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Raymond E Gullison, Jared Hardner
Achieving the effective management of all existing protected areas and indigenous territories in the Amazon Biome may be needed to avoid a deforestation "tipping point" beyond which regional climatic feedbacks and global climate change interact to catalyze irreversible drying and savannization of large portions of the biome. However, the time and money required to consolidate the effective management of all types of protected sites in the Amazon is still poorly understood. At present, protected areas and indigenous territories cover 45...
May 18, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Jia-Yu Hu, Yong-Hong Xie, Yue Tang, Feng Li, Ye-Ai Zou
Water regime is regarded as the primary factor influencing the vegetation distribution in natural wetland ecosystems. However, the effect of water regime change induced by large-scale hydraulic engineering on vegetation distribution is still unclear. In this study, multi-temporal TM/ETM+/OLI images and hydrological data from 1995 to 2015 were used to elucidate how the change in water regime influenced the vegetation distribution in the East Dongting Lake (EDTL), especially after the operation of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
G Myhre, B H Samset, Ø Hodnebrog, T Andrews, O Boucher, G Faluvegi, D Fläschner, P M Forster, M Kasoar, V Kharin, A Kirkevåg, J-F Lamarque, D Olivié, T B Richardson, D Shawki, D Shindell, K P Shine, C W Stjern, T Takemura, A Voulgarakis
Globally, latent heating associated with a change in precipitation is balanced by changes to atmospheric radiative cooling and sensible heat fluxes. Both components can be altered by climate forcing mechanisms and through climate feedbacks, but the impacts of climate forcing and feedbacks on sensible heat fluxes have received much less attention. Here we show, using a range of climate modelling results, that changes in sensible heat are the dominant contributor to the present global-mean precipitation change since preindustrial time, because the radiative impact of forcings and feedbacks approximately compensate...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
C Wade Ross, Lara Prihodko, Julius Anchang, Sanath Kumar, Wenjie Ji, Niall P Hanan
Hydrologic soil groups (HSGs) are a fundamental component of the USDA curve-number (CN) method for estimation of rainfall runoff; yet these data are not readily available in a format or spatial-resolution suitable for regional- and global-scale modeling applications. We developed a globally consistent, gridded dataset defining HSGs from soil texture, bedrock depth, and groundwater. The resulting data product-HYSOGs250m-represents runoff potential at 250 m spatial resolution. Our analysis indicates that the global distribution of soil is dominated by moderately high runoff potential, followed by moderately low, high, and low runoff potential...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Data
Ulrike Falk, Adrián Silva-Busso, Pablo Pölcher
Although the relationship between surface air temperature and glacial discharge has been studied in the Northern Hemisphere for at least a century, similar studies for Antarctica remain scarce and only for the past four decades. This data scarcity is due to the extreme meteorological conditions and terrain inaccessibility. As a result, the contribution of glacial discharge in Antarctica to global sea-level rise is still attached with great uncertainties, especially from partly glaciated hydrological basins as can be found in the Antarctic Peninsula...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Keenan Stears, Douglas J McCauley, Jacques C Finlay, James Mpemba, Ian T Warrington, Benezeth M Mutayoba, Mary E Power, Todd E Dawson, Justin S Brashares
Cross-boundary transfers of nutrients can profoundly shape the ecology of recipient systems. The common hippopotamus, Hippopotamus amphibius , is a significant vector of such subsidies from terrestrial to river ecosystems. We compared river pools with high and low densities of H. amphibius to determine how H. amphibius subsidies shape the chemistry and ecology of aquatic communities. Our study watershed, like many in sub-Saharan Africa, has been severely impacted by anthropogenic water abstraction reducing dry-season flow to zero...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Berndt Björlenius, Mátyás Ripszám, Peter Haglund, Richard H Lindberg, Mats Tysklind, Jerker Fick
The consumption of pharmaceuticals worldwide coupled with modest removal efficiencies of sewage treatment plants have resulted in the presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems globally. In this study, we investigated the environmental concentrations of a selection of 93 pharmaceuticals in 43 locations in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak. The Baltic Sea is vulnerable to anthropogenic activities due to a long turnover time and a sensitive ecosystem in the brackish water. Thirty-nine of 93 pharmaceuticals were detected in at least one sample, with concentrations ranging between 0...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xin Wen, Zhehua Liu, Xiaohui Lei, Rongjie Lin, Guohua Fang, Qiaofeng Tan, Chao Wang, Yu Tian, Jin Quan
