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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166510/ecthyma-gangrenosum-a-report-of-eight-cases
#1
César Adrián Martínez-Longoria, Gloria María Rosales-Solis, Jorge Ocampo-Garza, Guillermo Antonio Guerrero-González, Jorge Ocampo-Candiani
Ecthyma gangrenosum is a rare skin infection classically associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We performed a retrospective study of all cases diagnosed with ecthyma gangrenosum from 2004-2010 in a university hospital in Mexico (8 cases, 5 female patients and 3 male patients, ages between 4 months and 2 years). The most common risk factor for ecthyma gangrenosum is neutropenia in immunocompromised patients. In previously healthy patients, immunological evaluation is important to rule out underlying immunodeficiency...
September 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166502/outcomes-of-long-term-treatments-of-type-i-hereditary-angioedema-in-a-turkish-family
#2
Gulsen Akoglu, Belgin Kesim, Gokhan Yildiz, Ahmet Metin
BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited immunodeficiency disorder characterized by potentially life-threatening angioedema attacks. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the clinical and genetic features of a family with angioedema attacks. METHODS: The medical history, clinical features and C1-INH gene mutation of a Turkish family were investigated and outcomes of long-term treatments were described. RESULTS: Five members had experienced recurrent swellings on the face and extremities triggered by trauma...
September 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165954/the-hiv-organ-policy-equity-act-offering-hope-to-individuals-with-end-stage-renal-disease-and-hiv
#3
Emily Arnold
The HIV Organ Policy Equity Act, or HOPE Act, requires the Secretary of Health and Human Services to develop guidelines for research on the transplantation of kidneys and livers from individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into patients with end stage organ failure who are also infected with HIV. Although signed into law in 2013, the guidelines were not finalized until November 2015. Currently, 18 transplant centers that wish to participate in this research have received Institutional Review Board approval...
May 2017: Nephrology Nursing Journal: Journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165579/investigating-mediators-of-the-poor-pneumonia-outcomes-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-exposed-but-uninfected-children
#4
Matthew S Kelly, Jiayin Zheng, Sefelani Boiditswe, Andrew P Steenhoff, Kristen A Feemster, Tonya Arscott-Mills, Boitshepe Seme, Bakgaki Ratshaa, Ikanyeng Rulaganyang, Mohamed Z Patel, Savarra Mantzor, Samir S Shah, Coleen K Cunningham
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus-exposed but uninfected (HIV-EU) children have a higher mortality rate than the children of HIV-negative mothers (HIV-unexposed). Causal mediators of the poor health outcomes of HIV-EU children remain poorly defined. Methods: We conducted a hospital-based prospective cohort study of children aged 1 to 23 months with clinically defined pneumonia. The children were recruited at a referral hospital in Gaborone, Botswana, between April 2012 and June 2016...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165208/case-report-first-coinfection-report-of-mixed-leishmania-infantum-leishmania-major-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-report-of-a-case-of-disseminated-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-iran
#5
Alireza Badirzadeh, Mehdi Mohebali, Sadaf Sabzevari, Majid Ghafoori, Kourosh Arzamani, Mohammad Seyyedin, Seyed Ahmad Hashemi
Visceral leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, is the third most common opportunistic disease in immunosuppressed patients, such as those affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Although the reports have been characterized as Leishmania/HIV coinfections, the occurrence of a mixed infection by two Leishmania species in HIV-positive patients is rare. Here, we present an atypical case of disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) in a 26-year-old HIV-positive man...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165125/nurses-willingness-to-care-for-patients-infected-with-hiv-or-hepatitis-b-c-in-vietnam
#6
Tomohiro Ishimaru, Koji Wada, Huong Thi Xuan Hoang, Anh Thi My Bui, Hung Dinh Nguyen, Hung Le, Derek R Smith
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the factors associated with nurses' willingness to care for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis B or C virus (HBV/HCV) in Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-section of 400 Vietnamese nurses from two hospitals were selected using stratified random sampling, to whom a self-administered questionnaire was administered which included demographic items, previous experience with patients infected with HIV or HBV/HCV, and their attitudes toward these patients...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165087/nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-a-thorough-review-present-status-and-future-perspective-as-hiv-therapeutics
#7
Ashley D Holec, Subhra Mandal, Pavan Kumar Prathipati, Christopher J Destache
Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a severe fatal viral infection that has claimed approximately 658,507 lives in the US within the year 2010-2014. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has proven to inhibit HIV-1, but unlike other viral illness, not cure the infection. Among various Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved ARVs, nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are most effective in limiting HIV-1 infection. This review focuses on NRTIs mechanism of action and metabolism...
