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Maria Eliza Freitas, Marta Ruiz-Lopez, Susan H Fox
Levodopa remains the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease and is considered the gold standard therapy. However, disease progression and changes in the gastrointestinal tract result in a declining window of treatment response in a majority of patients. Efforts have been made recently to improve levodopa bioavailability either by developing more effective oral formulations or by innovating routes of administration (intestinal infusion, transcutaneous or inhaled levodopa). IPX066 is a novel levodopa-carbidopa (LD/CD) oral formulation combining immediate-release (IR) and extended-release (ER) LD/CD recently approved in the USA and the EU...
October 14, 2016: CNS Drugs
C O Callender, N Koizumi, P V Miles, J K Melancon
OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to review the increase of minority organ donation. METHODS: The methodology was based on the efforts of the DC Organ Donor Program and the Dow Take Initiative Program that focused on increasing donors among African Americans (AAs). From 1982 to 1988, AA donor card signings increased from 20/month to 750/month, and Black donations doubled. A review of the data, including face-to-face grassroots presentations combined with national media, was conducted...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Justin Doods, Philipp Neuhaus, Martin Dugas
Interoperability between systems and data sharing between domains is becoming more and more important. The portal offers more than 5.300 UMLS annotated forms in CDISC ODM format in order to support interoperability, but several additional export formats are available. CDISC's ODM and HL7's framework FHIR Questionnaire resource were analyzed, a mapping between elements created and a converter implemented. The developed converter was integrated into the portal with FHIR Questionnaire XML or JSON download options...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Iñaki Soto-Rey, Martin Dugas, Michael Storck
Interoperability is one of the biggest issues in health informatics despite of the huge effort invested to solve it. Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) and Health Level 7 (HL7) are two of the most recognized institutions working on this field. Several systems are becoming compliant with their standards; however, the process to accomplish it is not always straightforward. In this manuscript, we present the successful implementation of the CDISC ODM and HL7 import and export functions for "MoPat", a web-based multi-language electronic patient-reported outcomes system...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Juan Carlos Camacho Rodriguez, Sebastian Stäubert, Matthias Löbe
Electronic data capture (EDC) tools are designed to simplify data acquisition, improving data quality and managing clinical data electronically. Some data are collected from the laboratory information management system (LIMS), which is an important data source for a study. OpenClinica is an open source clinical data management system (CDMS) for web-based electronic data capture (EDC), which is used widely in academic clinical research. TranSMART is also an open source web-based platform used for the management and analysis of different data types common in clinical and translational research...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Anna J Anderson, Ruth Andrew, Natalie Z Homer, Gregory C Jones, Kenneth Smith, Dawn E Livingstone, Brian R Walker, Roland H Stimson
CONTEXT: The mechanism of action of metformin remains unclear. Given the regulation of the cortisol-regenerating enzyme 11βhydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11βHSD1) by insulin and the limited efficacy of selective 11βHSD1 inhibitors to lower blood glucose when co-prescribed with metformin, we hypothesized that metformin reduces 11βHSD1 activity. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metformin regulates 11βHSD1 activity in vivo in obese men with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
I L Birker, L S T M Boons, G P M Luyten
A 20-year-old woman with congenital iris heterochromia presented with loss of vision of her right eye. We made de diagnosis of a large 'uvea melanoma' and enucleated the eye. Pathological examination showed an underlying oculodermal melanocytosis (ODM). The life-time risk of uveal melanoma in the general population is 0.7:100,000, but 1:400 in patients with ODM. Therefore, annual fundoscopy is recommended in these patients.
