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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790868/altered-prefrontal-correlates-of-monetary-anticipation-and-outcome-in-chronic-pain
#1
Katherine T Martucci, Nicholas Borg, Kelly H MacNiven, Brian Knutson, Sean C Mackey
Chronic pain may alter both affect- and value-related behaviors, which represents a potentially treatable aspect of chronic pain experience. Current understanding of how chronic pain influences the function of brain reward systems, however, is limited. Using a monetary incentive delay task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we measured neural correlates of reward anticipation and outcomes in female participants with the chronic pain condition of fibromyalgia (N = 17) and age-matched, pain-free, female controls (N = 15)...
April 4, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787866/handedness-dependent-functional-organizational-patterns-within-the-bilateral-vestibular-cortical-network-revealed-by-fmri-connectivity-based-parcellation
#2
V Kirsch, R Boegle, D Keeser, E Kierig, B Ertl-Wagner, T Brandt, M Dieterich
Current evidence points towards a vestibular cortex that involves a multisensory bilateral temporo-parietal-insular network with a handedness-dependent hemispheric lateralization. This study aimed to identify handedness-dependent organizational patterns of (lateralized and non-lateralized) functional subunits within the human vestibular cortex areas. 60 healthy volunteers (30 left-handed and 30 right-handed) were examined on a 3T MR scanner using resting state functional MRI (fMRI). The data was analyzed in four major steps using a functional connectivity based parcellation (fCBP) approach: (1) independent component analysis (ICA) on a whole brain level to identify different resting state networks (RSN); (2) creation of a vestibular informed mask from four whole brain ICs that included reference coordinates of the vestibular network extracted from meta-analyses of vestibular neuroimaging experiments; (3) Re-ICA confined to the vestibular informed mask; (4) cross-correlation of the activated voxels within the vestibular subunits (parcels) to each other (P-to-P) and to the whole-brain RSN (P-to-RSN)...
May 19, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766827/pain-related-behavior-and-brain-activation-in-a-cynomolgus-macaque-model-of-postoperative-pain
#3
Aldric Hama, Takahiro Natsume, Shin'ya Ogawa, Yūji Awaga, Ikuo Hayashi, Akihisa Matsuda, Hiroyuki Takamatsu
BACKGROUND: Inadequate postoperative pain management could lead to persistent pain and this is, in part, due to incomplete understanding of the mechanism of postoperative pain. Currently available rodent models may have limited translatability to clinical postoperative pain. Thus, a preclinical model of postoperative pain was developed in the cynomolgus macaque, a species that is phylogenetically closer to humans than rodents. METHOD: The presence of pressure hypersensitivity was assessed with non-noxious pressure applied proximally and distally (approximately 10 cm) to an abdominal incision in macaques...
May 15, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758375/alterations-in-the-microstructure-of-white-matter-in-children-and-adolescents-with-tourette-syndrome-measured-using-tract-based-spatial-statistics-and-probabilistic-tractography
#4
Hilmar P Sigurdsson, Sophia E Pépés, Georgina M Jackson, Amelia Draper, Paul S Morgan, Stephen R Jackson
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by repetitive and intermittent motor and vocal tics. TS is thought to reflect fronto-striatal dysfunction and the aetiology of the disorder has been linked to widespread alterations in the functional and structural integrity of the brain. The aim of this study was to assess white matter (WM) abnormalities in a large sample of young patients with TS in comparison to a sample of matched typically developing control individuals (CS) using diffusion MRI...
