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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224983/comparison-of-sensory-structures-on-the-antenna-of-different-species-of-philopotamidae-insecta-trichoptera
#1
Stanislav I Melnitsky, Vladimir D Ivanov, Mikhail Yu Valuyskiy, Lydia V Zueva, Marianna I Zhukovskaya
Structure and distribution of sensilla were studied in sixteen species of the caddisfly family Philopotamidae. Their antennae bear numerous curved trichoid and pseudoplacoid sensilla and fewer coronal, styloconic and chaetoid sensilla on the flagellar segments. The most numerous pseudoplacoid sensilla have non-specific localization. The curved trichoid sensilla form clusters ventrally on each antennal segment. Sensilla belonging to coronal, styloconic and chaetoid types have specific positions. Long grooved trichoid sensilla are located nonspecifically in all the studied species...
December 7, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196461/mirna-suppression-of-a-notch-repressor-directs-non-neuronal-fate-in-drosophila-mechanosensory-organs
#2
Joshua Kavaler, Hong Duan, Rajaguru Aradhya, Luis F de Navas, Brian Joseph, Boris Shklyar, Eric C Lai
Although there is abundant evidence that individual microRNA (miRNA) loci repress large cohorts of targets, large-scale knockout studies suggest that most miRNAs are phenotypically dispensable. Here, we identify a rare case of developmental cell specification that is highly dependent on miRNA control of an individual target. We observe that binary cell fate choice in the Drosophila melanogaster peripheral sensory organ lineage is controlled by the non-neuronally expressed mir-279/996 cluster, with a majority of notum sensory organs exhibiting transformation of sheath cells into ectopic neurons...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191794/the-antennae-of-damselfly-larvae
#3
Silvana Piersanti, Manuela Rebora
The larval antennal sensilla of two Zygoptera species, Calopteryx haemorroidalis (Calopterygidae) and Ischnura elegans (Coenagrionidae) are investigated with SEM and TEM. These two species have different antennae (geniculate, setaceous) and live in different environments (lotic, lentic waters). Notwithstanding this, similarities in the kind and distribution of sensilla are outlined: in both species the majority of sensilla types is located on the apical portion of the antenna, namely a composed coeloconic sensillum (possible chemoreceptor), two other coeloconic sensilla (possible thermo-hygroreceptors) and an apical seta (direct contact mechanoreceptor)...
November 27, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189094/fijiwingspolarity-an-open-source-toolkit-for-semi-automated-detection-of-cell-polarity
#4
Leonard L Dobens, Anna Shipman, Jeffrey D Axelrod
Epithelial cells are defined by apical-basal and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, the latter of which establishes an orthogonal plane of polarity in the epithelial sheet. PCP signaling is required for normal cell migration, differentiation, stem cell generation and tissue repair, and defects in PCP have been associated with developmental abnormalities, neuropathologies and cancers. While the molecular mechanism of PCP is incompletely understood, the deepest insights have come from Drosophila, where PCP is manifest in hairs and bristles across the adult cuticle and organization of the ommatidia in the eye...
November 30, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186520/intrapuparial-development-of-sarconesia-chlorogaster-diptera-calliphoridae-for-postmortem-interval-estimation-pmi
#5
J C Flissak, M O Moura
Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is an endemic blow fly species of forensic importance in South America, and whose duration of pupal development is about 70% of the total immature development time. Therefore, morphological changes during this stage, if refined, may provide greater accuracy and reliability in the calculation of minimum postmortem interval. Considering the importance of this species, the main objective of this work was to identify and describe temporal intrapuparial morphological changes of S...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185877/evaluation-of-a-direct-immunofluorescent-assay-and-or-conjunctival-cytology-for-detection-of-canine-distemper-virus-antigen
#6
Labrini V Athanasiou, Maria C Kantere, Constantinos S Kyriakis, Dimitra Pardali, Katerina Adamama Moraitou, Zoe S Polizopoulou
Canine distemper is a common and potentially lethal multisystemic disease caused by the Canine distemper virus (CDV). We evaluated the diagnostic performance of direct immunofluorescent assay (FA) and cytology to detect CDV antigen in conjunctival cells compared with an established polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection assay used as a gold standard for CDV diagnosis. Samples were collected from 57 young dogs presenting with central nervous system signs compatible with distemper disease. Exfoliative epithelial cells were collected from the right and left conjunctiva of each animal using nylon-bristled cytobrushes for cytology and cotton swabs for FA and PCR...
