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Insular cortex

Pál Czobor, Brigitta Kakuszi, Kornél Németh, Livia Balogh, Szilvia Papp, László Tombor, István Bitter
Deficits in error-processing are postulated in core symptoms of ADHD. Our goal was to investigate the neurophysiological basis of abnormal error-processing and adaptive adjustments in ADHD, and examine whether error-related alterations extend beyond traditional Regions of Interest (ROIs), particularly to those involved in adaptive adjustments, such as the Salience Network system. We obtained event-related potentials (ERPs) during a Go/NoGo task from 22 adult-ADHD patients and 29 matched healthy controls using a high-density 256-electrode array...
October 17, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Keisuke Kaneko, Yuko Koyanagi, Yoshiyuki Oi, Masayuki Kobayashi
Propofol is a major intravenous anesthetic that facilitates GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory synaptic currents and modulates Ih, K(+), and voltage-gated Na(+) currents. This propofol-induced modulation of ionic currents changes intrinsic membrane properties and repetitive spike firing in cortical pyramidal neurons. However, it has been unknown whether propofol modulates these electrophysiological properties in GABAergic neurons, which express these ion channels at different levels. This study examined whether pyramidal and GABAergic neuronal properties are differentially modulated by propofol in the rat insular cortical slice preparation...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience
Harald H Sitte, Christian Pifl, Ali H Rajput, Heide Hörtnagl, Junchao Tong, George K Lloyd, Stephen J Kish, Oleh Hornykiewicz
In the human brain, the claustrum is a small subcortical telencephalic nucleus, situated between the insular cortex and the putamen. A plethora of neuroanatomical studies have shown the existence of dense, widespread, bidirectional and bilateral monosynaptic interconnections between the claustrum and most cortical areas. A rapidly growing body of experimental evidence points to the integrative role of claustrum in complex brain functions, from motor to cognitive. Here, we examined for the first time, the behaviour of the classical monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin in the claustrum of the normal autopsied human brain and of patients who died with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD)...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
T Y Brumback, Matthew Worley, Tam T Nguyen-Louie, Lindsay M Squeglia, Joanna Jacobus, Susan F Tapert
Adolescence is a period marked by increases in risk taking, sensation seeking, and emotion dysregulation. Neurobiological models of adolescent development propose that lagging development in brain regions associated with affect and behavior control compared to regions associated with reward and emotion processing may underlie these behavioral manifestations. Cross-sectional studies have identified several functional brain networks that may contribute to risk for substance use and psychopathology in adolescents...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Jeongsoo Han, Myeounghoon Cha, Minjee Kwon, Seong-Karp Hong, Sun Joon Bai, Bae Hwan Lee
The insular cortex (IC) is a pain-related brain region that receives various types of sensory input and processes the emotional aspects of pain. The present study was conducted to investigate spatiotemporal patterns related to neuroplastic changes in the IC after nerve injury using voltage-sensitive dye imaging. The tibial and sural nerves of rats were injured under pentobarbital anesthesia. To observe optical signals in the IC, rats were re-anesthetized with urethane 7days after injury, and a craniectomy was performed to allow for optical imaging...
October 10, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Cali F Bartholomeusz, Vanessa L Cropley, Cassandra Wannan, Maria Di Biase, Patrick D McGorry, Christos Pantelis
OBJECTIVE: This review critically examines the structural neuroimaging evidence in psychotic illness, with a focus on longitudinal imaging across the first-episode psychosis and ultra-high-risk of psychosis illness stages. METHODS: A thorough search of the literature involving specifically longitudinal neuroimaging in early illness stages of psychosis was conducted. The evidence supporting abnormalities in brain morphology and altered neurodevelopmental trajectories is discussed in the context of a clinical staging model...