The eco-hydrological system in southwestern China is undergoing great changes in recent decades owing to climate change and extensive cascading hydropower exploitation. With a growing recognition that multiple drivers often interact in complex and nonadditive ways, the purpose of this study is to predict the potential future changes in streamflow and fish habitat quality in the Yuan River and quantify the individual and cumulative effect of cascade damming and climate change. The bias corrected and spatial downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) General Circulation Model (GCM) projections are employed to drive the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model and to simulate and predict runoff responses under diverse scenarios...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Qiang Tang, Adrian L Collins, Anbang Wen, Xiubin He, Yuhai Bao, Dongchun Yan, Yi Long, Yusheng Zhang
The Three Gorges Dam has significantly interrupted fluvial continuity and modified the mass transfer regime along river continuums. Flow regulation following regular dam operations drives dramatic hydrological regime shifts, which facilitates sediment dispersal in the water-level fluctuation zone over episodic inundation periods. How flow regulation modulates sediment redistribution, however, remains unclear. In this study, we depict absolute particle size composition of suspended sediment and sink sediment in the water-level fluctuation zone, and these are interpreted in the context of flow regulation controls on sediment sorting...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Josette Garnier, Antsiva Ramarson, Gilles Billen, Sylvain Théry, Dominique Thiéry, Vincent Thieu, Camille Minaudo, Florentina Moatar
The Grafs-Seneque/Riverstrahler model was implemented for the first time on the Loire River for the 2002-2014 period, to explore eutrophication after improvement of wastewater treatments. The model reproduced the interannual levels and seasonal trends of the major water quality variables. Although eutrophication has been impressively reduced in the drainage network, a eutrophication risk still exists at the coast, as shown by the N-ICEP indicator, pointing out an excess of nitrogen over silica and phosphorus...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Javier Valdes-Abellan, Yakov Pachepsky, Gonzalo Martinez
Data assimilation is becoming a promising technique in hydrologic modelling to update not only model states but also to infer model parameters, specifically to infer soil hydraulic properties in Richard-equation-based soil water models. The Ensemble Kalman Filter method is one of the most widely employed method among the different data assimilation alternatives. In this study the complete Matlab© code used to study soil data assimilation efficiency under different soil and climatic conditions is shown. The code shows the method how data assimilation through EnKF was implemented...
2018: MethodsX
M Masson, H Angot, C Le Bescond, M Launay, A Dabrin, C Miège, J Le Coz, M Coquery
Monitoring hydrophobic contaminants in surface freshwaters requires measuring contaminant concentrations in the particulate fraction (sediment or suspended particulate matter, SPM) of the water column. Particle traps (PTs) have been recently developed to sample SPM as cost-efficient, easy to operate and time-integrative tools. But the representativeness of SPM collected with PTs is not fully understood, notably in terms of grain size distribution and particulate organic carbon (POC) content, which could both skew particulate contaminant concentrations...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Keith E Schilling, Matthew T Streeter, Martin St Clair, Justin Meissen
Roadside ditches located throughout urban and rural landscapes are integral components of watershed-scale hydrologic processes but their capacity to reduce nutrients in the subsurface environment has not been investigated. In this study, vegetation, soil and groundwater conditions were characterized in six roadside ditches in the 66 km2 Lime Creek watershed in eastern Iowa. Shallow water table wells were installed at 17 locations in six transects and sampled monthly in 2017 to evaluate spatial and temporal patterns...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
M Walaszek, P Bois, J Laurent, E Lenormand, A Wanko
Urban stormwater affects the general quality of water bodies because of their hydraulic and pollution impacts. Stormwater discharges modify stream water flow and are reported as major source of heavy metals (HMs) in urban streams. Stormwater Constructed Wetlands (SCWs) have been built worldwide to manage stormwater before it is released into hydrosystems. In SCWs, stormwater is stored, evaporated and sometimes infiltrated. Subsequently, the HMs in stormwater can be settled, filtered and bioassimilated by microorganisms...