November 29, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178731/clinical-effect-of-a-manual-toothbrush-with-tapered-filaments-on-dental-plaque-and-gingivitis-reduction
#7
Longxing Ni, Rongying Tang, Tao He, Jinlan Chang, Jiahui Li, Sarah Li, Renzo Alberto Ccahuana-Vasquez, Richard Cheng, Julie Grender
PURPOSE: To evaluate the anti-plaque efficacy (Study 1) and the anti-gingivitis efficacy (Study 2) of a manual toothbrush with tapered bristles compared to marketed control manual toothbrushes. METHODS: Studies 1 and 2 were independent, randomized and controlled, single-center, examiner-blind clinical trials in generally healthy adults. Study 1 included a 2-day acclimation period, followed by a 5-day twice daily toothbrushing test phase with the assigned brush. Baseline and Day 5 pre- and post-brushing plaque levels were assessed via Turesky Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (TMQHPI)...
October 2017: American Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118631/a-new-genus-and-species-of-bristle-worm-from-beibu-gulf-south-china-sea-annelida-polychaeta-amphinomidae
#8
Yue Sun, Xinzheng Li
Alleurythoe, a new genus with type species Alleurythoe tenuichaetasp. n., is described and illustrated based on material from Beibu Gulf, northwestern South China Sea. The new genus is distinguished from all genera within Amphinomidae by a combination of characters: caruncle trilobed, conspicuous, attached to and confluent with the posterior prostomial lobe, which is free from the body wall and has 6-7 folds on each of the lateral lobes; both noto- and neuropodial aciculae are spinose, extending beyond the chaetal lobe...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117656/knowledge-attitudes-and-habits-regarding-oral-health-in-first-and-final-year-dental-students
#9
Mia Lujo, Marko Meštrović, Ana Ivanišević Malčić, Jurica Matijević, Silvana Jukić
The purpose of the research was to compare oral health behavior and plaque indices between Croatian first-year and final-year dental students. Therefore, 46.9% of first-year and 47% of final-year dental students were surveyed using the Hiroshima University Dental Behavior Inventory (HU-DBI) questionnaire and had their plaque indices determined. Descriptive statistics analysis, nonparametric tests, and correlation analysis were performed (p<0.05). Sixth-year students had a significantly better mean HU-DBI score (8...
December 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117500/development-and-ultrastructure-of-the-rigid-dorsal-and-flexible-ventral-cuticles-of-the-elytron-of-the-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#10
Mi Young Noh, Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan, Karl J Kramer, Yasuyuki Arakane
Insect exoskeletons are composed of the cuticle, a biomaterial primarily formed from the linear and relatively rigid polysaccharide, chitin, and structural proteins. This extracellular material serves both as a skin and skeleton, protecting insects from environmental stresses and mechanical damage. Despite its rather limited compositional palette, cuticles in different anatomical regions or developmental stages exhibit remarkably diverse physicochemical and mechanical properties because of differences in chemical composition, molecular interactions and morphological architecture of the various layers and sublayers throughout the cuticle including the envelope, epicuticle and procuticle (exocuticle and endocuticle)...
