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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434200/land-use-for-animal-production-in-global-change-studies-defining-and-characterizing-a-framework
#1
Leanne N Phelps, Jed O Kaplan
Land use for animal production influences the earth system in a variety of ways, including local-scale modification to biodiversity, soils, and nutrient cycling; regional changes in albedo and hydrology; and global-scale changes in greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations. Pasture is furthermore the single most extensive form of land cover, currently comprising about 22 - 26% of the earth's ice-free land surface. Despite the importance and variable expressions of animal production, distinctions among different systems are effectively absent from studies of land use and land cover change...
April 23, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433818/spatial-temporal-variability-and-transportation-mechanism-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-the-yangtze-river-estuary
#2
Lei Chen, Ye Yang, Jing Chen, Shuohan Gao, Shasha Qi, Cheng Sun, Zhenyao Shen
Although the variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is strongly dependent on the hydro-sediment pattern, the quantification of this interaction is still not well described, especially for estuary areas. In this study, both chemical analyses and numerical simulation were conducted to explain the temporal-spatial variability and transportation mechanism of PCBs in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE). The impacts of the upstream Three Gorges Dam (TGD) on estuarine PCBs were also addressed with a simulated scenario...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433817/climate-change-risks-extinction-debt-and-conservation-implications-for-a-threatened-freshwater-fish-carmine-shiner-notropis-percobromus
#3
Shubha N Pandit, Bryan M Maitland, Laxmi K Pandit, Mark S Poesch, Eva C Enders
Climate change is affecting many freshwater species, particularly fishes. Predictions of future climate change suggest large and deleterious effects on species with narrow dispersal abilities due to limited hydrological connectivity. In turn, this creates the potential for population isolation in thermally unsuitable habitats, leading to physiological stress, species declines or possible extirpation. The current extent of many freshwater fish species' spatio-temporal distribution patterns and their sensitivity to thermal impacts from climate change - critical information for conservation planning - are often unknown...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433768/response-of-evapotranspiration-to-changes-in-land-use-and-land-cover-and-climate-in-china-during-2001-2013
#4
Gen Li, Fangmin Zhang, Yuanshu Jing, Yibo Liu, Ge Sun
Land surface evapotranspiration (ET) is a central component of the Earth's global energy balance and water cycle. Understanding ET is important in quantifying the impacts of human influences on the hydrological cycle and thus helps improving water use efficiency and strengthening water use planning and watershed management. China has experienced tremendous land use and land cover changes (LUCC) as a result of urbanization and ecological restoration under a broad background of climate change. This study used MODIS data products to analyze how LUCC and climate change affected ET in China in the period 2001-2013...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431370/hydrodynamic-influence-on-reservoir-sustainability-in-semi-arid-climate-a-physicochemical-and-environmental-isotopic-study
#5
Rawaa Ammar, Véronique Kazpard, Antoine G El Samrani, Nabil Amacha, Zeinab Saad, Lei Chou
Water scarcity and increasing water demand require the development of water management plans such as establishing artificial lakes and dams. Plans to meet water needs are faced by uprising challenges to improve water quality and to ensure the sustainability of hydro-projects. Environmental isotopes coupled to water physicochemical characteristics were investigated over a biennial cycle to assess both geomorphological and environmental impacts on the water quality of a reservoir situated in an intensively used agricultural watershed under a Mediterranean semi-arid climate...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431045/water-table-drawdown-shapes-the-depth-dependent-variations-in-prokaryotic-diversity-and-structure-in-zoige-peatlands
#6
Qiuping Zhong, Huai Chen, Liangfeng Liu, Yixin He, Dan Zhu, Lin Jiang, Wei Zhan, Ji Hu
Microbial communities are important to ecosystem function and sensitive to hydrological dynamics. However, we lack predictable knowledge about how soil microorganisms respond to water table drawdown in different depths. This research used high-throughput sequencing method to determine the responses of prokaryotic communities to the changes of water table and depth on Zoige peatlands. Our results showed that water table drawdown reduced alpha diversity indices (observed species, Shannon diversity and Chao1 richness) of prokaryotic communities...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430813/phytoplankton-blooms-during-austral-summer-in-the-ross-sea-antarctica-driving-factors-and-trophic-implications
#7
Olga Mangoni, Vincenzo Saggiomo, Francesco Bolinesi, Francesca Margiotta, Giorgio Budillon, Yuri Cotroneo, Cristina Misic, Paola Rivaro, Maria Saggiomo
