. However, due to our lack of understanding about the fundamental science governing the aqueous corrosion of these glasses, most of the borate/borosilicate based bioactive glasses reported in the literature have been designed by "trial-and-error" approach. With an ever-increasing demand for their application in treating a broad spectrum of non-skeletal health problems, it is becoming increasingly difficult to design advanced glass formulations using the same conventional approach...
November 7, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123363/whatch-em-a-weather-driven-energy-balance-model-for-determining-water-height-and-temperature-in-container-habitats-for-aedes-aegypti
#10
Daniel F Steinhoff, Andrew J Monaghan, Lars Eisen, Michael J Barlage, Thomas M Hopson, Isaac Tarakidzwa, Karielys Ortiz-Rosario, Saul Lozano-Fuentes, Mary H Hayden, Paul E Bieringer, Carlos M Welsh Rodríguez
The mosquito virus vector Aedes (Ae.) aegypti exploits a wide range of containers as sites for egg laying and development of the immature life stages, yet the approaches for modeling meteorologically sensitive container water dynamics have been limited. This study introduces the Water Height and Temperature in Container Habitats Energy Model (WHATCH'EM), a state-of-the-science, physically based energy balance model of water height and temperature in containers that may serve as development sites for mosquitoes...
December 2016: Earth interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123108/depleted-depletion-drives-polymer-swelling-in-poor-solvent-mixtures
#11
Debashish Mukherji, Carlos M Marques, Torsten Stuehn, Kurt Kremer
Establishing a link between macromolecular conformation and microscopic interaction is a key to understand properties of polymer solutions and for designing technologically relevant "smart" polymers. Here, polymer solvation in solvent mixtures strike as paradoxical phenomena. For example, when adding polymers to a solvent, such that all particle interactions are repulsive, polymer chains can collapse due to increased monomer-solvent repulsion. This depletion induced monomer-monomer attraction is well known from colloidal stability...
November 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119963/-what-physiotherapeutic-method-for-the-treatment-of-post-mastectomy-lymphedema-is-the-most-effective
#12
T I Grushina
We have undertaken the search for the publications of interest in the following databases: Scopus, Web of Science, MedLine, The Cochrane Library, CyberLeninka, and Russian science citation index. In addition, we evaluated the effectiveness of the physical agents and procedures having different mechanisms of action of the known factors responsible for the development of post-mastectomy lymphedema. Such agents and procedures include self-massage, manual lymphatic drainage, therapeutic physical exercises, compression bandaging, wearing elastic compression garments, Kinesio Tex taping, pneumatic compression, ultrasonic, electrostatic, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, electrical muscle stimulation, microcurrent and low-intensity laser therapy...
2017: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119384/tributyltin-advancing-the-science-on-assessing-endocrine-disruption-with-an-unconventional-endocrine-disrupting-compound
#13
Laurent Lagadic, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Ron Biever, Patrick D Guiney, Natalie Karouna-Renier, Tamar Schwarz, James P Meador
Tributyltin (TBT) has been recognized as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) for several decades. However, only in the last decade, was its primary endocrine mechanism of action (MeOA) elucidated-interactions with the nuclear retinoid-X receptor (RXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and their heterodimers. This molecular initiating event (MIE) alters a range of reproductive, developmental, and metabolic pathways at the organism level. It is noteworthy that a variety of MeOAs have been proposed over the years for the observed endocrine-type effects of TBT; however, convincing data for the MIE was provided only recently and now several researchers have confirmed and refined the information on this MeOA...
November 9, 2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117450/nutrition-strategies-before-and-during-ultra-endurance-event-a-significant-gap-between-science-and-practice
#14
Soyzana K Papadopoulou, Eleni E Xyla, Spyridon Methenitis, Konstantinos G Feidantsis, Yiannis Kotsis, Ioannis G Pagkalos, Maria N Hassapidou
The purpose of the present study was to investigate and assess the nutritional practices of open-water swimmers, during the preparation period and the competition, as well as their implications on performance and anthropometric parameters according to their age. Twenty-four (n=24) men open-water swimmers, twelve young (26.3±4.9yrs) and twelve older athletes (45.8±9.7yrs), participated in the present study. Nutritional behavior - intake-energy consumption, and anthropometric characteristics were evaluated prior to the Toroneos Gulf crossing (26Km)...
