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Nils Kristian Prenzler, Eva Bültmann, Alexandros Giourgas, Melanie Steffens, Rolf Benedikt Salcher, Stefan Stolle, Anke Lesinski-Schiedat, Thomas Lenarz, Martin Durisin
The exact pathomechanism of deafening in Meniere's disease (MD) is still unknown; intoxication of hair cells and neural damage from endolymphatic hydrops is discussed. In the literature, there are only a few reports on hearing outcome of MD patients after treatment with cochlear implantation (CI) whereby especially the comparison of MD vs. non-MD patients with CI differs. In this retrospective study, results in speech understanding [Freiburger Einsilber (FES65) and Hochmair-Schulz-Moser test in quiet (HSM) and in noise (HSM + 10 dB)] of 27 implanted MD patients were collected and compared to a matched standard CI cohort...
October 25, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Nathaniel T Greene, Jameson K Mattingly, Renee M Banakis Hartl, Daniel J Tollin, Stephen P Cass
HYPOTHESIS: Cochlear implant (CI) electrode insertion into the round window induces pressure transients in the cochlear fluid comparable to high-intensity sound transients. BACKGROUND: Many patients receiving a CI have some remaining functional hearing at low frequencies; thus, devices and surgical techniques have been developed to use this residual hearing. To maintain functional acoustic hearing, it is important to retain function of any hair cells and auditory nerve fibers innervating the basilar membrane; however, in a subset of patients, residual low-frequency hearing is lost after CI insertion...
October 5, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
William C Scott, Christopher K Giardina, Andrew K Pappa, Tatyana E Fontenot, Meredith L Anderson, Margaret T Dillon, Kevin D Brown, Harold C Pillsbury, Oliver F Adunka, Craig A Buchman, Douglas C Fitzpatrick
HYPOTHESIS: The compound action potential (CAP) is a purely neural component of the cochlea's response to sound, and may provide information regarding the existing neural substrate in cochlear implant (CI) subjects that can help account for variance in speech perception outcomes. BACKGROUND: Measurement of the "total response" (TR), or sum of the magnitudes of spectral components in the ongoing responses to tone bursts across frequencies, has been shown to account for 40 to 50% of variance in speech perception outcomes...
October 4, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Mahan Azadpour, Robert L Smith
Cochlear implants (CIs) bypass some of the mechanisms that underlie normal neural behavior as occurs in acoustic hearing. One such neural mechanism is short-term adaptation, which has been proposed to have a significant role in speech perception. Acoustically-evoked neural adaptation has been mainly attributed to the depletion of neurotransmitter in the hair-cell to auditory-nerve synapse and is therefore not fully present in CI stimulation. This study evaluated a signal processing method that integrated a physiological model of hair-cell adaptation into CI speech processing...
September 30, 2016: Hearing Research
Gianguido Cossellu, Valeria Motta, Laura Dioni, Laura Angelici, Luisella Vigna, Giampietro Farronato, Angela Cecilia Pesatori, Valentina Bollati
OBJECTIVES: In this study on 90 individuals we aimed at evaluating the microRNAs (miRNAs) expression profile associated with personal levels of Titanium (Ti) and Zirconium (Zr) traced in hair samples. Ti and Zr materials are broadly used for dental implants but the biological reactions triggered by a long term presence of these materials in the oral cavity still need to be assessed. MiRNAs are mechanisms that need to be investigated as they play a fundamental role in the control of gene expression following external stimuli and contribute to a wide range of pathophysiological processes...
2016: PloS One
Marko Takanen, Ian C Bruce, Bernhard U Seeber
Auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) play a crucial role in hearing by encoding and transporting the synaptic input from inner hair cells into afferent spiking information for higher stages of the auditory system. If the inner hair cells are degenerated, cochlear implants may restore hearing by directly stimulating the ANFs. The response of an ANF is affected by several characteristics of the electrical stimulus and of the ANF, and neurophysiological measurements are needed to know how the ANF responds to a particular stimulus...
