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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230190/modulation-of-yellow-expression-contributes-to-thermal-plasticity-of-female-abdominal-pigmentation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Jean-Michel Gibert, Emmanuèle Mouchel-Vielh, Frédérique Peronnet
Phenotypic plasticity describes the ability of a given genotype to produce distinct phenotypes in different environments. We use the temperature sensitivity of abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster females as a model to analyse the effect of the environment on development. We reported previously that thermal plasticity of abdominal pigmentation in females involves the pigmentation gene tan (t). However, the expression of the pigmentation gene yellow (y) was also modulated by temperature in the abdominal epidermis of pharate females...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222156/toothbrush-abrasivity-in-a-long-term-simulation-on-human-dentin-depends-on-brushing-mode-and-bristle-arrangement
#2
Mozhgan Bizhang, Ilka Schmidt, Yong-Hee Patricia Chun, Wolfgang H Arnold, Stefan Zimmer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of dentin to brushing abrasion using four different toothbrushes (rotating-oscillating, sonic and two types of manual toothbrushes) with the same brushing forces. METHODS: Dentin samples (n = 72) were selected from 72 impacted third molars. Half of the surface of dentin samples was covered with an adhesive tape, creating a protected and a freely exposed area in the same specimen. Brushing was performed with either a: sonic (Sonicare PowerUp, Philips GmbH, Hamburg, Germany), b: oscillating-rotating (Oral B Vitality Precisions Clean, Procter & Gamble, Schwalbach am Taunus, Germany) or two different manual toothbrushes c: flat trim brush head toothbrush (Dr...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214751/structure-and-distribution-of-the-sensilla-on-the-antennae-of-tuta-absoluta-lepidoptera-gelechiidae
#3
Thomas Bawin, France Collard, Lara De Backer, Boni Barthélémy Yarou, Philippe Compère, Frédéric Francis, François J Verheggen
The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest that develops on tomato and other economically important solanaceous crops. Current semiochemically-based management strategies still fail to significantly reduce damages and need to be improved. Here we describe under scanning and transmission electron microscopy the structure and distribution of the sensilla that are displayed on adult antennae. These were similar in size between males (3424.4±135.3μm) and females (3292...
February 1, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206892/influence-of-the-amount-of-dentifrice-and-fluoride-concentrations-on-salivary-fluoride-levels-in-children
#4
Kevin Bruce Hall, Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem, Mariana Emi Nagata, Thayse Yumi Hosida, Felipe Ricardo Nunes de Moraes, Marcelle Danelon, Robson Frederico Cunha, Juliano Pelim Pessan
PURPOSE: This study evaluated fluoride (F) concentrations in saliva of children after brushing with dentifrices containing different F concentrations (zero, 550, and 1,100 ppm F) in different quantities (full bristles, transversal technique, and pea-sized). METHODS: Eight- to 10-year-old volunteers (<small>N</small>=24) were randomly assigned into nine experimental groups (dentifrice type versus amounts) following a double-blind, crossover protocol. After a one-week washout period (use of placebo toothpaste), stimulated saliva was collected prior to toothbrushing (baseline) and at five, 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after toothbrushing with one of the possible combinations...
October 15, 2016: Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203127/a-case-of-mysterious-impacted-duodenal-foreign-body-presenting-with-halitosis
#5
Bhavtosh Dedania, Dipen Khanapara, Amruta Panwala, Murali Dharan
The majority of gastrointestinal (GI) foreign bodies (FBs) discovered in adults are the result of intentional ingestion, most of which are found in patients with a preexisting psychiatric illness, with substance abuse disorders, or in people seeking secondary gain. No similar case of internal injuries following unintentional ingestion of a barbecue grill cleaning brush bristle has been reported. A 58-year-old Caucasian male with no significant history presented with complaint of halitosis, not improving after oral care and dental hygiene measures...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194869/the-effect-of-brushing-and-aging-on-the-staining-and-smoothness-of-resin-composites
#6
Lisandra R Mozzaquatro, Camila S Rodrigues, Marina R Kaizer, Maristela Lago, André Mallmann, Letícia B Jacques
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the staining and smoothness of resin composites undergoing aging in water or red wine and simulated brushing with or without dentifrice. METHODS: The resin composites (Z250 microfilled and Z350XT nanofilled) were tested according to aging media (deionized water or red wine) and surface treatment (no brushing, brushed with water, or brushed with dentifrice). Specimens (n = 10) were subjected to three aging cycles (5 days) of continuous immersion in the aging media; each followed by simulated brushing (585 strokes)...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174239/ataxin-2-binding-protein-1-is-a-context-specific-positive-regulator-of-notch-signaling-during-neurogenesis-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Jay Prakash Shukla, Girish Deshpande, L S Shashidhara
The role of Notch pathway during lateral inhibition underlying binary cell fate choice is extensively studied, although context-specificity that generates diverse outcomes is relatively less well understood. In the peripheral nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster, differential Notch signaling between cells of proneural cluster orchestrates sensory organ specification. Here we report functional analysis of Drosophila Ataxin2 binding protein1 (dA2BP1) during this process. It's human orthologue A2BP1 is linked to type 2 Spinocerebellar ataxia and other complex neuronal disorders...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148821/the-notch-pathway-in-the-annelid-platynereis-insights-into-chaetogenesis-and-neurogenesis-processes
#8
Eve Gazave, Quentin I B Lemaître, Guillaume Balavoine
Notch is a key signalling pathway playing multiple and varied functions during development. Notch regulates the selection of cells with a neurogenic fate and maintains a pool of yet uncommitted precursors through lateral inhibition, both in insects and in vertebrates. Here, we explore the functions of Notch in the annelid Platynereis dumerilii (Lophotrochozoa). Conserved components of the pathway are identified and a scenario for their evolution in metazoans is proposed. Unexpectedly, neither Notch nor its ligands are expressed in the neurogenic epithelia of the larva at the time when massive neurogenesis begins...
