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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317390/failing-to-protect-humanitarian-workers-lessons-from-britain-and-voluntary-aid-detachments-in-the-second-world-war
#1
Amol A Verma
This paper draws on official records of international and British organizations, newspaper reports, and volunteer memoirs to study the failure to protect humanitarian workers in the Second World War. The Second World War saw a significant expansion in the use of air warfare and flying missiles and these technological advances posed a grave threat to civilians and humanitarian workers. In this context, the International Committee of the Red Cross advocated unsuccessfully to restrict air warfare and create safe hospital zones...
March 19, 2017: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306747/hypothermic-stunning-of-green-sea-turtles-in-a-western-gulf-of-mexico-foraging-habitat
#2
Donna J Shaver, Philippe E Tissot, Mary M Streich, Jennifer Shelby Walker, Cynthia Rubio, Anthony F Amos, Jeffrey A George, Michelle R Pasawicz
Texas waters provide one of the most important developmental and foraging habitats for juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the western Gulf of Mexico, but hypothermic stunning is a significant threat and was the largest cause of green turtle strandings in Texas from 1980 through 2015; of the 8,107 green turtles found stranded, 4,529 (55.9%) were victims of hypothermic stunning. Additionally, during this time, 203 hypothermic stunned green turtles were found incidentally captured due to power plant water intake entrapment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229500/money-for-microbes-pathogen-avoidance-and-out-group-helping-behaviour
#3
Michael Laakasuo, Nils Köbis, Jussi Palomäki, Markus Jokela
Humans have evolved various adaptations against pathogens, including the physiological immune system. However, not all of these adaptations are physiological: the cognitive mechanisms whereby we avoid potential sources of pathogens-for example, disgust elicited by uncleanliness-can be considered as parts of a behavioural immune system (BIS). The mechanisms of BIS extend also to inter-group relations: Pathogen cues have been shown to increase xenophobia/ethnocentrism, as people prefer to keep their societal in-group norms unaltered and "clean...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133779/factors-affecting-the-united-nations-response-to-natural-disasters-what-determines-the-allocation-of-the-central-emergency-response-fund
#4
Tyler D Robinson, Thiago M Oliveira, Stephanie Kayden
Natural disasters can overwhelm the domestic response of a country, leaving it dependent on external humanitarian relief. The Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) of the United Nations centralises humanitarian funding and thus allows for a rapid response. This study combined data to analyse the factors that affected the allocation of CERF funding to countries that suffered a natural disaster between 2007 and 2013. It generated descriptive statistics and information on relative risks, and performed regressions of CERF funding across countries...
January 30, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121245/solar-powered-hearing-aids-for-children-with-impaired-hearing-in-vietnam-a-pilot-study
#5
Quang Thanh Vo, Dung Pham, Kevin J Choi, Uyen T T Nguyen, Lan Le, Trudy Shanewise, Lien Tran, Nga Nguyen, Walter T Lee
BACKGROUND: Hearing loss is a barrier to speech and social and cognitive development. This can be especially pronounced in children living in low- and middle-income countries with limited resources. AIM: To determine the feasibility, durability and social impact of ComCare GLW solar-powered hearing aids provided for Vietnamese children with hearing impairment. METHODS: A retrospective review of data from an international, multi-discipline humanitarian visit was performed...
January 25, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069566/doctors-condemn-need-for-red-cross-to-step-in-to-aid-nhs-in-humanitarian-crisis
#6
Adrian O'Dowd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018747/exploring-the-role-of-ad-hoc-grassroots-organizations-providing-humanitarian-aid-on-lesvos-greece
#7
George Tjensvoll Kitching, Hanne J Haavik, Birgit J Tandstad, Muhammad Zaman, Elisabeth Darj
INTRODUCTION: Syrian refugees displaced into Turkey have attempted high-risk sea migrations to reach safer destinations in Europe, most often initially arriving on the Greek island of Lesvos. These refugees were often in need of basic humanitarian assistance that has been provided in part by a new category of ad hoc grassroots organizations (AHGOs). The aim of this study was to understand the internal and external operations of these AHGOs and their role on Lesvos. METHODS: The experiences of AHGOs were investigated through a qualitative research design utilizing semi-structured interviews with organization leaders and spokespersons...