2016: Network: Computation in Neural Systems
David Rowe, Scott Chambers, Amy Hampson, Hayden Eastwood, Stephen O'Leary
AIM: To determine whether the type of material used to seal the cochlea after round window cochlear implantation influences delayed hearing loss. BACKGROUND: Cochlear implants are now prescribed to patients with residual, low-frequency hearing. This hearing-which provides perceptual benefits for the implanted ear-is frequently lost for unknown reasons weeks to months after surgery in a proportion of patients. A post-surgical change in cochlear mechanics, related to the material used to seal the cochlea after round window implantation, may contribute to this loss...
September 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Clemens Honeder, Chengjing Zhu, Hanna Schöpper, Julia Clara Gausterer, Manuel Walter, Lukas David Landegger, Nodir Saidov, Dominik Riss, Roberto Plasenzotti, Franz Gabor, Christoph Arnoldner
It has been shown that glucocorticoids reduce the hearing threshold shifts associated with cochlear implantation. Previous studies evaluated the administration of glucocorticoids immediately before surgery or the repeated pre- or perioperative systemic application of glucocorticoids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a sustained release dexamethasone hydrogel in hearing preservation cochlear implantation. To address this issue, a guinea pig model of cochlear implantation was used. 30 normal hearing pigmented guinea pigs were randomized into a group receiving a single dose of a dexamethasone/poloxamer407 hydrogel one day prior to surgery, a second group receiving the hydrogel seven days prior to surgery and a control group...
August 9, 2016: Hearing Research
Sheng Li, Fei Chen, Lujun Shen, Qi Zeng, Peihong Wu
BACKGROUND: To study the safety, feasibility and skin effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) for breast tissue and breast cancer in animal models. METHODS: Eight pigs were used in this study. IRE was performed on the left breasts of the pigs with different skin-electrode distances, and the right breasts were used as controls. The electrodes were placed 1-8 mm away from the skin, with an electrode spacing of 1.5-2 cm. Imaging and pathological examinations were performed at specific time points for follow-up evaluation...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Melina I Morkin, Lana M Rifkin, Sabin Dang, Caroline R Baumal
PURPOSE: To report a case of tarantula hair-induced panuveitis treated with sustained-release intravitreal dexamethasone implant and followed by sequential spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging. METHODS: Findings on clinical examination, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, corneal in vivo confocal microscopy, color fundus photos, fluorescein angiography, and retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography are presented. Sequential optical coherence tomography images demonstrated the course of the chorioretinal lesions before and after sustained-release intravitreal dexamethasone implant...
July 28, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Xiaoxiao Wang, Xusheng Wang, Jianjun Liu, Ting Cai, Ling Guo, Shujuan Wang, Jinmei Wang, Yanpei Cao, Jianfeng Ge, Yuyang Jiang, Edward E Tredget, Mengjun Cao, Yaojiong Wu
: : Stem cell-based organ regeneration is purported to enable the replacement of impaired organs in the foreseeable future. Here, we demonstrated that a combination of cultured epidermal stem cells (Epi-SCs) derived from the epidermis and skin-derived precursors (SKPs) was capable of reconstituting functional hair follicles and sebaceous glands (SG). When Epi-SCs and SKPs were mixed in a hydrogel and implanted into an excisional wound in nude mice, the Epi-SCs formed de novo epidermis along with hair follicles, and SKPs contributed to dermal papilla in the neogenic hair follicles...
July 25, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Yasuyuki Amoh, Kensei Katsuoka, Robert M Hoffman
Nestin, a neural stem cell marker protein, is expressed in hair follicle cells above the bulge area. These nestin-positive hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are negative for the keratinocyte marker K15 and can differentiate into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. HAP stem cells are positive for the stem cell marker CD34, as well as K15-negative, suggesting their relatively undifferentiated state. HAP stem cells promoted the functional recovery of injured peripheral nerves and the spinal cord...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
L Ressel, U Hetzel, E Ricci
Veterinary pathologists commonly encounter lesions of blunt trauma. The development of lesions is affected by the object's mass, velocity, size, shape, and angle of impact and by the plasticity and mobility of the impacted organ. Scrape, impact, and pattern abrasions cause localized epidermal loss and sometimes broken hairs and implanted foreign material. Contusions are best identified after reflecting the skin, and must be differentiated from coagulopathies and livor mortis. Lacerations-traumatic tissue tears-may have irregular margins, bridging by more resilient tissue, deviation of the wound tail, crushed hairs, and unilateral abrasion...
