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Insular cortex

Yu-Jie Dai, Xin Zhang, Yang Yang, Hai-Yan Nan, Ying Yu, Qian Sun, Lin-Feng Yan, Bo Hu, Jin Zhang, Zi-Yu Qiu, Yi Gao, Guang-Bin Cui, Bi-Liang Chen, Wen Wang
BACKGROUND: The incidence of pain disorders in women is higher than in men, making gender differences in pain a research focus. The human insular cortex is an important brain hub structure for pain processing and is divided into several subdivisions, serving different functions in pain perception. Here we aimed to examine the gender differences of the functional connectivities (FCs) between the twelve insular subdivisions and selected pain-related brain structures in healthy adults. METHODS: Twenty-six healthy males and 11 age-matched healthy females were recruited in this cross-sectional study...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Edith V Sullivan, Natalie M Zahr, Stephanie A Sassoon, Wesley K Thompson, Dongjin Kwon, Kilian M Pohl, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Importance: The prevalence of alcohol misuse increased substantially over a decade in adults, particularly in those aged 65 years or older. Ramifications for brain structural integrity are significant, especially in older adults. Objectives: To combine cross-sectional, longitudinal data to test age-alcoholism interactions and examine the association between prevalent comorbidities (drug dependence and hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection) and cortical volume deficits in alcohol dependence...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Saloni Sharma, Prosper A Fiave, Koen Nelissen
Neurophysiological data obtained in primates suggests that merely observing others' actions can modulate activity in the observer's motor cortices. In humans, it has been suggested that these multimodal vicarious responses extend well beyond the motor cortices, including somatosensory and insular brain regions, that seem to yield vicarious responses when witnessing others' actions, sensations or emotions (Gazzola and Keysers, 2009). Despite the wealth of data with respect to shared action responses in the monkey motor system, whether the somatosensory and insular cortices also yield vicarious responses during observation of touch remains largely unknown...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Bei-Bei Wu, Ye Ma, Lei Xie, Jin-Zhuang Huang, Zong-Bo Sun, Zhi-Duo Hou, Rui-Wei Guo, Zhi-Rong Lin, Shou-Xing Duan, Shan-Shan Zhao, Yao-Xie, Dan-Miao Sun, Chun-Min Zhu, Shu-Hua Ma
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with cognitive deficit but the exact neural mechanisms remain unclear. PURPOSE: To explore sequential brain activities using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the performance of a decision-making task, and to determine whether serum or clinical markers can reflect the involvement of the brain in SLE. SUBJECTS: Sixteen female SLE patients without overt clinical neuropsychiatric symptoms and 16 healthy controls were included...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Valerio Santangelo
Higher-order cognitive processes were shown to rely on the interplay between large-scale neural networks. However, brain networks involved with the capability to split attentional resource over multiple spatial locations and multiple stimuli or sensory modalities have been largely unexplored to date. Here I re-analyzed data from Santangelo et al. (2010) to explore the causal interactions between large-scale brain networks during divided attention. During fMRI scanning, participants monitored streams of visual and/or auditory stimuli in one or two spatial locations for detection of occasional targets...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Miquel A Fullana, Anton Albajes-Eizagirre, Carles Soriano-Mas, Bram Vervliet, Narcís Cardoner, Olívia Benet, Joaquim Radua, Ben J Harrison
The study of fear extinction represents an important example of translational neuroscience in psychiatry and promises to improve the understanding and treatment of anxiety and fear-related disorders. We present the results of a set of meta-analyses of human fear extinction studies in healthy participants, conducted with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and reporting whole-brain results. Meta-analyses of fear extinction learning primarily implicate consistent activation of brain regions linked to threat appraisal and experience, including the dorsal anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices...
March 9, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Peng Yuan, Vincent Koppelmans, Patricia Reuter-Lorenz, Yiri De Dios, Nichole Gadd, Scott Wood, Roy Riascos, Igor Kofman, Jacob Bloomberg, Ajitkumar Mulavara, Rachael Seidler
Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) is frequently utilized as a spaceflight analog research environment to study the effects of axial body unloading and fluid shifts that are associated with spaceflight in the absence of gravitational modifications. HDBR has been shown to result in balance changes, presumably due to sensory reweighting and adaptation processes. Here, we examined whether HDBR results in changes in the neural correlates of vestibular processing. Thirteen men participated in a 70-day HDBR intervention; we measured balance, functional mobility, and functional brain activity in response to vestibular stimulation at 7 time points before, during, and after HDBR...
