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Allison M Jensen, Todd M Scanlon, Ami L Riscassi
Wildfires alter forested ecosystems, which include large stores of mercury (Hg) and organic carbon, two compounds that are closely linked in vegetation, soils, and streamwater. Studies have shown that wildfires release elevated levels of mercury to the atmosphere which can be locally redeposited and leave charred organic material (vegetation and litter) on the soil surface. Both can contribute to the elevated mobilization of Hg into lakes and streams. However, no studies have conducted a detailed examination of hydrological transport of Hg following a wildfire...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
John S Kominoski, Albert Ruhí, Megan M Hagler, Kelly Petersen, John L Sabo, Tushar Sinha, Arumugam Sankarasubramanian, Julian D Olden
Effective conservation of freshwater biodiversity requires spatially explicit investigations of how dams and hydroclimatic alterations among climate regions may interact to drive species to extinction. We investigated how dams and hydroclimatic alterations interact with species ecological and life history traits to influence past extirpation probabilities of native freshwater fishes in the Upper and Lower Colorado River (CR), Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT), and Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) basins...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
Wenjun Chen, Bin He, Daniel Nover, Weili Duan, Chuan Luo, Kaiyan Zhao, Wen Chen
Excessive nitrogen (N) discharge from agriculture causes widespread problems in aquatic ecosystems. Knowledge of spatiotemporal patterns and source attribution of N pollution is critical for nutrient management programs but is poorly studied in headwaters with various small water bodies and mini-point pollution sources. Taking a typical small watershed in the low mountains of Southeastern China as an example, N pollution and source attribution were studied for a multipond system around a village using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Levan Tkavadze, Richard R Brey, John Dudgeon
Analyzing uranium isotopic and activity ratios can give valuable information for hydrologic and environmental studies such as insights to weathering processes, estimating water mixing ratios, and identifying water sources. The authors employed an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) to perform environmental level concentration measurements of isotopic uranium on 380 groundwater samples from various locations within the state of Idaho. The U:U uranium activity ratios (UAR) for these samples range between 0...
November 10, 2017: Health Physics
Paul F Hoffman, Dorian S Abbot, Yosef Ashkenazy, Douglas I Benn, Jochen J Brocks, Phoebe A Cohen, Grant M Cox, Jessica R Creveling, Yannick Donnadieu, Douglas H Erwin, Ian J Fairchild, David Ferreira, Jason C Goodman, Galen P Halverson, Malte F Jansen, Guillaume Le Hir, Gordon D Love, Francis A Macdonald, Adam C Maloof, Camille A Partin, Gilles Ramstein, Brian E J Rose, Catherine V Rose, Peter M Sadler, Eli Tziperman, Aiko Voigt, Stephen G Warren
Geological evidence indicates that grounded ice sheets reached sea level at all latitudes during two long-lived Cryogenian (58 and ≥5 My) glaciations. Combined uranium-lead and rhenium-osmium dating suggests that the older (Sturtian) glacial onset and both terminations were globally synchronous. Geochemical data imply that CO2 was 10(2) PAL (present atmospheric level) at the younger termination, consistent with a global ice cover. Sturtian glaciation followed breakup of a tropical supercontinent, and its onset coincided with the equatorial emplacement of a large igneous province...
November 2017: Science Advances
Nelson Colihueque, Olga Corrales, Miguel Yáñez
Trichomycterus areolatus Valenciennes, 1846 is a small endemic catfish inhabiting the Andean river basins of Chile. In this study, the morphological variability of three T. areolatus populations, collected in two river basins from southern Chile, was assessed with multivariate analyses, including principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA). It is hypothesized that populations must segregate morphologically from each other based on the river basin that they were sampled from, since each basin presents relatively particular hydrological characteristics...
