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humanitarian aid

Raimund Lechner, Thomas Küpper, Markus Tannheimer
INTRODUCTION: History is full of examples of the influence of the mountain environment on warfare. The aim of this article is to identify the main environmental hazards and summarize countermeasures to mitigate the impact of this unique environment. METHODS: A selective PubMed and Internet search was conducted. Additionally, we searched bibliographies for useful supplemental literature and included the recommendations of the leading mountain medicine and wilderness medicine societies...
March 15, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
George Richard Holt, Kevin Christopher McMains, Randal A Otto
Evaluating and providing global health assistance, humanitarian aid, and medical missions to Middle Eastern countries can be rewarding and challenging. A broad spectrum of financial capabilities supports effective health care delivery and infrastructure. Middle East tension can make obtaining a visa difficult. Personal safety considerations may hinder efforts to develop and carry out clinical and educational programs. Several Middle East countries have sophisticated and modern health care systems. Medical education and specialty training compares with that of Western medicine...
March 12, 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Ali Bin Nadeem, Ysa Chandna
The majority of the Pakistani public has known little of the unmanned aerial vehicles, also known for their onomatopoeically inspired name "drones," except the fact that it regularly rains Hellfire missiles in Pakistan, claiming the lives of many innocent Pakistanis settled in the western provinces. In actuality, in addition to their destructive capacities, these remotely piloted vehicles have been used since the turn of the century in a variety of live-saving and risk-reducing roles. This research article primarily addresses the third stage of Emergency management-response, with Pakistan being the primary region of research...
January 2018: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Jinwook Bahk, Majid Ezzati, Young-Ho Khang
Background: Comparative research on health outcomes in North and South Korea offers a unique opportunity to explore political and social determinants of health. We examined the age- and cause-specific contributions to the life expectancy (LE) gap between the two Koreas. Methods: We calculated the LE at birth in 1993 and 2008 among North and South Koreans, and cause-specific contributions to the LE discrepancy between the two Koreas in 2008. The cause-specific mortality data from South Korea were used as proxies for the cause-specific mortality data in North Korea in 2008...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
G F Pierce, A Haffar, G Ampartzidis, F Peyvandi, S Diop, M El-Ekiaby, H M van den Berg
INTRODUCTION: The gaps in haemophilia treatment around the world are enormous; approximately 60% of an estimated 475 000 individuals are not identified. Of the 187 000 diagnosed, 30% (57 000) access clotting factor replacement therapy. Since 1996, humanitarian aid distributed by the World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) has played a minor, yet vital role providing life-saving clotting factor to countries in emergency situations. Donated amounts have been small and sporadic, often salvaging short-dated products, providing little opportunity to leverage donations with governments...
March 14, 2018: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Liza Jachens, Jonathan Houdmont, Roslyn Thomas
There is a paucity of research on the subjective stress-related experiences of humanitarian aid workers. Most evaluations of stress among these individuals focus on trauma and related conditions or adopt a quantitative approach. This interview-based study explored how 58 humanitarian aid workers employed by a United Nations-aligned organisation perceived the transactional stress process. The thematic analysis revealed eight main topics of interest: an emergency culture was found where most employees felt compelled to offer an immediate response to humanitarian needs; employees identified strongly with humanitarian goals and reported a high level of engagement; the rewards of humanitarian work were perceived as motivating and meaningful; constant change and urgent demands resulted in work overload; and managing work-life boundaries and receiving positive support from colleagues and managers helped to buffer perceived stress, work overload, and negative health outcomes...
March 13, 2018: Disasters
Vin Gupta, Alexandre Mason-Sharma, Zoe M Lyon, Endel John Orav, Ashish K Jha, Vanessa B Kerry
Growing evidence suggests that health aid can serve humanitarian and diplomatic ends. This study utilised the Fragile States Index (FSI) for the 47 nations of the World Health Organizations' Africa region for the years 2005-2014 and data on health and non-health development aid spending from the United States (US) for those same years. Absolute amounts of health and non-health aid flows from the US were used as predictors of state fragility. We used time-lagged, fixed-effects multivariable regression modelling with change in FSI as the outcome of interest...
March 13, 2018: Global Public Health
Richard Williams, V Kemp
The development of the UK's military policy includes the potential for military organisations to deploy in support of humanitarian aid operations. This paper offers an overview of the risks to people's mental health of their exposure to emergencies, major incidents, disasters, terrorism, displacement, postconflict environments in which humanitarian aid is delivered, and deployments to conflict zones. It summarises the psychosocial approach recommended by many contemporary researchers and practitioners. It differentiates the extremely common experience of distress from the mental disorders that people who are affected may develop and introduces the construct of psychosocial resilience...
March 8, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Luis Fernandez-Luque, Muhammad Imran
INTRODUCTION: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), over 130 million people are in constant need of humanitarian assistance due to natural disasters, disease outbreaks, and conflicts, among other factors. These health crises can compromise the resilience of healthcare systems, which are essential for achieving the health objectives of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) of the United Nations (UN). During a humanitarian health crisis, rapid and informed decision making is required...
January 25, 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Lauren Carruth
Based on ethnographic and policy research in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, this article examines how contemporary trends in the humanitarian relief industry to mandate continual data collection, "accountability," and the "localization" of aid have increased demands for participatory and intensive research methodologies in crisis-affected communities. International humanitarian relief agencies hustle to hire local staffs and recruit enough participants for their repeated research projects, while at the same time, the so-called beneficiaries of aid also hustle to participate in data collection as paid informants and temporary employees...