November 5, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112156/effects-of-lonomia-obliqua-venom-on-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-contribution-of-nadph-oxidase-derived-reactive-oxygen-species
#11
João Alfredo Moraes, Genilson Rodrigues, Vany Nascimento-Silva, Mariana Renovato-Martins, Markus Berger, Jorge Almeida Guimarães, Christina Barja-Fidalgo
Envenomation caused by human contact with the caterpillar Lonomia is characterized by deleterious effects on coagulation and patency of blood vessels. The cellular effects induced by Lonomia obliqua venom highlights its capacity to activate endothelial cells, leading to a proinflammatory phenotype. Having more knowledge about the mechanisms involved in envenomation may contribute to better treatment. We aimed to evaluate the effects of Lonomia obliqua caterpillar bristle extract (LOCBE) on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC)...
November 7, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081083/ionotropic-receptor-76b-is-required-for-gustatory-aversion-to-excessive-na-in-drosophila
#12
Min Jung Lee, Ha Yeon Sung, HyunJi Jo, Hyung-Wook Kim, Min Sung Choi, Jae Young Kwon, KyeongJin Kang
Avoiding ingestion of excessively salty food is essential for cation homeostasis that underlies various physiological processes in organisms. The molecular and cellular basis of the aversive salt taste, however, remains elusive. Through a behavioral reverse genetic screening, we discover that feeding suppression by Na(+)-rich food requires Ionotropic Receptor 76b (Ir76b) in Drosophila labellar gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs). Concentrated sodium solutions with various anions caused feeding suppression dependent on Ir76b...
October 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075833/transcriptome-profiling-of-neurosensory-perception-genes-in-wing-tissue-of-two-evolutionary-distant-insect-orders-diptera-drosophila-melanogaster-and-hemiptera-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#13
Sandra Agnel, Martine da Rocha, Alain Robichon
The neurogenesis and neuronal functions in insect wing have been understudied mainly due to technical hindrances that have prevented electrophysiology studies for decades. The reason is that the nano-architecture of the wing chemosensory bristles hampers the receptors accessibility of odorants/tastants to receptors in fixed setup, whereas in nature, the wing flapping mixes these molecules in bristle lymph. In this report, we analyzed the transcriptome of the wing tissue of two species phylogenetically strongly divergent: Drosophila melanogaster a generic model for diptera order (complete metamorphosis) and the aphid acyrthosiphon pisum, representative of hemiptera order (incomplete metamorphosis) for which a conditional winged/wingless polyphenism is under control of population density and resources...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067803/nylon-bristles-and-elastomers-retain-centigram-levels-of-triclosan-and-other-chemicals-from-toothpastes-accumulation-and-uncontrolled-release
#14
Jie Han, Wei Qiu, Elizabeth C Campbell, Jason C White, Baoshan Xing
Triclosan (TCS), a broad-spectrum antimicrobial, is used in commercial toothpastes with reported dental benefits. Our studies on 22 popular manual toothbrushes in the U.S. showed that common toothbrush head components can accumulate substantial amounts of TCS after brushing with TCS-formulated toothpastes (TCS-TPs). After simulated 3-month brushing with a commercial best-selling TCS-TP, over one third of the adults' toothbrushes showed a cumulative TCS uptake of 21-37.5 mg, equivalent to 7-12.5 doses of the TCS used per brushing...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051265/regulation-of-notch-signaling-by-rab7-and-rab8-requires-carboxyl-methylation-by-icmt
#15
Helen Court, Ian M Ahearn, Marc Amoyel, Erika A Bach, Mark R Philips
Isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (ICMT) methylesterifies C-terminal prenylcysteine residues of CaaX proteins and some RAB GTPases. Deficiency of either ICMT or NOTCH1 accelerates pancreatic neoplasia in Pdx1-Cre;LSL-Kras(G12D) mice, suggesting that ICMT is required for NOTCH signaling. We used Drosophila melanogaster wing vein and scutellar bristle development to screen Rab proteins predicted to be substrates for ICMT (ste14 in flies). We identified Rab7 and Rab8 as ICMT substrates that when silenced phenocopy ste14 deficiency...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043764/at-a-glance-sentinel-surveillance-of-emergency-department-presentations-for-barbecue-brush-related-injuries-the-electronic-canadian-hospitals-injury-reporting-and-prevention-program-2011-to-2017
#16
Deepa P Rao, Minh T Do, Jennifer Crain, Steven McFaull, Rebecca Stranberg, Teresa Mersereau, Wendy Thompson
A barbecue (BBQ) brush is a common household item designed for cleaning grills used for barbecuing. Data from the electronic Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program database were analysed to estimate the frequency of injuries related to BBQ brushes as a proportion of all injuries, as well as to describe characteristics associated with such injury events. Between April 1, 2011 and July 17, 2017, BBQ brush injuries were observed at a frequency of 1.5 cases per 100 000 eCHIRPP cases (N = 12)...
