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(vitD or bone) and transplant

Alexia J Murphy-Alford, Melinda White, Liane Lockwood, Andrew Hallahan, Peter S W Davies
AIM: To describe the body composition, dietary intake and physical activity and of paediatric, adolescent and young adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and examine the factors that impact body composition after treatment. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study involved 74 subjects who were at least three years post treatment. Measurements included anthropometry, whole body potassium counting, air displacement plethysmography, and three day physical activity and diet diaries...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Yawara Kawano, Oksana Zavidij, Jihye Park, Michele Moschetta, Katsutoshi Kokubun, Tarek H Mouhieddine, Salomon Manier, Yuji Mishima, Naoka Murakami, Mark Bustoros, Romanos Sklavenitis Pistofidis, Mairead Reidy, Yu J Shen, Mahshid Rahmat, Pavlo Lukyanchykov, Esilida Sula Karreci, Shokichi Tsukamoto, Jiantao Shi, Satoshi Takagi, Daisy Huynh, Antonio Sacco, Yu-Tzu Tai, Marta Chesi, P Leif Bergsagel, Aldo M Roccaro, Jamil Azzi, Irene M Ghobrial
Despite significant advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), most patients succumb to disease progression. One of the major immunosuppressive mechanisms that is believed to play a role in myeloma progression, is the expansion of regulatory T-cells (Tregs). In this study, we demonstrate that myeloma cells drive Treg expansion and activation by secreting type-1 interferon (IFN). Blocking IFNAR1 (interferon alpha and beta receptor 1) on Tregs significantly decreases both, myeloma-associated Treg immunosuppressive function and myeloma progression...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Dhanya Lakshmi Narayanan, Shubha R Phadke
Stem cell transplantation and cord blood banking have received much popularity among general public and medical professionals in the recent past. But information about the scientific aspects, its utility and limitations is incomplete amongst laypersons as well as many medical practitioners. Stem cells differ from all other types of cells in the human body because of their ability to multiply in order to self perpetuate and differentiate into specialized cells. Stems cells could be totipotent, multipotent, pluripotent, oligopotent or unipotent depending on the type of cells that can arise or differentiate from them...
March 20, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Sinem Civriz Bozdağ, Meltem Kurt Yüksel, Taner Demirer
Stem cells can be either totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent or unipotent. Totipotent cells have the capability to produce all cell types of the developing organism, including both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. The Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC) are the first defined adult stem cells (ASC) that give rise to all blood cells and immune system. Use of HSCs for treatment of hematologic malignancies, which is also called bone marrow (BM) transplantation or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) transplantation is the pioneer of cellular therapy and translational research...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
J Aleksova, S Kurniawan, G J Elder
Fracture risk increases in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), but bone mineral density (BMD) measurement is less predictive of risk than in the general population. In this study of patients with ESKD, a lower trabecular bone score (TBS), indicative of microarchitectural deterioration, was associated with higher bone turnover markers and prevalent non-vertebral fracture. INTRODUCTION: Declining renal function carries increased fracture risks, but BMD is less predictive of fracture for dialysis patients than the general population...
March 19, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Maurizio Zangari, Hanna Yoo, Ik Jae Shin, Donghoon Yoon, Larry J Suva
The 5TGM1 multiple myeloma transplanted C57BL6/KaLwRij model recapitulates many disease features including monoclonal paraprotein production as well as the development of osteolytic bone lesions. Since a significant association between serum parathyroid hormone PTH variations, bone anabolism and myeloma progression in patients receiving proteasome inhibitors exists, this study investigated the effect of the PTH axis on murine myeloma development in vivo . C57BL6/KaLwRij myeloma-bearing mice underwent thyroparathyroidectomy (TPTX) before and after 5TGM1 cell transplantation...
September 2018: Journal of Bone Oncology
Jiao Li, Shu-Hong Li, Jun Wu, Richard D Weisel, Alina Yao, William L Stanford, Shi-Ming Liu, Ren-Ke Li
Background: To improve the regenerative capacity of aged individuals, we reconstituted bone marrow (BM) of aged mice with young Sca-1 cells, which repopulated cardiac progenitors and prevented cardiac dysfunction after a myocardial infarction (MI). However, the mechanisms involved were incompletely elucidated. This study aimed to investigate whether young, highly regenerative BM Sca-1 cells exert their cardio-protective effects on the aged heart through reactivation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process...