During the austral summer of 2014, an oceanographic cruise was conducted in the Ross Sea in the framework of the RoME (Ross Sea Mesoscale Experiment) Project. Forty-three hydrological stations were sampled within three different areas: the northern Ross Sea (RoME 1), Terra Nova Bay (RoME 2), and the southern Ross Sea (RoME 3). The ecological and photophysiological characteristics of the phytoplankton were investigated (i.e., size structure, functional groups, PSII maximum quantum efficiency, photoprotective pigments), as related to hydrographic and chemical features...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428872/are-whooping-cranes-destined-for-extinction-climate-change-imperils-recruitment-and-population-growth
#8
Matthew J Butler, Kristine L Metzger, Grant M Harris
Identifying climatic drivers of an animal population's vital rates and locating where they operate steers conservation efforts to optimize species recovery. The population growth of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) hinges on juvenile recruitment. Therefore, we identify climatic drivers (solar activity [sunspots] and weather) of whooping crane recruitment throughout the species' life cycle (breeding, migration, wintering). Our method uses a repeated cross-validated absolute shrinkage and selection operator approach to identify drivers of recruitment...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425995/widespread-movement-of-meltwater-onto-and-across-antarctic-ice-shelves
#9
Jonathan Kingslake, Jeremy C Ely, Indrani Das, Robin E Bell
Surface meltwater drains across ice sheets, forming melt ponds that can trigger ice-shelf collapse, acceleration of grounded ice flow and increased sea-level rise. Numerical models of the Antarctic Ice Sheet that incorporate meltwater's impact on ice shelves, but ignore the movement of water across the ice surface, predict a metre of global sea-level rise this century in response to atmospheric warming. To understand the impact of water moving across the ice surface a broad quantification of surface meltwater and its drainage is needed...
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425288/tracking-nitrogen-sources-transformation-and-transport-at-a-basin-scale-with-complex-plain-river-networks
#10
Qitao Yi, Qiuwen Chen, Liuming Hu, Wenqing Shi
This research developed an innovative approach to reveal nitrogen sources, transformation and transport in large and complex river networks in the Taihu Lake basin using measurement of dual stable isotopes of nitrate. The spatial patterns of δ15N corresponded to the urbanization level, and the nitrogen cycle was associated with the hydrological regime at the basin level. During the high flow season of summer, nonpoint sources from fertilizer/soils and atmospheric deposition constituted the highest proportion of the total nitrogen load...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421268/using-a-population-model-to-inform-the-management-of-river-flows-and-invasive-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#11
John D Koehn, Charles R Todd, Brenton P Zampatti, Ivor G Stuart, Anthony Conallin, Leigh Thwaites, Qifeng Ye
Carp are a highly successful invasive fish species, now widespread, abundant and considered a pest in south-eastern Australia. To date, most management effort has been directed at reducing abundances of adult fish, with little consideration of population growth through reproduction. Environmental water allocations are now an important option for the rehabilitation of aquatic ecosystems, particularly in the Murray-Darling Basin. As carp respond to flows, there is concern that environmental watering may cause floodplain inundation and provide access to spawning habitats subsequently causing unwanted population increase...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421091/oil-palm-and-rubber-tree-water-use-patterns-effects-of-topography-and-flooding
#12
Afik Hardanto, Alexander Röll, Furong Niu, Ana Meijide, Hendrayanto, Dirk Hölscher
Oil palm and rubber plantations extend over large areas and encompass heterogeneous site conditions. In periods of high rainfall, plants in valleys and at riparian sites are more prone to flooding than plants at elevated topographic positions. We asked to what extent topographic position and flooding affect oil palm and rubber tree water use patterns and thereby influence spatial and temporal heterogeneity of transpiration. In an undulating terrain in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia, plantations of the two species were studied in plot pairs consisting of upland and adjacent valley plots...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421053/elevated-air-humidity-changes-soil-bacterial-community-structure-in-the-silver-birch-stand
#13
Marika Truu, Ivika Ostonen, Jens-Konrad Preem, Krista Lõhmus, Hiie Nõlvak, Teele Ligi, Katrin Rosenvald, Kaarin Parts, Priit Kupper, Jaak Truu
Soil microbes play a fundamental role in forest ecosystems and respond rapidly to changes in the environment. Simultaneously with the temperature increase the climate change scenarios also predict an intensified hydrological cycle for the Baltic Sea runoff region. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of elevated air humidity on the top soil microbial community structure of a silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) stand by using a free air humidity manipulation facility (FAHM). The bacterial community structures of bulk soil and birch rhizosphere were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing of bacteria-specific16S rRNA gene fragments and quantification of denitrification related genes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419666/microbial-ecology-of-mountain-glacier-ecosystems-biodiversity-ecological-connections-and-implications-of-a-warming-climate
