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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892270/biomimetic-artificial-basilar-membranes-for-next-generation-cochlear-implants
#1
REVIEW
Jongmoon Jang, Jeong Hun Jang, Hongsoo Choi
Patients with sensorineural hearing loss can recover their hearing using a cochlear implant (CI). However, there is a need to develop next-generation CIs to overcome the limitations of conventional CIs caused by extracorporeal devices. Recently, artificial basilar membranes (ABMs) are actively studied for next-generation CIs. The ABM is an acoustic transducer that mimics the mechanical frequency selectivity of the BM and acoustic-to-electrical energy conversion of hair cells. This paper presents recent progress in biomimetic ABMs...
September 11, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886268/implanted-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells-encapsulated-in-polyvinylidene-fluoride-membrane-cylinders-promote-effective-recovery-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#2
Aiko Yamazaki, Kohya Obara, Natsuko Tohgi, Kyoumi Shirai, Sumiyuki Mii, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Ryoichi Aki, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
Hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are located in the bulge area of the hair follicle, express the stem-cell marker, nestin, and have been shown to differentiate to nerve cells, glial cells, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes. Transplanted HAP stem cells promote the recovery of peripheral nerve and spinal cord injuries and have the potential for heart regeneration as well. In the present study, we implanted mouse HAP stem-cell spheres encapsulated in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-membrane cylinders into the severed sciatic nerve of immunocompetent and immunocompromised (nude) mice...
September 8, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840850/classification-and-current-management-of-inner-ear-malformations
#3
Levent Sennaroğlu, Münir Demir Bajin
Morphologically congenital sensorineural hearing loss can be investigated under two categories. Majority of the congenital hearing loss (80%) are membranous malformations. Here the pathology involves inner ear hair cells. There is no gross bony abnormality and therefore, in these cases, high resolution computerized tomography and MRI of the temporal bone reveal normal findings. Remaining 20% have various malformations involving the bony labyrinth and therefore, can be radiologically demonstrated by CT and MRI...
August 25, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839395/staphylococcus-lugdunensis-and-trichophyton-tonsurans-infection-in-synthetic-hair-implants
#4
Pedro Colli, Antonia Fellas, Ralph M Trüeb
Synthetic hair implants are considered in alopecia when the patient requests an immediate result with minor surgery and with a poor donor area. However, the procedure has historically been marred by poor quality fiber and performance resulting in serious complications. Nevertheless, companies continue to market the procedure with the claim that previous problems have been sorted out. We report a case of inflammation in synthetic hair implants, in which microbiological studies revealed infection with Staphylococcus lugdunensis and Trichophyton tonsurans...
April 2017: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818455/adipose-derived-stromal-cells-enhance-auditory-neuron-survival-in-an-animal-model-of-sensory-hearing-loss
#5
Philipp Schendzielorz, Maike Vollmer, Kristen Rak, Armin Wiegner, Nashwa Nada, Katrin Radeloff, Rudolf Hagen, Andreas Radeloff
BACKGROUND: A cochlear implant (CI) is an electronic prosthesis that can partially restore speech perception capabilities. Optimum information transfer from the cochlea to the central auditory system requires a proper functioning auditory nerve (AN) that is electrically stimulated by the device. In deafness, the lack of neurotrophic support, normally provided by the sensory cells of the inner ear, however, leads to gradual degeneration of auditory neurons with undesirable consequences for CI performance...
August 14, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806331/cochlear-implants-meet-regenerative-biology-state-of-the-science-and-future-research-directions
#6
Alain Dabdoub, Koji Nishimura
: The cochlear implant, the first device to restore a human sense, is an electronic substitute for lost mechanosensory hair cells. It has been successful at providing hearing to people with severe to profound hearing loss and as of 2012, an estimated 324,000 patients worldwide have received cochlear implants. Users of cochlear implants however, suffer from difficulties in processing complex sounds such as music and in discriminating sounds in noisy environments. Recent advances in regenerative biology and medicine are opening new avenues for enhancing the efficacy of cochlear implants by improving the neural interface in the future and offer the possibility of an entirely biological solution for hearing loss in the long term...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806329/physiological-mechanisms-in-combined-electric-acoustic-stimulation
#7
Mika Sato, Peter Baumhoff, Jochen Tillein, Andrej Kral
OBJECTIVE: Electrical stimulation is normally performed on ears that have no hearing function, i.e., lack functional hair cells. The properties of electrically-evoked responses in these cochleae were investigated in several previous studies. Recent clinical developments have introduced cochlear implantation (CI) in residually-hearing ears to improve speech understanding in noise. The present study documents the known physiological differences between electrical stimulation of hair cells and of spiral ganglion cells, respectively, and reviews the mechanisms of combined electric and acoustic stimulation in the hearing ears...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776202/neurotrophin-gene-therapy-in-deafened-ears-with-cochlear-implants-long-term-effects-on-nerve-survival-and-functional-measures
