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Circuitry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096475/stress-specific-differences-in-assembly-and-composition-of-stress-granules-and-related-foci
#1
Anaïs Aulas, Marta M Fay, Shawn M Lyons, Christopher A Achorn, Nancy Kedersha, Paul Anderson, Pavel Ivanov
Cells have developed different mechanisms to respond to stress, including the formation of cytoplasmic foci known as stress granules (SGs). SGs are dynamic and formed as a result of stress-induced inhibition of translation. Despite enormous interest in SGs due to their contribution to the pathogenesis of several human diseases, many aspects of SG formation are poorly understood. SGs induced by different stresses are generally assumed to be uniform, although some studies suggest that different SG subtypes and SG-like cytoplasmic foci exist...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095617/probing-forebrain-to-hindbrain-circuit-functions-in-xenopus
#2
REVIEW
Darcy B Kelley, Taffeta M Elliott, Ben J Evans, Ian C Hall, Elizabeth C Leininger, Heather J Rhodes, Ayako Yamaguchi, Erik Zornik
The vertebrate hindbrain includes neural circuits that govern essential functions including breathing, blood pressure and heart rate. Hindbrain circuits also participate in generating rhythmic motor patterns for vocalization. In most tetrapods, sound production is powered by expiration and the circuitry underlying vocalization and respiration must be linked. Perception and arousal are also linked; acoustic features of social communication sounds - e.g. a baby's cry - can drive autonomic responses. The close links between autonomic functions that are essential for life and vocal expression have been a major in vivo experimental challenge...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095421/approximate-inference-for-time-varying-interactions-and-macroscopic-dynamics-of-neural-populations
#3
Christian Donner, Klaus Obermayer, Hideaki Shimazaki
The models in statistical physics such as an Ising model offer a convenient way to characterize stationary activity of neural populations. Such stationary activity of neurons may be expected for recordings from in vitro slices or anesthetized animals. However, modeling activity of cortical circuitries of awake animals has been more challenging because both spike-rates and interactions can change according to sensory stimulation, behavior, or an internal state of the brain. Previous approaches modeling the dynamics of neural interactions suffer from computational cost; therefore, its application was limited to only a dozen neurons...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095309/microglia-under-psychosocial-stressors-along-the-aging-trajectory-consequences-on-neuronal-circuits-behavior-and-brain-diseases
#4
Li Tian, Chin Wai Hui, Kanchan Bisht, Yunlong Tan, Kaushik Sharma, Song Chen, Xiangyang Zhang, Marie-Eve Tremblay
Mounting evidence indicates the importance of microglia for proper brain development and function, as well as in complex stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive decline along the aging trajectory. Considering that microglia are resident immune cells of the brain, a homeostatic maintenance of their effector functions that impact neuronal circuitry, such as phagocytosis and secretion of inflammatory factors, is critical to prevent the onset and progression of these pathological conditions. However, the molecular mechanisms by which microglial functions can be properly regulated under healthy and pathological conditions are still largely unknown...
January 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094810/aberrant-development-of-intrinsic-brain-activity-in-a-rat-model-of-caregiver-maltreatment-of-offspring
#5
C-G Yan, M Rincón-Cortés, C Raineki, E Sarro, S Colcombe, D N Guilfoyle, Z Yang, S Gerum, B B Biswal, M P Milham, R M Sullivan, F X Castellanos
Caregiver maltreatment induces vulnerability to later-life psychopathology. Clinical and preclinical evidence suggest changes in prefrontal and limbic circuitry underlie this susceptibility. We examined this question using a rat model of maternal maltreatment and methods translated from humans, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI). Rat pups were reared by mothers provided with insufficient or abundant bedding for nest building from postnatal (PN) days 8 to 12 and underwent behavioral assessments of affect-related behaviors (forced swim, sucrose preference and social interaction) in adolescence (PN45) and early adulthood (PN60)...
January 17, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094764/neuromorphic-meets-neuromechanics-part-ii-the-role-of-fusimotor-drive
#6
Kian Jalaleddini, Chuanxin Niu, Suraj Chakravarthi Raja, Won Joon Sohn, Gerald Loeb, Terence Sanger, Francisco Valero-Cuevas
OBJECTIVE: We studied the fundamentals of muscle afferentation by building a neuro-mechano-morphic system actuating a cadaveric finger. This system is a faithful implementation of the stretch reflex circuitry. It allowed the systematic exploration of the effects of different fusimotor drives to the muscle spindle on the closed-loop stretch reflex response. APPROACH: As in Part I of this work, sensory neurons conveyed proprioceptive information from muscle spindles (with static and dynamic fusimotor drive) to populations of ��-motor neurons (with recruitment and rate coding properties)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093506/the-tyrosine-kinase-receptor-tyro3-enhances-lifespan-and-neuropeptide-y-npy-neuron-survival-in-the-mouse-anorexia-anx-mutation
#7
Dennis Y Kim, Joanna Yu, Ryan K Mui, Rieko Niibori, Hamza Bin Taufique, Rukhsana Aslam, John W Semple, Sabine P Cordes
Severe appetite and weight loss define the eating disorder anorexia nervosa, and can also accompany the progression of some neurodegenerative disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral scelerosis (ALS). While acute loss of hypothalamic neurons that produce appetite-stimulating neuropeptide Y (Npy) and agouti related peptide (AgRP) in adult mice or in mice homozygous for the anorexia (anx) mutation causes aphagia, our understanding of the factors that help maintain appetite regulatory circuitry is limited. Here we identify a mutation that converts an arginine to a tryptophan (R7W) in the Tyrosine receptor kinase 3 (Tyro3) gene, which resides within the anx critical interval, as contributing to the severity of anx phenotypes...