May 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kevin T Uno, Florent Rivals, Faysal Bibi, Michael Pante, Jackson Njau, Ignacio de la Torre
The well-dated Pleistocene sediments at Olduvai Gorge have yielded a rich record of hominin fossils, stone tools, and vertebrate faunal remains that, taken together, provide insight to hominin behavior and paleoecology. Since 2008, the Olduvai Geochronology and Archaeology Project (OGAP) has undertaken extensive excavations in Bed II that have yielded a large collection of early Pleistocene stone tools and fossils. The strata of Lower, Middle and Upper Bed II at Olduvai Gorge capture the critical transition from Oldowan to Acheulean technology and therefore provide an opportunity to explore the possible role of biotic and abiotic change during the transition...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Benton C Clark, Vera M Kolb
In the “comet pond” model, a rare combination of circumstances enables the entry and landing of pristine organic material onto a planetary surface with the creation of a pond by a soft impact and melting of entrained ices. Formation of the constituents of the comet in the cold interstellar medium and our circumstellar disk results in multiple constituents at disequilibrium which undergo rapid chemical reactions in the warmer, liquid environment. The planetary surface also provides minerals and atmospheric gases which chemically interact with the pond’s organic- and trace-element-rich constituents...
May 11, 2018: Life
Pingping Luo, Meimei Zhou, Hongzhang Deng, Jiqiang Lyu, Wenqiang Cao, Kaoru Takara, Daniel Nover, S Geoffrey Schladow
The importance of water quantity for domestic and industrial water supply, agriculture, and the economy more broadly has led to the development of many water quantity assessment methods. In this study, surface flow and soil water in the forested upper reaches of the Yoshino River are compared using a distributed hydrological model with Forest Maintenance Module under two scenarios; before and after forest maintenance. We also examine the impact of forest maintenance on these variables during extreme droughts...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Gang Zhao, Bo Pang, Zongxue Xu, Jiajia Yue, Tongbi Tu
Mountainous terrain covers nearly half of China and is susceptible to floods, which can lead to substantial losses of human life and property. Historical flooding records from government bulletins and newspapers, the only available information regarding floods that have occurred in some mountainous areas, are valuable for understanding flood disaster mechanisms in these regions. In this study, the flood susceptibility in mountainous regions in China was mapped based on historical flooding records from 1949 to 2000...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Olga Vigiak, Stefanie Lutz, Angeliki Mentzafou, Gabriele Chiogna, Ye Tuo, Bruno Majone, Hylke Beck, Ad de Roo, Anna Malagó, Fayçal Bouraoui, Rohini Kumar, Luis Samaniego, Ralf Merz, Christos Gamvroudis, Nikolaos Skoulikidis, Nikolaos P Nikolaidis, Alberto Bellin, Vicenç Acuňa, Nataša Mori, Ralf Ludwig, Alberto Pistocchi
Sustainable water basin management requires characterization of flow regime in river networks impacted by anthropogenic pressures. Flow regime in ungauged catchments under current, future, or natural conditions can be assessed with hydrological models. Developing hydrological models is, however, resource demanding such that decision makers might revert to models that have been developed for other purposes and are made available to them ('off-the-shelf' models). In this study, the impact of epistemic uncertainty of flow regime indicators on flow-ecological assessment was assessed at selected stations with drainage areas ranging from about 400 to almost 90,000km2 in four South European basins (Adige, Ebro, Evrotas and Sava)...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mana Gharun, Malcolm Possell, R Willem Vervoort, Mark A Adams, Tina L Bell
Empirical evidence from Australia shows that fuel reduction burning significantly reduces the incidence and extent of unplanned fires. However, the integration of environmental values into fire management operations is not yet well-defined and requires further research and development. WAVES, a plant growth model that incorporates Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer, was used to simulate the hydrological and ecological effects of three fuel management scenarios on a forest ecosystem. WAVES was applied using inputs from a set of forest plots for one year after three potential scenarios: (1) all litter removed, (2) all litter and 50% of the understorey removed, (3) all litter and understorey removed...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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