February 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141580/bio-inspired-annelid-robot-a-dielectric-elastomer-actuated-soft-robot
#9
Liang Xu, Han-Qing Chen, Jiang Zou, Wan-Ting Dong, Guo-Ying Gu, Li-Min Zhu, Xiang-Yang Zhu
Biologically inspired robots with inherent softness and body compliance increasingly attract attention in the field of robotics. Aimed at solving existing problems with soft robots, regarding actuation technology and biological principles, this paper presents a soft bio-inspired annelid robot driven by dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) that can advance on flat rigid surfaces. The DEA, a kind of soft functional actuator, is designed and fabricated to mimic the axial elongation and differential friction of a single annelid body segment...
January 31, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094781/ultrastructure-of-sensilla-of-antennae-and-ovipositor-of-sitotroga-cerealella-lepidoptera-gelechiidae-and-location-of-female-sex-pheromone-gland
#10
Min Ma, Meng-Meng Chang, Yan Lu, Chao-Liang Lei, Feng-Lian Yang
The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella, is a serious pest of stored grains worldwide. Presently, the best effective control against the moth is to disrupt the sexual communication between sexes. Sexual communication in moths includes two processes in which females produce and release pheromones from the sex pheromone gland and males detect and respond to them with a relatively sophisticated olfactory system in their antennae. To better understand these processes, we studied the ultrastructure of antennal and ovipositor sensilla of S...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077491/sphingosine-1-phosphate-lyase-deficiency-causes-charcot-marie-tooth-neuropathy
#11
Derek Atkinson, Jelena Nikodinovic Glumac, Bob Asselbergh, Biljana Ermanoska, David Blocquel, Regula Steiner, Alejandro Estrada-Cuzcano, Kristien Peeters, Tinne Ooms, Els De Vriendt, Xiang-Lei Yang, Thorsten Hornemann, Vedrana Milic Rasic, Albena Jordanova
OBJECTIVE: To identify the unknown genetic cause in a nuclear family with an axonal form of peripheral neuropathy and atypical disease course. METHODS: Detailed neurologic, electrophysiologic, and neuropathologic examinations of the patients were performed. Whole exome sequencing of both affected individuals was done. The effect of the identified sequence variations was investigated at cDNA and protein level in patient-derived lymphoblasts. The plasma sphingoid base profile was analyzed...
February 7, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076469/scoring-clinical-signs-can-help-diagnose-canine-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-a-highly-endemic-area-in-brazil
#12
Kleverton Ribeiro da Silva, Vitor Rosa Ramos de Mendonça, Kellen Matuzzy Silva, Leopoldo Fabrício Marçal do Nascimento, Antonio Ferreira Mendes-Sousa, Flaviane Alves de Pinho, Manoel Barral-Netto, Aldina Maria Prado Barral, Maria do Socorro Pires E Cruz
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis is still a challenge in endemic areas with limited diagnostic resources. This study proposes a score with the potential to distinguish positive CVL cases from negative ones. We studied 265 dogs that tested positive for CVL on ELISA and parasitological tests. A score ranging between 0 and 19 was recorded on the basis of clinical signs. Dogs with CVL had an overall higher positivity of the majority of clinical signs than did dogs without CVL or with ehrlichiosis. Clinical signs such as enlarged lymph nodes (83...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071784/a-continued-role-for-signaling-functions-in-the-early-evolution-of-feathers
#13
Graeme D Ruxton, W Scott Persons Iv, Philip J Currie
Persons and Currie (2015) argued against either flight, thermoregulation, or signaling as a functional benefit driving the earliest evolution of feathers; rather, they favored simple feathers having an initial tactile sensory function, which changed to a thermoregulatory function as density increased. Here, we explore the relative merits of early simple feathers that may have originated as tactile sensors progressing instead toward a signaling, rather than (or in addition to) a thermoregulatory function. We suggest that signaling could act in concert with a sensory function more naturally than could thermoregulation...
January 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060805/ptilagrostis-contracta-stipeae-poaceae-a-new-species-endemic-to-qinghai-tibet-plateau
#14
Zhong-Shuai Zhang, Ling-Lu Li, Wen-Li Chen
A new species, Ptilagrostis contracta, endemic to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is described and illustrated. It is distinguished from other species in Ptilagrostis by having contracted panicles, 1-geniculate awns with hairy columns and scabrous bristles and evenly pubescent lemmas. Evidence from lemma epidermal pattern, cytology and molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the nuclear ITS sequence data confirm its systematic position in Ptilagrostis.
