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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165048/psychoradiologic-utility-of-mr-imaging-for-diagnosis-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-radiomics-analysis
#1
Huaiqiang Sun, Ying Chen, Qiang Huang, Su Lui, Xiaoqi Huang, Yan Shi, Xin Xu, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Purpose To identify cerebral radiomic features related to diagnosis and subtyping of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to build and evaluate classification models for ADHD diagnosis and subtyping on the basis of the identified features. Materials and Methods A consecutive cohort of 83 age- and sex-matched children with newly diagnosed and never-treated ADHD (mean age 10.83 years ± 2.30; range, 7-14 years; 71 boys, 40 with ADHD-inattentive [ADHD-I] and 43 with ADHD-combined [ADHD-C, or inattentive and hyperactive]) and 87 healthy control subjects (mean age, 11...
November 22, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164505/network-level-dysconnectivity-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-npc-early-post-radiotherapy-longitudinal-resting-state-fmri-study
#2
Yingwei Qiu, Zheng Guo, Lujun Han, Yadi Yang, Jing Li, Shiliang Liu, Xiaofei Lv
In this study, we seek to longitudinally investigate the network-level functional connectivity (FC) alternations and its association with irradiation dose and cognition changes in the early stage post radiotherapy (RT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. We performed independent component analysis (ICA) of resting state blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) from 39 newly diagnosed NPC patients before receiving treatment (baseline), and 3 months post-RT. the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and executive control network (ECN) were extracted with well-validated software (GIFT)...
November 21, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163352/parahippocampal-involvement-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis-a-proof-of-concept-from-memory-guided-saccades
#3
Silvia Colnaghi, Giorgio Beltrami, Guy Poloni, Anna Pichiecchio, Stefano Bastianello, Carlo Andrea Galimberti, Maurizio Versino
Objective: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) may involve extrahippocampal areas of structural damage and dysfunction. The accuracy of medium-term spatial memory can be tested by memory-guided saccades (MGS) to evaluate a functional impairment of the parahippocampal cortex (PHC), while voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis can be used to detect a structural damage of the latter region. Methods: MGS with 3- and 30-s memorization delays were compared between 7 patients affected by right MTLE-HS (r-MTLE-HS), 6 patients affected by left MTLE-HS, and 13 healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163022/the-insula-and-taste-learning
#4
REVIEW
Adonis Yiannakas, Kobi Rosenblum
The sense of taste is a key component of the sensory machinery, enabling the evaluation of both the safety as well as forming associations regarding the nutritional value of ingestible substances. Indicative of the salience of the modality, taste conditioning can be achieved in rodents upon a single pairing of a tastant with a chemical stimulus inducing malaise. This robust associative learning paradigm has been heavily linked with activity within the insular cortex (IC), among other regions, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162521/intrinsic-insula-network-engagement-underlying-children-s-reading-and-arithmetic-skills
#5
Ting-Ting Chang, Pei-Hong Lee, Arron W S Metcalfe
The neural substrates of children's reading and arithmetic skills have long been of great interest to cognitive neuroscientists. However, most previous studies have focused on the contrast between these skills as specific domains. Here, we investigate the potentially shared processes across these domains by focusing on how the neural circuits associated with cognitive control influence reading and arithmetic proficiency in 8-to-10-year-old children. Using a task-free resting state approach, we correlated the intrinsic functional connectivity of the right anterior insula (rAI) network with performance on assessments of Chinese character recognition, reading comprehension, subtraction, and multiplication performance...
November 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159047/voxel-based-comparison-of-brain-glucose-metabolism-between-patients-with-cushing-s-disease-and-healthy-subjects
#6
Shuai Liu, Yinyan Wang, Kaibin Xu, Fan Ping, Fang Li, Renzhi Wang, Xin Cheng
Cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms are common in patients with Cushing's disease (CD) owing to elevated levels of glucocorticoids. Molecular neuroimaging methods may help to detect changes in the brain of patients with CD. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of brain metabolism and its association with serum cortisol level in CD. We compared brain metabolism, as measured using [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET), between 92 patients with CD and 118 normal subjects on a voxel-wise basis...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141778/pathophysiology-and-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation-detected-after-ischemic-stroke-paradise-a-translational-integrated-and-transdisciplinary-approach
#7
Maryse Paquet, Joshua O Cerasuolo, Victoria Thorburn, Sebastian Fridman, Rasha Alsubaie, Renato D Lopes, Lauren E Cipriano, Paula Salamone, C W James Melling, Ali R Khan, Lucas Sedeño, Jiming Fang, Maria Drangova, Manuel Montero-Odasso, Jennifer Mandzia, Alexander V Khaw, Juan M Racosta, Justin Paturel, Lucy Samoilov, Devin Stirling, Brittany Balint, Victoria Jaremek, Marlys L Koschinsky, Michael B Boffa, Kelly Summers, Agustín Ibañez, Marko Mrkobrada, Gustavo Saposnik, Kurt Kimpinski, Shawn N Whitehead, Luciano A Sposato
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that ischemic stroke can cause atrial fibrillation. By elucidating the mechanisms of neurogenically mediated paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, novel therapeutic strategies could be developed to prevent atrial fibrillation occurrence and perpetuation after stroke. This could result in fewer recurrent strokes and deaths, a reduction or delay in dementia onset, and in the lessening of the functional, structural, and metabolic consequences of atrial fibrillation on the heart...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136305/neural-basis-of-exertional-fatigue-in-the-heat-a-review-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-methods
#8
REVIEW
X R Tan, Ivan C C Low, Mary C Stephenson, T W Soong, Jason K W Lee
The central nervous system, specifically the brain, is implicated in the development of exertional fatigue under a hot environment. Diverse neuroimaging techniques have been used to visualize the brain activity during or after exercise. Notably, the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become prevalent due to its excellent spatial resolution and versatility. This review evaluates the significance and limitations of various brain MRI techniques in exercise studies - brain volumetric analysis, functional MRI, functional connectivity MRI and arterial spin labelling...
