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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934432/intestinal-damage-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-exposed-and-hiv-infected-zimbabwean-infants
#1
Andrew J Prendergast, Bernard Chasekwa, Sandra Rukobo, Margaret Govha, Kuda Mutasa, Robert Ntozini, Jean H Humphrey
Background: Disease progression is rapid in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected infants. Whether intestinal damage and inflammation underlie mortality is unknown. Methods: We measured plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) at 6 weeks and 6 months of age in 272 HIV-infected infants who either died (cases) or survived (controls), and in 194 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and 197 HIV-unexposed infants...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934428/hiv-infected-children-have-elevated-levels-of-pd-1-memory-cd4-t-cells-with-low-proliferative-capacity-and-high-inflammatory-cytokine-effector-functions
#2
Julia Foldi, Lina Kozhaya, Bret McCarty, Mussa Mwamzuka, Fatma Marshed, Tiina Ilmet, Max Kilberg, Adam Kravietz, Aabid Ahmed, William Borkowsky, Derya Unutmaz, Alka Khaitan
Background: During human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, chronic immune activation leads to T-cell exhaustion. PD-1 identifies "exhausted" CD8 T cells with impaired HIV-specific effector functions, but its role on CD4 T cells and in HIV-infected children is poorly understood. Methods: In a Kenyan cohort of vertically HIV-infected children, we measured PD-1+ CD4 T-cell frequencies and phenotype by flow cytometry and their correlation with HIV disease progression and immune activation...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934422/low-frequency-of-acquired-isoniazid-and-rifampicin-resistance-in-rifampicin-susceptible-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-setting-of-high-hiv-1-infection-and-tuberculosis-coprevalence
#3
Neesha Rockwood, Frederick Sirgel, Elizabeth Streicher, Robin Warren, Graeme Meintjes, Robert J Wilkinson
Background: We estimated the incidence of acquired isoniazid and rifampicin resistance in rifampicin-susceptible tuberculosis in a setting of high human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and tuberculosis coprevalence. Methods: GeneXpert MTB/RIF-confirmed patients with rifampicin-susceptible tuberculosis were recruited at antituberculosis treatment initiation in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Liquid culture and adherence assessment were performed at 2 and 5-6 months...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934420/higher-prevalence-and-faster-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-middle-aged-individuals-compared-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-uninfected-controls
#4
Katherine W Kooij, Liffert Vogt, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Marc van der Valk, Rosan A van Zoest, Abraham Goorhuis, Maria Prins, Frank A Post, Peter Reiss
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are at increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Human immunodeficiency virus infection, traditional CKD risk factors, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may all contribute. Methods: We compared prevalence of renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73m2), albuminuria (albumin/creatinine ratio ≥3 mg/mmol), and proximal renal tubular dysfunction (retinol-binding protein/creatinine ratio >2...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934316/pathogenesis-of-oral-fiv-infection
#5
Craig Miller, Karen Boegler, Scott Carver, Martha MacMillan, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Sue VandeWoude
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is the feline analogue of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and features many hallmarks of HIV infection and pathogenesis, including the development of concurrent oral lesions. While HIV is typically transmitted via parenteral transmucosal contact, recent studies prove that oral transmission can occur, and that saliva from infected individuals contains significant amounts of HIV RNA and DNA. While it is accepted that FIV is primarily transmitted by biting, few studies have evaluated FIV oral infection kinetics and transmission mechanisms over the last 20 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934209/microbial-translocation-is-correlated-with-hiv-evolution-in-hiv-hcv-co-infected-patients
#6
Jean-Jacques Tudesq, Catherine Dunyach-Remy, Christophe Combescure, Régine Doncesco, Didier Laureillard, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Albert Sotto
Microbial translocation (MT) is characterized by bacterial products passing into the blood through the gut barrier and is a key phenomenon in the pathophysiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. MT is also associated with liver damage in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) patients. The aim of the study was to assess MT in plasma of HIV-HCV co-infected patients. 16S rDNA (16 S Ribosomal DNA subunit) marker and other markers of MT such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) were used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934185/hiv-care-outcomes-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-with-diagnosed-hiv-infection-united-states-2015
#7
Sonia Singh, Andrew Mitsch, Baohua Wu
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (collectively referred to as MSM) represent approximately 2% of the U.S. population (1), yet in 2015, MSM accounted for 70% of all diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, including 3% who also were persons who inject drugs (2). During 2008-2014, incidence of HIV infection decreased for groups in all transmission categories except MSM (3). Testing, linkage to and retention in care, and viral suppression are important in reducing HIV transmission...
September 22, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934179/quickstats-human-immunodeficiency-virus-disease-death-rates-among-women-aged-45-64-years-by-race-and-age-group-national-vital-statistics-system-united-states-2000-2015
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934178/update-to-cdc-s-u-s-medical-eligibility-criteria-for-contraceptive-use-2016-revised-recommendations-for-the-use-of-hormonal-contraception-among-women-at-high-risk-for-hiv-infection
#9
Naomi K Tepper, Jamie W Krashin, Kathryn M Curtis, Shanna Cox, Maura K Whiteman
CDC's U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (U.S. MEC) (first published in 2010 and updated in 2016) provides evidence-based guidance for the safe use of contraceptive methods among U.S. women with certain characteristics or medical conditions (1), and is adapted from global guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) and kept up to date based on continual review of published literature (2).* CDC recently evaluated the evidence and the updated WHO guidance on the risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition among women using hormonal contraception...
