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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208799/microbial-detoxification-of-deoxynivalenol-don-assessed-via-a-lemna-minor-l-bioassay-through-biotransformation-to-3-epi-don-and-3-epi-dom-1
#1
Ilse Vanhoutte, Laura De Mets, Marthe De Boevre, Valdet Uka, José Diana Di Mavungu, Sarah De Saeger, Leen De Gelder, Kris Audenaert
Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungi. To mitigate mycotoxins in food or feed, biotransformation is an emerging technology in which microorganisms degrade toxins into non-toxic metabolites. To monitor deoxynivalenol (DON) biotransformation, analytical tools such as ELISA and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are typically used. However, these techniques do not give a decisive answer about the remaining toxicity of possible biotransformation products. Hence, a bioassay using Lemna minor L...
February 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190578/quarter-dose-quadruple-combination-therapy-for-initial-treatment-of-hypertension-placebo-controlled-crossover-randomised-trial-and-systematic-review
#2
Clara K Chow, Jay Thakkar, Alex Bennett, Graham Hillis, Michael Burke, Tim Usherwood, Kha Vo, Kris Rogers, Emily Atkins, Ruth Webster, Michael Chou, Hakim-Moulay Dehbi, Abdul Salam, Anushka Patel, Bruce Neal, David Peiris, Henry Krum, John Chalmers, Mark Nelson, Christopher M Reid, Mark Woodward, Sarah Hilmer, Simon Thom, Anthony Rodgers
BACKGROUND: Globally, most patients with hypertension are treated with monotherapy, and control rates are poor because monotherapy only reduces blood pressure by around 9/5 mm Hg on average. There is a pressing need for blood pressure-control strategies with improved efficacy and tolerability. We aimed to assess whether ultra-low-dose combination therapy could meet these needs. METHODS: We did a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial of a quadpill-a single capsule containing four blood pressure-lowering drugs each at quarter-dose (irbesartan 37·5 mg, amlodipine 1·25 mg, hydrochlorothiazide 6·25 mg, and atenolol 12·5 mg)...
February 9, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149782/six-year-outcomes-in-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration-with-ranibizumab
#3
Julie Jacob, Heidi Brié, Anita Leys, Laurent Levecq, Filip Mergaerts, Kris Denhaerynck, Stefaan Vancayzeele, Eline Van Craeyveld, Ivo Abraham, Karen MacDonald
AIM: To evaluate the outcomes of ≥6y ranibizumab therapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: HELIX was a retrospective, observational effectiveness study using medical records of patients treated in three clinics in Belgium. Patients had neovascular AMD and were initially treated with intravitreal ranibizumab (0.5 mg) between November 1, 2007 and October 31, 2008, had ≥6y of data available, and were treated on an ongoing, as-needed basis...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147693/inverse-collimated-proton-radiography-for-imaging-thin-materials
#4
Matthew S Freeman, Jason Allison, Malcolm Andrews, Eric Ferm, John J Goett, Kris Kwiatkowski, Julian Lopez, Fesseha Mariam, Mark Marr-Lyon, Michael Martinez, Jason Medina, Patrick Medina, Frank E Merrill, Chris L Morris, Matthew M Murray, Paul Nedrow, Levi P Neukirch, Katherine Prestridge, Paolo Rigg, Alexander Saunders, Tamsen Schurman, Amy Tainter, Frans Trouw, Dale Tupa, Josh Tybo, Wendy Vogan-McNeil, Carl Wilde
Relativistic, magnetically focused proton radiography was invented at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the 800 MeV LANSCE beam and is inherently well-suited to imaging dense objects, at areal densities >20 g cm(-2). However, if the unscattered portion of the transmitted beam is removed at the Fourier plane through inverse-collimation, this system becomes highly sensitive to very thin media, of areal densities <100 mg cm(-2). Here, this inverse-collimation scheme is described in detail and demonstrated by imaging Xe gas with a shockwave generated by an aluminum plate compressing the gas at Mach 8...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073786/phase-1-study-of-twice-weekly-pulse-dose-and-daily-low-dose-erlotinib-as-initial-treatment-for-patients-with-egfr-mutant-lung-cancers
#5
H A Yu, C Sima, D Feldman, L L Liu, B Vaitheesvaran, J Cross, C M Rudin, M G Kris, W Pao, F Michor, G J Riely
BACKGROUND: Patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) develop clinical resistance, most commonly with acquisition of EGFR T790M. Evolutionary modeling suggests that a schedule of twice weekly pulse and daily low-dose erlotinib may delay emergence of EGFR T790M. Pulse dose erlotinib has superior central nervous system (CNS) penetration and may result in superior CNS disease control. METHODS: We evaluated toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of twice weekly pulse and daily low-dose erlotinib...
