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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230066/highly-anomalous-accumulation-rates-of-c-and-n-recorded-by-a-relic-free-floating-peatland-in-central-italy
#1
Claudio Zaccone, Daniela Lobianco, William Shotyk, Claudio Ciavatta, Peter G Appleby, Elisabetta Brugiapaglia, Laura Casella, Teodoro M Miano, Valeria D'Orazio
Floating islands mysteriously moving around on lakes were described by several Latin authors almost two millennia ago. These fascinating ecosystems, known as free-floating mires, have been extensively investigated from ecological, hydrological and management points of view, but there have been no detailed studies of their rates of accumulation of organic matter (OM), organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (TN). We have collected a peat core 4 m long from the free-floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in Central Italy...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226262/an-urban-runoff-model-designed-to-inform-stormwater-management-decisions
#2
Nicole G Beck, Gary Conley, Lisa Kanner, Margaret Mathias
We present an urban runoff model designed for stormwater managers to quantify runoff reduction benefits of mitigation actions that has lower input data and user expertise requirements than most commonly used models. The stormwater tool to estimate load reductions (TELR) employs a semi-distributed approach, where landscape characteristics and process representation are spatially-lumped within urban catchments on the order of 100 acres (40 ha). Hydrologic computations use a set of metrics that describe a 30-year rainfall distribution, combined with well-tested algorithms for rainfall-runoff transformation and routing to generate average annual runoff estimates for each catchment...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224180/electricity-and-empire-in-1920s-palestine-under-british-rule
#3
Ronen Shamir
This article examines some techno-political aspects of the early years of electrification in British-ruled 1920s Palestine. It emphasizes the importance of local technical, topographical and hydrological forms of knowledge for understanding the dynamics of electrification. Situating the analysis in a general colonial context of electrification, the study shows that British colonial rulers lagged behind both German firms and local entrepreneurs in understanding the specific conditions pertaining to electrification in Palestine...
February 21, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223529/social-ecological-network-analysis-of-scale-mismatches-in-estuary-watershed-restoration
#4
Jesse S Sayles, Jacopo A Baggio
Resource management boundaries seldom align with environmental systems, which can lead to social and ecological problems. Mapping and analyzing how resource management organizations in different areas collaborate can provide vital information to help overcome such misalignment. Few quantitative approaches exist, however, to analyze social collaborations alongside environmental patterns, especially among local and regional organizations (i.e., in multilevel governance settings). This paper develops and applies such an approach using social-ecological network analysis (SENA), which considers relationships among and between social and ecological units...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222351/the-land-morphology-approach-to-flood-risk-mapping-an-application-to-portugal
#5
N S Cunha, M R Magalhães, T Domingos, M M Abreu, C Küpfer
In the last decades, the increasing vulnerability of floodplains is linked to societal changes such as population density growth, land use changes, water use patterns, among other factors. Land morphology directly influences surface water flow, transport of sediments, soil genesis, local climate and vegetation distribution. Therefore, the land morphology, the land used and management directly influences flood risks genesis. However, attention is not always given to the underlying geomorphological and ecological processes that influence the dynamic of rivers and their floodplains...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220859/sensitivity-of-chemical-weathering-and-dissolved-carbon-dynamics-to-hydrological-conditions-in-a-typical-karst-river
#6
Jun Zhong, Si-Liang Li, Faxiang Tao, Fujun Yue, Cong-Qiang Liu
To better understand the mechanisms that hydrological conditions control chemical weathering and carbon dynamics in the large rivers, we investigated hydrochemistry and carbon isotopic compositions of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) based on high-frequency sampling in the Wujiang River draining the carbonate area in southwestern China. Concentrations of major dissolved solute do not strictly follow the dilution process with increasing discharge, and biogeochemical processes lead to variability in the concentration-discharge relationships...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218533/water-table-dynamics-and-biogeochemical-cycling-in-a-shallow-variably-saturated-floodplain
#7
Steven B Yabusaki, Michael J Wilkins, Yilin Fang, Kenneth H Williams, Bhavna Arora, John R Bargar, Harry R Beller, Nicholas J Bouskill, Eoin L Brodie, John N Christensen, Mark E Conrad, Robert E Danczak, Eric King, Nicolas F Spycher, Carl I Steefel, Tetsu K Tokunaga, Roelof Jan Versteeg, Scott R Waichler, Haruko M Wainwright
Three-dimensional variably saturated flow and multicomponent biogeochemical reactive transport modeling, based on published and newly generated data, is used to better understand the interplay of hydrology, geochemistry, and biology controlling the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, iron, sulfur, and uranium in a shallow floodplain. In this system, aerobic respiration generally maintains anoxic groundwater below an oxic vadose zone until seasonal snowmelt-driven water table peaking transports dissolved oxygen (DO) and nitrate from the vadose zone into the alluvial aquifer...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215811/intra-annual-variation-of-the-association-between-agricultural-best-management-practices-and-stream-nutrient-concentrations
#8
Nolan J T Pearce, Adam G Yates
Temporal variation may influence the ability of best management practices (BMPs) to mitigate the loss of agricultural pollutants to streams. Our goal was to assess variation in mitigation effects of BMPs by examining the associations between instream nutrient concentrations and the abundance and location of four structural BMPs over a hydrologic year. Water samples were collected monthly (Nov. 2013-Oct. 2014) in 15 headwater streams representing a gradient of BMP use in Southern Ontario, Canada. Partial least squares (PLS) regression models were used to associate two groups of collinear nutrient forms with the abundance and location of BMPs, antecedent precipitation and time of year...