November 19, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164648/a-state-transition-framework-for-patient-level-modeling-of-engagement-and-retention-in-hiv-care-using-longitudinal-cohort-data
#8
Hana Lee, Joseph W Hogan, Becky L Genberg, Xiaotian K Wu, Beverly S Musick, Ann Mwangi, Paula Braitstein
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care cascade is a conceptual model used to outline the benchmarks that reflects effectiveness of HIV care in the whole HIV care continuum. The models can be used to identify barriers contributing to poor outcomes along each benchmark in the cascade such as disengagement from care or death. Recently, the HIV care cascade has been widely applied to monitor progress towards HIV prevention and care goals in an attempt to develop strategies to improve health outcomes along the care continuum...
November 22, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164002/biological-therapy-in-arthritis-patients-with-hepatitis-b-or-c-infection-a-multicenter-retrospective-case-series
#9
Sultana Abdulaziz, Hussein Halabi, Mohammed A Omair, Suzan Attar, Abdullah Alghamdi, Mohammed Shabrawishi, Abdulwahab Neyazi, Haneen Alnazzawi, Nuha Meraiani, Hani Almoallim
Objective: Reactivation of viral hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) has been reported in various case reports of patients with arthritis on biological therapy. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of arthritis patients with HBV or HCV treated with biological therapy. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective case series including all patients above 13 years of age with arthritis patients from four centers in Saudi Arabia with concurrent chronic viral hepatitis infection (HBV or HCV) who received biological agents in the rheumatology clinics during their course of their disease from duration of the disease onset until last outpatient visit up to November 2015...
September 2017: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163915/field-deployable-quantitative-rapid-identification-of-active-ebola-virus-infection-in-unprocessed-blood
#10
Kavit Shah, Emma Bentley, Adam Tyler, Kevin S R Richards, Edward Wright, Linda Easterbrook, Diane Lee, Claire Cleaver, Louise Usher, Jane E Burton, James K Pitman, Christine B Bruce, David Edge, Martin Lee, Nelson Nazareth, David A Norwood, Sterghios A Moschos
The West African Ebola virus outbreak underlined the importance of delivering mass diagnostic capability outside the clinical or primary care setting in effectively containing public health emergencies caused by infectious disease. Yet, to date, there is no solution for reliably deploying at the point of need the gold standard diagnostic method, real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), in a laboratory infrastructure-free manner. In this proof of principle work, we demonstrate direct performance of RT-qPCR on fresh blood using far-red fluorophores to resolve fluorogenic signal inhibition and controlled, rapid freeze/thawing to achieve viral genome extraction in a single reaction chamber assay...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163538/efficacy-and-safety-of-a-multistrain-probiotic-formulation-depends-from-manufacturing
#11
Vito Trinchieri, Luca Laghi, Beatrice Vitali, Carola Parolin, Ilaria Giusti, Daniela Capobianco, Paola Mastromarino, Claudio De Simone
Background: Variability in probiotics manufacturing may affect their properties, with potential implications for their efficacy and safety. This is of particular concern with probiotic products destined for use in patients with serious medical conditions, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The purpose of the study was to carry out a series of experiments comparing the properties of the US-made probiotic formulation originally commercialized under the brand name VSL#3(®), with those of the Italian-made formulation now commercialized under the same name...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163506/the-significance-of-type-i-interferons-in-the-pathogenesis-and-therapy-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection
#12
REVIEW
Bowen Wang, Wen Kang, Jiahui Zuo, Wenzhen Kang, Yongtao Sun
Type-I interferons (IFN-I) are a widely expressed family that could promote antivirus immunity in the process of pathogens invasion. In a human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected individual, the production of IFN-I can be detected as early as the acute phase and will persist throughout the course of infection. However, sustained stimulation of immune system by IFN-I also contributes greatly to host-mediated immunopathology and diseases progression. Although the protective effects of IFN-I in the acute phase of HIV-1 infection have been observed, more studies recently focus on their detrimental role in the chronic stage...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163495/human-cd141-dendritic-cell-and-cd1c-dendritic-cell-undergo-concordant-early-genetic-programming-after-activation-in-humanized-mice-in-vivo
#13
Yoshihito Minoda, Isaac Virshup, Ingrid Leal Rojas, Oscar Haigh, Yide Wong, John J Miles, Christine A Wells, Kristen J Radford
Human immune cell subsets develop in immunodeficient mice following reconstitution with human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells. These "humanized" mice are useful models to study human immunology and human-tropic infections, autoimmunity, and cancer. However, some human immune cell subsets are unable to fully develop or acquire full functional capacity due to a lack of cross-reactivity of many growth factors and cytokines between species. Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) in mice are categorized into cDC1, which mediate T helper (Th)1 and CD8(+) T cell responses, and cDC2, which mediate Th2 and Th17 responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163486/structure-and-diversity-of-the-rhesus-macaque-immunoglobulin-loci-through-multiple-de-novo-genome-assemblies
#14
