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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649993/kappa-opioid-receptor-activation-in-dopamine-neurons-disrupts-behavioral-inhibition
#1
Antony D Abraham, Harrison M Fontaine, Allisa J Song, Mackenzie M Andrews, Madison A Baird, Brigitte L Kieffer, Benjamin B Land, Charles Chavkin
The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system has been previously implicated in the regulation of cognition, but the neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms underlying KOR-mediated cognitive disruption are unknown. Here, we used an operational test of cognition involving timing and behavioral inhibition and found that systemic KOR activation impairs performance of male and female C57BL/6 mice in the differential reinforcement of low response rates (DRL) task. Systemic KOR antagonism also blocked stress-induced disruptions of DRL performance...
June 26, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649493/voluntary-saccade-inhibition-deficits-correlate-with-extended-white-matter-cortico-basal-atrophy-in-huntington-s-disease
#2
Israel Vaca-Palomares, Brian C Coe, Donald C Brien, Douglas P Munoz, Juan Fernandez-Ruiz
The ability to inhibit automatic versus voluntary saccade commands in demanding situations can be impaired in neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease (HD). These deficits could result from disruptions in the interaction between basal ganglia and the saccade control system. To investigate voluntary oculomotor control deficits related to the cortico-basal circuitry, we evaluated early HD patients using an interleaved pro- and anti-saccade task that requires flexible executive control to generate either an automatic response (look at a peripheral visual stimulus) or a voluntary response (look away from the stimulus in the opposite direction)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649201/evaluation-of-jnj-54717793-a-novel-brain-penetrant-selective-orexin-1-receptor-antagonist-in-two-rat-models-of-panic-attack-provocation
#3
Pascal Bonaventure, Christine Dugovic, Brock Shireman, Cathy Preville, Sujin Yun, Brian Lord, Diane Nepomuceno, Michelle Wennerholm, Timothy Lovenberg, Nicolas Carruthers, Stephanie D Fitz, Anantha Shekhar, Philip L Johnson
Orexin neurons originating in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamic area are highly reactive to anxiogenic stimuli and have strong projections to anxiety and panic-associated circuitry. Recent studies support a role for the orexin system and in particular the orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) in coordinating an integrative stress response. However, no selective OX1R antagonist has been systematically tested in two preclinical models of using panicogenic stimuli that induce panic attack in the majority of people with panic disorder, namely an acute hypercapnia-panic provocation model and a model involving chronic inhibition of GABA synthesis in the perifornical hypothalamic area followed by intravenous sodium lactate infusion...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648888/benchmarking-laminar-fmri-neuronal-spiking-and-synaptic-activity-during-top-down-and-bottom-up-processing-in-the-different-layers-of-cortex
#4
REVIEW
Matthew W Self, Timo van Kerkoerle, Rainer Goebel, Pieter R Roelfsema
High resolution laminar fMRI is beginning to probe responses in the different layers of cortex. What can we expect this exciting new technique to discover about cortical processing and how can we verify that it is producing an accurate picture of the underlying laminar differences in neural processing? This review will address our knowledge of laminar cortical circuitry gained from electrophysiological studies in macaque monkeys with a focus on the primary visual cortex, as this area has been most often targeted in both laminar electrophysiological and fMRI studies...
June 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648501/depolarized-gabaergic-signaling-in-subicular-microcircuits-mediates-generalized-seizure-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#5
Yi Wang, Cenglin Xu, Zhenghao Xu, Caihong Ji, Jiao Liang, Ying Wang, Bin Chen, Xiaohua Wu, Feng Gao, Shuang Wang, Yi Guo, Xiaoming Li, Jianhong Luo, Shumin Duan, Zhong Chen
Secondary generalized seizure (sGS) is a major source of disability in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with unclear cellular/circuit mechanisms. Here we found that clinical TLE patients with sGS showed reduced volume specifically in the subiculum compared with those without sGS. Further, using optogenetics and extracellular electrophysiological recording in mouse models, we found that photoactivation of subicular GABAergic neurons retarded sGS acquisition by inhibiting the firing of pyramidal neurons. Once sGS had been stably acquired, photoactivation of GABAergic neurons aggravated sGS expression via depolarized GABAergic signaling...
June 14, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646910/the-role-of-5-ht-receptors-in-depression
#6
REVIEW
Christine N Yohn, Mark M Gergues, Benjamin Adam Samuels
Depression is a polygenic and highly complex psychiatric disorder that remains a major burden on society. Antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are some of the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide. In this review, we will discuss the evidence that links serotonin and serotonin receptors to the etiology of depression and the mechanisms underlying response to antidepressant treatment. We will then revisit the role of serotonin in three distinct hypotheses that have been proposed over the last several decades to explain the pathophysiology of depression: the monoamine, neurotrophic, and neurogenic hypotheses...
