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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441722/experimental-demonstration-and-circuitry-for-a-very-compact-coil-only-pulse-echo-emat
#1
Dirk Rueter
This experimental study demonstrates for the first time a solid-state circuitry and design for a simple compact copper coil (without an additional bulky permanent magnet or bulky electromagnet) as a contactless electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) for pulse echo operation at MHz frequencies. A pulsed ultrasound emission into a metallic test object is electromagnetically excited by an intense MHz burst at up to 500 A through the 0.15 mm filaments of the transducer. Immediately thereafter, a smoother and quasi "DC-like" current of 100 A is applied for about 1 ms and allows an echo detection...
April 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441712/virus-based-devices-prospects-for-allopoiesis
#2
Bogdan Dragnea
The assembly line is a commonly invoked example of allopoiesis, the process whereby a system produces a different system than itself. In this sense, virus production in plants is an instance of bio-enabled bottom-up allopoiesis because the plant host can be regarded as a programmable assembly line for the virus. Reprogramming this assembly line and integrating it into a larger lineup of chemical manipulations has seen a flurry of activity recently, with more sophisticated systems emerging every year. The field of virus nanomaterials now has several subdisciplines that focus on virus shells as assemblers, scaffolds for molecular circuitry, chemical reactors, magnetic and photonic beacons, and therapeutic carriers...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441561/neural-circuits-reduced-inhibition-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#3
Randall M Golovin, Kendal Broadie
The Drosophila Fragile X Syndrome model has long generated insights into this devastating neurological disease state. A recent study of olfactory neural circuitry shows that decreased lateral inhibition onto projection neurons relaying sensory input into higher brain centers causes impaired behavior.
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441114/neural-circuitry-of-reward-prediction-error
#4
Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida, Neir Eshel, Naoshige Uchida
Dopamine neurons facilitate learning by calculating reward prediction error, or the difference between expected and actual reward. Despite two decades of research, it remains unclear how dopamine neurons make this calculation. Here we review studies that tackle this problem from a diverse set of approaches, from anatomy to electrophysiology to computational modeling and behavior. Several patterns emerge from this synthesis: that dopamine neurons themselves calculate reward prediction error, rather than inherit it passively from upstream regions; that they combine multiple separate and redundant inputs, which are themselves interconnected in a dense recurrent network; and that despite the complexity of inputs, the output from dopamine neurons is remarkably homogeneous and robust...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441003/chemical-interaction-guided-metal-free-growth-of-large-area-hexagonal-boron-nitride-on-silicon-based-substrates
#5
Sanjay Behura, Phong Nguyen, Rousan Debbarma, Songwei Che, Michael R Seacrist, Vikas Berry
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is an ideal platform for interfacing with two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials to reduce carrier scattering for high-quality 2D electronics. However, scalable, transfer-free growth of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) remains a challenge. Currently, h-BN based 2D heterostructures require exfoliation or chemical transfer of h-BN grown on metals resulting in small areas or significant interfacial impurities. Here, we demonstrate a surface-chemistry influenced transfer-free growth of large-area, uniform, and smooth h-BN directly on silicon (Si)-based substrates including Si, silicon nitride (Si3N4), and silicon dioxide (SiO2) via low-pressure chemical vapor deposition...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440393/identification-of-key-genes-associated-with-schmid-type-metaphyseal-chondrodysplasia-based-on-microarray-data
#6
Bing Wang, Li He, Wusheng Miao, Ge Wu, Hai Jiang, Yongtao Wu, Jining Qu, Min Li
This study aimed to gain a better understanding of the molecular circuitry of Schmid-type metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (SMCD), and to identify more potential genes associated with the pathogenesis of SMCD. Microarray data from GSE72261 were downloaded from the NCBI GEO database, including collagen X p.Asn617Lys knock-in mutation (ColXN617K), ablated XBP1 activity (Xbp1CartΔEx2), compound mutant (C/X), and wild-type (WT) specimens. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened in Xbp1 vs. WT, Col vs...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439771/neurobiological-programming-of-early-life-stress-functional-development-of-amygdala-prefrontal-circuitry-and-vulnerability-for-stress-related-psychopathology
#7
Michelle R VanTieghem, Nim Tottenham
Early adverse experiences are associated with heighted vulnerability for stress-related psychopathology across the lifespan. While extensive work has investigated the effects of early adversity on neurobiology in adulthood, developmental approaches can provide further insight on the neurobiological mechanisms that link early experiences and long-term mental health outcomes. In the current review, we discuss the role of emotion regulation circuitry implicated in stress-related psychopathology from a developmental and transdiagnostic perspective...