November 8, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115288/child-environmental-exposures-to-water-and-sand-at-the-beach-findings-from-studies-of-over-68-000-subjects-at-12-beaches
#15
Stephanie DeFlorio-Barker, Benjamin F Arnold, Elizabeth A Sams, Alfred P Dufour, John M Colford, Steven B Weisberg, Kenneth C Schiff, Timothy J Wade
Swimming and recreating in lakes, oceans, and rivers is common, yet the literature suggests children may be at greater risk of illness following such exposures. These effects might be due to differences in immunity or differing behavioral factors such as poorer hygiene, longer exposures to, and greater ingestion of potentially contaminated water and sand. We pooled data from 12 prospective cohorts (n=68,685) to examine exposures to potentially contaminated media such as beach water and sand among children compared with adults, and conducted a simulation using self-reported time spent in the water and volume of water swallowed per minute by age to estimate the total volume of water swallowed per swimming event by age category...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112795/bio-analytical-applications-of-microbial-fuel-cell-based-biosensors-for-onsite-water-quality-monitoring
#16
REVIEW
Ahmed ElMekawy, Hanaa M Hegab, Deepak Pant, Christopher P Saint
Globally, sustainable provision of high quality safe water is a major challenge of the 21(st) century. Various chemical and biological monitoring analytics are presently utilized to guarantee the availability of high quality water. However, these techniques still face some challenges including high costs, complex design and onsite and online limitations. The recent technology of utilising microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensors holds outstanding potential for the rapid and real-time monitoring of water source quality...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101426/the-city-blueprint-approach-urban-water-management-and-governance-in-cities-in-the-u-s
#17
Daniel Feingold, Stef Koop, Kees van Leeuwen
In this paper, we assess the challenges of water, waste and climate change in six cities across the U.S.: New York City, Boston, Milwaukee, Phoenix, Portland and Los Angeles. We apply the City Blueprint(®) Approach which consists of three indicator assessments: (1) the Trends and Pressures Framework (TPF), (2) the City Blueprint Framework (CBF) and (3) the water Governance Capacity Framework (GCF). The TPF summarizes the main social, environmental and financial pressures that may impede water management. The CBF provides an integrated overview of the management performances within the urban watercycle...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098657/post-exercise-ingestion-of-carbohydrate-protein-and-water-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-for-effects-on-subsequent-athletic-performance
#18
REVIEW
Danielle McCartney, Ben Desbrow, Christopher Irwin
BACKGROUND: Athletes may complete consecutive exercise sessions with limited recovery time between bouts (e.g. ≤ 4 h). Nutritional strategies that optimise post-exercise recovery in these situations are therefore important. OBJECTIVE: This two-part review investigated the effect of consuming carbohydrate (CHO) and protein with water (W) following exercise on subsequent athletic (endurance/anaerobic exercise) performance. DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified by searching the online databases SPORTDiscus, PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus...
November 2, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095477/hydrogen-bond-directed-surface-dynamics-at-tactic-poly-methyl-methacrylate-water-interface
#19
Kshitij C Jha, Selemon Bekele, Ali Dhinojwala, Mesfin Tsige
The complexity of induced ordering for tactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films in contact with water is examined through all-atom molecular dynamics with validated potentials. We observe that for the water molecules that are hydrogen bonded to the PMMA surface, the isotactic and atactic PMMA show a 33% longer relaxation time compared to syndiotactic PMMA. Almost 94% of hydrogen bonds are with the carbonyl groups of PMMA, irrespective of temperature and tacticity. The stability in re-orientation and nature of hydrogen bond participation for the carbonyl groups as well as about 20% higher interaction energies of carbonyl group hydrogen bonded with water for atactic form indicates existence of cooperative effects...
November 2, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093483/rotational-dynamics-and-dynamical-transition-of-water-inside-hydrophobic-pores-of-carbon-nanotubes
#20
Haruka Kyakuno, Kazuyuki Matsuda, Yusuke Nakai, Ryota Ichimura, Takeshi Saito, Yasumitsu Miyata, Kenji Hata, Yutaka Maniwa
Water in a nanoconfined geometry has attracted great interest from the viewpoint of not only basic science but also nanofluidic applications. Here, the rotational dynamics of water inside single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with mean diameters larger than ca. 1.4 nm were investigated systematically using (2)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with high-purity SWCNTs and molecular dynamics calculations. The results were compared with those for hydrophilic pores. It was found that faster water dynamics could be achieved by increasing the hydrophobicity of the pore walls and decreasing the pore diameters...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
keyword
keyword
109054
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"