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humanitarian aid

Jérôme Sales de Gauzy
Pediatric orthopedic surgery in humanitarian aid is conducted mainly in cooperation with emerging countries. Each mission is different, and depends on numerous parameters such as the country, the frequency of such missions, the pathologies encountered, the local structure and team, and the non-governmental organization (NGO) involved. Pathologies vary in etiology (tuberculosis, poliomyelitis) and severity. Each mission requires the presence of an experienced surgeon. Working conditions are often rudimentary...
November 17, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Liza Jachens, Jonathan Houdmont, Roslyn Thomas
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to explore the prevalence of heavy alcohol consumption and its association with stress-related working conditions-defined in terms of effort-reward imbalance (ERI)-among a large sample of humanitarian aid workers operating across four continents. Research has shown employee alcohol consumption has potential detrimental implications for health and work outcomes and is associated with exposure to work stressors. Research to identify links between stressful aspects of work and heavy alcohol consumption among humanitarian aid workers could usefully inform the design of sector-specific interventions concerned with the reduction of alcohol consumption...
November 2016: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Alaaddin M Salih, Jasim M Ahmed, Jamal F Mohamed, Musaab M Alfaki
Given the persistent recurrence of armed conflict, influential actors owe it to the affected communities to take action. The legitimacy of health professionals to mitigate the effects of conflict relates to their ability to save lives and address the physical and mental consequences of armed conflict during which thousands of lives may be lost. Medical professionals have unique and potentially far-reaching skills. These become crucial during wartime and disasters in terms of providing medical services and humanitarian aid...
October 24, 2016: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
R Hurlemann, N Marsh
Numerous honorary initiatives for humanitarian aid towards refugees illustrate the high prevalence of altruistic behavior in the population. In medicine, an exquisite example of a human propensity for altruism is organ donation. Current perspectives on the neurobiology of altruism suggest that it is deeply rooted in the motivational architecture of the social brain. This is reflected by the social evolution of cooperation and parochialism, both of which are modulated by the evolutionarily conserved peptide hormone oxytocin...
October 17, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Guy Roth, Noa Shane, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon
Considering that negative intergroup emotions can hinder conflict resolution, we proposed integrative emotion regulation (IER) as possibly predicting conciliatory policies towards outgroups in violent conflict. Two studies examined Jewish Israelis' self-reported IER, empathy, liberal attitudes, and support for humanitarian aid to Palestinians in Gaza. Study 1 (N = 298) found that unlike reappraisal Jewish Israelis' ability to explore emotions (e.g. IER) promoted concern for others' emotions (empathy), which in turn predicted support for humanitarian aid (while controlling for education level, and religiosity)...
October 3, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Deon V Canyon, Frederick M Burkle
Outcomes of the World Humanitarian Summit were mixed with some refreshing new directions being endorsed and a lack of systemic reform. The selective agenda and OCHAs lack of success in engaging pre-meeting political participation not only hampered the Summit's ability to deal with global issues and institutional reform, but also alienated it from leading aid agencies and governments. The UN's failure to commit to humanitarian principles and global disarray of the humanitarian system indicates the need for extensive reform or a new global humanitarian body...
August 30, 2016: PLoS Currents
Evelyne Durocher, Ryoa Chung, Christiane Rochon, Matthew Hunt
Vulnerability is a central concept in humanitarian aid. Discussions of vulnerability in disaster response literature and guidelines for humanitarian aid range from considerations of a universal human vulnerability, to more nuanced examinations of how particular characteristics render individuals more or less at risk. Despite its frequent use, there is a lack of clarity about how vulnerability is conceptualized and how it informs operational priorities in humanitarian assistance. Guided by interpretive description methodology, we draw on the feminist taxonomy of vulnerability presented by Mackenzie, Rogers and Dodds (2014) to examine perspectives of 24 expatriate and Haitian decision-makers and health professionals interviewed between May 2012 and March 2013...
July 2016: Journal of Human Rights Practice
Antony M Overstall, David C Woods
We present a common framework for Bayesian emulation methodologies for multivariate output simulators, or computer models, that employ either parametric linear models or non-parametric Gaussian processes. Novel diagnostics suitable for multivariate covariance separable emulators are developed and techniques to improve the adequacy of an emulator are discussed and implemented. A variety of emulators are compared for a humanitarian relief simulator, modelling aid missions to Sicily after a volcanic eruption and earthquake, and a sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the sensitivity of the simulator output to changes in the input variables...
August 2016: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C, Applied Statistics
Philip Ko, Khin-Shwe Eu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Ming Li Leonard Ho, Jonathan Zhao Min Lim, Mark Zhong Wei Tan, Wai Leong Kok, Jun Ren Zhang, Mian Yi Tan, Adrian Chong Beng Tan
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to report the injury or disease patterns, challenges, key observations, and recommendations by the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) team that embarked on an Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) mission in the aftermath of the April 2015 Nepal earthquake. METHODS: The SAF medical team that provided HADR assistance to Nepal consisted of personnel from the SAF, Singapore¢s Ministry of Health and the Royal Brunei Armed Forces...