April 12, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752611/comparison-of-electroacupuncture-and-mild-warm-moxibustion-on-brain-gut-function-in-patients-with-constipation-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Ji-Meng Zhao, Jin-Hua Lu, Xiao-Jun Yin, Lu-Yi Wu, Chun-Hui Bao, Xing-Kui Chen, Yue-Hua Chen, Wei-Jun Tang, Xiao-Ming Jin, Huan-Gan Wu, Yin Shi
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) and mild-warm moxibustion (Mox) therapies for constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (C-IBS) patients. METHODS: Sixty C-IBS patients were assigned to 2 groups by simple randomized method, i.e. EA group (30 cases) and Mox group (30 cases). Both EA and Mox treatments were performed on bilateral Tianshu (ST 25) and Shangjuxu (ST 37) for 30 min each time, 6 times per week, for 4 consecutive weeks...
May 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741595/insula-connections-with-the-parieto-frontal-circuit-for-generating-arm-actions-in-humans-and-macaque-monkeys
#6
G Di Cesare, C Pinardi, C Carapelli, F Caruana, M Marchi, M Gerbella, G Rizzolatti
It has been recently found that the human dorso-central insular cortex contributes to the execution and recognition of the affective component of hand actions, most likely through modulation of the activity of the parieto-frontal circuits. While the anatomical connections between the hand representation of the insula and, the parietal and frontal regions controlling reaching/grasping actions is well assessed in the monkey, it is unknown the existence of a homolog circuit in humans. In the present study, we performed a multifiber tractography investigation to trace the tracts possibly connecting the insula to the parieto-frontal circuits by locating seeds in the parietal, premotor, and prefrontal nodes of the reaching/grasping network, in both humans and monkeys...
May 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739476/altered-brain-gyrification-in-deficit-and-non-deficit-schizophrenia
#7
Yoichiro Takayanagi, Daiki Sasabayashi, Tsutomu Takahashi, Yuko Komori, Atsushi Furuichi, Mikio Kido, Yumiko Nishikawa, Mihoko Nakamura, Kyo Noguchi, Michio Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Patients with the deficit form of schizophrenia (D-SZ) are characterized by severe primary negative symptoms and differ from patients with the non-deficit form of schizophrenia (ND-SZ) in several aspects. No study has measured brain gyrification, which is a potential marker of neurodevelopment, in D-SZ and ND-SZ. METHODS: We obtained magnetic resonance scans from 135 schizophrenia patients and 50 healthy controls. The proxy scale for deficit syndrome (PDS) was used for the classification of D-SZ and ND-SZ...
May 9, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730485/towards-a-human-self-regulation-system-common-and-distinct-neural-signatures-of-emotional-and-behavioural-control
#8
REVIEW
Robert Langner, Susanne Leiberg, Felix Hoffstaedter, Simon B Eickhoff
Self-regulation refers to controlling our emotions and actions in the pursuit of higher-order goals. Although research suggests commonalities in the cognitive control of emotion and action, evidence for a shared neural substrate is scant and largely circumstantial. Here we report on two large-scale meta-analyses of human neuroimaging studies on emotion or action control, yielding two fronto-parieto-insular networks. The networks' overlap, however, was restricted to four brain regions: posteromedial prefrontal cortex, bilateral anterior insula, and right temporo-parietal junction...
May 3, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704610/thirst-dependent-activity-of-the-insular-cortex-reflects-its-emotion-related-subdivision-a-cerebral-blood-flow-study
#9
Lea Meier, Andrea Federspiel, Kay Jann, Roland Wiest, Werner Strik, Thomas Dierks
Recent studies investigating neural correlates of human thirst have identified various subcortical and telencephalic brain areas. The experience of thirst represents a homeostatic emotion and a state that slowly evolves over time. Therefore, the present study aims at systematically examining cerebral perfusion during the parametric progression of thirst. We measured subjective thirst ratings, serum parameters and cerebral blood flow in 20 healthy subjects across four different thirst stages: intense thirst, moderate thirst, subjective satiation and physiological satiation...