March 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Dominique Maciejewski, Nina Lauharatanahirun, Toria Herd, Jacob Lee, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Brooks King-Casas, Jungmeen Kim-Spoon
Adolescence is a critical period for the initiation of risk-taking behaviors. We examined the longitudinal interplay between neural correlates of risk processing and cognitive control in predicting risk-taking behaviors via stress. The sample consisted of 167 adolescents (53% males) who were assessed twice (MAgeTime1  = 14.13, MAgeTime2  = 15.05). Neural risk processing was operationalized as blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the anterior insula during a lottery choice task and neural cognitive control as BOLD responses during an inhibitory control task...
February 14, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Okihiro Onishi, Kazuya Ikoma, Ryo Oda, Tetsuro Yamazaki, Hiroyoshi Fujiwara, Shunji Yamada, Masaki Tanaka, Toshikazu Kubo
Although treatment protocols are available, patients experience both acute neuropathic pain and chronic neuropathic pain, hyperalgesia, and allodynia after peripheral nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to identify the brain regions activated after peripheral nerve injury using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sequentially and assess the relevance of the imaging results using histological findings. To model peripheral nerve injury in male Sprague-Dawley rats, the right sciatic nerve was crushed using an aneurysm clip, under general anesthesia...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Monika J M Murphy, Ariel Y Deutch
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is usually defined as the frontal cortical area receiving a mediodorsal thalamic innervation. Certain areas in the medial wall of the rat frontal area receive an MD innervation. A second frontal area that is the target of MD projections is located dorsal to the rhinal sulcus and often referred to as the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Both the mPFC and OFC are comprised of a large number of cytoarchitectonic regions. We assessed the afferent innervation of the different areas of the OFC, with a focus on projections arising from the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, and the midbrain dopamine neurons...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Masami Onuki, Toshiharu Yamamoto, Kenichi Sasaguri, Kentaro Yamada, Naruo Okada, Toshitsugu Kawata
We investigated the effects of chewing on the anterior and posterior insular cortices during restraint stress using phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) levels as a marker of neuronal responses. The stress only group demonstrated increased numbers of pERK-immunoreactive cells in both the anterior and posterior insular cortices compared to the control group (p < 0.01). In the stress with chewing group, the stress-induced increase of pERK-immunoreactive cell numbers was suppressed in both insular cortices and these differences were statistically significant compared to the stress-only group (p < 0...
March 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Giovanni Battistella, Veena Kumar, Kristina Simonyan
The importance of insula in speech control is acknowledged but poorly understood, partly due to a variety of clinical symptoms resulting from insults to this structure. To clarify its structural organization within the speech network in healthy subjects, we used probabilistic diffusion tractography to examine insular connectivity with three cortical regions responsible for sound processing [Brodmann area (BA) 22], motor preparation (BA 44) and motor execution (laryngeal/orofacial primary motor cortex, BA 4)...
March 8, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Luis Garcia-Larrea, François Mauguière
Pain was considered to be integrated subcortically during most of the 20th century, and it was not until 1956 that focal injury to the parietal opercular-insular cortex was shown to produce selective loss of pain senses. The parietal operculum and adjacent posterior insula are the main recipients of spinothalamic afferents in primates. The innermost operculum appears functionally associated with the posterior insula and can be segregated histologically, somatotopically and neurochemically from the more lateral S2 areas...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Kelly McCormick, Simon Lacey, Randall Stilla, Lynne C Nygaard, K Sathian
Crossmodal correspondences refer to associations between otherwise unrelated stimulus features in different sensory modalities. For example, high and low auditory pitches are associated with high and low visuospatial elevation, respectively. The neural mechanisms underlying crossmodal correspondences are currently unknown. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural basis of the pitch-elevation correspondence. Pitch-elevation congruency effects were observed bilaterally in the inferior frontal and insular cortex, the right frontal eye field and right inferior parietal cortex...