June 24, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646695/pre-polarization-fields-for-earth-s-field-nmr-fast-discharge-for-use-with-short-t1-and-large-coils
#7
Mark S Conradi, Stephen A Altobelli, Nicholas J Sowko, Susan H Conradi, Eiichi Fukushima
The sensitivity of earth's field NMR is greatly increased by the use of a pre-polarizing field Bp. When used with short T1 samples, the field must be decreased rapidly to avoid loss of the pre-polarized magnetization by relaxation. Such a rapid decrease in the field requires rapid discharge (∼10ms) of a large stored magnetic field energy (∼700J). In addition, in order that the full pre-polarized magnetization be available for the subsequent pulse sequence, the field discharge should be adiabatic. This requirement is difficult to fulfill in cases where Bp is not everywhere parallel to the earth's field, such as with a large surface coil...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646346/adenosine-and-sleep
#8
Michael Lazarus, Jiang-Fan Chen, Zhi-Li Huang, Yoshihiro Urade, Bertil B Fredholm
The classic endogenous somnogen adenosine promotes sleep via A1 and A2A receptors. In this chapter, we present an overview of the current knowledge regarding the regulation of adenosine levels, adenosine receptors, and available pharmacologic and genetic tools to manipulate the adenosine system. This is followed by a summary of current knowledge of the role of adenosine and its receptors in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. Despite strong data implicating numerous brain areas, including the basal forebrain, the tuberomammillary nucleus, the lateral hypothalamus, and the nucleus accumbens, in the adenosinergic control of sleep, the complete neural circuitry in the brain involved in the sleep-promoting effects of adenosine remains unclear...
June 24, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644111/visual-dot-interaction-with-short-term-memory
#9
Faustin Armel Etindele Sosso
AIM: Many neurodegenerative diseases have a memory component. Brain structures related to memory are affected by environmental stimuli, and it is difficult to dissociate effects of all behavior of neurons. MATERIALS & METHODS: Here, visual cortex of mice was stimulated with gratings and dot, and an observation of neuronal activity before and after was made. Bandwidth, firing rate and orientation selectivity index were evaluated. RESULTS: A primary communication between primary visual cortex and short-term memory appeared to show an interesting path to train cognitive circuitry and investigate the basics mechanisms of the neuronal learning...
June 23, 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642689/integrating-neural-circuits-controlling-female-sexual-behavior
#10
REVIEW
Paul E Micevych, Robert L Meisel
The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642586/lateral-habenula-regulation-of-emotional-hyperthermia-mediation-via-the-medullary-raph%C3%A3
#11
Youichirou Ootsuka, Mazher Mohammed, William W Blessing
The lateral habenula (LHb) has an important role in the behavioural response to salient, usually aversive, events. We previously demonstrated that activation of neurons in the LHb increases brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and constricts the cutaneous vascular bed, indicating that the LHb contributes to the central control of sympathetic outflow to thermoregulatory effector organs. We have now investigated whether the LHb mediates BAT thermogenesis elicited by emotional stress, and whether the LHb modulates thermoregulatory sympathetic outflow via the rostral medullary raphé, a key integrative lower brainstem sympathetic control centre...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639422/medaka-and-zebrafish-contactin1-mutants-as-a-model-for-understanding-neural-circuits-for-motor-coordination
#12
Miki Takeuchi, Chikako Inoue, Akiko Goshima, Yusuke Nagao, Koichi Shimizu, Hiroki Miyamoto, Takashi Shimizu, Hisashi Hashimoto, Shigenobu Yonemura, Atsuo Kawahara, Yutaka Hirata, Masayuki Yoshida, Masahiko Hibi
A spontaneous medaka ro mutant shows abnormal wobbling and rolling swimming behaviors. By positional cloning, we mapped the ro locus to a region containing the gene encoding Contactin1b (Cntn1b), which is an immunoglobulin (Ig)-superfamily domain-containing membrane-anchored protein. The ro mutant had a deletion in the cntn1b gene that introduced a premature stop codon. Furthermore, cntn1b mutants generated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system and trans-heterozygotes of the CRISPR mutant allele and ro had abnormal swimming behavior, indicating that the cntn1b gene was responsible for the ro-mutant phenotype...
June 22, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638896/a-scalable-cyberinfrastructure-for-interactive-visualization-of-terascale-microscopy-data
#13
A Venkat, C Christensen, A Gyulassy, B Summa, F Federer, A Angelucci, V Pascucci
The goal of the recently emerged field of connectomics is to generate a wiring diagram of the brain at different scales. To identify brain circuitry, neuroscientists use specialized microscopes to perform multichannel imaging of labeled neurons at a very high resolution. CLARITY tissue clearing allows imaging labeled circuits through entire tissue blocks, without the need for tissue sectioning and section-to-section alignment. Imaging the large and complex non-human primate brain with sufficient resolution to identify and disambiguate between axons, in particular, produces massive data, creating great computational challenges to the study of neural circuits...
