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Sasha C Voss, Paola Magni, Ian Dadour, Christian Nansen
Forensic entomology is primarily concerned with the estimation of time since death and involves determination of the age of immature insects colonising decomposing remains. Accurate age determination of puparia is usually accomplished by dissection, which means destructive sampling of evidence. As part of improving abilities to correctly identify species and developmental age, it is highly desirable to have available non-destructive methods. In this study, we acquired external hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data (77 spectral bands, 389-892 nm) from the dorsal and ventral sides of individual puparia of two species of blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Calliphora dubia Macquart 1855 and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart 1842...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Julia C Schmidt, Monika Astasov-Frauenhoffer, Tuomas Waltimo, Roland Weiger, Clemens Walter
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of four different side-to-side toothbrushes and the impact of various brushing parameters on noncontact biofilm removal in an adjustable interdental space model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A three-species biofilm, consisting of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Streptococcus sanguinis, was formed in vitro on protein-coated titanium disks using a flow chamber combined with a static biofilm growth model...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
Thomas K Smylla, Anette Preiss, Dieter Maier
Cell communication in metazoans requires the highly conserved Notch signaling pathway, which is subjected to strict regulation of both activation and silencing. In Drosophila melanogaster, silencing involves the assembly of a repressor complex by Hairless (H) on Notch target gene promoters. We previously found an in-frame internal ribosome entry site in the full length H transcript resulting in two H protein isoforms (H(p120) and H(p150)). Hence, H may repress Notch signalling activity in situations where cap-dependent translation is inhibited...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Anna Melkov, Raju Baskar, Yehonatan Alcalay, Uri Abdu
Intrinsic cell microtubule (MT) polarity, together with molecular motors and adaptor proteins, determines mitochondrial polarized targeting and MT-dependent transport. In polarized cells, such as neurons, mitochondrial mobility and transport require the regulation of kinesin and dynein by two adaptor proteins, Milton and Miro. Recently, we found that dynein heavy chain 64C (Dhc64C) is the primary motor protein for both anterograde and retrograde transport of mitochondria in the Drosophila bristle. In this study, we revealed that a molecular lesion in the Dhc64C allele that reduced bristle mitochondrial velocity generated a variant that acts as a "slow" dynein in a MT gliding assay, indicative of dynein directly regulating mitochondrial transport...
October 5, 2016: Development
Glenda N Rossi, Ana L Sorazabal, Pablo A Salgado, Aldo F Squassi, Graciela L Klemonskis
The aim of this study was to establish the association between features regarding brushing procedure performed by schoolchildren without previous formal training and the effectiveness of biofilm removal. Out of a population of 8900 6- and 7-year-old schoolchildren in Buenos Aires City, 600 children were selected from schools located in homogeneous risk areas. Informed consent was requested from parents or guardians and formal assent was obtained from children themselves. The final sample consisted of 316 subjects...
April 2016: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
Aleksandra Urbanek, Dorota Łuszczek, Małgorzata Kapusta
Acanthoscelides obtectus, a serious pest with a worldwide distribution, damages stored seeds of Phaseolus sp. To acquire a better understanding of the sensory orientation of bean weevils, their antennal and palpal sensilla were investigated. The antennae and palps possess several types of sensory hairs: blunt-tipped sensilla chaetica and trichoidea and also sharp-tipped sensilla trichoidea, these last being the most numerous. Sensilla basiconica are present only on the flagellomeres, but Böhm bristles occur on the basal sclerite and scape of the antennae...
October 2, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Maria Förster, Rolf G Beutel, Katharina Schneeberg
Larval cephalic features of Corethrella appendiculata Grabham, 1906 are described and documented in detail. Observed characters are compared to conditions found in Chaoboridae, Culicidae, and other culicomorph families. The function of antennae, mouthparts and associated muscles is interpreted based on the morphological results with respect to the prey catching mechanism. This mechanism is compared to what occurs in other predaceous larvae of Culicomorpha. The cephalic larval morphology is discussed concerning homology and possible phylogenetic implications...
