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Heekyeong Park, Sungho Lee, Seok Hwan Jeong, Ui Hyun Jung, Kidong Park, Min Goo Lee, Sunkook Kim, Joonhyung Lee
Flexible sensors connected to cell phones are a promising technology that can aid in continuously monitoring signals in our daily lives, such as an individual's health status and information from buildings, farms, and industry. Among such signals, real-time humidity monitoring is crucial to a comfortable life, as human bodies, plants, and industrial environments require appropriate humidity to be maintained. We propose a hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (H-PTFE)-based flexible humidity sensor integrated with readout circuitry, wireless communication, and a mobile battery...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Muge Yucel, Osman Akin, Mehmet Cayoren, Ibrahim Akduman, Alagappan Palaniappan, Bo Liedberg, Gurkan Hizal, Fatih Inci, Umit Hakan Yildiz
This study reports on a handheld volatilome analyzer for selective determination of clinically relevant biomarkers in exhaled breath. The sensing platform is based on electrospun polymer nanofiber-multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sensing micro-channels. Polymer nanofibers of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), polystyrene (PS), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) incorporated with MWCNT exhibits stable response to interferences of humidity and CO2 and provides selective deformations upon exposure of exhaled breath target volatilomes acetone and toluene, exhibiting correlation to diabetes and lung cancer, respectively...
March 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Hsin-Hao Yu, Nafiseh Atapour, Tristan A Chaplin, Katrina H Worthy, Marcello G P Rosa
Lesions of striate cortex (V1) trigger massive retrograde degeneration of neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). In primates, these lesions also lead to scotomas within which conscious vision is abolished. Mediation of residual visual capacity within these regions (blindsight) has been traditionally attributed to an indirect visual pathway to the extrastriate cortex, which involves the superior colliculus and pulvinar complex. However, recent studies have suggested that preservation of the LGN is critical for behavioral evidence of blindsight, raising the question of what type of visual information is channeled by remaining neurons in this structure...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mone Zaidi, Maria New, Harry C Blair, Alberta Zallone, Ramkumarie Baliram, Terry F Davies, Christopher Cardozo, James Iqbal, Li Sun, Cliff Rosen, Tony Yuen
It has become increasingly clear that pituitary hormones that have traditionally been seen as regulators of single bodily processes, including endocrine functions, have additional roles in physiology. The global deletion of these hormones or their receptors in mice has yielded unexpected skeletal and metabolic phenotypes, which have been confirmed through traditional pharmacologic approaches. Initial reports showed that thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors were expressed on bone cells and that their haploinsufficiency in Tshr+/- mice caused osteopenia without affecting the thyroid function...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Lisanne M Jenkins, Kristy A Skerrett, Sophie R DelDonno, Víctor G Patrón, Kortni K Meyers, Scott Peltier, Jon-Kar Zubieta, Scott A Langenecker, Monica N Starkman
We investigated the ability of preferred classical music to activate the nucleus accumbens in patients with Major depressive disorder (MDD). Twelve males with MDD and 10 never mentally ill male healthy controls (HC) completed measures of anhedonia and depression severity, and listened to 90-second segments of preferred classical music during fMRI. Compared to HCs, individuals with MDD showed less activation of the left nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Individuals with MDD showed attenuation of the left NAcc response in later compared to earlier parts of the experiment, supporting theories that MDD involves an inability to sustain reward network activation...
March 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Yituo Wang, Yuyang Zhu, Pinhong Chen, Feng Yan, Shanshan Chen, Gongjie Li, Xiangjun Hu, Lubin Wang, Zheng Yang
The amygdala, a subcortical structure responsible for fear and vigilance, is central to the stress circuitry. Aberrant amygdala connectivity with the cortical and subcortical regions is found in patients with stress-related disorders, and in healthy subjects following acute stress exposure. However, the extent to which the stress-induced alteration of amygdala functional connectivity correlates with risk-related personality measures remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated the effect of acute stress, induced by aversive movies accompanied by a mild electric shock, on the functional connectivity of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and centromedial amygdala (CMA) in 35 healthy men, and assessed the association between changes in amygdala functional connectivity and individual differences in neuroticism...