November 17, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018025/facing-famine-somali-experiences-in-the-famine-of-2011
#8
Daniel Maxwell, Nisar Majid, Guhad Adan, Khalif Abdirahman, Jeeyon Janet Kim
In 2011-12, Somalia experienced the worst famine of the twenty- first century. Since then, research on the famine has focused almost exclusively on the external response, the reasons for the delay in the international response, and the implications for international humanitarian action in the context of the "global war on terror." This paper focuses on the internal, Somali response to the famine. Themes of diversification, mobility and flexibility are all important to understanding how people coped with the famine, but this paper focuses on the factor that seemed to determine whether and how well people survived the famine: social connectedness, the extent of the social networks of affected populations, and the ability of these networks to mobilize resources...
December 2016: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986232/the-need-for-formal-surgical-global-health-programs-and-improved-mission-trip-coordination
#9
Sar Medoff, Jeffrey Freed
BACKGROUND: There is a dire need for more surgical services as part of improving global health. Conditions treatable with surgery account for 11% of the global burden of disease, with a disproportionate burden affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Less than 6% of the world's operations are performed in LMICs, with relief organizations performing nearly 250,000 operations annually in LMICs in addition to each country's domestic surgical capacity. Currently, surgical needs are not adequately met by the existing patchwork of federal and nongovernmental organizations' surgical services and surgical mission trips...
July 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942253/lived-time-disturbances-of-drug-addiction-therapy-newcomers-a-qualitative-field-phenomenology-case-study-at-monar-markot-center-in-poland
#10
Marcin Moskalewicz
The aim of this study was to qualitatively assess the disturbances of lived time in individuals with multiple drug dependencies. The research was conducted at Monar-Markot Center for Humanitarian Aid in Roznowice (Poland) in 2014 through direct, non-disguised observational study in a therapeutic community setting. Overall, 10 clients with multiple drug dependencies forming a newcomers group participated in. They previously abstained from usage for negligible periods of time. The measurements included participant observation of collective time regimes at the center; group discussions; written accounts by clients; Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory; semi-structured interviews...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867136/pediatric-orthopedic-surgery-in-humanitarian-aid
#11
REVIEW
J Sales de Gauzy, J-F Trinchero, J-L Jouve
Pediatric orthopedic surgery in humanitarian aid is conducted mainly in cooperation with emerging countries. Each mission is different, and depends on numerous parameters such as the country, the frequency of such missions, the pathologies encountered, the local structure and team, and the non-governmental organization (NGO) involved. Pathologies vary in etiology (tuberculosis, poliomyelitis) and severity. Each mission requires the presence of an experienced surgeon. Working conditions are often rudimentary...
November 17, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797692/effort-reward-imbalance-and-heavy-alcohol-consumption-among-humanitarian-aid-workers
#12
Liza Jachens, Jonathan Houdmont, Roslyn Thomas
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to explore the prevalence of heavy alcohol consumption and its association with stress-related working conditions-defined in terms of effort-reward imbalance (ERI)-among a large sample of humanitarian aid workers operating across four continents. Research has shown employee alcohol consumption has potential detrimental implications for health and work outcomes and is associated with exposure to work stressors. Research to identify links between stressful aspects of work and heavy alcohol consumption among humanitarian aid workers could usefully inform the design of sector-specific interventions concerned with the reduction of alcohol consumption...
November 2016: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771964/reinventing-the-political-role-of-health-professionals-in-conflict-prevention-reconciliation-the-sudanese-model
#13
Alaaddin M Salih, Jasim M Ahmed, Jamal F Mohamed, Musaab M Alfaki
Given the persistent recurrence of armed conflict, influential actors owe it to the affected communities to take action. The legitimacy of health professionals to mitigate the effects of conflict relates to their ability to save lives and address the physical and mental consequences of armed conflict during which thousands of lives may be lost. Medical professionals have unique and potentially far-reaching skills. These become crucial during wartime and disasters in terms of providing medical services and humanitarian aid...
April 2016: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752721/-new-insights-into-the-neuroscience-of-human-altruism
#14
REVIEW
R Hurlemann, N Marsh
Numerous honorary initiatives for humanitarian aid towards refugees illustrate the high prevalence of altruistic behavior in the population. In medicine, an exquisite example of a human propensity for altruism is organ donation. Current perspectives on the neurobiology of altruism suggest that it is deeply rooted in the motivational architecture of the social brain. This is reflected by the social evolution of cooperation and parochialism, both of which are modulated by the evolutionarily conserved peptide hormone oxytocin...