September 24, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Raffaele Acunzo, Enrico Limiroli, Giorgio Pagni, Adele Dudaite, Dario Consonni, Giulio Rasperini
BACKGROUND: Oscillating-rotating power toothbrushes have been proven to be clinically efficacious. To the best of the authors' knowledge, a clinical evaluation of the safety of these toothbrushes after surgical root coverage procedures has not been published. The aim of this study is to evaluate the gingival margin (GM) stability with the use of an oscillating-rotating toothbrush compared with a manual toothbrush. METHODS: Sixty healthy individuals with at least one Miller Class I or II gingival recession underwent a surgical root coverage procedure...
October 2016: Journal of Periodontology
Xu Wang, Yingping Xie, Yanfeng Zhang, Weimin Liu
Porphyrophora (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Margarodidae) is a genus of soil-inhabiting scale insects. The antennal sensilla and their innervation in the first-instar nymphs of Porphyrophora sophorae were studied using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy to understand the function of these sensilla and determine the sensillar innervation feature on these small antennae. The results show that the six-segmented antennae of these nymphs have 20-23 sensilla which can be morphologically classified into seven types, for example, one Böhm's bristle (Bb), one campaniform sensillum (Ca), one Johnston's organ (Jo), 13-16 aporous sensilla trichodea (St), two coeloconic sensilla (Co), one straight multiporous peg (Mp1), and one curvy multiporous peg (Mp2)...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Morphology
Yan-Kun Cao, Min Huang
There are direct relationships between the behavioral mechanisms and sensilla. To obtain a better understanding of the behavioral mechanisms in Omosita colon (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), we investigated the types, quantities, and distribution of sensilla on the antenna and mouthparts of O. colon by scanning electron microscopy. The clavate antenna comprised the scape, pedicel, and nine segment flagellomeres and had six types of sensilla, including two subtypes of sensilla chaetica (SC), three subtypes of sensilla basiconica (SB) and sensilla trichodea (ST), and one type of sensilla cavity, sensilla styloconica, and Böhm bristles (BB)...
September 15, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Yue Wang, Dan Li, Yang Liu, Xue-Jiao Li, Wei-Ning Cheng, Keyan Zhu-Salzman
To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
Zhihao Yi, Deguang Liu, Xiaoning Cui, Zheming Shang
The apple buprestid beetle, Agrilus mali Matsumura, is an invasive pest causing significant damages to rare wild apple forests of Xinjiang. The morphology, abundance and distribution of antennal sensilla in both sexes of this pest were examined. We found that the antennae of A. mali females were longer than those of males. Five types of antennal sensilla were characterized, including trichodea (subtypes Tr.1, Tr.2, and Tr.3), chaetica (subtypes Sc.1, Sc.2, Sc.3, and Sc.4), basiconica (subtypes Ba. 1, Ba. 2, Ba...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
Lorenzo Alibardi
Feathers are corneous microramifications of variable complexity derived from the morphogenesis of barb ridges. Histological and ultrastructural analyses on developing and regenerating feathers clarify the three-dimensional organization of cells in barb ridges. Feather cells derive from folds of the embryonic epithelium of feather germs from which barb/barbule cells and supportive cells organize in a branching structure. The following degeneration of supportive cells allows the separation of barbule cells which are made of corneous beta-proteins and of lower amounts of intermediate filament (IF)(alpha) keratins, histidine-rich proteins, and corneous proteins of the epidermal differentiation complex...