August 2016: N Y Sci Data Summit NYSDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638120/neural-circuits-underlying-thirst-and-fluid-homeostasis
#14
REVIEW
Christopher A Zimmerman, David E Leib, Zachary A Knight
Thirst motivates animals to find and consume water. More than 40 years ago, a set of interconnected brain structures known as the lamina terminalis was shown to govern thirst. However, owing to the anatomical complexity of these brain regions, the structure and dynamics of their underlying neural circuitry have remained obscure. Recently, the emergence of new tools for neural recording and manipulation has reinvigorated the study of this circuit and prompted re-examination of longstanding questions about the neural origins of thirst...
June 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637489/synaptoimmunology-roles-in-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Robert Nisticò, Eric Salter, Celine Nicolas, Marco Feligioni, Dalila Mango, Zuner A Bortolotto, Pierre Gressens, Graham L Collingridge, Stephane Peineau
Mounting evidence suggests that the nervous and immune systems are intricately linked. Many proteins first identified in the immune system have since been detected at synapses, playing different roles in normal and pathological situations. In addition, novel immunological functions are emerging for proteins typically expressed at synapses. Under normal conditions, release of inflammatory mediators generally represents an adaptive and regulated response of the brain to immune signals. On the other hand, when immune challenge becomes prolonged and/or uncontrolled, the consequent inflammatory response leads to maladaptive synaptic plasticity and brain disorders...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636217/research-on-potential-biomarker-correlates-for-suicidal-behavior-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Sangha Kim, Kyoung-Uk Lee
Suicide is a world health priority. Studies over the last few decades have revealed the complexity underlying the neurobiological mechanisms of suicide. Researchers have found dysregulations in the serotonergic system, the stress system, neural plasticity, lipid metabolism, and cell signaling pathways in relation to suicidal behaviors. These findings have provided more insight into the final path leading to suicide, at which medical intervention should be applied to prevent the action. However, because these molecular mechanisms have been implicated in both depression and suicide, the specificity of the mechanisms has been obscured...
June 21, 2017: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634266/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-the-brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-a-saga-in-three-episodes
#17
REVIEW
Marian Joëls, E Ronald de Kloet
In 1968, Bruce McEwen discovered that (3)H-corticosterone administered to adrenalectomised rats is retained in neurons of hippocampus rather than those of hypothalamus. This discovery signalled the expansion of endocrinology into the science of higher brain regions. With this in mind, our contribution highlights the saga of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in three episodes. First, the precloning era dominated by the conundrum of two types of corticosterone-binding receptors in the brain, which led to the identification of the high-affinity corticosterone receptor as the 'promiscuous' MR cloned in 1987 by Jeff Arriza and Ron Evans in addition to the classical glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632905/the-malleable-brain-plasticity-of-neural-circuits-and-behavior-a-review-from-students-to-students
#18
REVIEW
Natascha Schaefer, Carola Rotermund, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Mychael V Lourenco, Pooja Joshi, Regina U Hegemann, Sumit Jamwal, Nilufar Ali, Ezra Michelet García Romero, Sorabh Sharma, Shampa Ghosh, Jitendra K Sinha, Hannah Loke, Vishal Jain, Katarzyna Lepeta, Ahmad Salamian, Mahima Sharma, Mojtaba Golpich, Katarzyna Nawrotek, Ramesh K Paidi, Sheila M Shahidzadeh, Tetsade Piermartiri, Elham Amini, Veronica Pastor, Yvette Wilson, Philip A Adeniyi, Ashok K Datusalia, Benham Vafadari, Vedangana Saini, Edna Suárez-Pozos, Neetu Kushwah, Paula Fontanet, Anthony J Turner
One of the most intriguing features of the brain is its ability to be malleable, allowing it to adapt continually to changes in the environment. Specific neuronal activity patterns drive long-lasting increases or decreases in the strength of synaptic connections, referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) respectively. Such phenomena have been described in a variety of model organisms, which are used to study molecular, structural, and functional aspects of synaptic plasticity...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631354/cross-population-myelination-covariance-of-human-cerebral-cortex
#19
Zhiwei Ma, Nanyin Zhang
Cross-population covariance of brain morphometric quantities provides a measure of interareal connectivity, as it is believed to be determined by the coordinated neurodevelopment of connected brain regions. Although useful, structural covariance analysis predominantly employed bulky morphological measures with mixed compartments, whereas studies of the structural covariance of any specific subdivisions such as myelin are rare. Characterizing myelination covariance is of interest, as it will reveal connectivity patterns determined by coordinated development of myeloarchitecture between brain regions...
June 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629285/acute-movement-disorders-in-the-medical-setting
#20
Ifrah Zawar, Mario A Caro, Lara Feldman, Xavier F Jimenez
Objective Psychosomatic medicine psychiatrists are often tasked with the evaluation and treatment of complex neuropsychiatric states which may be motoric in phenotype. Little energy has been dedicated to understanding acute movement disorders in the hospital environment. Method Recognizing the importance of frontal-subcortical (corticostriatothalamocortical) circuitry and basal ganglia structures, we present a case series of acute movement disorder phenotypes resulting from underlying medical conditions, commonly-administered medications, or the interaction of both...
July 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
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