March 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Rebecca L Barlow, Martin Gorges, Alfie Wearn, Heiko G Niessen, Jan Kassubek, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
Background: Low dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) shell is associated with highly-impulsive behavior in rats, as measured by premature responses in a cued attentional task. However, it is unclear whether dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb is equally linked to intolerance for delayed rewards, a related form of impulsivity. Methods: We investigated the relationship between D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb and impulsivity in a delay-discounting task (DDT) where animals must choose between immediate small-magnitude rewards and delayed larger-magnitude rewards...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jean-Michel Vandeweerd, Fanny Hontoir, Alexis De Knoop, Kathleen De Swert, Charles Nicaise
Phrenic motor neurons are cervical motor neurons originating from C3 to C6 levels in most mammalian species. Axonal projections converge into phrenic nerves innervating the respiratory diaphragm. In spinal cord slices, phrenic motor neurons cannot be identified from other motor neurons on morphological or biochemical criteria. We provide the description of procedures for visualizing phrenic motor neuron cell bodies in mice, following intrapleural injections of cholera toxin subunit beta (CTB) conjugated to a fluorophore...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Lysann Wagener, Maria Loconsole, Helen M Ditz, Andreas Nieder
Endowed with an elaborate cerebral cortex, humans and other primates can assess the number of items in a set, or numerosity, from birth on [1] and without being trained [2]. Whether spontaneous numerosity extraction is a unique feat of the mammalian cerebral cortex [3-7] or rather an adaptive property that can be found in differently designed and independently evolved neural substrates, such as the avian enbrain [8], is unknown. To address this question, we recorded single-cell activity from the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), a high-level avian association brain area [9-11], of numerically naive crows...
March 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Crystle J Kelly, Marco Martina
Functional deactivation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a critical step in the neuropathic pain phenotype. We performed optogenetic circuit dissection to study the properties of ventral hippocampal (vHipp) and thalamic (MDTh) inputs to L5 pyramidal cells in acute mPFC slices and to test whether alterations in these inputs contribute to mPFC deactivation in neuropathic pain. We found that: (1) both the vHipp and MDTh inputs elicit monosynaptic excitatory and polysynaptic inhibitory currents. (2) The strength of the excitatory MDTh input is uniform, while the vHipp input becomes progressively stronger along the dorsal-ventral axis...
March 17, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Anders Lillevik Thorsen, Pernille Hagland, Joaquim Radua, David Mataix-Cols, Gerd Kvale, Bjarne Hansen, Odile A van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) experience aversive emotions in response to obsessions, motivating avoidance and compulsive behaviors. However, there is considerable ambiguity regarding the brain circuitry involved in emotional processing in OCD, especially whether activation is altered in the amygdala. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review and performed a meta-analysis-seed-based d mapping-of 25 whole-brain neuroimaging studies (including 571 patients and 564 healthy control subjects) using functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography, comparing brain activation of patients with OCD and healthy control subjects during presentation of emotionally valenced versus neutral stimuli...
February 3, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Dong-Oh Seo, Laura E Motard, Michael R Bruchas
Great efforts in clinical and basic research have shown progress in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia, and attention-deficit hyperactive disorders. Literature on this field have suggested that these disorders are affected by the complex interaction of genetic, biological, psychosocial and environmental risk factors. However, this complexity of interplaying risk factors during neurodevelopment has prevented a complete understanding of the causes of those neuropsychiatric symptoms...
March 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Adriana Miyazaki de Moura, Walter Hugo Lopez Pinaya, Ary Gadelha, André Zugman, Cristiano Noto, Quirino Cordeiro, Sintia Iole Belangero, Andrea P Jackowski, Rodrigo A Bressan, João Ricardo Sato
In this study, we employed the Maximum Uncertainty Linear Discriminant Analysis (MLDA) to investigate whether the structural brain patterns in first episode psychosis (FEP) patients would be more similar to patients with chronic schizophrenia (SCZ) or healthy controls (HC), from a schizophrenia model perspective. Brain regions volumetric data were estimated by using MRI images of SCZ and FEP patients and HC. First, we evaluated the MLDA performance in discriminating SCZ from controls, which provided a score based on a model for changes in brain structure in SCZ...
