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Rallapalli Srinivas, Ajit Pratap Singh
Assessment of water quality status of a river with respect to its discharge has become prerequisite to sustainable river basin management. The present paper develops an integrated model for simulating and evaluating strategies for water quality management in a river basin management by controlling point source pollutant loadings and operations of multi-purpose projects. Water Quality Analysis and Simulation Program (WASP version 8.0) has been used for modeling the transport of pollutant loadings and their impact on water quality in the river...
January 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Elena Armenise, Robert W Simmons, Sujung Ahn, Amin Garbout, Stefan H Doerr, Sacha J Mooney, Craig J Sturrock, Karl Ritz
This study delivers new insights into rainfall-induced seal formation through a novel approach in the use of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT). Up to now seal and crust thickness have been directly quantified mainly through visual examination of sealed/crusted surfaces, and there has been no quantitative method to estimate this important property. X-ray CT images were quantitatively analysed to derive formal measures of seal and crust thickness. A factorial experiment was established in the laboratory using open-topped microcosms packed with soil...
January 2018: Journal of Hydrology
Andrea F Brunsch, Thomas L Ter Laak, Huub Rijnaarts, Ekkehard Christoffels
A study was conducted in which the effluent at four small to medium sized sewage treatment plants (STP) in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany was monitored for three pharmaceutical compounds (carbamazepine, diclofenac, metoprolol) over a period of four years. Grab sampling and auto sampling campaigns were accomplished with respect to various weather conditions in the catchment area. Flow volumes and hydraulic retention times (HRT) from various sampling dates which provide information on processes causing emission changes were additionally taken into account...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Roger C Bales, Michael L Goulden, Carolyn T Hunsaker, Martha H Conklin, Peter C Hartsough, Anthony T O'Geen, Jan W Hopmans, Mohammad Safeeq
Mountain runoff ultimately reflects the difference between precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET), as modulated by biogeophysical mechanisms that intensify or alleviate drought impacts. These modulating mechanisms are seldom measured and not fully understood. The impact of the warm 2012-15 California drought on the heavily instrumented Kings River basin provides an extraordinary opportunity to enumerate four mechanisms that controlled the impact of drought on mountain hydrology. Two mechanisms intensified the impact: (i) evaporative processes have first access to local precipitation, which decreased the fractional allocation of P to runoff in 2012-15 and reduced P-ET by 30% relative to previous years, and (ii) 2012-15 was 1 °C warmer than the previous decade, which increased ET relative to previous years and reduced P-ET by 5%...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zuolin Liu, Brandon Dugan, Caroline A Masiello, Leila M Wahab, Helge M Gonnermann, Jeffrey A Nittrouer
Biochar may improve soil hydrology by altering soil porosity, density, hydraulic conductivity, and water-holding capacity. These properties are associated with the grain size distributions of both soil and biochar, and therefore may change as biochar weathers. Here we report how freeze-thaw (F-T) cycling impacts the grain size of pine, mesquite, miscanthus, and sewage waste biochars under two drainage conditions: undrained (all biochars) and a gravity-drained experiment (mesquite biochar only). In the undrained experiment plant biochars showed a decrease in median grain size and a change in grain-size distribution consistent with the flaking off of thin layers from the biochar surface...
2018: PloS One
Glenn Woerndle, Martin Tsz-Ki Tsui, Stephen Sebestyen, Joel D Blum, Xiangping Nie, Randall K Kolka
Stable isotope compositions of mercury (Hg) were measured in the outlet stream and in soil cores at different landscape positions in a 9.7-ha boreal upland-peatland catchment in northern Minnesota. An acidic permanganate/persulfate digestion procedure was validated for water samples with high dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentrations and we verified the complete breakdown of DOM through Hg spike addition analysis. We report a relatively large variation in mass-dependent fractionation (δ202Hg; from -2.12 to -1...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
T E Arnold, W F Kenney, J H Curtis, T S Bianchi, M Brenner
We carried out geochemical analyses on a sediment core from Lake Harris, Florida (USA) to identify sources of organic matter to the sediment throughout the Holocene, and relate changes in those sources to shifts in past climate and environmental conditions. We hypothesized that the sources of organic matter changed in response to regional hydrologic shifts following de-glaciation, and to human population expansion in the state during the 20th century. Hydroclimate shifts in Florida were related to: 1) a steady rise in relative sea level and the fresh water table that began in the early Holocene, 2) wetland formation and expansion ca...