January 12, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092675/unbalancing-p53-mdm2-igf-1r-axis-by-mdm2-activation-restrains-the-igf-1-dependent-invasive-phenotype-of-skin-melanoma
#8
C Worrall, N Suleymanova, C Crudden, I Trocoli Drakensjö, E Candrea, D Nedelcu, S-I Takahashi, L Girnita, A Girnita
Melanoma tumors usually retain wild-type p53; however, its tumor-suppressor activity is functionally disabled, most commonly through an inactivating interaction with mouse double-minute 2 homolog (Mdm2), indicating p53 release from this complex as a potential therapeutic approach. P53 and the tumor-promoter insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) compete as substrates for the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2, making their relative abundance intricately linked. Hence we investigated the effects of pharmacological Mdm2 release from the Mdm2/p53 complex on the expression and function of the IGF-1R...
January 16, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090802/functional-deficits-induced-by-cortical-microinfarcts
#9
Philipp M Summers, David A Hartmann, Edward S Hui, Xingju Nie, Rachael L Deardorff, Emilie T McKinnon, Joseph A Helpern, Jens H Jensen, Andy Y Shih
Clinical studies have revealed a strong link between increased burden of cerebral microinfarcts and risk for cognitive impairment. Since the sum of tissue damage incurred by microinfarcts is a miniscule percentage of total brain volume, we hypothesized that microinfarcts disrupt brain function beyond the injury site visible to histological or radiological examination. We tested this idea using a mouse model of microinfarcts, where single penetrating vessels that supply mouse cortex were occluded by targeted photothrombosis...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089938/3d-printed-rf-probeheads-for-low-cost-high-throughput-nmr
#10
R Adam Horch, John C Gore
3D printing has been exploited as a means to fabricate complete NMR probeheads containing arrays of miniature RF circuits for high-throughput solution-state NMR spectroscopy and potentially other purposes. 3D-printed NMR circuits of millimeter scale were constructed consisting of RF coils, variable tuning/matching capacitors, and liquid NMR sample cavities. Channels and cavities capable of being addressed using microfluidics are included in the probehead structure, providing a means for hydraulically-controlled RF tuning/matching and liquid NMR sample loading/unloading...
January 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089904/retuning-brain-circuitry-to-treat-mental-illness-the-role-of-functional-neuroimaging-commentary-for-the-special-issue-mechanisms-of-change
#11
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089704/brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-function-in-control-of-salt-balance-and-stress-adaptation
#12
REVIEW
E Ronald de Kloet, Marian Joëls
We will highlight in honor of Randall Sakai the peculiar characteristics of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in its response pattern to the classical mineralocorticoid aldosterone and the naturally occurring glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol. Neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) express MR, which mediate selectively the action of aldosterone on salt appetite, sympathetic outflow and volume regulation. The MR-containing NTS neurons innervate limbic-forebrain circuits enabling aldosterone to also modulate reciprocally arousal, motivation, fear and reward...
January 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089649/magnetic-resonance-imaging-conditional-devices-luxury-or-real-clinical-need
#13
REVIEW
Sophie I Mavrogeni, George Poulos, Genovefa Kolovou, George Theodorakis
Although the risk of MRI scanning on patients with conventional devices is rather lower than initially thought, the patient's safety can only be assured by using MRI-conditional devices. The most important modifications in MRI-conditional devices include: a) Reduction in ferromagnetic components to reduce magnetic attraction and susceptibility artefacts b) Replacement of reed switch by Hall sensor in order to avoid unpredictable reed switch behaviour c) Lead coil design to minimize lead heating and electrical current induction d) Filter circuitry to prevent damage to internal power supply e) Dedicated pacemaker programming to prevent inappropriate pacemaker inhibition and competing rhythms...