February 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215810/the-impact-of-pre-restoration-land-use-and-disturbance-on-sediment-structure-hydrology-and-the-sediment-geochemical-environment-in-restored-saltmarshes
#9
Kate L Spencer, Simon J Carr, Lucy M Diggens, James A Tempest, Michelle A Morris, Gemma L Harvey
Saltmarshes are being lost or degraded as a result of human activity resulting in loss of critical ecosystem services including the provision of wild species diversity, water quality regulation and flood regulation. To compensate, saltmarshes are being restored or re-created, usually driven by legislative requirements for increased habitat diversity, flood regulation and sustainable coastal defense. Yet, there is increasing evidence that restoration may not deliver anticipated ecosystem services; this is frequently attributed to poor drainage and sediment anoxia...
February 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215801/differences-in-dom-of-rewetted-and-natural-peatlands-results-from-high-field-ft-icr-ms-and-bulk-optical-parameters
#10
Peter Herzsprung, Katja Osterloh, Wolf von Tümpling, Mourad Harir, Norbert Hertkorn, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Ralph Meissner, Sabine Bernsdorf, Kurt Friese
Peatlands can be a potential source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in fresh water catchment areas. The quantity and quality of DOM can differ between pristine, degraded and rewetted peatlands. Due to the large scale and continuing losses of peatlands, their conservation and restoration has been increasingly emphasized. Mostly rewetting measures are required to improve the hydrology of damaged peatlands, which is a precondition for the resettlement of peat-forming plant species. Thus, in term of DOM, there is a special need to understand how rewetting measures affect DOM characteristics and concentrations...
February 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213336/linking-the-mobilization-of-dissolved-organic-matter-in-catchments-and-its-removal-in-drinking-water-treatment-to-its-molecular-characteristics
#11
Julia Raeke, Oliver J Lechtenfeld, Jörg Tittel, Marieke R Oosterwoud, Katrin Bornmann, Thorsten Reemtsma
Drinking water reservoirs in the Northern Hemisphere are largely affected by the decadal-long increase in riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. The removal of DOC in drinking water treatment is costly and predictions are needed to link DOC removal efficiency to its mobilization in catchments, both of which are determined by the molecular composition. To study the effect of hydrological events and land use on the molecular characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM), 36 samples from three different catchment areas in the German low mountain ranges, with DOC concentrations ranging from 3 to 32 mg L(-1), were examined...
February 8, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210894/expansion-of-sugarcane-monoculture-associated-impacts-and-management-measures-in-the-semi-arid-east-african-rift-valley-ethiopia
#12
Solomon A Beza, Mohammed A Assen
The study examined the expansion of sugarcane monoculture over the period 1957-2010 and its implications for land degradation and land management measures in the semi-arid northern Main Ethiopian Rift Valley. It used multi-scale and multi-temporal imageries aided by qualitative surveying to investigate the dynamics of land use and cover changes. The study applied both a pixel-based supervised classification and feature extraction methods at subclass levels and merged them into major compatible and comparable land use and cover groups...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208223/conceptualization-of-karstic-aquifer-with-multiple-outlets-using-a-dual-porosity-model
#13
Seiyed Mossa Hosseini, Behzad Ataie-Ashtiani
In this study, two conceptual models, the classic reservoir (CR) model and exchange reservoirs model embedded by dual porosity approach (DPR) are developed for simulation of karst aquifer functioning drained by multiple outlets. The performances of two developed models are demonstrated at a less developed karstic aquifer with three spring outlets located in Zagros Mountain in the south-west of Iran using 22-years of daily data. During the surface recharge, a production function based on water mass balance is implemented for computing the time series of surface recharge to the karst formations...