October 12, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Leticia Ramírez-Lugo, Ana Peñas-Rincón, Sandybel Ángeles-Durán, Francisco Sotres-Bayon
: The ability to select an appropriate behavioral response guided by previous emotional experiences is critical for survival. Although much is known about brain mechanisms underlying emotional associations, little is known about how these associations guide behavior when several choices are available. To address this, we performed local pharmacological inactivations of several cortical regions before retrieval of an aversive memory in choice-based versus no-choice-based conditioned taste aversion (CTA) tasks in rats...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Gabriela Gan, Rebecca N Preston-Campbell, Scott J Moeller, Joel L Steinberg, Scott D Lane, Thomas Maloney, Muhammad A Parvaz, Rita Z Goldstein, Nelly Alia-Klein
The propensity for reactive aggression (RA) which occurs in response to provocation has been linked to hyperresponsivity of the mesocorticolimbic reward network in healthy adults. Here, we aim to elucidate the role of the mesocorticolimbic network in clinically significant RA for two competing motivated behaviors, reward-seeking vs. retaliation. 18 male participants performed a variant of the Point-Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We examined whether RA participants compared with non-aggressive controls would choose to obtain a monetary reward over the opportunity to retaliate against a fictitious opponent, who provoked the participant by randomly stealing money from his earnings...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Junya Hatakeyama, Toshiharu Yanagisawa, Erina Kudo, Shuntaro Togashi, Hiroaki Shimizu
Progressive cerebral infarction in patients with hemorrhagic onset of moyamoya disease is rare, and a treatment strategy is not well established. Here, we report a case that was successfully treated with emergency bypass surgery. A 58-year-old woman presented with a sudden disturbance of consciousness and right-sided hemiparesis. Computed tomography(CT)showed intraventricular hemorrhage involving the head of the left caudate nucleus. Ventricular drainage was immediately performed, and the patient was treated conservatively...
October 2016: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Sebastian Walther, Lea Schäppi, Andrea Federspiel, Stephan Bohlhalter, Roland Wiest, Werner Strik, Katharina Stegmayer
Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome that not only frequently occurs in the context of schizophrenia but also in other conditions. The neural correlates of catatonia remain unclear due to small-sized studies. We therefore compared resting-state cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and gray matter (GM) density between schizophrenia patients with current catatonia and without catatonia and healthy controls. We included 42 schizophrenia patients and 41 controls. Catatonia was currently present in 15 patients (scoring >2 items on the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale screening)...
October 11, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Yukihisa Suzuki, Motohiro Kiyosawa, Kiichi Ishiwata, Keiichi Oda, Kenji Ishii
Bell's phenomenon is a physiological phenomenon wherein the eye ball involuntarily rolls upward during eyelid closing. Although this phenomenon occurs in healthy individuals, the neural mechanism related to Bell's phenomenon has not yet been identified. We aimed to investigate the brain regions relevant to Bell's phenomenon and volitional eye movement using [(15)O] H2O and positron emission tomography (PET). We measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 8 normal subjects under 3 conditions: at rest with eyes closed, during opening and closing of the eyelids in response to sound stimuli (lid opening/closing), and during vertical movement of the eyes with lids closed in response to sound stimuli (volitional eye movement)...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Eiko Yokota, Yuko Koyanagi, Kiyofumi Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki Oi, Noriaki Koshikawa, Masayuki Kobayashi
The insular cortex (IC) plays a principal role in the regulation of pain processing. Although opioidergic agonists depress cortical excitatory synaptic transmission, little is known about opioidergic roles in inhibitory synaptic transmission. In the IC, the opioid receptors differentially regulate the excitatory propagation: agonists of the mu (MOR), delta (DOR), and kappa (KOR) exhibit suppressive, facilitative, and little effects, respectively. Thus, we aimed to examine the effects of opioid receptor agonists on unitary inhibitory postsynaptic currents (uIPSCs) in the IC...
October 7, 2016: Neuroscience
Alexander Frizell Santillo, Karl Lundblad, Markus Nilsson, Maria Landqvist Waldö, Danielle van Westen, Jimmy Lätt, Erik Blennow Nordström, Susanna Vestberg, Olof Lindberg, Christer Nilsson
Disinhibition is an important symptom in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the clinico-anatomical underpinnings remain controversial. We explored the anatomical correlates of disinhibition in neurodegenerative disease using the perspective of grey and white matter imaging. Disinhibition was assessed with a neuropsychological test and a caregiver information-based clinical rating scale in 21 patients with prefrontal syndromes due to behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (n = 12) or progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 9), and healthy controls (n = 25)...