September 22, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933218/effects-of-human-es-derived-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-and-kindling-in-a-rat-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Stefania Beretta, Kelly M Cunningham, Daniel L Haus, Eric M Gold, Harvey Perez, Luci López-Velázquez, Brian J Cummings
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the population worldwide, with a broad spectrum of symptoms and disabilities. Posttraumatic hyperexcitability is one of the most common neurological disorders that affect people after a head injury. A reliable animal model of posttraumatic hyperexcitability induced by TBI which allows one to test effective treatment strategies is yet to be developed. To address these issues, in the present study, we tested human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation in an animal model of posttraumatic hyperexcitability in which the brain injury was produced in one hemisphere of immunodeficient athymic nude rats by controlled cortical impact, and spontaneous seizures were produced by repeated electrical stimulation (kindling) in the contralateral hemisphere...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932937/foxn1-deficiency-from-the-discovery-to-novel-therapeutic-approaches
#11
REVIEW
Vera Gallo, Emilia Cirillo, Giuliana Giardino, Claudio Pignata
Since the discovery of FOXN1 deficiency, the human counterpart of the nude mouse, a growing body of evidence investigating the role of FOXN1 in thymus and skin, has been published. FOXN1 has emerged as fundamental for thymus development, function, and homeostasis, representing the master regulator of thymic epithelial and T cell development. In the skin, it also plays a pivotal role in keratinocytes and hair follicle cell differentiation, although the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain to be fully elucidated...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932644/romidepsin-alone-or-in-combination-with-anti-cd20-chimeric-antigen-receptor-expanded-natural-killer-cells-targeting-burkitt-lymphoma-in-vitro-and-in-immunodeficient-mice
#12
Yaya Chu, Ashlin Yahr, Brian Huang, Janet Ayello, Matthew Barth, Mitchell S Cairo
Facilitating the development of alternative targeted therapeutic strategies is urgently required to improve outcome or circumvent chemotherapy resistance in children, adolescents, and adults with recurrent/refractory de novo mature B-cell (CD20) non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including Burkitt lymphoma (BL). Romidepsin, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), has been used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. We have demonstrated the significant anti-tumor effect of anti-CD20 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified expanded peripheral blood natural killer (exPBNK) against rituximab-sensitive and -resistant BL...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932610/pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-non-hiv-pregnant-women-receiving-chemotherapy-for-malignant-lymphoma-two-case-reports
#13
Yuki Fukutani, Yoshitsugu Chigusa, Eiji Kondoh, Kaoru Kawasaki, Shingo Io, Noriomi Matsumura
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening opportunistic infection that sometimes occurs in immunocompromised patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here, we report two extremely rare cases of PCP in non-HIV pregnant women who underwent chemotherapy for malignant lymphoma. Case  1 is a 34-year-old primigravida who was diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma. She received ABVD chemotherapy and developed PCP at 37 weeks of gestation. After the onset of PCP, emergent cesarean section was performed due to a nonreassuring fetal status...
2017: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932365/causal-role-of-infectious-agents-in-cancer-an-overview
#14
REVIEW
Jila Masrour-Roudsari, Soheil Ebrahimpour
Cancer is a complex group of diseases with multiple eventual causes. The underlying causes are not fully known. Thus, learning more about the known causes of cancer is an important issue. Moreover, among these factors, infection and its association to cancers is controversial. Although, it seems that the genome instability of the cells can initiate cancer development. The purpose of this review was to present the role of infection in the development of cancer. Infectious agents, such as hepatitis B (HBV) and C viruses (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human papillomavirus (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), Helicobacter pylori (H...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931862/long-non-coding-rna-hotair-promotes-cell-migration-by-upregulating-insulin-growth-factor-binding-protein-2-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#15
Hiromichi Katayama, Keiichi Tamai, Rie Shibuya, Mao Nakamura, Mai Mochizuki, Kazunori Yamaguchi, Sadafumi Kawamura, Tatsuo Tochigi, Ikuro Sato, Takamasa Okanishi, Kunie Sakurai, Wataru Fujibuchi, Yoichi Arai, Kennichi Satoh
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most lethal urologic cancers. About one-third of RCC patients already have distal metastasis at the time of diagnosis. There is growing evidence that Hox antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) plays essential roles in metastasis in several types of cancers. However, the precise mechanism by which HOTAIR enhances malignancy remains unclear, especially in RCC. Here, we demonstrated that HOTAIR enhances RCC-cell migration by regulating the insulin growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) expression...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931691/vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-c-virus-variable-transmission-bottleneck-and-evidence-of-mid-gestation-in-utero-infection
