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M Pruessner, L Bechard-Evans, S Pira, R Joober, D L Collins, J C Pruessner, A K Malla
BACKGROUND: Altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and reduced hippocampal volume (HV) are established correlates of stress vulnerability. We have previously shown an attenuated cortisol awakening response (CAR) and associations with HV specifically in male first-episode psychosis patients. Findings in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis regarding these neurobiological markers are inconsistent, and assessment of their interplay, accounting for sex differences, could explain incongruent results...
October 24, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Pedro Casado, Maruan Hijazi, David Britton, Pedro R Cutillas
Signalling pathways driven by protein and lipid kinases are altered in most human diseases. Therefore, pharmacological inhibitors of cell signalling are one of the most intensively pursued therapeutic approaches for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration and metabolic syndromes. Phosphoproteomics is a technique that measures the products of kinase activities and, with the appropriate bioinformatics techniques, the methodology can also provide measures of kinase pathway activation and network circuitry...
October 24, 2016: Proteomics
Haje Korth, Kim Strohbehn, Francisco Tejada, Andreas G Andreou, John Kitching, Svenja Knappe, S John Lehtonen, Shaughn M London, Matiwos Kafel
A miniature atomic scalar magnetometer based on the rubidium isotope (87)Rb was developed for operation in space. The instrument design implements both Mx and Mz mode operation and leverages a novel microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabricated vapor cell and a custom silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit. The vapor cell has a volume of only 1 mm(3) so that it can be efficiently heated to its operating temperature by a specially designed, low-magnetic-field-generating resistive heater implemented in multiple metal layers of the transparent sapphire substrate of the SOS-CMOS chips...
August 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics
Mahmoud-Reza Rafiee, Charles Girardot, Gianluca Sigismondo, Jeroen Krijgsveld
Maintenance of pluripotency is regulated by a network of transcription factors coordinated by Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog (OSN), yet a systematic investigation of the composition and dynamics of the OSN protein network specifically on chromatin is still missing. Here we have developed a method combining ChIP with selective isolation of chromatin-associated proteins (SICAP) followed by mass spectrometry to identify chromatin-bound partners of a protein of interest. ChIP-SICAP in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) identified over 400 proteins associating with OSN, including several whose interaction depends on the pluripotent state...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Cell
Eliza Pelrine, Sara Diana Pasik, Leyla Bayat, Debora Goldschmiedt, Elizabeth P Bauer
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed to treat anxiety and depression, yet they paradoxically increase anxiety during initial treatment. Acute administration of these drugs prior to learning can also enhance Pavlovian cued fear conditioning. This potentiation has been previously reported to depend upon the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Here, using temporary inactivation, we confirmed that the BNST is not necessary for the acquisition of cued or contextual fear memory...
October 20, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Jennifer L Hoy, Iryna Yavorska, Michael Wehr, Cristopher M Niell
The ability to genetically identify and manipulate neural circuits in the mouse is rapidly advancing our understanding of visual processing in the mammalian brain [1, 2]. However, studies investigating the circuitry that underlies complex ethologically relevant visual behaviors in the mouse have been primarily restricted to fear responses [3-5]. Here, we show that a laboratory strain of mouse (Mus musculus, C57BL/6J) robustly pursues, captures, and consumes live insect prey and that vision is necessary for mice to perform the accurate orienting and approach behaviors leading to capture...
October 8, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Maximiliano Rapanelli
Histaminergic dysfunction has been recently linked to tic disorders and to aberrant striatal function. There is a particular interest in the histamine 3 receptor (H3R) due to its clinical implications for treating multiple disorders and its high expression in the brain. Striatal histamine (HA) modulates through the H3R in complex ways the release of striatal neurotransmitters into this brain region. The H3R has been classically described to be coupled to Gi, although there is evidence that revealed that striatal H3R forms heteromers with the dopamine receptors 1 and 2 in the medium spiny neurons (MSNs) than changes this signaling...