October 25, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059869/a-longitudinal-supra-inguinal-fascia-iliaca-compartment-block-reduces-morphine-consumption-after-total-hip-arthroplasty
#6
Matthias Desmet, Kris Vermeylen, Imré Van Herreweghe, Laurence Carlier, Filiep Soetens, Stijn Lambrecht, Kathleen Croes, Hans Pottel, Marc Van de Velde
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The role of a fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) for postoperative analgesia after total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains questionable. High-dose local anesthetics and a proximal injection site may be essential for successful analgesia. High-dose local anesthetics may pose a risk for local anesthetic systemic toxicity. We hypothesized that a high-dose longitudinal supra-inguinal FICB is safe and decreases postoperative morphine consumption after anterior approach THA...
January 3, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031418/peripheral-inflammatory-biomarkers-for-myocardial-infarction-risk-a-prospective-community-based-study
#7
Zhijun Wu, Zhe Huang, Wei Jin, Eric B Rimm, Alice H Lichtenstein, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Shouling Wu, Xiang Gao
BACKGROUND: Most previous studies regarding chronic inflammation and risk of myocardial infarction (MI) have lacked repeated measures of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and/or white blood cell (WBC) count over time. We examined whether cumulative average and longitudinal changes in these biomarkers were associated with subsequent MI risk. METHODS: In this prospective, community-based study, we included 82544 Chinese participants [66796 men and 15748 women; mean (SD) age 55...
December 28, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825636/cabozantinib-in-patients-with-advanced-ret-rearranged-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-an-open-label-single-centre-phase-2-single-arm-trial
#8
Alexander Drilon, Natasha Rekhtman, Maria Arcila, Lu Wang, Andy Ni, Melanie Albano, Martine Van Voorthuysen, Romel Somwar, Roger S Smith, Joseph Montecalvo, Andrew Plodkowski, Michelle S Ginsberg, Gregory J Riely, Charles M Rudin, Marc Ladanyi, Mark G Kris
BACKGROUND: RET rearrangements are found in 1-2% of non-small-cell lung cancers. Cabozantinib is a multikinase inhibitor with activity against RET that produced a 10% overall response in unselected patients with lung cancers. To assess the activity of cabozantinib in patients with RET-rearranged lung cancers, we did a prospective phase 2 trial in this molecular subgroup. METHODS: We enrolled patients in this open-label, Simon two-stage, single-centre, phase 2, single-arm trial in the USA if they met the following criteria: metastatic or unresectable lung cancer harbouring a RET rearrangement, Karnofsky performance status higher than 70, and measurable disease...
December 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820160/cross-centre-replication-of-suppressed-burrowing-behaviour-as-an-ethologically-relevant-pain-outcome-measure-in-the-rat-a-prospective-multicentre-study
#9
Rachel Wodarski, Ada Delaney, Camilla Ultenius, Rosie Morland, Nick Andrews, Catherine Baastrup, Luke A Bryden, Ombretta Caspani, Thomas Christoph, Natalie J Gardiner, Wenlong Huang, Jeffrey D Kennedy, Suguru Koyama, Dominic Li, Marcin Ligocki, Annika Lindsten, Ian Machin, Anton Pekcec, Angela Robens, Sanziana M Rotariu, Sabrina VoB, Marta Segerdahl, Carina Stenfors, Camilla I Svensson, Rolf-Detlef Treede, Katsuhiro Uto, Kazumi Yamamoto, Kris Rutten, Andrew S C Rice
Burrowing, an ethologically relevant rodent behaviour, has been proposed as a novel outcome measure to assess the global impact of pain in rats. In a prospective multicentre study using male rats (Wistar, Sprague-Dawley), replication of suppressed burrowing behaviour in the complete Freund adjuvant (CFA)-induced model of inflammatory pain (unilateral, 1 mg/mL in 100 µL) was evaluated in 11 studies across 8 centres. Following a standard protocol, data from participating centres were collected centrally and analysed with a restricted maximum likelihood-based mixed model for repeated measures...
October 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819799/dehydration-of-bacteriophages-in-electrospun-nanofibers-effect-of-excipients-in-polymeric-solutions
#10
Charmaine K W Koo, Kris Senecal, Andre Senecal, Sam R Nugen
Bacteriophages are viruses capable of infecting and lysing target bacterial cells; as such they have potential applications in agriculture for decontamination of foods, food contact surfaces and food rinse water. Although bacteriophages can retain infectivity long-term using lyophilized storage, the process of freeze-drying can be time consuming and expensive. In this study, electrospinning was used for dehydrating bacteriophages in polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer solutions with addition of excipients (sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, Tris-HCl, sucrose) in deionized water...