2018: Theranostics
Yassine Bouatou, Ludwig Stenz, Belen Ponte, Serge Ferrari, Ariane Paoloni-Giacobino, Karine Hadaya
Background: Corticosteroids are associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD), as well as water and salt retention, leading to hypertension. They are substrates for P-glycoprotein, a protein coded by the highly polymorphic ABCB1 gene. We hypothesized that one ABCB1 polymorphism, rs1045642, is associated with blood pressure and BMD parameters at 1-year post kidney transplantation (KT). Methods: Rs1045642 was genotyped using pyrosequencing in 40 KT recipients. Both dominant (CC vs. CT + TT) and codominant (CC vs...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ying Liu, Brent Logan, Ning Liu, Zhiyuan Xu, Jian Tang, Yanzhi Wang
In this paper, we propose the first deep reinforcement learning framework to estimate the optimal Dynamic Treatment Regimes from observational medical data. This framework is more flexible and adaptive for high dimensional action and state spaces than existing reinforcement learning methods to model real life complexity in heterogeneous disease progression and treatment choices, with the goal to provide doctor and patients the data-driven personalized decision recommendations. The proposed deep reinforcement learning framework contains a supervised learning step to predict the most possible expert actions; and a deep reinforcement learning step to estimate the long term value function of Dynamic Treatment Regimes...
August 2017: Healthcare Informatics: the Business Magazine for Information and Communication Systems
Sarah E Sartain, Nancy A Turner, Joel L Moake
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and bone marrow transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) are associated with excessive activation of the alternative complement pathway (AP) and with severe renal - and rarely, cerebral - microvascular damage. Here, we compared AP activation and regulation in human glomerular and brain microvascular endothelial cells (GMVECs and BMVECs, respectively) unstimulated or stimulated by the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Compared with GMVECs and under both experimental conditions, BMVECs had increased gene expression of the AP-related genes C3 , CFB , and C5 , and decreased expression of CFD This was associated with increased expression in BMVECs (relative to GMVECs) of the genes for surface and soluble regulatory molecules ( CD46 , THBD , CD55 , CFI , and CFH ) suppressing formation of the AP C3 and C5 convertases...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
V Moalic-Allain
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a common procedure potentially beneficial to many individuals with cancer, hematological, or inherited disorders, and has highlighted the need of related or unrelated donors to perform allograft. Donation of hematopoietic stem cells, either through bone marrow harvest or peripheral blood stem cell collection, is well-established and widespread. Over the past two decades, the peripheral blood stem cell collection by aphaeresis has become the main source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation, due to faster engraftment and practicability and lower risk of relapse for high-risk patients...
March 16, 2018: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
Akira Yoshida, Jong-Kook Lee, Satoki Tomoyama, Keiko Miwa, Keiichi Shirakawa, Sanae Hamanaka, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Shigeru Miyagawa, Yoshiki Sawa, Issei Komuro, Yasushi Sakata
Aims: The aim of the present study is to develop in vitro experimental analytical method for the electrophysiological properties of allogeneic induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) in cardiac conduction defect model. Methods and results: Cardiomyocytes were derived from rat induced pluripotent stem cells CMs (riPSC-CMs) using an embryoid body-based differentiation method with the serial application of growth factors including activin-A, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4), and inhibitor of wnt production 2 (IWP-2)...
March 15, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Michael A Zacchilli, Amos Z Dai, Eric J Strauss, Laith M Jazrawi, Robert J Meislin
The meniscus plays a vital role in knee biomechanics, and its physical absence or functional incompetence (e.g., irreparable root or radial tear) leads to unacceptably high rates of joint degeneration in affected populations. Meniscal allograft transplantation has been used successfully to treat patients with postmeniscectomy syndrome, and there is early laboratory and radiographic evidence hinting at a potential prophylactic role in preventing joint degeneration. We present a technique for lateral meniscal allograft transplantation using the CONMED Meniscal Allograft Transplantation system...