2018: PloS One
Lianqing Xue, Fan Yang, Changbing Yang, Guanghui Wei, Wenqian Li, Xinlin He
Understanding the mechanism of complicated hydrological processes is important for sustainable management of water resources in an arid area. This paper carried out the simulations of water movement for the Manas River Basin (MRB) using the improved semi-distributed Topographic hydrologic model (TOPMODEL) with a snowmelt model and topographic index algorithm. A new algorithm is proposed to calculate the curve of topographic index using internal tangent circle on a conical surface. Based on the traditional model, the improved indicator of temperature considered solar radiation is used to calculate the amount of snowmelt...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mengyuan Wang, Yongqiang Zong, Zhuo Zheng, Meiling Man, Jianfang Hu, Liping Tian
Bacterial branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) have been successfully used as quantitative climate proxies for reconstructing annual mean air temperature (MAT) and soil pH from sediments. However, reconstructions derived from brGDGTs in regions with diverse hydrological and atmospheric conditions require further refinement. In this study, we investigated the suitability of brGDGTs as temperature and precipitation proxies from surface soils on opposite slopes of Mount Fanjing in subtropical China...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Timothy T Eaton
Urban stormwater control is an urgent concern in megacities where increased impervious surface has disrupted natural hydrology. Water managers are increasingly turning to more environmentally friendly ways of capturing stormwater, called Green Infrastructure (GI), to mitigate combined sewer overflow (CSO) that degrades local water quality. A rapid screening approach is described to evaluate how GI strategies can reduce the amount of stormwater runoff in a low-density residential watershed in New York City. Among multiple possible tools, the L-THIA LID online software package, using the SCS-CN method, was selected to estimate relative runoff reductions expected with different strategies in areas of different land uses in the watershed...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Luc Lambs, Félix Bompy, Maguy Dulormne
RATIONALE: Studies of wetland eco-hydrology in tropical coastal area are scarce, and the use of water stable isotopes can be of great help. Key constraints for their analysis are (i) the small difference in δ18 O values between seawater and old evaporated freshwater, and (ii) the fact that the presence of old brackish water limits the determination of the water origin and dynamic. METHODS: The water of tropical storms displays distinctively depleted heavy stable isotopes, in comparison with usual tropical rainfall without strong convective thunderstorms...
January 3, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
John T Abatzoglou, Solomon Z Dobrowski, Sean A Parks, Katherine C Hegewisch
We present TerraClimate, a dataset of high-spatial resolution (1/24°, ~4-km) monthly climate and climatic water balance for global terrestrial surfaces from 1958-2015. TerraClimate uses climatically aided interpolation, combining high-spatial resolution climatological normals from the WorldClim dataset, with coarser resolution time varying (i.e., monthly) data from other sources to produce a monthly dataset of precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, wind speed, vapor pressure, and solar radiation. TerraClimate additionally produces monthly surface water balance datasets using a water balance model that incorporates reference evapotranspiration, precipitation, temperature, and interpolated plant extractable soil water capacity...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Data
Rebecca T Barnes, David Ellison Butman, Henry Wilson, Peter A Raymond
The flux of terrestrial C to rivers has increased relative to pre-industrial levels, a fraction of which is aged dissolved organic C (DOC). In rivers, C is stored in sediments, exported to the ocean, or (bio)chemically processed and released as CO2. Disturbance changes land cover and hydrology, shifting potential sources and processing of DOC. To investigate the likely sources of aged DOC, we analyzed radiocarbon ages, chemical, and spectral properties of DOC and major ions from nineteen rivers draining the coterminous U...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jean-Louis Perrin, Christian Salles, Chrystelle Bancon-Montigny, Naoual Raïs, Nanée Chahinian, Lauryan Dowse, Claire Rodier, Marie-George Tournoud
Water quality indexes (WQI) are a practical way to evaluate and compare the level of chemical contamination of different water bodies and to spatially and temporally compare levels of pollution. The purpose of this study was to check if these indexes are appropriate for intermittent rivers under arid and semi-arid climates. A literature review enabled the comparison of 25 water quality indexes to discern their capability to evaluate spatial (inter and intra catchment) and temporal (high and low water flow conditions) variations in water quality in three Mediterranean intermittent rivers: the River Vène (France) and the Oued Fez and the River Sebou (Morocco)...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
M Khaki, E Forootan, M Kuhn, J Awange, F Papa, C K Shum
Climate change can significantly influence terrestrial water changes around the world particularly in places that have been proven to be more vulnerable such as Bangladesh. In the past few decades, climate impacts, together with those of excessive human water use have changed the country's water availability structure. In this study, we use multi-mission remotely sensed measurements along with a hydrological model to separately analyze groundwater and soil moisture variations for the period 2003-2013, and their interactions with rainfall in Bangladesh...