December 2, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720917/tetrahydrocannabinol-does-not-reduce-pain-in-patients-with-chronic-abdominal-pain-in-a-phase-2-placebo-controlled-study
#11
Marjan de Vries, Dagmar C M van Rijckevorsel, Kris C P Vissers, Oliver H G Wilder-Smith, Harry van Goor
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Delta-9-atetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most abundant cannabinoid from the plant Cannabis sativa. There is only equivocal evidence that THC has analgesic effects. We performed a phase 2 controlled trial to evaluate the analgesic efficacy, pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of an oral tablet containing purified THC in patients with chronic abdominal pain. METHODS: Sixty-five patients with chronic abdominal pain for 3 months or more (numeric rating scale scores of 3 or more) after surgery or because of chronic pancreatitis were randomly assigned to groups given the THC tablet or identical matching placebos for 50-52 days...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643836/cross-centre-replication-of-suppressed-burrowing-behaviour-as-an-ethologically-relevant-pain-outcome-measure-in-the-rat-a-prospective-multicentre-study
#12
Rachel Wodarski, Ada Delaney, Camilla Ultenius, Rosie Morland, Nick Andrews, Catherine Baastrup, Luke A Bryden, Ombretta Caspani, Thomas Christoph, Natalie J Gardiner, Wenlong Huang, Jeffrey D Kennedy, Suguru Koyama, Dominic Li, Marcin Ligocki, Annika Lindsten, Ian Machin, Anton Pekcec, Angela Robens, Sanziana M Rotariu, Sabrina Vo, Marta Segerdahl, Carina Stenfors, Camilla I Svensson, Rolf-Detlef Treede, Katsuhiro Uto, Kazumi Yamamoto, Kris Rutten, Andrew S C Rice
Burrowing, an ethologically relevant rodent behaviour, has been proposed as a novel outcome measure to assess the global impact of pain in rats. In a prospective multicentre study using male rats (Wistar, Sprague-Dawley), replication of suppressed burrowing behaviour in the complete Freund adjuvant (CFA)-induced model of inflammatory pain (unilateral, 1 mg/mL in 100 µL) was evaluated in 11 studies across 8 centres. Following a standard protocol, data from participating centres were collected centrally and analysed with a restricted maximum likelihood-based mixed model for repeated measures...
October 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635325/anxiolytic-effects-of-fluoxetine-and-nicotine-exposure-on-exploratory-behavior-in-zebrafish
#13
Matthew L Singer, Kris Oreschak, Zachariah Rhinehart, Barrie D Robison
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have emerged as a popular model for studying the pharmacology and behavior of anxiety. While there have been numerous studies documenting the anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects of common drugs in zebrafish, many do not report or test for behavioral differences between the sexes. Previous studies have indicated that males and females differ in their baseline level of anxiety. In this study, we test for a sex interaction with fluoxetine and nicotine. We exposed fish to system water (control), 10 mg/L fluoxetine, or 1 mg/L nicotine for three minutes prior to being subjected to four minutes in an open-field drop test...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533287/evaluation-of-proton-pump-inhibitor-use-on-treatment-outcomes-with-ledipasvir-and-sofosbuvir-in-a-real-world-cohort-study
#14
Elliot B Tapper, Bruce R Bacon, Michael P Curry, Douglas T Dieterich, Steven L Flamm, Lauren E Guest, Kris V Kowdley, Yoori Lee, Naoky C Tsai, Zobair M Younossi, Nezam H Afdhal
: Many patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) are on prolonged proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and wish to remain on PPI therapy once treatment for HCV starts. A preliminary report recently suggested decrease rates of sustained virological response (SVR) for patients taking concomitant PPI and ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF). We sought to determine the effect of PPI use on the rate of SVR in a real-world cohort of 1,979 patients with chronic HCV treated with LDV/SOF. We collected clinical data and pharmacy dispensing records on patients taking 8, 12, or 24 weeks of LDV/SOF ± ribavirin (RBV)...
December 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532829/a-placebo-controlled-trial-of-obeticholic-acid-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Frederik Nevens, Pietro Andreone, Giuseppe Mazzella, Simone I Strasser, Christopher Bowlus, Pietro Invernizzi, Joost P H Drenth, Paul J Pockros, Jaroslaw Regula, Ulrich Beuers, Michael Trauner, David E Jones, Annarosa Floreani, Simon Hohenester, Velimir Luketic, Mitchell Shiffman, Karel J van Erpecum, Victor Vargas, Catherine Vincent, Gideon M Hirschfield, Hemant Shah, Bettina Hansen, Keith D Lindor, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Kris V Kowdley, Roya Hooshmand-Rad, Tonya Marmon, Shawn Sheeron, Richard Pencek, Leigh MacConell, Mark Pruzanski, David Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis) can progress to cirrhosis and death despite ursodiol therapy. Alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels correlate with the risk of liver transplantation or death. Obeticholic acid, a farnesoid X receptor agonist, has shown potential benefit in patients with this disease. METHODS: In this 12-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 217 patients who had an inadequate response to ursodiol or who found the side effects of ursodiol unacceptable to receive obeticholic acid at a dose of 10 mg (the 10-mg group), obeticholic acid at a dose of 5 mg with adjustment to 10 mg if applicable (the 5-10-mg group), or placebo...