January 28, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
Maria Gabriela Uribe Guajardo, Shameran Slewa-Younan, Betty Ann Kitchener, Haider Mannan, Yaser Mohammad, Anthony Francis Jorm
Background: Australia is a multicultural nation with a humanitarian program that welcomes a large number of Iraqi refugees. Despite the high prevalence of trauma related disorders, professional help-seeking in this group is very low. This study sought to evaluate a face-to-face mental health literacy (MHL) Course that teaches community-based workers how to provide initial help to Iraqi refugees with depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related problems. Methods: An uncontrolled pre, post and follow-up design was used to measure improvement in MHL in community-based workers assisting Iraqi refugees...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Ronak B Patel, Hannah B Wild
Humanitarian aid in settings of conflict has always been fraught with challenges. In the absence of political engagement, however, manipulation by state authorities, however, have the potential to pervert aid intervention to inflict harm. South Sudan exemplifies how states may abuse the humanitarian response to retreat from public responsibility, divert funds to further violence and conflict and dictate the distribution of aid. Recent trends toward nationalist policies in the West that favor disengagement and limited military strikes have the very effect of allowing this abuse to transform humanitarian aid into a tool for harm...
January 19, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Linda Shaker-Berbari, Hala Ghattas, Andrew G Symon, Annie S Anderson
Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) is key to reducing mortality amongst children aged under 2. Facilitating adherence to recommended IYCF practices during emergencies includes having relevant policies to support breastfeeding and complementary feeding as well as regulating the distribution of breast milk substitutes. In the current crisis, more than 1.2 million Syrian refugees are in Lebanon and it is timely to examine organisational IYCF policies and programmes. One hundred and thirty-five non-governmental organisations providing humanitarian aid in Lebanon were invited to participate in an online survey about organisational policies and programmatic activities on IYCF...
January 8, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Jasmine Turner, Hugo Pigott, Mark Tomlinson, Mark Jd Jordans
Background: Globally, mental disorders are the leading cause of disability among children and adolescents. To date, there has been no estimate of developmental assistance supporting mental health projects that target children and adolescents (DAMH-CA). This study aimed to identify, describe and analyse DAMH-CA with respect to annual trends (2007-2014), sector, project type, recipient regions, and top donor and recipient countries, and estimate annual DAMH-CA per child/adolescent by region...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
C Nicholas Cuneo, Richard Sollom, Chris Beyrer
The 2008-2009 Zimbabwe cholera epidemic resulted in 98,585 reported cases and caused more than 4,000 deaths. In this study, we used a mixed-methods approach that combined primary qualitative data from a 2008 Physicians for Human Rights-led investigation with a systematic review and content analysis of the scientific literature. Our initial investigation included semi-structured interviews of 92 key informants, which we supplemented with reviews of the social science and human rights literature, as well as international news reports...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
Julian Hopwood, Holly Porter, Nangiro Saum
This paper draws on fieldwork conducted in 2011 and 2016 to explore the differing experiences of Karamojong women following the Government of Uganda's most recent disarmament programme. Besides being deprived of their guns, Karamojong communities have lost most of the cattle on which their livelihoods and way of life were centred. The study assesses whether or not women's experience of patriarchy has changed in these new circumstances, and, if so, how this impacts on their security and control of resources, or the absence of them...
January 2018: Disasters
Krzysztof Wołk, Agnieszka Wołk, Wojciech Glinkowski
People with speech, hearing, or mental impairment require special communication assistance, especially for medical purposes. Automatic solutions for speech recognition and voice synthesis from text are poor fits for communication in the medical domain because they are dependent on error-prone statistical models. Systems dependent on manual text input are insufficient. Recently introduced systems for automatic sign language recognition are dependent on statistical models as well as on image and gesture quality...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Agnès Gillibert
Every year, hundreds of volunteers leave their home, for few weeks or months, to provide humanitarian aid across the world. Joining a humanitarian mission, far from being a simple exotic adventure, requires, specially, a strong professional skills and personal abilities, maturely and thoughtful motivations. The work of humanitarian nurse is first and foremost a full-blown profession.
December 2017: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
Daniel P Scarnecchia, Nathaniel A Raymond, Faine Greenwood, Caitlin Howarth, Danielle N Poole
Crisis-affected populations and humanitarian aid providers are both becoming increasingly reliant on information and communications technology (ICTs) for finding and provisioning aid. This is exposing critical, unaddressed gaps in the legal and ethical frameworks that traditionally defined and governed the professional conduct of humanitarian action. The most acute of these gaps is a lack of clarity about what human rights people have regarding information in disaster, and the corresponding obligations incumbent upon governments and aid providers...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Currents
Zuzana Obertová, Cristina Cattaneo
Trafficking in children is one of the worst forms of human rights violation and is categorised as a serious crime. Children at high risk of becoming victims of trafficking are runaways, children with a history of abuse, and migrant children. Internationally, cases of child trafficking are increasing the most in Europe, which is likely the result of the current migration crisis. In crises, preventing and combating human trafficking needs to be prioritized, considering that the aims of humanitarian action include saving lives, easing suffering and preserving human dignity...
November 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
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