2016: PloS One
Annalena Venneri, Micaela Mitolo, Matteo De Marco
Confabulatory phenomena are rare in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), are often provoked and are triggered by questions or in response to neuropsychological testing. In this retrospective study functional connectivity alterations were investigated for the first time in a group of patients with early AD who had shown evidence of verbal and non-verbal confabulatory tendencies. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of 18 confabulating patients were compared with those of 18 non confabulators...
September 13, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Michiaki Nagai, Keigo Dote, Masaya Kato, Shota Sasaki, Noboru Oda, Eisuke Kagawa, Yoshinori Nakano, Aya Yamane, Tasuku Higashihara
Transient left ventricular dysfunction in patients under emotional stress, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, has been recognized as a distinct clinical entity. Recent studies have supported the concept notion that the cardiovascular system is regulated by cortical modulation. A network consisting of the insular cortex (Ic), anterior cingulate gyrus, and amygdala plays a crucial role in the regulation of the central autonomic nervous system in relation to emotional stress such as anxiety, fear and sadness...
October 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Takashi Yamada, Takashi Itahashi, Motoaki Nakamura, Hiromi Watanabe, Miho Kuroda, Haruhisa Ohta, Chieko Kanai, Nobumasa Kato, Ryu-Ichiro Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: The insular cortex comprises multiple functionally differentiated sub-regions, each of which has different patterns of connectivity with other brain regions. Such diverse connectivity patterns are thought to underlie a wide range of insular functions, including cognitive, affective, and sensorimotor processing, many of which are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although past neuroimaging studies of ASD have shown structural and functional abnormalities in the insula, possible alterations in the sub-regional organization of the insula and the functional characteristics of each sub-region have not been examined in the ASD brain...
2016: Molecular Autism
Shaun M Eack, Christina E Newhill, Matcheri S Keshavan
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive remediation is emerging as an effective psychosocial intervention for addressing untreated cognitive and functional impairments in persons with schizophrenia, and might achieve its benefits through neuroplastic changes in brain connectivity. This study seeks to examine the effects of cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) on fronto-temporal brain connectivity in a randomized controlled trial with individuals in the early course of schizophrenia. METHOD: Stabilized, early course outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 41) were randomly assigned to CET (n = 25) or an active enriched supportive therapy (EST) control (n = 16) and treated for 2 years...
2016: Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research
Andrea Polli, Luca Weis, Roberta Biundo, Michael Thacker, Andrea Turolla, Kostantinos Koutsikos, K Ray Chaudhuri, Angelo Antonini
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of pain in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still poorly understood, although it is conceivable that supraspinal mechanisms may be responsible for pain generation and maintenance. METHODS: We examined brain functional and anatomical changes associated with persistent pain in 40 PD patients, 20 with persistent pain and 20 without pain. We also examined 15 pain-free healthy participants of similar age, gender, and cognitive state as a control group...
October 5, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Jesus Martin-Cortecero, Angel Nuñez
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in higher functions such as memory and attention. In order to demonstrate sensory responses in the mPFC, we used electrophysiological recordings of urethane-anesthetized rats to record somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) or auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) elicited by whisker deflections and click stimulation, respectively. Contralateral whisker stimulation or auditory stimuli were also applied to study sensory interference in the mPFC. Interference with other sensory stimuli or recent stimulation history reduced whisker responses in the infralimbic and prelimbic cortices of the ventral mPFC...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
Jin-Tao Zhang, Yuan-Wei Yao, Marc N Potenza, Cui-Cui Xia, Jing Lan, Lu Liu, Ling-Jiao Wang, Ben Liu, Shan-Shan Ma, Xiao-Yi Fang
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is characterized by high levels of craving for online gaming and related cues. Since addiction-related cues can evoke increased activation in brain areas involved in motivational and reward processing and may engender gaming behaviors or trigger relapse, ameliorating cue-induced craving may be a promising target for interventions for IGD. This study compared neural activation between 40 IGD and 19 healthy control (HC) subjects during an Internet-gaming cue-reactivity task and found that IGD subjects showed stronger activation in multiple brain areas, including the dorsal striatum, brainstem, substantia nigra, and anterior cingulate cortex, but lower activation in the posterior insula...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
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