2017: ZooKeys
A Ginebreda, L Sabater-Liesa, A Rico, A Focks, D Barceló
Rivers extend in space and time under the influence of their catchment area. Our perception largely relies on discrete spatial and temporal observations carried out at certain sites located throughout the catchment (monitoring networks, MN). However, MNs are constrained by (a) the distribution of sampling sites, (b) the dynamics of the variable considered and (c) the river hydrological conditions. In this study, all three aspects were captured and quantified by applying a spatial autocorrelation modeling approach...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Kevin E McCluney
Recent research has documented shifts in per capita trophic interactions and food webs in response to changes in environmental moisture, from the top-down (consumers to plants), rather than solely bottom-up (plants to consumers). These responses may be predictable from effects of physiological, behavioral, and ecological traits on animal water balance, although predictions could be modified by energy or nutrient requirements, the risk of predation, population-level responses, and bottom-up effects. Relatively little work has explicitly explored food web effects of changes in animal water balance, despite the likelihood of widespread relevance, including during periodic droughts in mesic locations, where taxa may lack adaptations for water conservation...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
David T Dodemaide, Ty G Matthews, Dion Iervasi, Rebecca E Lester
Ecological research associated with the importance of refuges has tended to focus on natural rather than anthropogenic water bodies. The frequency of disturbances, including drought events, is predicted to increase in many regions worldwide due to human-induced climate change. More frequent disturbance will affect freshwater ecosystems by altering hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, available habitat and assemblage structure. Under this scenario, many aquatic biota are likely to rely on permanent water bodies as refuge, including anthropogenic water bodies...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Mohammed Basheer, Nadir Ahmed Elagib
Understanding and modelling the complex nature of interlinkages between water and energy are essential for efficient use of the two resources. Hydropower storage dams represent an interesting example of the water-energy interdependencies since they are often multipurpose. The concept of Water-Energy Productivity (WEP), defined as the amount of energy produced per unit of water lost in the process, is introduced in this study to illustrate the relationship between energy generation and water losses by examining the sensitivity of the Water-Energy Nexus (WEN) to changing dam operation policy...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Rafaela Schinegger, Matthias Pucher, Christiane Aschauer, Stefan Schmutz
This work addresses multiple human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages of the Drava and Mura rivers in southern Austria. The impacts of single and multiple human stressors on riverine fish assemblages in these basins were disentangled, based on an extensive dataset. Stressor configuration, i.e. various metrics of multiple stressors belonging to stressor groups hydrology, morphology, connectivity and water quality were investigated for the first time at river basin scale in Austria. As biological response variables, the Fish Index Austria (FIA) and its related single as well as the WFD biological- and total state were investigated...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Wenting Bu, Jian Zheng, Michael E Ketterer, Sheng Hu, Shigeo Uchida, Xiaolin Wang
Measurements of the long-lived radionuclide (236)U are an important endeavor, not only in nuclear safeguards work, but also in terms of using this emerging nuclide as a tracer in chemical oceanography, hydrology, and actinide sourcing. Depending on the properties of a sample and its neutron irradiation history, (236)U/(238)U ratios from different sources vary significantly. Therefore, this ratio can be treated as an important fingerprint for radioactive source identification, and in particular, affords a definitive means of discriminating between naturally occurring U and specific types of anthropogenic U...
December 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Haiyun Shi, Ji Chen, Keyi Wang, Jun Niu
Drought is a complex natural hazard that may have destructive damages on societal properties and even lives. Generally, socioeconomic drought occurs when water resources systems cannot meet water demand, mainly due to a weather-related shortfall in water supply. This study aims to propose a new method, a heuristic method, and a new index, the socioeconomic drought index (SEDI), for identifying and evaluating socioeconomic drought events on different severity levels (i.e., slight, moderate, severe, and extreme) in the context of climate change...
November 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Megan Irene Saunders, Scott Atkinson, Carissa Joy Klein, Tony Weber, Hugh P Possingham
Land-based activities, including deforestation, agriculture, and urbanisation, cause increased erosion, reduced inland and coastal water quality, and subsequent loss or degradation of downstream coastal marine ecosystems. Quantitative approaches to link sediment loads from catchments to metrics of downstream marine ecosystem state are required to calculate the cost effectiveness of taking conservation actions on land to benefits accrued in the ocean. Here we quantify the relationship between sediment loads derived from landscapes to habitat suitability of seagrass meadows in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia...