August 18, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486033/efficacy-of-sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-and-gs-9857-in-patients-with%C3%A2-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-2-3-4-or-6-infections-in-an-open-label-phase-2-trial
#16
Edward J Gane, Kris V Kowdley, David Pound, Catherine A M Stedman, Mitchell Davis, Kyle Etzkorn, Stuart C Gordon, David Bernstein, Gregory Everson, Maribel Rodriguez-Torres, Naoky Tsai, Omer Khalid, Jenny C Yang, Sophia Lu, Hadas Dvory-Sobol, Luisa M Stamm, Diana M Brainard, John G McHutchison, Myron Tong, Raymond T Chung, Kimberly Beavers, John E Poulos, Paul Y Kwo, Mindie H Nguyen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studies are needed to determine the optimal regimen for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2, 3, 4, or 6 infections whose prior course of antiviral therapy has failed, and the feasibility of shortening treatment duration. We performed a phase 2 study to determine the efficacy and safety of the combination of the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir, the NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir, and the NS3/4A protease inhibitor GS-9857 in these patients...
November 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388795/patient-engagement-impacts-glycemic-management-with-vildagliptin-and-vildagliptin-metformin-single-pill-regimens-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-the-glorious-study
#17
Michel Hermans, Luc Van Gaal, Ingrid Rézette, Evis Daci, Karen MacDonald, Kris Denhaerynck, Stefaan Vancayzeele, Lut De Meester, Andreas Clemens, Brian Yee, Ivo Abraham
AIMS: To evaluate the real-world effectiveness of vildagliptin and vildagliptin/metformin, combined with patient engagement, on glycemic outcomes. Patient engagement included both clinicians' engaging patients through education and counseling; and patients' self-engagement through disease awareness, lifestyle changes, and medication adherence. METHODS: Prospective, observational, open-label, multi-center, pharmacoepidemiologic study of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients treated de novo with vildagliptin or vildagliptin/metformin...
December 2016: Primary Care Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296509/prevalence-of-resistance-associated-substitutions-in-hcv-ns5a-ns5b-or-ns3-and-outcomes-of-treatment-with-ledipasvir-and%C3%A2-sofosbuvir
#18
Christoph Sarrazin, Hadas Dvory-Sobol, Evguenia S Svarovskaia, Brian P Doehle, Phillip S Pang, Shu-Min Chuang, Julie Ma, Xiao Ding, Nezam H Afdhal, Kris V Kowdley, Edward J Gane, Eric Lawitz, Diana M Brainard, John G McHutchison, Michael D Miller, Hongmei Mo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We evaluated the effects of baseline hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A, NS5B, and NS3 resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) on response to the combination of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir, with or without ribavirin, in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. METHODS: We analyzed data from 2144 participants in phase 2 and 3 studies of patients with HCV genotype 1a or b infection who received the combination of ledipasvir (90 mg) and sofosbuvir (400 mg) (ledipasvir/sofosbuvir) once daily, with or without ribavirin twice daily...
September 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226733/a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-dexamethasone-and-clonidine-as-adjuvants-to-a-ropivacaine-sciatic-popliteal-block-for-foot-surgery
#19
Kris Vermeylen, Joris De Puydt, Stefan Engelen, Eva Roofthooft, Filiep Soetens, Arne Neyrinck, Marc Van de Velde
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A popliteal block is effective in managing postoperative pain for foot surgery, but since the duration of analgesia is limited following a single-shot popliteal fossa block technique, methods to prolong effective postoperative analgesia are mandatory. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adjuvants to ropivacaine on the duration of sensory and motor block. METHODS: In this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, we evaluated the analgesic effect of clonidine or dexamethasone (DXM) when added to ropivacaine for hallux valgus surgery...
2016: Local and Regional Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192112/protein-rna-dynamics-in-the-central-junction-control-30s-ribosome-assembly
#20
Kris Ann Baker, Rajan Lamichhane, Tek Lamichhane, David Rueda, Philip R Cunningham
Interactions between ribosomal proteins (rproteins) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) facilitate the formation of functional ribosomes. S15 is a central domain primary binding protein that has been shown to trigger a cascade of conformational changes in 16S rRNA, forming the functional structure of the central domain. Previous biochemical and structural studies in vitro have revealed that S15 binds a three-way junction of helices 20, 21, and 22, including nucleotides 652-654 and 752-754. All junction nucleotides except 653 are highly conserved among the Bacteria...
September 11, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
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