October 20, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Lin Fu, Jinlong Shi, Anqi Liu, Lei Zhou, Mengmeng Jiang, Huaping Fu, Keman Xu, Dandan Li, Ailing Deng, Qingyi Zhang, Yifan Pang, Yujie Guo, Kai Hu, Jiansuo Zhou, Yapeng Wang, Wenrong Huang, Yu Jing, Liping Dou, Lili Wang, Kailin Xu, Xiaoyan Ke, Clara Nervi, Yonghui Li, Li Yu
MicroRNA-9-1(miR-9-1) plays an important role in the mechanism that regulates the lineage fate of differentiating hematopoietic cells. Recent studies have shown that miR-9-1 is downregulated in t (8; 21) AML. However, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying miR-9-1 down-regulation and the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 fusion protein, generated from the translocation of t (8; 21) in AML, remain unclear. RUNX1-RUNX1T1 can induce leukemogenesis through resides in and functions as a stable RUNX1-RUNX1T1-containing transcription factor complex...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
William R Pitchers, Savvas J Constantinou, Mauricio Losilla, Jason R Gallant
Electric fish have served as a model system in biology since the 18th century, providing deep insight into the nature of bioelectrogenesis, the molecular structure of the synapse, and brain circuitry underlying complex behavior. Neuroethologists have collected extensive phenotypic data that span biological levels of analysis from molecules to ecosystems. This phenotypic data, together with genomic resources obtained over the past decades, have motivated new and exciting hypotheses that position the weakly electric fish model to address fundamental 21(st) century biological questions...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Tom A Hummer, K Luan Phan, David W Kern, Martha K McClintock
Evidence suggests the putative human pheromone Δ4,16-androstadien-3-one (androstadienone), a natural component of human sweat, increases attention to emotional information when passively inhaled, even in minute amounts. However, the neural mechanisms underlying androstadienone's impact on the perception of emotional stimuli have not been clarified. To characterize how the compound modifies neural circuitry while attending to emotional information, 22 subjects (11 women) underwent two fMRI scanning sessions, one with an androstadienone solution and one with a carrier control solution alone on their upper lip...
September 29, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Yun Kyoung Ryu, Reilley P Mathena, Sanghee Lim, Minhye Kwak, Michael Xu, Cyrus D Mintz
BACKGROUND: Early postnatal exposure to general anesthetic agents causes a lasting impairment in learning and memory in animal models. One hypothesis to explain this finding is that exposure to anesthetic agents during critical points in neural development disrupts the formation of brain circuitry. Here, we explore the effects of sevoflurane on the neuronal growth cone, a specialization at the growing end of axons and dendrites that is responsible for the targeted growth that underlies connectivity between neurons...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Kenneth M McCullough, Dennis Choi, Jidong Guo, Kelsey Zimmerman, Jordan Walton, Donald G Rainnie, Kerry J Ressler
Molecular characterization of neuron populations, particularly those controlling threat responses, is essential for understanding the cellular basis of behaviour and identifying pharmacological agents acting selectively on fear-controlling circuitry. Here we demonstrate a comprehensive workflow for identification of pharmacologically tractable markers of behaviourally characterized cell populations. Thy1-eNpHR-, Thy1-Cre- and Thy1-eYFP-labelled neurons of the BLA consistently act as fear inhibiting or 'Fear-Off' neurons during behaviour...
October 21, 2016: Nature Communications
Vera Dinkelacker, Sophie Dupont, Séverine Samson
The new classification of epilepsy stratifies the disease into an acute level, based on seizures, and an overarching chronic level of epileptic syndromes (Berg et al., 2010). In this new approach, seizures are considered either to originate and evolve in unilateral networks or to rapidly encompass both hemispheres. This concept extends the former vision of focal and generalized epilepsies to a genuine pathology of underlying networks. These key aspects of the new classification can be linked to the concept of cognitive curtailing in focal epilepsy...