April 25, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700724/facing-temptation-the-neural-correlates-of-gambling-availability-during-sports-picture-exposure
#10
Damien Brevers, Sarah C Herremans, Qinghua He, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Mathieu Petieau, Dimitri Verdonck, Tasha Poppa, Sara De Witte, Charles Kornreich, Antoine Bechara, Chris Baeken
Nowadays, sports betting has become increasingly available and easy to engage in. Here we examined the neural responses to stimuli that represent sporting events available for betting as compared to sporting events without a gambling opportunity. We used a cue exposure task in which football (soccer) fans (N = 42) viewed cues depicting scheduled football games that would occur shortly after the scanning session. In the "betting" condition, participants were instructed to choose, at the end of each block, the game (and the team) they wanted to bet on...
April 26, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696595/delay-discounting-mediates-the-association-between-posterior-insular-cortex-volume-and-social-media-addiction-symptoms
#11
Ofir Turel, Qinghua He, Damien Brevers, Antoine Bechara
Addiction-like symptoms in relation to excessive and compulsive social media use are common in the general population. Because they can lead to various adverse effects, there is a growing need to understand the brain systems and processes that are involved in potential social media addiction. We focus on the morphology of the posterior subdivision of the insular cortex (i.e., the insula), because it has been shown to be instrumental to supporting the maintenance of substance addictions and problematic behaviors...
April 25, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695997/the-anatomo-electrical-network-underlying-hypermotor-seizures
#12
Xiu Wang, Wenhan Hu, Kai Zhang, Xiaoqiu Shao, Yanshan Ma, Lin Sang, Zhong Zheng, Chao Zhang, Junjv Li, Jian-Guo Zhang
Purpose: Hypermotor seizures (HMS) can be triggered by different epileptogenic foci and thus common symptomatic networks generating HMS may exist among these patients. The goal of the present study was to investigate the specialized networks underlying HMS by analyzing interictal 18 FDG-PET imaging and ictal stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) recordings. Methods: Fourteen patients with HMS were retrospectively analyzed. HMS were classified into HMS1 and HMS2 according to the speed and intensity of the motor seizure behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692741/impulsive-internet-game-play-is-associated-with-increased-functional-connectivity-between-the-default-mode-and-salience-networks-in-depressed-patients-with-short-allele-of-serotonin-transporter-gene
#13
Ji Sun Hong, Sun Mi Kim, Sujin Bae, Doug Hyun Han
Problematic Internet game play is often accompanied by major depressive disorder (MDD). Depression seems to be closely related to altered functional connectivity (FC) within (and between) the default mode network (DMN) and salience network. In addition, serotonergic neurotransmission may regulate the symptoms of depression, including impulsivity, potentially by modulating the DMN. We hypothesized that altered connectivity between the DMN and salience network could mediate an association between the 5HTTLPR genotype and impulsivity in patients with depression...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685064/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-impulsive-action-in-excoriation-skin-picking-disorder
#14
Austin W Blum, Samuel R Chamberlain, Michael D Harries, Brian L Odlaug, Sarah A Redden, Jon E Grant
Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) has similarities to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and is included within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) diagnostic class in DSM-5. Separate neuroimaging and neurocognitive studies suggest that people affected by SPD find it difficult to inhibit dominant motor responses due to a failure of "top-down" control mechanisms. No study has examined the neural correlates of SPD in participants with varying degrees of impulsive motor behavior...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684132/prefrontal-cortical-activity-during-the-stroop-task-new-insights-into-the-why-and-the-who-of-real-world-risky-sexual-behavior
#15
Emily Barkley-Levenson, Feng Xue, Vita Droutman, Lynn C Miller, Benjamin J Smith, David Jeong, Zhong-Lin Lu, Antoine Bechara, Stephen J Read
Background: Research suggests that deficits in both executive functioning and trait impulsivity may play a role in risky sexual behavior. At the neural level, differences in regulation of the prefrontal cortex have been linked to impulsivity, measured neurocognitively and through self-report. The relationship between neurocognitive measures of executive control and trait impulsivity in predicting risky sexual behavior has not been investigated. Purpose: To investigate the relationship between neural functioning during the Stroop task and risky sexual behavior, as well as the effect of individual differences in urgent (positive and negative) impulsivity on this relationship...