January 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ajay Ratna Bajracharya, Sagar Ratna Bajracharya, Arun Bhakta Shrestha, Sudan Bikash Maharjan
The Hindu Kush-Himalayan region is an important global freshwater resource. The hydrological regime of the region is vulnerable to climatic variations, especially precipitation and temperature. In our study, we modelled the impact of climate change on the water balance and hydrological regime of the snow dominated Kaligandaki Basin. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used for a future projection of changes in the hydrological regime of the Kaligandaki basin based on Representative Concentration Pathways Scenarios (RCP 4...
January 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Qiang He, Li Kang, Xingfu Sun, Ruxue Jia, Ying Zhang, Jiangsen Ma, Hong Li, Hainan Ai
Microcystins (MCs) pose potential threat for both aquatic organisms and humans, whereas their occurrence in response to hydrodynamic alterations are not clearly understood. Here, spatiotemporal variations of dissolved MC-RR and MC-LR were evaluated monthly in 2016 in the Yulin River, a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). The environmental factors that linked to MCs concentration were discussed. The results revealed that MC-RR maximumly reached 3.55 μg/L, and the maximum MC-LR concentration exceeded the threshold value of 1...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
A Stamou, A Polydera, G Papadonikolaki, F Martínez-Capel, R Muñoz-Mas, Ch Papadaki, S Zogaris, M-D Bui, P Rutschmann, E Dimitriou
We propose the novel integrated modelling procedure 3H-EMC for the determination of the environmental flow in rivers and streams; 3H-EMC combines Hydrological, Hydrodynamic and Habitat modelling with the use of the Environmental Management Classes (EMCs) that are defined by the Global Environmental Flow Calculator. We apply 3H-EMC in the Sperchios River in Central Greece, in which water abstractions for irrigation cause significant environmental impacts. Calculations of the hydrodynamic-habitat model, in which the large and the small chub are the main fish species, suggest discharge values that range from 1...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Deepika Kaushal, Ajay Kumar, Shweta Yadav, Ankit Tandon, Arun K Attri
Carbonaceous aerosols play an important role in affecting human health, radiative forcing, hydrological cycle, and climate change. As our current understanding about the carbonaceous aerosols, the source(s) and process(es) associated with them in the ecologically sensitive North-Western Himalayas are limited; this systematic study was planned to understand inherent dynamics in the mass concentration and source contribution of carbonaceous aerosols in the Dhauladhar region. During four winter months (January 2015-April 2015), 24-h PM10 samples were collected every week simultaneously at the rural site of Pohara (32...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Meilin He, Wenbin Shen, Yuanjin Pan, Ruizhi Chen, Hao Ding, Guangyi Guo
The solid Earth deforms elastically in response to variations of surface atmosphere, hydrology, and ice/glacier mass loads. Continuous geodetic observations by Global Positioning System (CGPS) stations and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) record such deformations to estimate seasonal and secular mass changes. In this paper, we present the seasonal variation of the surface mass changes and the crustal vertical deformation in the South China Block (SCB) identified by GPS and GRACE observations with records spanning from 1999 to 2016...
December 31, 2017: Sensors
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