April 25, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439041/cues-from-the-membrane-bacterial-glycerophospholipids
#8
Zachary D Dalebroux
In this issue of Journal of Bacteriology, Rowlett et al. unveil new Escherichia coli circuitry linking membrane glycerophospholipid (GPL) homeostasis to bacterial stress response and adaptation mechanisms. Glycerophospholipids comprise critical components of the dual-membrane envelope of Gram-negative bacteria and participate in many processes. The new evidence suggests that in some instances distinct E. coli GPL molecules function for distinct biochemistry, and bacteria sense perturbations in membrane GPL concentrations to coordinate survival strategies...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438968/neural-mechanisms-of-cognitive-dissonance-revised-an-eeg-study
#9
Marco Colosio, Anna Shestakova, Vadim V Nikulin, Evgeny Blagovechtchenski, Vasily Klucharev
Cognitive dissonance theory suggests that our preferences are modulated by the mere act of choosing. A choice between two similarly valued alternatives creates psychological tension (cognitive dissonance) that is reduced by a post-decisional reevaluation of the alternatives. We measured EEG of human subjects during rest and free-choice paradigm. Our study demonstrates that choices associated with stronger cognitive dissonance trigger a larger negative fronto-central evoked response similar to error-related negativity (ERN), which has in turn been implicated in general performance monitoring...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437669/white-matter-microstructural-abnormalities-and-their-association-with-anticipatory-anhedonia-in-depression
#10
Xin-Hua Yang, Yi Wang, Dong-Fang Wang, Kai Tian, Eric F C Cheung, Guang-Rong Xie, Raymond C K Chan
Anhedonia is associated with dysfunction of the neural circuitry of reward in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, its neurobiological basis is not fully understood. The present study examined the association between anhedonia and white matter (WM) characteristics in patients with first-episode MDD. We recruited 30 patients with first-episode drug-naive MDD and 28 healthy controls (HC) to undergo diffusion weighted imaging. We examined specifically the correlation between WM characteristics and anhedonia measured with the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS) in MDD patients...
April 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435127/neural-impact-of-low-level-alcohol-use-on-response-inhibition-an-fmri-investigation-in-young-adults
#11
Taylor Hatchard, Ola Mioduszewski, Carley Fall, Aziza Byron-Alhassan, Peter Fried, Andra M Smith
It is widely known that alcohol consumption adversely affects human health, particularly in the immature developing brains of adolescents and young adults, which may also have a long-lasting impact on executive functioning. The present study investigated the neural activity of 28 young adults from the Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study (OPPS) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The purpose of this study was to discover the impact of regular low-level alcohol consumption on response inhibition as the participants performed a Go/No-Go task...
April 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434615/searching-for-cross-diagnostic-convergence-neural-mechanisms-governing-excitation-and-inhibition-balance-in-schizophrenia-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Jennifer H Foss-Feig, Brendan D Adkinson, Jie Lisa Ji, Genevieve Yang, Vinod H Srihari, James C McPartland, John H Krystal, John D Murray, Alan Anticevic
Recent theoretical accounts have proposed excitation and inhibition (E/I) imbalance as a possible mechanistic, network-level hypothesis underlying neural and behavioral dysfunction across neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). These two disorders share some overlap in their clinical presentation as well as convergence in their underlying genes and neurobiology. However, there are also clear points of dissociation in terms of phenotypes and putatively affected neural circuitry...
May 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434586/the-periaqueductal-gray-and-primal-emotional-processing-critical-to-influence-complex-defensive-responses-fear-learning-and-reward-seeking
#13
REVIEW
Simone C Motta, Antônio P Carobrez, Newton S Canteras
The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been commonly recognized as a downstream site in neural networks for the expression of a variety of behaviors and is thought to provide stereotyped responses. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that the PAG may exert more complex modulation of a number of behavioral responses and work as a unique hub supplying primal emotional tone to influence prosencephalic sites mediating complex aversive and appetitive responses. Of particular relevance, we review how the PAG is involved in influencing complex forms of defensive responses, such as circa-strike and risk assessment responses in animals...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432778/cross-species-studies-of-cognition-relevant-to-drug-discovery-a-translational-approach
#14
REVIEW
T W Robbins
This Review advances the case that bidirectional, cross-species translation of findings from experimental animals to and from humans is an important strategy for drug discovery. Animal models of mental disorders require appropriate behavioural or cognitive outcome variables that can be generalized cross-species. One example is the treatment of impulsive behaviour in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with stimulant drugs. Performance on the stop signal reaction task as an index of impulsivity is improved both in healthy human volunteers and in patients with adult ADHD by stimulant drugs and also by the selective noradrenergic reuptake blocker atomoxetine...