December 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
Ruifu Yang, Mingwu Zhou, Chaofeng Xing, Shimin Li, Li Song, Jia Chen, Yingjie Xiong, Kai Zhang
Objective: To expound the clinical effect of a new operation by transplanting double segment triangular fibula flap with vascular pedicle to repair the forefoot with lateral bone defect, and to study how to improve the operation method in the following stage. Methods: The inclusion criteria: More than 2 phalangeal and metatarsal bones defects of the lateral forefoot, widespread skin and soft tissue defects on pelma and dorsal foot, and destruction of the anterior aspect of foot arch, which seriously affects the foot function...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Luiz Guilherme Darrigo, Alexandre Machado de Sant'Anna Carvalho, Clarisse Martins Machado
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Describe the characteristics of chikungunya, dengue, and Zika in transplant recipients and immunocompromised hosts. RECENT FINDINGS: Stem cell/bone marrow grafts, organs, and blood transfusions can transmit CHIKV/DENV/ZIKV infections, which are clinically similar, resembling influenza-like illness. Laboratory confirmation is necessary. In the acute phase, RT-PCR is preferred. DENV and ZIKV serology may cross-react. Delayed engraftment and extended viruria is observed in ZIKV+/HSCT recipients, while longer viremia is observed in DENV+/HSCT patients...
March 17, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
C P Hawkes, S Mostoufi-Moab
The relationship between fat, bone and systemic metabolism is a growing area of scientific interest. Marrow adipose tissue is a well-recognized component of the bone marrow milieu and is metabolically distinct from current established subtypes of adipose tissue. Despite recent advances, the functional significance of marrow adipose tissue is still not clearly delineated. Bone and fat cells share a common mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) within the bone marrow, and hormones and transcription factors such as growth hormone, leptin, and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor γ influence MSC differentiation into osteoblasts or adipocytes...
March 14, 2018: Bone
Karin Kohlstedt, Caroline Trouvain, Timo Frömel, Thomas Mudersbach, Reinhard Henschler, Ingrid Fleming
In addition to being a peptidase, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) can be phosphorylated and involved in signal transduction. We evaluated the role of ACE in granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-induced hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) mobilization and detected a significant increase in mice-lacking ACE. Transplantation experiments revealed that the loss of ACE in the HPC microenvironment rather than in the HPCs increased mobilization. Indeed, although ACE was expressed by a small population of bone-marrow cells, it was more strongly expressed by endosteal bone...
March 17, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
Kylie Su Mei Yong, Justin Han Jia Ng, Zhisheng Her, Ying Ying Hey, Sue Yee Tan, Wilson Wei Sheng Tan, Sergio Erdal Irac, Min Liu, Xue Ying Chan, Merry Gunawan, Randy Jee Hiang Foo, Dolyce Hong Wen Low, Ian Hewitt Mendenhall, Yok Teng Chionh, Charles-Antoine Dutertre, Qingfeng Chen, Lin-Fa Wang
Bats are an important animal model with long lifespans, low incidences of tumorigenesis and an ability to asymptomatically harbour pathogens. Currently, in vivo studies of bats are hampered due to their low reproduction rates. To overcome this, we transplanted bat cells from bone marrow (BM) and spleen into an immunodeficient mouse strain NOD-scid IL-2R-/- (NSG), and have successfully established stable, long-term reconstitution of bat immune cells in mice (bat-mice). Immune functionality of our bat-mouse model was demonstrated through generation of antigen-specific antibody response by bat cells following immunization...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mitsuru Futakuchi, Takao Nitanda, Saeko Ando, Harutoshi Matsumoto, Eri Yoshimoto, Katsumi Fukamachi, Masumi Suzui
BACKGROUND: We examined the effects of recombinant human osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (hOCIF) on osteolysis, proliferation of mammary tumor cells, and induction of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the tumor-bone and tumor-subcutaneous microenvironments (TB- and TS-microE). METHODS: Mouse mammary tumor cells were transplanted onto the calvaria or into a subcutaneous lesion of female mice, creating a TB-microE and a TS-microE, and the mice were then treated with hOCIF...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kelsey Connelly, David Collister, Navdeep Tangri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with the development of mineral bone disorder (MBD), osteoporosis, and fragility fractures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent findings in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with CKD. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple observational studies have shown that bone mineral density measurement using DEXA is equally predictive in CKD stages 1-3, as in the general population...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
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