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Insular cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813200/brain-microstructural-abnormalities-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-without-overt-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-voxel-based-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-study
#1
Hua-Jun Chen, Peng-Fei Liu, Qiu-Feng Chen, Hai-Bin Shi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whole-brain microstructural abnormalities and their correlation with cognitive impairment in patients with cirrhosis using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with cirrhosis and 17 healthy control subjects underwent DKI. Cognition was measured using psychometric hepatic encephalopathy (HE) scores. Whole-brain voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate between-group differences in DKI-derived parameters, including mean kurtosis, axial kurtosis, and radial kurtosis...
August 16, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806707/deviant-functional-activation-and-connectivity-of-the-right-insula-are-associated-with-lack-of-awareness-of-episodic-memory-impairment-in-nonamnesic-alcoholism
#2
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Eva M Müller-Oehring, Tilman Schulte, Matthew R Serventi, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan
A disorder of metamemory, expressed as unawareness of mnemonic ability, is typically associated with the profound amnesia of Korsakoff's Syndrome (KS). A similar but less severe type of limited awareness can also occur in non-KS alcoholism and is observed as an impairment in generating Feeling-of-Knowing (FOK) predictions about future recognition performance. We previously found that FOK accuracy was selectively related to volumes of the insula in alcoholics involved in the present study. Unknown, however, are the neural substrates of unawareness of memory impairment in alcoholism...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804744/reduced-rich-club-connectivity-is-related-to-disability-in-primary-progressive-ms
#3
Jan-Patrick Stellmann, Sibylle Hodecker, Bastian Cheng, Nadine Wanke, Kim Lea Young, Claus Hilgetag, Christian Gerloff, Christoph Heesen, Götz Thomalla, Susanne Siemonsen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the structural connectivity of the brain's rich-club organization is altered in patients with primary progressive MS and whether such changes to this fundamental network feature are associated with disability measures. METHODS: We recruited 37 patients with primary progressive MS and 21 healthy controls for an observational cohort study. Structural connectomes were reconstructed based on diffusion-weighted imaging data using probabilistic tractography and analyzed with graph theory...
September 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803592/brain-alterations-potentially-associated-with-aggression-and-terrorism
#4
Bernhard Bogerts, Maria Schöne, Stephanie Breitschuh
A large proportion of the persons who join terrorist groups as well as lone-acting terrorists have a history of violent behavior or mental disorder that predated their becoming terrorists. This suggests that brain alterations found to occur in violent perpetrators may also be present in a significant percentage of terrorists. After a short delineation of phylogenetically old neuronal networks that are important for the generation of aggressive behavior in inconspicuous brains, this review summarizes structural and functional brain-imaging studies in violent offenders published over the last 10 years...
August 14, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797556/the-impact-of-mindfulness-based-interventions-on-brain-activity-a-systematic-review-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#5
REVIEW
Katherine S Young, Anne Maj van der Velden, Michelle G Craske, Karen Johanne Pallesen, Lone Fjorback, Andreas Roepstorff, Christine E Parsons
Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly used in the treatment and prevention of mental health conditions. Despite this, the mechanisms of change for such interventions are only beginning to be understood, with a number of recent studies assessing changes in brain activity. The aim of this systematic review was to assess changes in brain functioning associated with manualised 8-session mindfulness interventions. Searches of PubMed and Scopus databases resulted in 39 papers, 7 of which were eligible for inclusion...
August 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796326/gustatory-and-olfactory-responses-to-stimulation-of-the-human-insula
#6
Laure Mazzola, Jean-Pierre Royet, Hélène Catenoix, Alexandra Montavont, Jean Isnard, François Mauguière
OBJECTIVE: Despite numerous studies suggesting the role of insular cortex in the processing of gustatory and olfactory inputs, the exact location of olfacto-gustatory representation in the insula remains controversial. Here we provide a functional mapping of olfactory-gustatory responses to stimulation of the human insular cortex. METHODS: We reviewed 651 electrical stimulations of the insula that were performed in 221 patients, using stereotactically implanted depth electrodes, during the pre-surgical evaluation of drug refractory epilepsy...
August 10, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783763/mapping-altered-brain-connectivity-and-its-clinical-associations-in-adult-moyamoya-disease-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#7
Ken Kazumata, Khin Khin Tha, Haruto Uchino, Masaki Ito, Naoki Nakayama, Takeo Abumiya
Detection of subtle ischemic injuries in moyamoya disease may enable optimization of timing of revascularization surgery, and could potentially improve functional outcomes. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely used to study functional organization of the brain, but it remains unclear whether rs-fMRI could elucidate distinct characteristics in moyamoya disease. Here, we aimed to determine changes in a conventional rs-fMRI measure and analyze any associations with clinical symptoms and cerebral hemodynamics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782489/neural-correlates-in-patients-with-major-affective-disorders-an-fmri-study
#8
Maurizio Pompili
Brain areas of functional activation during emotional stimuli and their correlations with affective temperaments evaluated using Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A) and hopelessness levels assessed with Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) have been investigated. Brain activity in response to emotional stimuli was examined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (NMR BOLD) signal. Seventeen subjects (mean age ± SD = 57 ± 12), diagnosed with major affective disorders and eighteen healthy controls (HC) (mean age ± SD = 50±11) participated in this study...