February 16, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207804/spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-a-fish-predator-density-dependent-and-hydrographic-effects-on-baltic-sea-cod-population
#14
Valerio Bartolino, Huidong Tian, Ulf Bergström, Pekka Jounela, Eero Aro, Christian Dieterich, H E Markus Meier, Massimiliano Cardinale, Barbara Bland, Michele Casini
Understanding the mechanisms of spatial population dynamics is crucial for the successful management of exploited species and ecosystems. However, the underlying mechanisms of spatial distribution are generally complex due to the concurrent forcing of both density-dependent species interactions and density-independent environmental factors. Despite the high economic value and central ecological importance of cod in the Baltic Sea, the drivers of its spatio-temporal population dynamics have not been analytically investigated so far...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207176/detecting-state-changes-for-ecosystem-conservation-with-long-term-monitoring-of-species-composition
#15
T J Mason, D A Keith, A D Letten
Effective conservation requires an understanding not only of contemporary vegetation distributions in the landscape, but also cognizance of vegetation transitions over time with the goal of maintaining persistence of all states within the landscape. Using a state and transition model framework, we investigated temporal transitions over 31 years in species composition among five upland swamp vegetation communities in southeastern Australia. We applied fuzzy clustering to document transitions across communities; evaluated the resilience and resistance of communities to change; and explored the relationship between ecosystem states and major environmental factors posited to structure the system...
October 4, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196754/determination-of-groundwater-recharge-mechanism-in-the-deep-loessial-unsaturated-zone-by-environmental-tracers
#16
Zhi Li, Xi Chen, Wenzhao Liu, Bingcheng Si
Studying the groundwater recharge mechanism in regions with thick unsaturated zone can greatly improve our understanding of hydrological processes since these regions have complex groundwater processes. This study attempted to discuss the groundwater recharge in a region covered by loess over 130m deep in China's Loess Plateau. The water stable isotope, tritium and chloride in precipitation, groundwater and soil water were determined and used as inputs of mass balance methods. The tracer technique is found to be applicable and effective this region with thick unsaturated zone...
February 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196322/ecosystem-services-mapping-for-sustainable-agricultural-water-management-in-california-s-central-valley
#17
Edward Matios, Jennifer Anne Burney
Accurate information on agricultural water needs and withdrawals at appropriate spatial and temporal scales remains a key limitation to joint water and land management decision-making. We use InVEST ecosystem service mapping to estimate water yield and water consumption as functions of land use in Fresno County, a key farming region in California's Central Valley. Our calculations show that in recent years (2010-2015), total annual water yield for the county has varied dramatically from ~0.97 km(3) to 5.37 km(3) (all ± ~17%; 1 MAF ≈ 1...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194673/assessment-of-groundwater-vulnerability-using-supervised-committee-to-combine-fuzzy-logic-models
#18
Ata Allah Nadiri, Maryam Gharekhani, Rahman Khatibi, Asghar Asghari Moghaddam
Vulnerability indices of an aquifer assessed by different fuzzy logic (FL) models often give rise to differing values with no theoretical or empirical basis to establish a validated baseline or to develop a comparison basis between the modeling results and baselines, if any. Therefore, this research presents a supervised committee fuzzy logic (SCFL) method, which uses artificial neural networks to overarch and combine a selection of FL models. The indices are expressed by the widely used DRASTIC framework, which include geological, hydrological, and hydrogeological parameters often subject to uncertainty...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192638/nitrate-decline-unlikely-to-have-triggered-release-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-and-phosphate-to-streams
#19
Karsten Kalbitz, Klaus Kaiser, William H McDowell
Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) increased in many surface waters in Europe and North America over the last two or three decades (Monteith et al., 2007; Garmo et al., 2014). The increase has been attributed to increased DOC export from terrestrial ecosystems in response to decreasing acidic atmospheric deposition, increasing temperature and CO2 concentrations, and altered hydrology (summarized by Finstad et al., 2016). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192368/erratum-water-science-and-technology-74-8-1845-1854-toward-an-operational-tool-to-simulate-green-roof-hydrological-impact-at-the-basin-scale-a-new-version-of-the-distributed-rainfall-runoff-model-multi-hydro-pierre-antoine-versini-et-al-doi-10-2166-wst-2016
#20
Pierre-Antoine Versini, Auguste Gires, Ioulia Tchiguirinskaia, Daniel Schertzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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