#8
Bryan E Pfingst, Deborah J Colesa, Donald L Swiderski, Aaron P Hughes, Stefan B Strahl, Moaz Sinan, Yehoash Raphael
Because cochlear implants function by stimulating the auditory nerve, it is assumed that the condition of the nerve plays an important role in the efficacy of the prosthesis. Thus, considerable research has been devoted to methods of preserving the nerve following deafness. Neurotrophins have been identified as a potential contributor to neural health, but most of the research to date has been done in young animals and for short periods (less than 3 to 6 months) after the onset of treatment. The first objective of the current experiment was to examine the effects of a neurotrophin gene therapy delivery method on spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) preservation and function in the long term (5 to 14 months) in mature guinea pigs with cochlear implants...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769753/intraoperative-electrocochleographic-characteristics-of-auditory-neuropathy-spectrum-disorder-in-cochlear-implant-subjects
#9
William J Riggs, Joseph P Roche, Christopher K Giardina, Michael S Harris, Zachary J Bastian, Tatyana E Fontenot, Craig A Buchman, Kevin D Brown, Oliver F Adunka, Douglas C Fitzpatrick
Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is characterized by an apparent discrepancy between measures of cochlear and neural function based on auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing. Clinical indicators of ANSD are a present cochlear microphonic (CM) with small or absent wave V. Many identified ANSD patients have speech impairment severe enough that cochlear implantation (CI) is indicated. To better understand the cochleae identified with ANSD that lead to a CI, we performed intraoperative round window electrocochleography (ECochG) to tone bursts in children (n = 167) and adults (n = 163)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766844/timing-of-cochlear-implantation-in-auditory-neuropathy-patients-with-otof-mutations-our-experience-with-10-patients
#10
C C Wu, C J Hsu, F L Huang, Y H Lin, Y H Lin, T C Liu, C M Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713423/discovering-the-unexpected-with-the-utilization-of-ngs-in-diagnostics-of-non-syndromic-hearing-loss-disorders-the-family-case-of-ildr1-dependent-hearing-loss-disorder
#11
Jernej Kovač, Gašper Klančar, Katarina Trebušak Podkrajšek, Saba Battelino
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a heterogeneous family of hearing disabilities with congenital (including genetic) as well as acquired etiology. Congenital SNHL of genetic etiology is further sub-divided into autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive and X-linked SNHL. More than 60 genes are involved in the etiology of autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) commonly manifesting as heterogeneous pre-lingual profound to severe non-progressive clinical phenotype. ILDR1-dependent ARNSHL (DFNB42, OMIM: # 609646) is a very rare sub-type of hearing disability, with unknown prevalence, caused by function-damaging genetic variants in ILDR1 gene reported in families of Middle-Eastern origin...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702978/the-evolution-of-artificial-hair-implantation
#12
M Agrawal, J Lotti, K França, M Fioranelli, M G Roccia, T Lotti
From the beginning, artificial hair implantation has aroused a lot of interest, sometimes controversial, in the field of hair restoration. The artificial fiber must be of high quality and biocompatible. Biofibre® is a very fine fiber having diameter of 80 m. The standard length of this fiber is 15 or 30 cm, to satisfy multiple patient requests. They are available in 13 colors and 3 different shapes (straight, wavy and curly). Artificial hair implant is indicated in all (male and female) cases of androgenetic alopecia, especially for those who show dismal response to medical therapies and have poor donor area supply for hair transplantation...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689433/experimental-and-early-investigational-drugs-for-androgenetic-alopecia
#13
REVIEW
Hongwei Guo, Wendi Victor Gao, Hiromi Endo, Kevin John McElwee
Treatments for androgenetic alopecia constitute a multi-billion-dollar industry, however, currently available therapeutic options have variable efficacy. Consequently, in recent years small biotechnology companies and academic research laboratories have begun to investigate new or improved treatment methods. Research and development approaches include improved formulations and modes of application for current drugs, new drug development, development of cell-based treatments, and medical devices for modulation of hair growth...
August 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688907/face-identity-recognition-in-simulated-prosthetic-vision-is-poorer-than-previously-reported-and-can-be-improved-by-caricaturing
#14
Jessica L Irons, Tamara Gradden, Angel Zhang, Xuming He, Nick Barnes, Adele F Scott, Elinor McKone
The visual prosthesis (or "bionic eye") has become a reality but provides a low resolution view of the world. Simulating prosthetic vision in normal-vision observers, previous studies report good face recognition ability using tasks that allow recognition to be achieved on the basis of information that survives low resolution well, including basic category (sex, age) and extra-face information (hairstyle, glasses). Here, we test within-category individuation for face-only information (e.g., distinguishing between multiple Caucasian young men with hair covered)...