August 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
Alba Ripoll Gallardo, Frederick M Burkle, Luca Ragazzoni, Francesco Della Corte
The current humanitarian crisis in Yemen is unprecedented in many ways. The Yemeni War tragedy is symptomatic of gross failures to recognize, by combatants, existing humanitarian law and the Geneva Convention that have become the new norm in unconventional armed conflicts and are increasingly replicated in Africa, Afghanistan, and other areas of the Middle East with dire consequences on aid workers and the noncombatant population. The health and humanitarian professions must take collective responsibility in calling for all belligerent parties to cease the massacre and commit to guaranteed medical assistance, humanitarian aid, and the free flow of information and respect for the humanitarian principles that protect the neutrality and impartiality of the humanitarian workforce...
August 11, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Peter Heudtlass, Niko Speybroeck, Debarati Guha-Sapir
BACKGROUND: Complex humanitarian emergencies are characterised by a break-down of health systems. All-cause mortality increases and non-violent excess deaths (predominantly due to infectious diseases) have been shown to outnumber violent deaths even in exceptionally brutal conflicts. However, affected populations are very heterogeneous and refugees, internally displaced persons (IDPs) and resident (non-displaced) populations differ substantially in their access to health services. We aim to show how this translates into health outcomes by quantifying excess all-cause mortality in emergencies by displacement status...
2016: Conflict and Health
Sohil Pothiawala
The number of disasters, both natural as well as man-made, has been increasing in frequency in the recent years. This leads to short as well as long-term effects on food security and shelter, requiring humanitarian assistance. This article aims to identify the principles and standards that are applicable to food and shelter related aid that needs to be provided by the co-operation of the local government as well as the relevant supporting organizations. Also, food and shelter security during a disaster response is achieved through better preparedness...
October 2015: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
Heather Rysaback-Smith
Humanitarian aid has been present in some form throughout human history, yet the modern concept of humanitarian aid has only truly emerged since the later half of the 20th century. Through a complex progression of world events and largely brought about in response to armed conflict, modern humanitarian aid is provided by a multitude of organizations and actors. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the history of humanitarian action, a review of the principles of humanitarian aid and an overview of the major documents which delineate those principles...
October 2015: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
Josiah D Rich, Curt G Beckwith, Alexandria Macmadu, Brandon D L Marshall, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Joseph J Amon, M-J Milloy, Maximilian R F King, Jorge Sanchez, Lukoye Atwoli, Frederick L Altice
The burden of HIV/AIDS and other transmissible diseases is higher in prison and jail settings than in the non-incarcerated communities that surround them. In this comprehensive review, we discuss available literature on the topic of clinical management of people infected with HIV, hepatitis B and C viruses, and tuberculosis in incarcerated settings in addition to co-occurrence of one or more of these infections. Methods such as screening practices and provision of treatment during detainment periods are reviewed to identify the effect of community-based treatment when returning inmates into the general population...
September 10, 2016: Lancet
Kaz de Jong, Cono Ariti, Saskia van der Kam, Trudy Mooren, Leslie Shanks, Giovanni Pintaldi, Rolf Kleber
Existing tools for evaluating psychosocial interventions (un-validated self-reporting questionnaires) are not ideal for use in non-Western conflict settings. We implement a generic method of treatment evaluation, using client and counsellor feedback, in 18 projects in non-Western humanitarian settings. We discuss our findings from the perspective of validity and suggestions for future research. A retrospective analysis is executed using data gathered from psychosocial projects. Clients (n = 7,058) complete two (complaints and functioning) rating scales each session and counsellors rate the client's status at exit...
2016: PloS One
Norihito Noguchi, Satoshi Inoue, Chisato Shimanoe, Koichi Shinchi
Few studies have investigated deployment-related experiences of healthcare workers dispatched for medical humanitarian aid or attempted to assess their difficult living and working environments. This is the first study to develop and validate a scale to measure these kinds of difficulties, in 264 Japanese healthcare workers. The Humanitarian Aid Difficulty Scale was developed in three stages. First, an item pool was generated based on literature and expert reviews. The scale was then tested in a pilot study...
December 2016: Nursing & Health Sciences
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Nursing Outlook
Lauren Birks, Christopher Powell, Jennifer Hatfield
: Gender analysis methodology is increasingly being considered as essential to health research because 'women's social, economic and political status undermine their ability to protect and promote their own physical, emotional and mental health, including their effective use of health information and services' {World Health Organization [Gender Analysis in Health: a review of selected tools. 2003; ANALYSIS: pdf (20 February 2008, date last accessed)]}...
May 8, 2016: Health Promotion International
Laëtitia Atlani-Duault, Jean-Pierre Dozon, Andrew Wilson, Jean-François Delfraissy, Jean-Paul Moatti
The French contribution to global public health over the past two centuries has been marked by a fundamental tension between two approaches: State-provided universal free health care and what we propose to call State humanitarian verticalism. Both approaches have historical roots in French colonialism and have led to successes and failures that continue until the present day. In this paper, the second in The Lancet's Series on France, we look at how this tension has evolved. During the French colonial period (1890s to 1950s), the Indigenous Medical Assistance structure was supposed to bring metropolitan France's model of universal and free public health care to the colonies, and French State imperial humanitarianism crystallised in vertical programmes inspired by Louis Pasteur, while vying with early private humanitarian activism in health represented by Albert Schweitzer...
May 28, 2016: Lancet
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