September 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Mansher Singh, Joseph A Ricci, Ian F Dunn, Edward J Caterson
BACKGROUND: Titanium cranioplasty is commonly used for surgical closure of skull defects post craniectomy. Superficial implantation of the mesh can result in discomfort, palpability, and in extreme patients, exposure of the mesh. Exposed titanium mesh can be complicated by infections and often requires implant revision or removal. Generally, the contour of the titanium mesh is camouflaged in the hairline of the patient and any aesthetic complication can remain inconspicuous. However, in the frontal bone position the thin hairless forehead skin often may not easily hide the contour of the underlying titanium mesh...
July 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
G Tchernev, M Sheta, M Rahoui, A A Chokoeva, U Wollina, G K Maximov, J W Patterson, M Fioranelli, M G Roccia, J Ananiev, T Lotti
Ensuring the safety of hair implant fibers is essential. At the same time, good aesthetic quality and durability should also be considered in order to maintain expected result over the years. The main features required are biocompatibility, resistance to traction, absence of capillarity, resistance to physical-chemical stress, and low tissue trauma, in addition to good aesthetics. Biofibre® medical hair prosthetic fibers meet all the biocompatibility and safety requirements established by international standards for medical devices...
April 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
O Ramos, G Tchernev, A A Chokoeva, U Wollina, G K Maximov, J W Patterson, M Fioranelli, M G Roccia, J Ananiev, T Lotti
Body image refers to how we feel about our bodies. It does not refer to what we actually look like, but rather to our perceptions, opinions and ways of thinking about our appearance. How we feel about our appearance is part of our body image and self-image. The hair is a significant part of this image. The problem of alopecia affects both sexes and all ages with significant sequelae. Along with androgenetic alopecia, there are forms of alopecia of various origins: traumatic, surgical, pharmacological and others...
April 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
N Kallweit, P Baumhoff, A Krueger, N Tinne, A Kral, T Ripken, H Maier
Optical stimulation of the cochlea with laser light has been suggested as an alternative to conventional treatment of sensorineural hearing loss with cochlear implants. The underlying mechanisms are controversially discussed: The stimulation can either be based on a direct excitation of neurons, or it is a result of an optoacoustic pressure wave acting on the basilar membrane. Animal studies comparing the intra-cochlear optical stimulation of hearing and deafened guinea pigs have indicated that the stimulation requires intact hair cells...
2016: Scientific Reports
Joshua Tam, Ying Wang, Linh N Vuong, Jeremy M Fisher, William A Farinelli, R Rox Anderson
In addition to providing a physical barrier, skin also serves a diverse range of physiological functions through different specialized resident cell types/structures, including melanocytes (pigmentation and protection against ultraviolet radiation), Langerhans cells (adaptive immunity), fibroblasts (maintaining extracellular matrix, paracrine regulation of keratinocytes), sweat glands (thermoregulation) and hair follicles (hair growth, sensation and a stem cell reservoir). Restoration of these functional elements has been a long-standing challenge in efforts to engineer skin tissue, while autologous skin grafting is limited by the scarcity of donor site skin and morbidity caused by skin harvesting...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Muhammed Nurullah Bulut, Ümit Çallı, Eren Göktaş, Kezban Bulut, Baran Kandemir, Yusuf Özertürk
Alexandrite laser is one of the most common methods of hair removal. Its utilization is gradually increasing due to easy accessibility and high effectiveness. However, the disuse of protective goggles during the application of this laser is a serious problem. In this case report, we presented a 35-year-old male patient who had foveal injury by alexandrite laser. The inflammatory process secondary to the foveal injury and subsequent macular edema were treated with Ozurdex because of its potent antiedematous effect...
January 2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
William C Cranwell, Rodney Sinclair
A 46-year-old premenopausal woman presented with familial frontal fibrosis alopecia affecting the temples bilaterally. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically. Her past history included rheumatoid arthritis treated with hydroxychloroquine 400 mg daily and methotrexate 20 mg weekly. Serial intralesional injections of triamcinolone did not limit the progression of hair loss. Treatment with dutasteride 0.1 mg daily and minoxidil 1 mg daily stabilised hair loss and artificial fibre hair transplantation initially led to a satisfactory cosmetic outcome...
June 7, 2016: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
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