March 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Shinji Kakei, Takahiro Ishikawa, Jongho Lee, Takeru Honda, Donna S Hoffman
BACKGROUND: In order to optimize outcomes of novel therapies for cerebellar ataxias (CAs), it is desirable to start these therapies while declined functions are restorable: i.e. while the so-called cerebellar reserve remains. OBJECTIVE: In this mini-review, we tried to define and discuss the cerebellar reserve from physiological and morphological points of view. METHOD: The cerebellar neuron circuitry is designed to generate spatiotemporally organized outputs, regardless of the region...
March 15, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Alessander Danna-Dos-Santos, Sambit Mohapatra, Maria Santos, Adriana M Degani
Understanding the long-term effects of concussive events remains a challenge for the development of modern medical practices and the prevention of recurrent traumas. In this study, we utilized indices of oculomotor performance and the ability to react to simple environmental stimuli to assess the long-term motor effects of traumatic brain injury in its mildest form (mTBI). We performed analysis of eye movement accuracy, investigated the presence of abnormal eye movements, and quantified time to react to simple environmental stimuli on long-term mTBI survivors...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Luba Sominsky, Christine L Jasoni, Hannah Twigg, Sarah J Spencer
The hypothalamus is a key centre for regulation of vital physiological functions, such as appetite, stress responsiveness and reproduction. Development of the different hypothalamic nuclei and its major neuronal populations begins prenatally in both altricial and precocial species, with the fine tuning of neuronal connectivity and attainment of adult function established postnatally, and maintained throughout adult life. The perinatal period is highly susceptible to environmental insults that, by disrupting critical developmental processes, can set the tone for the establishment of adult functionality...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Daniel M Stout, Daniel E Glenn, Dean T Acheson, Andrea D Spadoni, Victoria B Risbrough, Alan N Simmons
Contextual threat learning reflects two often competing processes: configural and elemental learning. Configural threat learning is a hippocampal-dependent process of forming a conjunctive representation of a context through binding of several multi-modal elements. In contrast, elemental threat-learning is governed by the amygdala and involves forming associative relationships between individual features within the context. Contextual learning tasks in humans however, rarely probe if a learned fear response is truly due to configural learning vs...
March 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Sara Sigismund, Giorgio Scita
An explosive growth in knowledge, in the last two decades, has conferred a new dimension to the process of endocytosis. Endocytic circuitries have come into focus as a pervasive system that controls virtual all aspects of cell biology. A few years ago, we proposed the term 'endocytic matrix' to define a cellular network of signalling wiring that is at the core of the cellular blueprint. A primary role of the endocytic matrix is the delivery of space-resolved and time-resolved signals to the cell in an interpretable format, and, as such, it has profound consequences on polarized cellular and supra-cellular functions, first and foremost, cell motility...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
C Genna, C M Oddo, A Mazzoni, A Wahlbom, S Micera, H Jörntell
The presence of contralateral tactile input can profoundly affect ipsilateral tactile perception and unilateral stroke in somatosensory areas can result in bilateral tactile deficits, suggesting that bilateral tactile integration is an important part of brain function. Whereas previous studies have shown that bilateral tactile inputs exist and that there are neural interactions between inputs from the two sides, no previous study explored to what extent the local neuronal circuitry processing contains detailed information about the nature of the tactile input from the two sides...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Vipan K Parihar, Mattia Maroso, Amber Syage, Barrett D Allen, Maria C Angulo, Ivan Soltesz, Charles L Limoli
Of the many perils associated with deep space travel to Mars, neurocognitive complications associated with cosmic radiation exposure are of particular concern. Despite these realizations, whether and how realistic doses of cosmic radiation cause cognitive deficits and neuronal circuitry alterations several months after exposure remains unclear. In addition, even less is known about the temporal progression of cosmic radiation-induced changes transpiring over the duration of a time period commensurate with a flight to Mars...
March 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
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