November 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129925/the-neural-basis-of-homeostatic-and-anticipatory-thirst
#9
REVIEW
Claire Gizowski, Charles W Bourque
Water intake is one of the most basic physiological responses and is essential to sustain life. The perception of thirst has a critical role in controlling body fluid homeostasis and if neglected or dysregulated can lead to life-threatening pathologies. Clear evidence suggests that the perception of thirst occurs in higher-order centres, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insular cortex (IC), which receive information from midline thalamic relay nuclei. Multiple brain regions, notably circumventricular organs such as the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) and subfornical organ (SFO), monitor changes in blood osmolality, solute load and hormone circulation and are thought to orchestrate appropriate responses to maintain extracellular fluid near ideal set points by engaging the medial thalamic-ACC/IC network...
November 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128784/insular-subdivisions-functional-connectivity-dysfunction-within-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Xiaolong Peng, Pan Lin, Xiaoping Wu, Ruxue Gong, Rui Yang, Jue Wang
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mental disorder characterized by cognitive and affective deficits. Previous studies suggested that insula is a crucial node of the salience network for initiating network switching, and dysfunctional connection to this region may be related to the mechanism of MDD. In this study, we systematically investigated and quantified the altered functional connectivity (FC) of the specific insular subdivisions and its relationship to psychopathology of MDD...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125986/gating-of-visual-processing-by-physiological-need
#11
REVIEW
Christian R Burgess, Yoav Livneh, Rohan N Ramesh, Mark L Andermann
Physiological need states and associated motivational drives can bias visual processing of cues that help meet these needs. Human neuroimaging studies consistently show a hunger-dependent, selective enhancement of responses to images of food in association cortex and amygdala. More recently, cellular-resolution imaging combined with circuit mapping experiments in behaving mice have revealed underlying neuronal population dynamics and enabled tracing of pathways by which hunger circuits influence the assignment of value to visual objects in visual association cortex, insular cortex, and amygdala...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124784/dysfunction-in-emotion-processing-underlies-functional-psychogenic-dystonia
#12
Alberto J Espay, Thomas Maloney, Jennifer Vannest, Matthew M Norris, James C Eliassen, Erin Neefus, Jane B Allendorfer, Robert Chen, Jerzy P Szaflarski
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether abnormalities in emotion processing underlie functional (psychogenic) dystonia, one of the most common functional movement disorders. METHODS: Motor and emotion circuits were examined in 12 participants with functional dystonia, 12 with primary organic dystonia, and 25 healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 4T and a finger-tapping task (motor task), a basic emotion-recognition task (emotional faces task), and an intense-emotion stimuli task...
November 10, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124352/brain-waves-from-an-isolated-cortex-contribution-of-the-anterior-insula-to-cognitive-functions
#13
Rinaldo Livio Perri, Marika Berchicci, Valentina Bianco, Donatella Spinelli, Francesco Di Russo
Using two independent electrical neuroimaging techniques (BESA and sLORETA), we tested a fMRI-seeded source modeling indicating that in visual discriminative tasks the anterior insula (aIns) participates in the generation of three prefrontal ERP components: the pN1 (at 115 ms), the pP1 (at 170 ms), and the pP2 (at 300 ms). This latter component represented the focus of the present study. Results showed that the pP2 had different activation profiles across hemispheres. The left aIns activity peaked at 420 ms (30 ms before the response) for both Go and No-go trials, that is independently from the ultimate choice (response or inhibition)...
November 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122037/grey-matter-volume-and-thickness-abnormalities-in-young-people-with-a-history-of-childhood-abuse
#14
L Lim, H Hart, M Mehta, A Worker, A Simmons, K Mirza, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Childhood abuse is associated with abnormalities in brain structure and function. Few studies have investigated abuse-related brain abnormalities in medication-naïve, drug-free youth that also controlled for psychiatric comorbidities by inclusion of a psychiatric control group, which is crucial to disentangle the effects of abuse from those associated with the psychiatric conditions. METHODS: Cortical volume (CV), cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) were measured in 22 age- and gender-matched medication-naïve youth (aged 13-20) exposed to childhood abuse, 19 psychiatric controls matched for psychiatric diagnoses and 27 healthy controls...