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Peng Zhang, Yan-Nian Hui, Wen-Qin Xu, Zi-Feng Zhang, Hai-Yan Wang, Dong-Jie Sun, Yu-Sheng Wang
AIM: To investigate the findings of infrared fundus autofluorescence (IR-AF) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in eyes with optic disc melanocytoma (ODM). METHODS: IR-AF findings and those of other ophthalmologic imaging examinations, including short-wave autofluorescence (SW-AF), fluorescein angiography (FA), fundus color photography, and SD-OCT of 8 eyes of 8 consecutive cases with ODM were assessed. RESULTS: The ODMs in all cases (100%) presented similar IR-AF, SW-AF, and FA findings...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Mary T Korytkowski, Esra Karslioglu French, Maria Brooks, Dilhari DeAlmeida, Justin Kanter, Manuel Lombardero, Vasudev Magaji, Trevor Orchard, Linda Siminerio
BACKGROUND: The increasing use of electronic health records (EHRs) in clinical practice offers the potential to investigate cardiovascular outcomes over time in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). OBJECTIVE: To develop a methodology for identifying prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with T2D who are candidates for therapeutic intensification of glucose-lowering therapy. METHODS: Patients with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥7% (53 mmol/mol) while receiving 1-2 oral diabetes medications (ODMs) were identified from an EHR (2005-2011) and grouped according to intensification with insulin (INS) (n=372), a different class of ODM (n=833), a glucagon-like peptide receptor 1 agonist (GLP-1RA) (n=59), or no additional therapy (NAT) (n=2017)...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Matthew T Dixon, Robert J Loader, Gregory C Stevens, Nick P Rowles
Organ Dose Modulation or ODM (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) was evaluated to characterize changes in CTDIvol, image noise, effective dose, and organ dose saving to patients. Three separate investigations were completed: a tube current modulation phantom was scanned with and without ODM, a CTDIvol phantom was scanned with ODM, and Monte Carlo simulations were performed. ODM was found to reduce the CTDIvol by approximately 20% whilst increasing the noise by approximately 14%. This was reflected in the dose distribution, where the anterior peripheral dose was reduced by approximately 40% whilst the identical poste-rior dose remained largely unaffected...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
E Vanbergue, J L Peyraud, J Guinard-Flament, C Charton, S Barbey, R Lefebvre, Y Gallard, C Hurtaud
Milk spontaneous lipolysis (SL) of milk triglycerides is induced by the lipoprotein lipase, a milk native enzyme, and leads to an accumulation of partial glycerides and free fatty acids that are responsible for the deterioration of the taste of milk products. The gene coding for diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), an enzyme implicated in triglycerides synthesis, has an important polymorphic site at the K232A locus. This gene is well known to modulate milk composition. No data are available on the effects of DGAT1 on SL...
July 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Andrea Maria Plateroti, Vittorio Scavella, Barmak Abdolrahimzadeh, Rocco Plateroti, Siavash Rahimi
Oculodermal melanocytosis (ODM) is a rare disease, which is characterized by hyperpigmentation of facial skin and several parts of the eye, such as the sclera, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, ciliary body, and choroid. The condition usually affects the Asian female population. The most typical presenting ocular sign is iris heterocromia. Iris hyperpigmentation may be associated with iris mammillations, which are dome-shaped protuberations of the iris surface. They are linked to a higher risk of malignant transformation when present in patients with ODM...
April 15, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
P H Robinson, N Swanepoel, J M Heguy, P Price, D M Meyer
Silage 'shrink' (i.e., fresh chop crop lost between ensiling and feedout) represents losses of potential animal nutrients which degrade air quality as volatile carbon compounds. Regulatory efforts have, in some cases, resulted in semi-mandatory mitigations (i.e., dairy farmers select a minimum number of mitigations from a list) to reduce silage shrink, mitigations often based on limited data of questionable relevance to large commercial silage piles where silage shrink may or may not be a problem of a magnitude equal to that assumed...
July 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Barbara Guerard, Vincent Omachonu, Blake Perez, Bisakha Sen
Medication adherence is often lower among disadvantaged patients. Drivers of medication adherence may include the quality of communications between patient and medical caregiver. The research objective is to assess whether an annual Comprehensive Wellness Assessment (CWA) is associated with improved medication adherence. The CWA targeted primarily dual eligible Special Needs Plan (SNP) enrollees in a Medicare Advantage plan. This retrospective panel study used administrative claims data and member-month level data for members who were newly diagnosed with diabetes in 2010, allowing for up to 5 years of follow-up...