April 22, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432601/neuropathic-pain-central-vs-peripheral-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Kathleen Meacham, Andrew Shepherd, Durga P Mohapatra, Simon Haroutounian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our goal is to examine the processes-both central and peripheral-that underlie the development of peripherally-induced neuropathic pain (pNP) and to highlight recent evidence for mechanisms contributing to its maintenance. While many pNP conditions are initiated by damage to the peripheral nervous system (PNS), their persistence appears to rely on maladaptive processes within the central nervous system (CNS). The potential existence of an autonomous pain-generating mechanism in the CNS creates significant implications for the development of new neuropathic pain treatments; thus, work towards its resolution is crucial...
June 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431241/akt-pkb-signaling-navigating-the-network
#16
REVIEW
Brendan D Manning, Alex Toker
The Ser and Thr kinase AKT, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), was discovered 25 years ago and has been the focus of tens of thousands of studies in diverse fields of biology and medicine. There have been many advances in our knowledge of the upstream regulatory inputs into AKT, key multifunctional downstream signaling nodes (GSK3, FoxO, mTORC1), which greatly expand the functional repertoire of AKT, and the complex circuitry of this dynamically branching and looping signaling network that is ubiquitous to nearly every cell in our body...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429885/intravenous-self-administration-of-benzydamine-a-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-with-a-central-cannabinoidergic-mechanism-of-action
#17
Riccardo Avvisati, Maria Meringolo, Emiliana Stendardo, Elisa Malavasi, Silvia Marinelli, Aldo Badiani
Benzydamine (BZY) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for the topical treatment of inflammations of the oral and vaginal mucosae. Virtually nothing is known about the central pharmacological actions of BZY. Yet there are reports of voluntary systemic overdosage of BZY in drug addicts, resulting in a euphoric, hallucinatory state. In the present study, we investigated the reinforcing properties of BZY in a rat self-administration paradigm. We found that BZY has a powerful reinforcing effect and that this effect is greatly facilitated in animals that already had substance experience, having previously self-administered heroin and cocaine, indicating cross sensitization between BZY and other common drugs of abuse...
April 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429801/the-dizzy-patient-don-t-forget-disorders-of-the-central-vestibular-system
#18
REVIEW
Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
Vertigo and dizziness are among the most common complaints in neurology clinics, and they account for about 13% of the patients entering emergency units. In this Review, we focus on central vestibular disorders, which are mostly attributable to acute unilateral lesions of the bilateral vestibular circuitry in the brain. In a tertiary interdisciplinary outpatient dizziness unit, central vestibular disorders, including vestibular migraine, comprise about 25% of the established diagnoses. The signs and symptoms of these disorders can mimic those of peripheral vestibular disorders with sustained rotational vertigo...
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429652/atypical-regulators-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-as-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#19
Jianxiang Chen, Muthukumar Rajasekaran, Kam M Hui
Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma development depends on the inhibition and activation of multiple vital pathways, including the Wnt signaling pathway. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway lies at the center of various signaling pathways that regulate embryonic development, tissue homeostasis and cancers. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been observed frequently in hepatocellular carcinoma. However, activating mutations in β-catenin, Axin and Adenomatous Polyposis Coli only contribute to a portion of the Wnt signaling hyper-activation observed in hepatocellular carcinoma...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428739/high-salt-intake-augments-excitability-of-pvn-neurons-in-rats-role-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-store
#20
Robert A Larson, Andrew D Chapp, Le Gui, Michael J Huber, Zixi Jack Cheng, Zhiying Shan, Qing-Hui Chen
High salt (HS) intake sensitizes central autonomic circuitry leading to sympathoexcitation. However, its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We hypothesized that inhibition of PVN endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) store function would augment PVN neuronal excitability and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). We further hypothesized that a 2% (NaCl) HS diet for 5 weeks would reduce ER Ca(2+) store function and increase excitability of PVN neurons with axon projections to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (PVN-RVLM) identified by retrograde label...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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