April 19, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670166/the-salience-of-self-not-social-pain-is-encoded-by-dorsal-anterior-cingulate-and-insula
#16
Irene Perini, Per A Gustafsson, J Paul Hamilton, Robin Kämpe, Maria Zetterqvist, Markus Heilig
The human neural correlates of social rejection have attracted significant research interest, but remain subject to vigorous debate. Specifically, it has been proposed that a matrix of brain regions overlapping with the classical pain matrix, and including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the anterior insular cortex (AI) is critical for processing of social rejection. The present study expands on this conceptualization, by showing that these areas are involved in processing of self-relevant social evaluation, irrespective of valence...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666588/increased-insular-cortical-thickness-associated-with-symptom-severity-in-male-youths-with-internet-gaming-disorder-a-surface-based-morphometric-study
#17
Shuai Wang, Jing Liu, Lin Tian, Limin Chen, Jun Wang, Qunfeng Tang, Fuquan Zhang, Zhenhe Zhou
With the rising increase in Internet-usage, Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has gained massive attention worldwide. However, detailed cerebral morphological changes remain unclear in youths with IGD. In the current study, our aim was to investigate cortical morphology and further explore the relationship between the cortical morphology and symptom severity in male youths with IGD. Forty-eight male youths with IGD and 32 age- and education-matched normal controls received magnetic resonance imaging scans. We employed a recently proposed surface-based morphometric approach for the measurement of cortical thickness (CT)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662447/neural-mechanisms-underlying-time-perception-and-reward-anticipation
#18
Nihal Apaydın, Sertaç Üstün, Emre H Kale, İpek Çelikağ, Halise D Özgüven, Bora Baskak, Metehan Çiçek
Findings suggest that the physiological mechanisms involved in the reward anticipation and time perception partially overlap. But the systematic investigation of a potential interaction between time and reward systems using neuroimaging is lacking. Eighteen healthy volunteers (all right-handed) participated in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment that employs a visual paradigm that consists monetary reward to assess whether the functional neural representations of time perception and reward prospection are shared or distinct...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660441/silencing-the-insular-striatal-circuit-decreases-alcohol-self-administration-and-increases-sensitivity-to-alcohol
#19
Anel A Jaramillo, Kalynn Van Voorhies, Patrick A Randall, Joyce Besheer
Internal drug states/cues can impact drug taking, as pretreatment with a moderate to high alcohol dose (i.e., loading dose) can decrease subsequent alcohol self-administration, alcohol-seeking, and relapse-like drinking. The insular cortex (IC) is implicated in processing information about internal states and findings show that silencing the IC and its projections to the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) enhance sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol. Therefore, the goal of the present work was to determine the functional role of IC-AcbC projections in modulating the effects of alcohol pretreatment on operant alcohol self-administration...
April 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656497/altered-brain-function-in-persistent-postural-perceptual-dizziness-a-study-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#20
Jin-Ok Lee, Eek-Sung Lee, Ji-Soo Kim, Young-Beom Lee, Yong Jeong, Byung Se Choi, Jae-Hyoung Kim, Jeffrey P Staab
This study used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to investigate whole brain networks in patients with persistent postural perceptual dizziness (PPPD). We compared rsfMRI data from 38 patients with PPPD and 38 healthy controls using whole brain and region of interest analyses. We examined correlations among connectivity and clinical variables and tested the ability of a machine learning algorithm to classify subjects using rsfMRI results. Patients with PPPD showed: (a) increased connectivity of subcallosal cortex with left superior lateral occipital cortex and left middle frontal gyrus, (b) decreased connectivity of left hippocampus with bilateral central opercular cortices, left posterior opercular cortex, right insular cortex and cerebellum, and (c) decreased connectivity between right nucleus accumbens and anterior left temporal fusiform cortex...
April 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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