Akshaya Ramesh, Sam Darko, Axin Hua, Glenn Overman, Amy Ransier, Joseph R Francica, Ashley Trama, Georgia D Tomaras, Barton F Haynes, Daniel C Douek, Thomas B Kepler
The rhesus macaque is a critically important animal model in biomedical research, most recently playing a key role in the development of vaccines against human immunodeficiency virus-1. Nevertheless, the immunoglobulin (Ig) loci of macaques are as yet incompletely determined and our understanding of differences between human and macaque humoral immunity remains deficient. We completed a high-coverage, high-quality whole genome sequencing and assembly project with a single rhesus macaque of Indian origin, and partial genome assemblies using genomic molecular targeting of the Ig loci in nine other rhesus macaques of Indian origin...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163484/tracking-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection-in-the-humanized-drag-mouse-model
#15
Jiae Kim, Kristina K Peachman, Ousman Jobe, Elaine B Morrison, Atef Allam, Linda Jagodzinski, Sofia A Casares, Mangala Rao
Humanized mice are emerging as an alternative model system to well-established non-human primate (NHP) models for studying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 biology and pathogenesis. Although both NHP and humanized mice have their own strengths and could never truly reflect the complex human immune system and biology, there are several advantages of using the humanized mice in terms of using primary HIV-1 for infection instead of simian immunodeficiency virus or chimera simian/HIV. Several different types of humanized mice have been developed with varying levels of reconstitution of human CD45(+) cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163468/the-role-of-natural-antibodies-to-cc-chemokine-receptor-5-in-hiv-infection
#16
REVIEW
Assunta Venuti, Claudia Pastori, Lucia Lopalco
The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is responsible for immune and inflammatory responses by mediation of chemotactic activity in leukocytes, although it is expressed on different cell types. It has been shown to act as co-receptor for the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV). Natural reactive antibodies (Abs) recognizing first loop (ECL1) of CCR5 have been detected in several pools of immunoglobulins from healthy donors and from several cohorts of either HIV-exposed but uninfected subjects (ESN) or HIV-infected individuals who control disease progression (LTNP) as well...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163435/evolutionary-analysis-of-hiv-1-pol-proteins-reveals-representative-residues-for-viral-subtype-differentiation
#17
Shohei Nagata, Junnosuke Imai, Gakuto Makino, Masaru Tomita, Akio Kanai
RNA viruses have been used as model systems to understand the patterns and processes of molecular evolution because they have high mutation rates and are genetically diverse. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), the etiological agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, is highly genetically diverse, and is classified into several groups and subtypes. However, it has been difficult to use its diverse sequences to establish the overall phylogenetic relationships of different strains or the trends in sequence conservation with the construction of phylogenetic trees...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163402/pharmacological-induction-of-heme-oxygenase-1-impairs-nuclear-accumulation-of-herpes-simplex-virus-capsids-upon-infection
#18
Francisco J Ibáñez, Mónica A Farías, Angello Retamal-Díaz, Janyra A Espinoza, Alexis M Kalergis, Pablo A González
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible enzyme that is expressed in response to physical and chemical stresses, such as ultraviolet radiation, hyperthermia, hypoxia, reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as cytokines, among others. Its activity can be positively modulated by cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) and negatively by tin protoporphirin (SnPP). Once induced, HO-1 degrades iron-containing heme into ferrous iron (Fe(2+)), carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin. Importantly, numerous products of HO-1 are cytoprotective with anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163336/two-novel-mutations-associated-with-ataxia-telangiectasia-identified-using-an-ion-ampliseq-inherited-disease-panel
#19
Maria V Kuznetsova, Dmitry Yu Trofimov, Ekaterina S Shubina, Taisiya O Kochetkova, Natalia A Karetnikova, Ilya Yu Barkov, Vladimir A Bakharev, Oleg A Gusev, Gennady T Sukhikh
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), or Louis-Bar syndrome, is a rare neurodegenerative disorder associated with immunodeficiency. For families with at least one affected child, timely A-T genotyping during any subsequent pregnancy allows the parents to make an informed decision about whether to continue to term when the fetus is affected. Mutations in the ATM gene, which is 150 kb long, give rise to A-T; more than 600 pathogenic variants in ATM have been characterized since 1990 and new mutations continue to be discovered annually...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163330/white-matter-changes-in-hiv-women-with-a-history-of-cocaine-dependence
#20
Kathryn-Mary Wakim, Ciara J Molloy, Ryan P Bell, Lars A Ross, John J Foxe
Cocaine use is associated with the transmission of human immunodeficiency (HIV) virus through risky sexual behavior. In HIV+ individuals, cocaine use is linked with poor health outcomes, including HIV-medication non-adherence and faster disease progression. Both HIV and cocaine dependence are associated with reduced integrity of cerebral white matter (WM), but the effects of HIV during cocaine abstinence have not yet been explored. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to understand the effect of combined HIV+ serostatus and former cocaine dependence on cerebral WM integrity...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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