October 2017: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039290/simulated-use-polytetrafluorethylene-biofilm-model-repeated-rounds-of-complete-reprocessing-lead-to-accumulation-of-organic-debris-and-viable-bacteria
#17
Michelle J Alfa, Harminder Singh, Zoann Nugent, Donald Duerksen, Gale Schultz, Carol Reidy, Pat DeGagne, Nancy Olson
OBJECTIVE Biofilm has been implicated in bacterial persistence and survival after endoscope reprocessing. In this study, we assessed the impact of different methods of reprocessing on organic residues and viable bacteria after repeated rounds of biofilm formation when each was followed by full reprocessing. METHODS ATS-2015, an artificial test soil containing 5-8 Log10 colony-forming units (CFU) of Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was used to form biofilm in polytetrafluroethylene channels overnight on 5 successive days...
October 17, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039243/a-novel-approach-to-oropharyngeal-foreign-body-removal
#18
Madeleine P Strohl, Nicholas A Dewyer, Joshua Sckolnick, William R Ryan
Grill wire brush bristle foreign bodies most commonly embed in the oropharynx. Often these bristles can be removed in the clinic; however, on occasion, the patient requires general anesthesia for retrieval because of the gag reflex and difficulty with access and visualization. We report here on 2 cases of patients who underwent successful transoral robotic surgical retrieval of wire bristles from the base of tongue after unsuccessful direct laryngoscopy. Otolaryngologists should be aware of the use of robotic assistance for oropharyngeal foreign body retrieval...
October 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023405/the-aspergillus-flavus-homeobox-gene-hbx1-is-required-for-development-and-aflatoxin-production
#19
Jeffrey W Cary, Pamela Harris-Coward, Leslie Scharfenstein, Brian M Mack, Perng-Kuang Chang, Qijian Wei, Matthew Lebar, Carol Carter-Wientjes, Rajtilak Majumdar, Chandrani Mitra, Sourav Banerjee, Anindya Chanda
Homeobox proteins, a class of well conserved transcription factors, regulate the expression of targeted genes, especially those involved in development. In filamentous fungi, homeobox genes are required for normal conidiogenesis and fruiting body formation. In the present study, we identified eight homeobox (hbx) genes in the aflatoxin-producing ascomycete, Aspergillus flavus, and determined their respective role in growth, conidiation and sclerotial production. Disruption of seven of the eight genes had little to no effect on fungal growth and development...
October 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020453/small-angle-neutron-scattering-studies-of-r67-dihydrofolate-reductase-a-tetrameric-protein-with-intrinsically-disordered-n-termini
#20
Purva P Bhojane, Michael R Duff, Khushboo Bafna, Pratul Agarwal, Christopher Stanley, Elizabeth E Howell
R67 dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a homotetramer with a single active site pore and no sequence or structural homology with chromosomal DHFRs. The R67 enzyme provides resistance to trimethoprim, an active site-directed inhibitor of Escherichia coli DHFR. Sixteen to twenty N-terminal amino acids are intrinsically disordered in the R67 dimer crystal structure. Chymotrypsin cleavage of 16 N-terminal residues results in an active enzyme with a decreased stability. The space sampled by the disordered N-termini of R67 DHFR was investigated using small angle neutron scattering...
November 7, 2017: Biochemistry
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