November 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690743/empathising-with-the-enemy-emotion-regulation-and-support-for-humanitarian-aid-in-violent-conflicts
#15
Guy Roth, Noa Shane, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon
Considering that negative intergroup emotions can hinder conflict resolution, we proposed integrative emotion regulation (IER) as possibly predicting conciliatory policies towards outgroups in violent conflict. Two studies examined Jewish Israelis' self-reported IER, empathy, liberal attitudes, and support for humanitarian aid to Palestinians in Gaza. Study 1 (N = 298) found that unlike reappraisal Jewish Israelis' ability to explore emotions (e.g. IER) promoted concern for others' emotions (empathy), which in turn predicted support for humanitarian aid (while controlling for education level, and religiosity)...
October 3, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679738/the-2016-world-humanitarian-summit-report-card-both-failing-marks-and-substantive-gains-for-an-increasingly-globalized-humanitarian-landscape
#16
Deon V Canyon, Frederick M Burkle
Outcomes of the World Humanitarian Summit were mixed with some refreshing new directions being endorsed and a lack of systemic reform. The selective agenda and OCHAs lack of success in engaging pre-meeting political participation not only hampered the Summit's ability to deal with global issues and institutional reform, but also alienated it from leading aid agencies and governments. The UN's failure to commit to humanitarian principles and global disarray of the humanitarian system indicates the need for extensive reform or a new global humanitarian body...
August 30, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617037/understanding-and-addressing-vulnerability-following-the-2010-haiti-earthquake-applying-a-feminist-lens-to-examine-perspectives-of-haitian-and-expatriate-health-care-providers-and-decision-makers
#17
Evelyne Durocher, Ryoa Chung, Christiane Rochon, Matthew Hunt
Vulnerability is a central concept in humanitarian aid. Discussions of vulnerability in disaster response literature and guidelines for humanitarian aid range from considerations of a universal human vulnerability, to more nuanced examinations of how particular characteristics render individuals more or less at risk. Despite its frequent use, there is a lack of clarity about how vulnerability is conceptualized and how it informs operational priorities in humanitarian assistance. Guided by interpretive description methodology, we draw on the feminist taxonomy of vulnerability presented by Mackenzie, Rogers and Dodds (2014) to examine perspectives of 24 expatriate and Haitian decision-makers and health professionals interviewed between May 2012 and March 2013...
July 2016: Journal of Human Rights Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609994/multivariate-emulation-of-computer-simulators-model-selection-and-diagnostics-with-application-to-a-humanitarian-relief-model
#18
Antony M Overstall, David C Woods
We present a common framework for Bayesian emulation methodologies for multivariate output simulators, or computer models, that employ either parametric linear models or non-parametric Gaussian processes. Novel diagnostics suitable for multivariate covariance separable emulators are developed and techniques to improve the adequacy of an emulator are discussed and implemented. A variety of emulators are compared for a humanitarian relief simulator, modelling aid missions to Sicily after a volcanic eruption and earthquake, and a sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the sensitivity of the simulator output to changes in the input variables...
August 2016: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C, Applied Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556135/re-making-the-system-founding-an-inspirational-model-for-humanitarian-aid-an-interview-with-drs-vincent-leung-and-kl-cheung
#19
Philip Ko, Khin-Shwe Eu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549187/humanitarian-assistance-and-disaster-relief-mission-by-a-tripartite-medical-team-led-by-the-singapore-armed-forces-after-the-2015-nepal-earthquake
#20
Ming Li Leonard Ho, Jonathan Zhao Min Lim, Mark Zhong Wei Tan, Wai Leong Kok, Jun Ren Zhang, Mian Yi Tan, Adrian Chong Beng Tan
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to report the injury or disease patterns, challenges, key observations, and recommendations by the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) team that embarked on an Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) mission in the aftermath of the April 2015 Nepal earthquake. METHODS: The SAF medical team that provided HADR assistance to Nepal consisted of personnel from the SAF, Singapore¢s Ministry of Health and the Royal Brunei Armed Forces...
August 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
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