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035457/ant-lepidopteran-associations-along-african-forest-edges
#15
Alain Dejean, Frédéric Azémar, Michel Libert, Arthur Compin, Bruno Hérault, Jérôme Orivel, Thierry Bouyer, Bruno Corbara
Working along forest edges, we aimed to determine how some caterpillars can co-exist with territorially dominant arboreal ants (TDAAs) in tropical Africa. We recorded caterpillars from 22 lepidopteran species living in the presence of five TDAA species. Among the defoliator and/or nectarivorous caterpillars that live on tree foliage, the Pyralidae and Nymphalidae use their silk to protect themselves from ant attacks. The Notodontidae and lycaenid Polyommatinae and Theclinae live in direct contact with ants; the Theclinae even reward ants with abundant secretions from their Newcomer gland...
February 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011160/piraguaencodes-a-zinc-finger-protein-required-for-development-in-drosophila
#16
Nestor O Nazario-Yepiz, Juan R Riesgo-Escovar
We isolated and characterized embryonic lethal mutations in piragua (prg). The prg locus encodes a protein with an amino terminus Zinc Finger-Associated-Domain (ZAD) and nine C2H2 zinc fingers (ZF). prg mRNA and protein expression during embryogenesis is dynamic with widespread maternal contribution, and subsequent expression in epithelial precursors. About a quarter of prg mutant embryos do not develop cuticle, and from those that do a small fraction have cuticular defects. Roughly half of prg mutants die during embryogenesis...
December 20, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995903/experimental-study-of-laminar-and-turbulent-boundary-layer-separation-control-of-shark-skin
#17
Farhana Afroz, Amy Lang, Maria Laura Habegger, Philip Motta, Robert Hueter
The Shortfin Mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) is a fast swimmer and has incredible turning agility, and has flexible scales known to bristle up to 50° in the flank regions. It is purported that this bristling capability of the scales may result in a unique pass flow control method to control flow separation and reduce drag. It appears that the scales have evolved to be only actuated when the flow over the body is reversed; thereby inducing a method of inhibiting flow reversal close to the surface. In addition, bristled scales form cavities which could induce boundary layer mixing and further assist in delaying flow separation...
December 20, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903629/bristles-reduce-the-force-required-to-fling-wings-apart-in-the-smallest-insects
#18
Shannon K Jones, Young J J Yun, Tyson L Hedrick, Boyce E Griffith, Laura A Miller
The smallest flying insects commonly possess wings with long bristles. Little quantitative information is available on the morphology of these bristles, and their functional importance remains a mystery. In this study, we (1) collected morphological data on the bristles of 23 species of Mymaridae by analyzing high-resolution photographs and (2) used the immersed boundary method to determine via numerical simulation whether bristled wings reduced the force required to fling the wings apart while still maintaining lift...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894418/discovery-of-methylfarnesoate-as-the-annelid-brain-hormone-reveals-an-ancient-role-of-sesquiterpenoids-in-reproduction
#19
Sven Schenk, Christian Krauditsch, Peter Frühauf, Christopher Gerner, Florian Raible
Animals require molecular signals to determine when to divert resources from somatic functions to reproduction. This decision is vital in animals that reproduce in an all-or-nothing mode, such as bristle worms: females committed to reproduction spend roughly half their body mass for yolk and egg production; following mass spawning, the parents die. An enigmatic brain hormone activity suppresses reproduction. We now identify this hormone as the sesquiterpenoid methylfarnesoate. Methylfarnesoate suppresses transcript levels of the yolk precursor Vitellogenin both in cell culture and in vivo, directly inhibiting a central energy-costly step of reproductive maturation...
November 29, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872578/morphology-and-morphogenesis-of-a-new-oxytrichid-ciliate-notohymena-limus-n-sp-ciliophora-oxytrichidae-from-delhi-india
#20
Ilams Naqvi, Renu Gupta, Seema Makhija, Ravi Toteja, Jeeva S Abraham, S Sripoorna, Hamed A El-Serehy, Fahad A Al-Misned
The morphology and morphogenesis of a new oxytrichid ciliate, Notohymena limus n. sp. were studied in vivo and after protargol impregnation. The new ciliate was isolated from the sewage sludge at Delhi Jal Board Sewage Treatment Plant located at Rithala, Delhi, India, using the non-flooded Petri dish method. N. limus n. sp. is characterized as follows: flexible dorsoventrally flattened ellipsoidal body; Notohymena-pattern undulating membranes; adoral zone of membranelles (AZM) occupied about 39% of the body length, and consists of around 26 membranelles; large and deep buccal cavity; colorless subpellicular granules present in groups and arranged around the bases of dorsal bristles; 4 macronuclear nodules; 2 micronuclei; 18 fronto-ventral-transverse (FVT) cirri in typical Oxytricha-pattern; 6 dorsal rows of bristles; 3 caudal cirri; about 16 right and 15 left marginal cirri; N...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
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