March 1, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Anthony B Ciccone, Jake A Deckert, Cory R Schlabs, Max J Tilden, Trent J Herda, Philip M Gallagher, Joseph P Weir
Stimulation of the left insular cortex may affect heart rate variability (HRV) and exercise effort perception. These studies investigated the effects transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and electrode orientation on HRV and repeated maximal knee extensions. In study 1, following sham stimulation, anodal left temporal lobe stimulation, or anodal right temporal lobe stimulation, 10 male and 10 female subjects (age=21.0±1.5 yr) completed 50 maximum isokinetic extensions at 180°s. There was a significant effect of stimulation condition on HRV for only one (SD2; p=...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Patrick Beukema, Katherine L Cecil, Elena Peterson, Victor R Mann, Megumi Matsushita, Yoshio Takashima, Saket Navlakha, Alison L Barth
Somatosensation is a complex sense mediated by more than a dozen distinct neural subtypes in the periphery. Although pressure and touch sensation have been mapped to primary somatosensory cortex in rodents, it has been controversial whether pain and temperature inputs are also directed to this area. Here we use a well-defined somatosensory modality, cool sensation mediated by peripheral TrpM8-receptors, to investigate the neural substrate for cool perception in the mouse neocortex. Using activation of cutaneous TrpM8 receptor-expressing neurons, we identify candidate neocortical areas responsive for cool sensation...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Etsuko Ikenoue, Fatema Akhter, Yumi Tsutsumi, Fumihiko Sato, Haruka Ohara, Katsuro Uchino, Takahiro Furuta, Yoshihisa Tachibana, Atsushi Yoshida
Our motor behavior can be affected by proprioceptive information. However, little is known about which brain circuits contribute to this process. We have recently revealed that the proprioceptive information arising from jaw-closing muscle spindles (JCMSs) is conveyed to the supratrigeminal nucleus (Su5) by neurons in the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Me5), then to the caudo-ventromedial edge of ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPMcvm), and finally to the dorsal part of granular insular cortex rostroventrally adjacent to the rostralmost part of secondary somatosensory cortex (dGIrvs2)...
February 23, 2018: Brain Research
Hiroki Toyoda
The insular cortex is known to play a pivotal role in addiction to nicotine. Long-term depression (LTD) in the central nervous system is a major form of synaptic plasticity which is involved in learning and memory and in various pathological conditions such as nicotine addiction. Until now, effects of nicotine on LTD were mainly examined in the hippocampus and striatum, and there is no report showing the effects of nicotine on LTD in the insular cortex. In the present study, I show for the first time that nicotine facilitates LTD which is induced by combination of presynaptic stimulation with postsynaptic depolarization (paired training) in layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the mouse insular cortex using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings...
February 22, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Phillip L Pearl, Annapurna Poduri, Sanjay P Prabhu, Chellamani Harini, Richard Goldstein, Richard M Atkinson, Dawna Armstrong, Hannah Kinney
The histopathology, "white matter spongiosis," defined by electron microscopy (EM) as "intramyelinic edema," has been associated with vigabatrin therapy in various animal models, but its role or significance in clinical studies is unknown. We conducted a neuropathological examination on a 27-month-old boy with bilateral polymicrogyria and epilepsy after sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The patient was initiated on vigabatrin at 4 months of age, which controlled infantile spasms, and was continued as maintenance therapy...
February 23, 2018: Epilepsia
Silvana Regina de Melo, Caren Tatiane de David Antoniazzi, Shakhawat Hossain, Bryan Kolb
The long-lasting effects of early stress on brain development have been well studied. Recent evidence indicates that males and females respond differently to the same stressor. We examined the chronic effects of daily maternal separation (MS) on behavior and cerebral morphology in both male and female rats. Cognitive and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated, and neuroplastic changes in 2 subregions of the prefrontal cortex (dorsal agranular insular cortex [AID] and cingulate cortex [Cg3]) and hippocampus (CA1 and dentate gyrus) were measured in adult male and female rats...
February 22, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
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