November 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117709/detecting-perfusion-pattern-based-on-the-background-low-frequency-fluctuation-in-resting-state-functional-mri-data-and-its-influence-on-resting-state-networks-an-iterative-post-processing-approach
#15
Tianyi Qian, Davide Zanchi, Cristelle Rodriguez, Marine Ackermann, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Sven Haller
INTRODUCTION: RS-fMRI is based on the assumption that the vascular response and the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response are homogenous across the entire brain. However, this a priori hypothesis is not consistent with the well-known variability of cerebral vascular territories. In order to explore whether the RS networks are influenced by varied vascular speed in different vascular territories, we assessed the time-shift maps that give an estimate of the local timing of the vascular response and check whether local differences in this timing have an impact on the estimates of RS networks...
November 8, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117337/seeg-is-a-safe-procedure-for-a-comprehensive-anatomic-exploration-of-the-insula-a-retrospective-study-of-108-procedures-representing-254-transopercular-insular-electrodes
#16
Anne Laure Salado, Laurent Koessler, Gabriel De Mijolla, Emmanuelle Schmitt, Jean-Pierre Vignal, Thierry Civit, Louise Tyvaert, Jacques Jonas, Louis Georges Maillard, Sophie Colnat- Coulbois
BACKGROUND: The exploration of the insula in pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy is considered to be associated with a high vascular risk resulting in an incomplete exploration of the insular cortex. OBJECTIVE: To report a retrospective observational study of insular exploration using stereoelectroencephalography (sEEG) with transopercular and parasagittal oblique intracerebral electrodes from January 2008 to January 2016. The first purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical risks of insular cortex sEEG exploration...
May 9, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115470/dimethylation-of-histone-3-lysine-9-is-sensitive-to-the-epileptic-activity-and-affects-the-transcriptional-regulation-of-the-potassium-channel-kcnj10-gene-in-epileptic-rats
#17
Shao-Ping Zhang, Man Zhang, Hong Tao, Yan Luo, Tao He, Chun-Hui Wang, Xiao-Cheng Li, Ling Chen, Lin-Na Zhang, Tao Sun, Qi-Kuan Hu
Potassium channels can be affected by epileptic seizures and serve a crucial role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Dimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) and its enzyme euchromatic histone‑lysine N‑methyltransferase 2 (G9a) are the major epigenetic modulators and are associated with gene silencing. Insight into whether H3K9me2 and G9a can respond to epileptic seizures and regulate expression of genes encoding potassium channels is the main purpose of the present study. A total of 16 subtypes of potassium channel genes in pilocarpine‑modelled epileptic rats were screened by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and it was determined that the expression ATP‑sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 10 (Kcnj10) increased in hippocampus and insular cortex, while the expression of most of the other subtypes decreased...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107662/methylphenidate-alters-brain-connectivity-after-enhanced-physical-performance
#18
Michael King, Keelyn Van Breda, Laurie H Rauch, Samantha J Brooks, Dan J Stein, Jonathan Ipser
Muscle fatigue is a disturbed homeostatic state characterized by a temporary inability to maintain force output and has lasting effects on the brain in the period immediately after exercise, such as decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC). Stimulants that increase dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmission can enhance performance during muscle fatiguing exercise (i.e. are ergogenic). We recently demonstrated that methylphenidate (MPH) increased force output and increased FC between the insular (IC) and hand motor cortex during a fatiguing handgrip task...
October 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107022/error-blindness-and-motivational-significance-shifts-in-networks-centering-on-anterior-insula-co-vary-with-error-awareness-and-pupil-dilation
#19
Helga A Harsay, Michael X Cohen, Marcus Spaan, Wouter D Weeda, Sander Nieuwenhuis, K Richard Ridderinkhof
This investigation aims to further our understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying the awareness of one's erroneous actions. While all errors are registered as such in the rostral cingulate zone, errors enter awareness only when the anterior insula cortex is activated. Aware but not unaware errors elicit autonomic nervous system reactivity. Our aim is to investigate the hypothesis that activation in the insula during error awareness is related to autonomic arousal and to inter-regional interactions with other areas of the brain...
October 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106659/biological-and-psychological-factors-associated-with-smoking-abstinence-six-years-post-stroke
#20
Rosa Suñer-Soler, Armand Grau-Martín, Mikel Terceno, Yolanda Silva, Antoni Davalos, Juan Manuel Sánchez, Silvia Font-Mayolas, Eugenia Gras, Joana Rodrigo, Martha Kazimierczak, Carmen Malagón, Joaquín Serena
Introduction: Tobacco use is a public health problem causing high morbidity and mortality, including stroke. This study evaluates predictive factors of smoking cessation in the long term after stroke. Methods: We followed a cohort of 110 consecutive smokers with stroke for up to 6 years. Sociodemographic variables, stroke severity, insular involvement, stage of change in smoking habit before stroke and disruption of addiction variable (smoking cessation, absence of relapses, having stopped smoking without difficulties and not having had urge) were evaluated...
July 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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