March 31, 2016: Population Health Management
Roshan M Borkar, Murali Mohan Bhandi, Ajay P Dubey, V Ganga Reddy, Prashanth Komirishetty, Prajwal P Nandekar, Abhay T Sangamwar, Ahmed Kamal, Sanjay K Banerjee, R Srinivas
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of metabolites to drug-drug interaction and drug-herb interaction using the inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 by metoprolol (MET) and its metabolites. The peak concentrations of unbound plasma concentration of MET, α-hydroxy metoprolol (HM), O-desmethyl metoprolol (ODM) and N-desisopropyl metoprolol (DIM) were 90.37 ± 2.69, 33.32 ± 1.92, 16.93 ± 1.70 and 7.96 ± 0.94 ng/mL, respectively. The metabolites identified, HM and ODM, had a ratio of metabolic area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) to parent AUC of ≥0...
October 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Bas van Genabeek, Bas F M de Waal, Mark M J Gosens, Louis M Pitet, Anja R A Palmans, E W Meijer
Most of the theoretical and computational descriptions of the phase behavior of block copolymers describe the chain ensembles of perfect and uniform polymers. In contrast, experimental studies on block copolymers always employ materials with disperse molecular makeup. Although most polymers are so-called monodisperse, they still have a molecular weight dispersity. Here, we describe the synthesis and properties of a series of discrete length diblock co-oligomers, based on oligo-dimethylsiloxane (oDMS) and oligo-lactic acid (oLA), diblock co-oligomers with highly noncompatible blocks...
March 30, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Shaifali Pal, Akhilesh Kumar Yadav, Anup Kumar Singh, Shubhra Rastogi, Madan Mohan Gupta, Rajesh Kumar Verma, Dinesh A Nagegowda, Anirban Pal, Ajit Kumar Shasany
The medicinal plant Withania somnifera is researched extensively to increase the quantity of withanolides and specifically withaferin A, which finds implications in many pharmacological activities. Due to insufficient knowledge on biosynthesis and unacceptability of transgenic approach, it is preferred to follow alternative physiological methods to increase the yield of withanolides. Prior use of elicitors like salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, fungal extracts, and even mechanical wounding have shown to increase the withanolide biosynthesis with limited success; however, the commercial viability and logistics of application are debatable...
March 12, 2016: Protoplasma
Athanasios Dellis, Athanasios G Papatsoris
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in elderly males. Regardless of the initial hormonal treatment in metastatic disease, a significant proportion of patients develop castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind castration resistance has led to the approval of oral medications such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. Relevant research is accelerated with numerous agents being tested for the management of CRPC...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Sam Hume, Jozef Aerts, Surendra Sarnikar, Vojtech Huser
INTRODUCTION: In order to further advance research and development on the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Operational Data Model (ODM) standard, the existing research must be well understood. This paper presents a methodological review of the ODM literature. Specifically, it develops a classification schema to categorize the ODM literature according to how the standard has been applied within the clinical research data lifecycle. This paper suggests areas for future research and development that address ODM's limitations and capitalize on its strengths to support new trends in clinical research informatics...
April 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Martin Dugas, Philipp Neuhaus, Alexandra Meidt, Justin Doods, Michael Storck, Philipp Bruland, Julian Varghese
INTRODUCTION: Information systems are a key success factor for medical research and healthcare. Currently, most of these systems apply heterogeneous and proprietary data models, which impede data exchange and integrated data analysis for scientific purposes. Due to the complexity of medical terminology, the overall number of medical data models is very high. At present, the vast majority of these models are not available to the scientific community. The objective of the Portal of Medical Data Models (MDM, https://medical-data-models...
2016: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
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