2017: PloS One
Qing Zeng, Yamian Zhang, Li Wen, Zhaxijie Li, Hairui Duo, Guangchun Lei
Climate change affects the distribution and persistence of wildlife. Broad scale studies have demonstrated that climate change shifts the geographic ranges and phenology of species. These findings are influential for making high level strategies but not practical enough to guide site specific management. In this study, we explored the environment factors affecting the population of Bar-headed Goose in the key breeding site of Qinghai using generalized additive mixed model (GAMM). Our results showed that 1) there were significant increasing trends in climate variables and river flows to the Qinghai Lake; 2) NDVI in the sites decreased significantly despite the regional positive trend induced by the warmer and wetter climate; 3) NDVI at site scale was negatively correlated to lake water level; and 4) the abundance of Bar-headed Goose decreased significantly at all sites...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kentaro Kameda, Yohey Hashimoto, Yong Sik Ok
Ongoing sea level rise will have a major impact on mobility and migration of contaminants by changing a number of natural phenomena that alter geochemistry and hydrology of subsurface environment. In-situ immobilization techniques may be a promising remediation strategy for mitigating contaminant mobility induced by sea level rise. This study investigated the reaction mechanisms of magnesium oxide (MgO) with aqueous Pb and As under freshwater and seawater using XAFS spectroscopy. Initial concentrations of Pb and As in freshwater strongly controlled the characteristics of the reaction product of MgO...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Wei Zhang, Yong Li, Bo Zhu, Xunhua Zheng, Chunyan Liu, Jialiang Tang, Fang Su, Chong Zhang, Xiaotang Ju, Jia Deng
Quantification of nitrogen losses and net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from catchments is essential for evaluating the sustainability of ecosystems. However, the hydrologic processes without lateral flows hinder the application of biogeochemical models to this challenging task. To solve this issue, we developed a coupled hydrological and biogeochemical model, Catchment Nutrients Management Model - DeNitrification-DeComposition Model (CNMM-DNDC), to include both vertical and lateral mass flows. By incorporating the core biogeochemical processes (including decomposition, nitrification, denitrification and fermentation) of the DNDC into the spatially distributed hydrologic framework of the CNMM, the simulation of lateral water flows and their influences on nitrogen transportation can be realized...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Venkataramana Sridhar, Mirza M Billah, John W Hildreth
Many current watershed modeling efforts now incorporate surface water and groundwater for managing water resources since the exchanges between groundwater and surface water need a special focus considering the changing climate. The influence of groundwater dynamics on water and energy balance components is investigated in the Snake River Basin (SRB) by coupling the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) and MODFLOW models (VIC-MF) for the period of 1986 through 2042. A 4.4% increase in base flows and a 10.3% decrease in peak flows are estimated by VIC-MF compared to the VIC model in SRB...
November 9, 2017: Ground Water
Sami A Malek, Francesco Avanzi, Keoma Brun-Laguna, Tessa Maurer, Carlos A Oroza, Peter C Hartsough, Thomas Watteyne, Steven D Glaser
Monitoring the snow pack is crucial for many stakeholders, whether for hydro-power optimization, water management or flood control. Traditional forecasting relies on regression methods, which often results in snow melt runoff predictions of low accuracy in non-average years. Existing ground-based real-time measurement systems do not cover enough physiographic variability and are mostly installed at low elevations. We present the hardware and software design of a state-of-the-art distributed Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)-based autonomous measurement system with real-time remote data transmission that gathers data of snow depth, air temperature, air relative humidity, soil moisture, soil temperature, and solar radiation in physiographically representative locations...
November 9, 2017: Sensors
Xiaoyue Wang, Chaoyang Wu, Huanjiong Wang, Alemu Gonsamo, Zhengjia Liu
Understanding the changes in snow cover is essential for biological and hydrological processes in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and its surrounding areas. However, the changes in snow cover phenology over the TP have not been well documented. Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow products and the Interactive Multi-sensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS) data, we reported daily cloud-free snow cover product over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) for 2000-2015. Snow cover start (SCS), melt (SCM) and duration (SCD) dates were calculated for each hydrological year, and their spatial and temporal variations were analyzed with elevation variations...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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