September 10, 2016: Protoplasma
Flor T Rhebergen, Virginie Courtier-Orgogozo, Julien Dumont, Menno Schilthuizen, Michael Lang
BACKGROUND: Multiple animal species exhibit morphological asymmetries in male genitalia. In insects, left-right genital asymmetries evolved many times independently and have been proposed to appear in response to changes in mating position. However, little is known about the relationship between mating position and the interaction of male and female genitalia during mating, and functional analyses of asymmetric morphologies in genitalia are virtually non-existent. We investigated the relationship between mating position, asymmetric genital morphology and genital coupling in the fruit fly Drosophila pachea, in which males possess an asymmetric pair of external genital lobes and mate in an unusual right-sided position on top of the female...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Zhao Wei, Yangge Du, Jing Zhang, Baojun Tai, Minquan Du, Han Jiang
Numerous epidemiological studies have focused on the prevalence and related indicators of tooth wear. However, no sufficient studies have been conducted with Chinese adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of tooth wear and identify related indicators among adults aged 36 to 74 years in Wuhan City, P.R. China. A cross-sectional and analytic study was conducted with 720 participants, aged 35-49 yrs and 50-74 yrs, in 2014. Each age group included 360 participants, of which 50% were males and 50% were females...
2016: PloS One
Tetsuhisa Otani, Yosuke Ogura, Kazuyo Misaki, Takuya Maeda, Akiyo Kimpara, Shigenobu Yonemura, Shigeo Hayashi
Signaling molecules have pleiotropic functions and are activated by various extracellular stimuli. Protein kinase C (PKC) is activated by diverse receptors, and its dysregulation is associated with diseases including cancer. However, how the undesired activation of PKC is prevented during development remains poorly understood. We have previously shown that a protein kinase, IKKϵ, is active at the growing bristle tip and regulates actin bundle organization during Drosophila bristle morphogenesis. Here we demonstrate that IKKϵ regulates the actin bundle localization of a dynamic actin cross-linker, Fascin...
August 30, 2016: Development
Erin P Stuckert, Roy H Geiss, Christopher J Miller, Ellen R Fisher
Strategic application of an array of complementary imaging and diffraction techniques is critical to determine accurate structural information on nanomaterials, especially when also seeking to elucidate structure-property relationships and their effects on gas sensors. In this work, SnO2 nanowires and nanobrushes grown via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) displayed the same tetragonal SnO2 structure as revealed via powder X-ray diffraction bulk crystallinity data. Additional characterization using a range of electron microscopy imaging and diffraction techniques, however, revealed important structure and morphology distinctions between the nanomaterials...
August 31, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Go-Woon Kim, Jong-Hoon Won, Ok-Kyung Lee, Sang-Soo Lee, Jeong-Hoon Han, Orkhon Tsogtbaatar, Sujin Nam, Yeon Kim, Kyung-Ok Cho
ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteases with thrombospondin motif) family consists of secreted proteases, and is shown to cleave extracellular matrix proteins. Their malfunctions result in cancers and disorders in connective tissues. We report here that a Drosophila ADAMTS named Sol narae (Sona) promotes Wnt/Wingless (Wg) signaling. sona loss-of-function mutants are lethal and rare escapers had malformed appendages, indicating that sona is essential for fly development and survival. sona exhibited positive genetic interaction with wntless (wls) that encodes a cargo protein for Wg...
2016: Scientific Reports
K M Cloud-Richardson, B R Smith, S J Macdonald
An open question in evolutionary biology is the relationship between standing variation for a trait and the variation that leads to interspecific divergence. By identifying loci underlying phenotypic variation in intra- and interspecific crosses we can determine the extent to which polymorphism and divergence are controlled by the same genomic regions. Sexual traits provide abundant examples of morphological and behavioral diversity within and among species, and here we leverage variation in the Drosophila sex comb to address this question...
August 17, 2016: Heredity
Mohna Bandyopadhyay, Clifton P Bishop, Ashok P Bidwai
The specification of patterned R8 photoreceptors at the onset of eye development depends on timely inhibition of Atonal (Ato) by the Enhancer of split (E(spl) repressors. Repression of Ato by E(spl)-M8 requires the kinase CK2 and is inhibited by the phosphatase PP2A. The region targeted by CK2 harbors additional conserved Ser residues, raising the prospect of regulation via multi-site phosphorylation. Here we investigate one such motif that meets the consensus for modification by MAPK, a well-known effector of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling...
2016: PloS One
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