August 3, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777703/structural-alterations-in-chronic-capsular-versus-pontine-stroke
#9
Lin Jiang, Jingchun Liu, Caihong Wang, Jun Guo, Jingliang Cheng, Tong Han, Peifang Miao, Chen Cao, Chunshui Yu
Purpose To investigate whether patients with capsular stroke (CS) and patients with pontine stroke (PS) involving the motor pathway have different types of structural damage and reorganization. Materials and Methods With institutional review board approval and after obtaining written informed consent, structural magnetic resonance imaging data were prospectively acquired in 115 patients with CS, 47 patients with PS, and 116 control subjects by using four imagers from three hospitals. Patients with stroke lesions in the left and right hemispheres were analyzed (timing of follow-up imaging: mean, 597 days; range, 180-2070 days)...
August 4, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774646/subcortical-and-cortical-correlates-of-pitch-discrimination-evidence-for-two-levels-of-neuroplasticity-in-musicians
#10
Federica Bianchi, Jens Hjortkjær, Sébastien Santurette, Robert J Zatorre, Hartwig R Siebner, Torsten Dau
Musicians are highly trained to discriminate fine pitch changes but the neural bases of this ability are poorly understood. It is unclear whether such training-dependent differences in pitch processing arise already in the subcortical auditory system or are linked to more central stages. To address this question, we combined psychoacoustic testing with functional MRI to measure cortical and subcortical responses in musicians and non-musicians during a pitch-discrimination task. First, we estimated behavioral pitch-discrimination thresholds for complex tones with harmonic components that were either resolved or unresolved in the auditory system...
July 31, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764909/a-novel-psen1-s230n-mutation-causing-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-associated-with-prosopagnosia-hoarding-and-parkinsonism
#11
John M Ringman, Maria Casado, Victoria Van Berlo, Judy Pa, Nelly Joseph-Mathurin, Anne M Fagan, Tammie Benzinger, Randall J Bateman, John C Morris
We describe clinical and biomarker findings in an index patient with the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) symptoms at age 57 and a family history consistent with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. She had the atypical early features of visual agnosia and prosopagnosia followed by hoarding behavior and Parkinsonism. Structural MRI revealed global atrophy that was most severe in the lateral temporal lobes and insular cortex bilaterally. CSF biomarker assessment showed Aβ42, p-tau181, and total tau levels consistent with AD...
July 29, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762475/behavioral-and-fmri-responses-to-fearful-faces-are-altered-in-benign-childhood-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes-bcects
#12
Carolina Ciumas, Agathe Laurent, Mani Saignavongs, Faustine Ilski, Julitta de Bellescize, Eleni Panagiotakaki, Karine Ostrowsky-Coste, Alexis Arzimanoglou, Vania Herbillon, Danielle Ibarrola, Philippe Ryvlin
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS) might have altered social cognitive skills and underlying neural networks. METHODS: We studied 13 patients with BCECTS and 11 age-matched controls using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with an emotional discrimination task consisting of viewing happy, fearful, scrambled, and neutral faces. Behavioral performance measured during the task was correlated with clinical variables and behavioral ratings...
July 31, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760699/modulation-of-the-storage-of-social-recognition-memory-by-neurotransmitter-systems-in-the-insular-cortex
#13
Lorena E S Cavalcante, Carolina G Zinn, Scheila D Schmidt, Bruna F Saenger, Flávia F Ferreira, Cristiane R G Furini, Jociane C Myskiw, Ivan Izquierdo
The insular cortex (IC) receives projections from prefrontal, entorhinal and cingulate cortex, olfactory bulb and basal nuclei and has reciprocal connections with the amygdala and entorhinal cortex. These connections suggest a possible involvement in memory processes; this has been borne out by data on several behaviors. Social recognition memory (SRM) is essential to form social groups and to establish hierarchies and social and affective ties. Despite its importance, knowledge about the brain structures and the neurotransmitter mechanisms involved in its processing is still scarce...