July 14, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680501/methods-of-hearing-preservation-during-cochlear-implantation
#15
REVIEW
Ahmed Khater, Mohammad Waheed El-Anwar
Introduction  Recent advances in surgical techniques and electrode design have made residual hearing preservation during cochlear implantation (CI) possible, achievable, and desirable. Objectives  The objective of this study was to review the literature regarding methods used for hearing preservation during CI surgery. Data Synthesis  We performed a search in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, PubMed databases, and Cochrane Library, using the keywords CI, hearing preservation, CI electrode design, and CI soft surgery...
July 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672008/nanofibrous-scaffolds-for-the-guidance-of-stem-cell-derived-neurons-for-auditory-nerve-regeneration
#16
Sandra Hackelberg, Samuel J Tuck, Long He, Arjun Rastogi, Christina White, Liqian Liu, Diane M Prieskorn, Ryan J Miller, Che Chan, Benjamin R Loomis, Joseph M Corey, Josef M Miller, R Keith Duncan
Impairment of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) of the auditory nerve is a major cause for hearing loss occurring independently or in addition to sensory hair cell damage. Unfortunately, mammalian SGNs lack the potential for autonomous regeneration. Stem cell based therapy is a promising approach for auditory nerve regeneration, but proper integration of exogenous cells into the auditory circuit remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we present novel nanofibrous scaffolds designed to guide the integration of human stem cell-derived neurons in the internal auditory meatus (IAM), the foramen allowing passage of the spiral ganglion to the auditory brainstem...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649555/autosomal-dominant-carvajal-plus-syndrome-due-to-the-novel-desmoplakin-mutation-c-1678a%C3%A2-%C3%A2-t-p-ile560phe
#17
Josef Finsterer, Claudia Stöllberger, Eva Wollmann, Susanne Dertinger, Franco Laccone
BACKGROUND: Carvajal syndrome is an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive disorder, manifesting with dilated cardiomyopathy, woolly hair, and palmoplantar keratoma. Additional manifestations can be occasionally found. Carvajal syndrome may be due to mutations in the desmocollin-2, desmoplakin, or plakophilin-2 gene. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report a family with Carvajal syndrome which additionally presented with hypoacusis, noncompaction, recurrent pharyngeal infections, oligodontia, and recurrent diarrhoea...
September 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573831/auditory-and-otologic-profile-of-alstr%C3%A3-m-syndrome-comprehensive-single-center-data-on-38-patients
#18
Spencer Lindsey, Carmen Brewer, Olga Stakhovskaya, Hung Jeffrey Kim, Chris Zalewski, Joy Bryant, Kelly A King, Jürgen K Naggert, William A Gahl, Jan D Marshall, Meral Gunay-Aygun
Alström syndrome (AS) is a rare autosomal recessive ciliopathy caused by mutations in the ALMS1 gene. Hallmark characteristics include childhood onset of severe retinal degeneration, sensorineural hearing loss, obesity, insulin-resistant diabetes, and cardiomyopathy. Here we comprehensively characterize the auditory and otologic manifestations in a prospective case series of 38 individuals, aged 1.7-37.9 years, with genetically confirmed AS. Hearing loss was preceded by retinal dystrophy in all cases, and had an average age of detection of 7...
August 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532627/regenerative-medicine-in-hearing-recovery
#19
REVIEW
Edi Simoni, Giulia Orsini, Milvia Chicca, Simone Bettini, Valeria Franceschini, Alessandro Martini, Laura Astolfi
Hearing loss, or deafness, affects 360 million people worldwide of which about 32 million are children. Deafness is irreversible when it involves sensory hair cell death because the regenerative ability of these cells is lost in mammals after embryo development. The therapeutic strategies for deafness include hearing aids and/or implantable devices. However, not all patients are eligible or truly benefit from these medical devices. Regenerative medicine based on stem cell application could play a role in both improvement of extant medical devices and in vivo recovery of auditory function by regeneration of inner ear cells and neurons...
May 19, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502649/post-implantation-development-of-red-rumped-agouti-dasyprocta-leporina-linnaeus-1758
#20
Gleidson Benevides de Oliveira, Hélio Noberto de Araújo Júnior, Herson da Silva Costa, Alexandre Rodrigues Silva, Carlos Eduardo Bezerra de Moura, Hugo Alexandre de Oliveira Rocha, Maria Angélica Miglino, Moacir Franco de Oliveira
Fourteen pregnant agouti (Dasyprocta leporina Linnaeus, 1758) females at gestational ages of 30-100days and two at gestational ages of 55-100days, were studied, including 24 embryos/fetuses and two neonates (single offspring from two females). Females were euthanized and embryos/fetuses were examined, measured, and photographed. Embryos at 30days post-copulation were "C-shaped," with paddle-shaped limb buds and 10.75±0.11mm crown-rump length (CRL). In embryos at 35days post-copulation, paddle-shaped forelimbs, fin-shaped pelvic limbs, and a liver bud were evident, with 15...
May 2, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
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