#14
REVIEW
Scott Hotaling, Eran Hood, Trinity L Hamilton
Glacier ecosystems are teeming with life on, beneath, and to a lesser degree, within their icy masses. This conclusion largely stems from polar research, with less attention paid to mountain glaciers that overlap environmentally and ecologically with their polar counterparts in some ways, but diverge in others. One difference lies in the susceptibility of mountain glaciers to the near-term threat of climate change, as they tend to be much smaller in both area and volume. Moreover, mountain glaciers are typically steeper, more dependent upon basal sliding for movement, and experience higher seasonal precipitation...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416700/intensifying-postfire-weather-and-biological-invasion-drive-species-loss-in-a-mediterranean-type-biodiversity-hotspot
#15
Jasper A Slingsby, Cory Merow, Matthew Aiello-Lammens, Nicky Allsopp, Stuart Hall, Hayley Kilroy Mollmann, Ross Turner, Adam M Wilson, John A Silander
Prolonged periods of extreme heat or drought in the first year after fire affect the resilience and diversity of fire-dependent ecosystems by inhibiting seed germination or increasing mortality of seedlings and resprouting individuals. This interaction between weather and fire is of growing concern as climate changes, particularly in systems subject to stand-replacing crown fires, such as most Mediterranean-type ecosystems. We examined the longest running set of permanent vegetation plots in the Fynbos of South Africa (44 y), finding a significant decline in the diversity of plots driven by increasingly severe postfire summer weather events (number of consecutive days with high temperatures and no rain) and legacy effects of historical woody alien plant densities 30 y after clearing...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415184/multiscale-structure-of-time-series-revealed-by-the-monotony-spectrum
#16
Călin Vamoş
Observation of complex systems produces time series with specific dynamics at different time scales. The majority of the existing numerical methods for multiscale analysis first decompose the time series into several simpler components and the multiscale structure is given by the properties of their components. We present a numerical method which describes the multiscale structure of arbitrary time series without decomposing them. It is based on the monotony spectrum defined as the variation of the mean amplitude of the monotonic segments with respect to the mean local time scale during successive averagings of the time series, the local time scales being the durations of the monotonic segments...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414787/water-abstraction-affects-abundance-size-structure-and-growth-of-two-threatened-cyprinid-fishes
#17
Roberto Merciai, Carlota Molons-Sierra, Sergi Sabater, Emili García-Berthou
Hydrologic alteration is a major threat to freshwater biota, and particularly fish, in many river courses around the world. We analyzed and compared the effects of water abstraction on two threatened cyprinid fishes of contrasting ecology (the Mediterranean barbel Barbus meridionalis and the Catalan chub Squalius laietanus) in a Mediterranean stream. We compared abundance, size-structure, growth, and condition of both species across perennial and artificially intermittent reaches affected by water abstraction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413846/a-carbon-balance-model-for-the-great-dismal-swamp-ecosystem
#18
Rachel Sleeter, Benjamin M Sleeter, Brianna Williams, Dianna Hogan, Todd Hawbaker, Zhiliang Zhu
BACKGROUND: Carbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. We estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance by considering past ecosystem disturbances resulting from storm damage, fire, and land management actions including hydrologic inundation, vegetation clearing, and replanting...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411868/high-resolution-stream-water-quality-assessment-in-the-vancouver-british-columbia-region-a-citizen-science-study
#19
Scott M Shupe
Changing land cover and climate regimes modify water quantity and quality in natural stream systems. In regions undergoing rapid change, it is difficult to effectively monitor and quantify these impacts at local to regional scales. In Vancouver, British Columbia, one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Canada, 750 measurements were taken from a total of 81 unique sampling sites representing 49 streams located in urban, forest, and agricultural-dominant watersheds at a frequency of up to 12 times per year between 2013 and 2016...
April 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395258/a-pollution-fate-and-transport-model-application-in-a-semi-arid-region-is-some-number-better-than-no-number
#20
Zeynep Özcan, Oğuz Başkan, H Şebnem Düzgün, Elçin Kentel, Emre Alp
Fate and transport models are powerful tools that aid authorities in making unbiased decisions for developing sustainable management strategies. Application of pollution fate and transport models in semi-arid regions has been challenging because of unique hydrological characteristics and limited data availability. Significant temporal and spatial variability in rainfall events, complex interactions between soil, vegetation and topography, and limited water quality and hydrological data due to insufficient monitoring network make it a difficult task to develop reliable models in semi-arid regions...
April 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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