January 9, 2017: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088873/developmental-changes-in-ultradian-sleep-cycles-across-early-childhood
#14
Sean Lopp, William Navidi, Peter Achermann, Monique LeBourgeois, Cecilia Diniz Behn
Nocturnal human sleep is composed of cycles between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. In adults, the structure of ultradian cycles between NREM and REM sleep is well characterized; however, less is known about the developmental trajectories of ultradian sleep cycles across early childhood. Cross-sectional studies indicate that the rapid ultradian cycling of active-quiet sleep in infancy shifts to a more adult-like pattern of NREM-REM sleep cycling by the school-age years, yet longitudinal studies elucidating the details of this transition are scarce...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087766/control-of-amygdala-circuits-by-5-ht-neurons-via-5-ht-and-glutamate-co-transmission
#15
Ayesha Sengupta, Marco Bocchio, David M Bannerman, Trevor Sharp, Marco Capogna
: The serotonin (5-HT) system and the amygdala are key regulators of emotional behavior. Several lines of evidence suggest that 5-HT transmission in the amygdala is implicated in the susceptibility and drug treatment of mood disorders. Thus, elucidating the physiological mechanisms through which midbrain 5-HT neurons modulate amygdala circuits could be pivotal in understanding emotional regulation in health and disease. To shed light on these mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings from basal amygdala (BA) neurons in brain slices from mice with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) genetically targeted to 5-HT neurons...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077722/higher-heart-rate-variability-is-associated-with-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-activity-and-increased-resistance-to-temptation-in-dietary-self-control-challenges
#16
Silvia U Maier, Todd A Hare
: Higher levels of self-control in decision making have been linked to better psychosocial and physical health. A similar link to health outcomes has been reported for heart-rate variability (HRV), a marker of physiological flexibility. Here, we sought to link these two, largely separate, research domains by testing the hypothesis that greater HRV would be associated with better dietary self-control in humans. Specifically, we examined whether total HRV at sedentary rest (measured as the SD of normal-to-normal intervals) can serve as a biomarker for the neurophysiological adaptability that putatively underlies self-controlled behavior...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077720/local-circuits-of-v1-layer-4b-neurons-projecting-to-v2-thick-stripes-define-distinct-cell-classes-and-avoid-cytochrome-oxidase-blobs
#17
Jeff Yarch, Frederick Federer, Alessandra Angelucci
: Decades of anatomical studies on the primate primary visual cortex (V1) have led to a detailed diagram of V1 intrinsic circuitry, but this diagram lacks information about the output targets of V1 cells. Understanding how V1 local processing relates to downstream processing requires identification of neuronal populations defined by their output targets. In primates, V1 layers (L)2/3 and 4B send segregated projections to distinct cytochrome oxidase (CO) stripes in area V2: neurons in CO blob columns project to thin stripes while neurons outside blob columns project to thick and pale stripes, suggesting functional specialization of V1-to-V2 CO streams...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077706/connexin-mediated-signaling-in-nonsensory-cells-is-crucial-for-the-development-of-sensory-inner-hair-cells-in-the-mouse-cochlea
#18
Stuart L Johnson, Federico Ceriani, Oliver Houston, Roman Polishchuk, Elena Polishchuk, Giulia Crispino, Veronica Zorzi, Fabio Mammano, Walter Marcotti
: Mutations in the genes encoding for gap junction proteins connexin 26 (Cx26) and connexin 30 (Cx30) have been linked to syndromic and nonsyndromic hearing loss in mice and humans. The release of ATP from connexin hemichannels in cochlear nonsensory cells has been proposed to be the main trigger for action potential activity in immature sensory inner hair cells (IHCs), which is crucial for the refinement of the developing auditory circuitry. Using connexin knock-out mice, we show that IHCs fire spontaneous action potentials even in the absence of ATP-dependent intercellular Ca(2+) signaling in the nonsensory cells...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077184/abnormalities-in-the-effective-connectivity-of-visuothalamic-circuitry-in-schizophrenia
#19
S J Iwabuchi, L Palaniyappan
BACKGROUND: Sensory-processing deficits appear crucial to the clinical expression of symptoms of schizophrenia. The visual cortex displays both dysconnectivity and aberrant spontaneous activity in patients with persistent symptoms and cognitive deficits. In this paper, we examine visual cortex in the context of the remerging notion of thalamic dysfunction in schizophrenia. We examined specific regional and longer-range abnormalities in sensory and thalamic circuits in schizophrenia, and whether these patterns are strong enough to discriminate symptomatic patients from controls...
January 12, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074830/tet1-in-nucleus-accumbens-opposes-depression-and-anxiety-like-behaviors
#20
Jian Feng, Catherine J Pena, Immanuel Purushothaman, Olivia Engmann, Deena Walker, Amber N Brown, Orna Issler, Marie Doyle, Eileen Harrigan, Ezekiell Mouzon, Vincent Vialou, Li Shen, Meelad M Dawlaty, Rudolf Jaenisch, Eric J Nestler
Depression is a leading cause of disease burden, yet current therapies fully treat <50% of affected individuals. Increasing evidence implicates epigenetic mechanisms in depression and antidepressant action. Here, we examined a possible role for the DNA dioxygenase, ten eleven translocation protein 1 (TET1), in depression-related behavioral abnormalities. We applied chronic social defeat stress, an ethologically validated mouse model of depression-like behaviors, and examined Tet1 expression changes in nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key brain reward region...
January 11, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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