July 29, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740423/antinociceptive-tolerance-to-nsaids-in-the-agranular-insular-cortex-is-mediated-by-opioid-mechanism
#14
Natia Pirkulashvili, Nana Tsiklauri, Marina Nebieridze, Merab G Tsagareli
Several lines of investigations have shown that in some brain areas, in particular, in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter, rostral ventromedial medulla, central nucleus of amygdala, nucleus raphe magnus, and dorsal hippocampus, microinjections of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce antinociception with distinct development of tolerance. The agranular insular cortex (AIC) is a small region of the cerebral cortex located on the lateral area of the rat's cerebral hemisphere that is involved in the perception and response to pain...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737256/insula-based-networks-in-professional-musicians-evidence-for-increased-functional-connectivity-during-resting-state-fmri
#15
Anna M Zamorano, Ignacio Cifre, Pedro Montoya, Inmaculada Riquelme, Boris Kleber
Despite considerable research on experience-dependent neuroplasticity in professional musicians, detailed understanding of an involvement of the insula is only now beginning to emerge. We investigated the effects of musical training on intrinsic insula-based connectivity in professional classical musicians relative to nonmusicians using resting-state functional MRI. Following a tripartite scheme of insula subdivisions, coactivation profiles were analyzed for the posterior, ventral anterior, and dorsal anterior insula in both hemispheres...
July 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732749/body-representation-disorders-predict-left-right-orientation-impairments-after-stroke-a%C3%A2-voxel-based-lesion-symptom-mapping-study
#16
Haike E van Stralen, H Chris Dijkerman, J Matthijs Biesbroek, Hugo J Kuijf, H Maarten A van Gemert, David Sluiter, L Jaap Kappelle, Martine J E van Zandvoort
INTRODUCTION: Deficits in the ability to distinguish between the left and right side of the body can severely impair daily life functioning. The current study examined the relation between left right orientation (LRO) impairments and somatosensory related deficits, ranging from primary somatosensory impairments to body representation impairments, in patients who suffered a recent stroke. We also examined which areas in the brain are associated with LRO impairments using a Voxel-based Lesion Symptom Mapping (VLSM) analysis...
June 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730563/functional-connectivity-and-cognitive-impairment-in-migraine-with-and-without-aura
#17
Viviana Lo Buono, Lilla Bonanno, Francesco Corallo, Laura Rosa Pisani, Riccardo Lo Presti, Rosario Grugno, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
BACKGROUND: Several fMRI studies in migraine assessed resting state functional connectivity in different networks suggesting that this neurological condition was associated with brain functional alteration. The aim of present study was to explore the association between cognitive functions and cerebral functional connectivity, in default mode network, in migraine patients without and with aura, during interictal episodic attack. METHODS: Twenty-eight migraine patients (14 without and 14 with aura) and 14 matched normal controls, were consecutively recruited...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726799/the-insular-cortex-dynamically-maps-changes-in-cardiorespiratory-interoception
#18
Mahlega S Hassanpour, W Kyle Simmons, Justin S Feinstein, Qingfei Luo, Rachel Lapidus, Jerzy Bodurka, Martin P Paulus, Sahib S Khalsa
Palpitations and dyspnea are fundamental to the human experience of panic anxiety, but it remains unclear how the brain dynamically represents changes in these interoceptive sensations. We used isoproterenol, a rapidly acting peripheral beta-adrenergic agonist similar to adrenaline, to induce sensations of palpitation and dyspnea in healthy individuals (n=23) during arterial spin labeling (ASL) functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). We hypothesized that the right mid-insular cortex, a central recipient of viscerosensory input, would preferentially respond during the peak period of cardiorespiratory stimulation...
July 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721398/calcium-stimulated-adenylyl-cyclase-subtype-1-ac1-contributes-to-ltp-in-the-insular-cortex-of-adult-mice
#19
Manabu Yamanaka, Takanori Matsuura, Haili Pan, Min Zhuo
Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system is a key form of cortical plasticity. The insular cortex (IC) is known to play important roles in pain perception, aversive memory and mood disorders. LTP has been recently reported in the IC, however, the signaling pathway for IC LTP remains unknown. Here, we investigated the synaptic mechanism of IC LTP. We found that IC LTP induced by the pairing protocol was N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) dependent, and expressed postsynaptically, since paired-pulse ratio (PPR) was not affected...
July 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714716/cb%C3%A2-receptor-antagonism-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-interferes-with-affective-opioid-withdrawal-in-rats
#20
Kiri L Wills, Marieka V DeVuono, Cheryl L Limebeer, Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Linda A Parker
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a region of the extended amygdala that is implicated in addiction, anxiety, and stress related behaviors. This region has been identified in mediating the aversive state of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (MWD) and cannabinoid Type I (CB1) receptors have been found to modulate neurotransmission within this region. Previous findings suggest that the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist, AM251, administered systemically or by infusion into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) prevented the aversive affective properties of MWD as measured by conditioned place aversion learning...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
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