October 17, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Clarissa J Whitmire, Garrett B Stanley
Adaptation is fundamental to life. All organisms adapt over timescales that span from evolution to generations and lifetimes to moment-by-moment interactions. The nervous system is particularly adept at rapidly adapting to change, and this in fact may be one of its fundamental principles of organization and function. Rapid forms of sensory adaptation have been well documented across all sensory modalities in a wide range of organisms, yet we do not have a comprehensive understanding of the adaptive cellular mechanisms that ultimately give rise to the corresponding percepts, due in part to the complexity of the circuitry...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Caitlin B O'Hara, Alexandra Keyes, Bethany Renwick, Katrin E Giel, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt
In anorexia nervosa (AN), motivational salience is attributed to illness-compatible cues (e.g., underweight and active female bodies) and this is hypothesised to involve dopaminergic reward circuitry. We investigated the effects of reducing dopamine (DA) transmission on the motivational processing of AN-compatible cues in women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15). This involved the acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion (APTD) procedure and a startle eye-blink modulation (SEM) task...
2016: PloS One
Katherine Zukor, Hong Wang, Brett L Hurst, Venkatraman Siddharthan, Arnaud Van Wettere, Paul M Pilowsky, John D Morrey
Neurological respiratory deficits are serious outcomes of West Nile virus (WNV) disease. WNV patients requiring intubation have a poor prognosis. We previously reported that WNV-infected rodents also appear to have respiratory deficits when assessed by whole-body plethysmography and diaphragmatic electromyography. The purpose of this study was to determine if the nature of the respiratory deficits in WNV-infected rodents is neurological and if deficits are due to a disorder of brainstem respiratory centers, cervical spinal cord (CSC) phrenic motor neuron (PMN) circuitry, or both...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Jeong-Hee Kim, Jong-Hoon Kim, Young-Don Son, Yo-Han Joo, Sang-Yoon Lee, Hang-Keun Kim, Myung-Kyun Woo
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the patterns of interregional correlations of serotonin transporter (SERT) availability with glucose metabolism using 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) with (11)C-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylthio)benzonitrile ([(11)C]DASB) and [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) in antipsychotic-free patients with schizophrenia in order to shed new light on the disrupted functional connectivity in schizophrenia...
October 16, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Caroline M Hostetler, Katherine Hinde, Nicole Maninger, Sally P Mendoza, William A Mason, Douglas J Rowland, Guobao B Wang, David Kukis, Simon R Cherry, Karen L Bales
Pair bonding leads to increases in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) binding in the nucleus accumbens of monogamous prairie voles. In the current study, we hypothesized that there is similar up-regulation of D1R in a monogamous primate, the titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus). Receptor binding of the D1R antagonist [(11) C]-SCH23390 was measured in male titi monkeys using PET scans before and after pairing with a female. We found that within-subject analyses of pairing show significant increases in D1R binding in the lateral septum, but not the nucleus accumbens, caudate, putamen, or ventral pallidum...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Florence Thibaut
In the future, precision medicine will enable every clinician to tailor treatment and even prevention strategies to an individual's unique characteristics. In order to reach this goal, we need to collect and analyze many different types of data, from many different sources, including symptoms, genomics, and brain circuitry, as well as family dynamics, environmental exposures, and cultural background.
September 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Benedetta Vai, Chiara Bulgarelli, Beata R Godlewska, Philip J Cowen, Francesco Benedetti, Catherine J Harmer
The timely selection of the optimal treatment for depressed patients is critical to improve remission rates. The detection of pre-treatment variables able to predict differential treatment response may provide novel approaches for treatment selection. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) modulate the fronto-limbic functional response and connectivity, an effect preceding the overt clinical antidepressant effects. Here we investigated whether the cortico-limbic connectivity associated with emotional bias measured before SSRI administration predicts the efficacy of antidepressant treatment in MDD patients...
October 15, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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