#16
Sébastien Fauteux-Daniel, Ariane Larouche, Virginie Calderon, Jonathan Boulais, Chanel Béland, Doris G Ransy, Marc Boucher, Valérie Lamarre, Normand Lapointe, Isabelle Boucoiran, Armelle Le Campion, Hugo Soudeyns
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth. However, the timing and precise biologic mechanisms that are involved in this process are incompletely understood, as are the determinants that influence transmission of particular HCV variants. Here we report results of a longitudinal assessment of HCV quasispecies diversity and composition in 5 cases of vertical HCV transmission, including 3 women coinfected with HIV-1. The population structure of HCV variant spectra based on E2 envelope gene sequences (nucleotide positions 1491-1787), including hypervariable regions 1 and 2, was characterized using next-generation sequencing and median joining network analysis...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931681/insights-into-the-impact-of-cd8-immune-modulation-on-hiv-evolutionary-dynamics-in-distinct-anatomical-compartments-using-siv-infected-macaque-models-of-aids-progression
#17
Brittany Rife Magalis, David J Nolan, Patrick Autissier, Tricia H Burdo, Kenneth C Williams, Marco Salemi
A thorough understanding of the role of HIV intra-host evolution in AIDS pathogenesis has been limited by the need for longitudinally sampled viral sequences from the vast target space within the host, which are often difficult to obtain from human subjects. CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) provide an increasingly utilized model of pathogenesis due to similar clinical manifestations as HIV-1 infection and AIDS progression, as well as characteristic rapid disease onset...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931679/pathogenic-correlates-of-the-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv-associated-b-cell-dysfunction
#18
Egidio Brocca-Cofano, David Kuhrt, Basile Siewe, Cuiling Xu, George S Haret-Richter, Jodi Craigo, Celia Labranche, David C Montefiori, Alan Landay, Cristian Apetrei, Ivona Pandrea
We compared and contrasted pathogenic (pigtailed macaques-PTMs) and nonpathogenic (African green monkeys-AGMs) SIVsab infections to assess the significance of the B-cell dysfunction observed in SIV/HIV infection. We report that the loss of B cells is specifically associated with the pathogenic SIV infection, while in the nonpathogenic natural hosts B cells rapidly increase in both LNs and intestine. SIV-associated B-cell dysfunction associated to the pathogenic SIV infection is characterized by loss of naïve B cells; loss of resting memory B cells due to their redistribution to the gut; increases of the activated B cells and circulating tissue-like memory B cells and expansion of the B regulatory cells...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931519/beta-cell-replacement-in-mice-using-human-type-1-diabetes-nuclear-transfer-embryonic-stem-cells
#19
Lina Sui, Nichole Danzl, Sean R Campbell, Ryan Viola, Damian Williams, Yuan Xing, Yong Wang, Neil Phillips, Greg Poffenberger, Bjarki Johannesson, Jose Oberholzer, Alvin C Powers, Rudolph L Leibel, Xiaojuan Chen, Megan Sykes, Dieter Egli
Beta cells derived from stem cells hold great promise for cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Here we examine the ability of nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (NT-ES) derived from a type 1 diabetes patient to differentiate into beta cells, and provide a source of autologous islets for cell replacement. NT-ES cells differentiate in vitro with an average efficiency of 55% into C-peptide-positive cells, expressing markers of mature beta cells, including MAFA and NKX6.1. Upon transplantation in immunodeficient mice, grafted cells form vascularized islet-like structures containing MAFA/C-peptide-positive cells...
September 20, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931394/the-efficacy-of-initial-ventilation-strategy-for-adult-immunocompromised-patients-with-severe-acute-hypoxemic-respiratory-failure-study-protocol-for-a-multicentre-randomized-controlled-trial-venim
#20
Tao Wang, Gang Liu, Kun He, Xin Lu, Xianquan Liang, Meng Wang, Rong Zhu, Zongru Li, Feng Chen, Jun Ke, Qingming Lin, Chuanyun Qian, Bo Li, Jie Wei, Jingjun Lv, Li Li, Yanxia Gao, Guofeng Wu, Xiaohong Yu, Weiqin Wei, Ying Deng, Fengping Wang, Hong Zhang, Yun Zheng, Hong Zhan, Jinli Liao, Yingping Tian, Dongqi Yao, Jingsong Zhang, Xufeng Chen, Lishan Yang, Jiali Wu, Yanfen Chai, Songtao Shou, Muming Yu, Xudong Xiang, Dongshan Zhang, Fengying Chen, Xiufeng Xie, Yong Li, Bo Wang, Wenzhong Zhang, Yongli Miao, Michael Eddleston, Jianqiang He, Yong Ma, Shengyong Xu, Yi Li, Huadong Zhu, Xuezhong Yu
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is still one of the most severe complications in immunocompromised patients. Our previous systematic review showed noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) reduced mortality, length of hospitalization and ICU stay in AIDS/hematological malignancy patients with relatively less severe ARF, compared to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). However, this systematic review was based on 13 observational studies and the quality of evidence was low to moderate...
September 20, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
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