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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051265/regulation-of-notch-signaling-by-rab7-and-rab8-requires-carboxyl-methylation-by-icmt
#1
Helen Court, Ian M Ahearn, Marc Amoyel, Erika A Bach, Mark R Philips
Isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (ICMT) methylesterifies C-terminal prenylcysteine residues of CaaX proteins and some RAB GTPases. Deficiency of either ICMT or NOTCH1 accelerates pancreatic neoplasia in Pdx1-Cre;LSL-Kras(G12D) mice, suggesting that ICMT is required for NOTCH signaling. We used Drosophila melanogaster wing vein and scutellar bristle development to screen Rab proteins predicted to be substrates for ICMT (ste14 in flies). We identified Rab7 and Rab8 as ICMT substrates that when silenced phenocopy ste14 deficiency...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043764/at-a-glance-sentinel-surveillance-of-emergency-department-presentations-for-barbecue-brush-related-injuries-the-electronic-canadian-hospitals-injury-reporting-and-prevention-program-2011-to-2017
#2
Deepa P Rao, Minh T Do, Jennifer Crain, Steven McFaull, Rebecca Stranberg, Teresa Mersereau, Wendy Thompson
A barbecue (BBQ) brush is a common household item designed for cleaning grills used for barbecuing. Data from the electronic Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program database were analysed to estimate the frequency of injuries related to BBQ brushes as a proportion of all injuries, as well as to describe characteristics associated with such injury events. Between April 1, 2011 and July 17, 2017, BBQ brush injuries were observed at a frequency of 1.5 cases per 100 000 eCHIRPP cases (N = 12)...
October 2017: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039290/simulated-use-polytetrafluorethylene-biofilm-model-repeated-rounds-of-complete-reprocessing-lead-to-accumulation-of-organic-debris-and-viable-bacteria
#3
Michelle J Alfa, Harminder Singh, Zoann Nugent, Donald Duerksen, Gale Schultz, Carol Reidy, Pat DeGagne, Nancy Olson
OBJECTIVE Biofilm has been implicated in bacterial persistence and survival after endoscope reprocessing. In this study, we assessed the impact of different methods of reprocessing on organic residues and viable bacteria after repeated rounds of biofilm formation when each was followed by full reprocessing. METHODS ATS-2015, an artificial test soil containing 5-8 Log10 colony-forming units (CFU) of Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was used to form biofilm in polytetrafluroethylene channels overnight on 5 successive days...
October 17, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039243/a-novel-approach-to-oropharyngeal-foreign-body-removal
#4
Madeleine P Strohl, Nicholas A Dewyer, Joshua Sckolnick, William R Ryan
Grill wire brush bristle foreign bodies most commonly embed in the oropharynx. Often these bristles can be removed in the clinic; however, on occasion, the patient requires general anesthesia for retrieval because of the gag reflex and difficulty with access and visualization. We report here on 2 cases of patients who underwent successful transoral robotic surgical retrieval of wire bristles from the base of tongue after unsuccessful direct laryngoscopy. Otolaryngologists should be aware of the use of robotic assistance for oropharyngeal foreign body retrieval...
October 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023405/the-aspergillus-flavus-homeobox-gene-hbx1-is-required-for-development-and-aflatoxin-production
#5
Jeffrey W Cary, Pamela Harris-Coward, Leslie Scharfenstein, Brian M Mack, Perng-Kuang Chang, Qijian Wei, Matthew Lebar, Carol Carter-Wientjes, Rajtilak Majumdar, Chandrani Mitra, Sourav Banerjee, Anindya Chanda
Homeobox proteins, a class of well conserved transcription factors, regulate the expression of targeted genes, especially those involved in development. In filamentous fungi, homeobox genes are required for normal conidiogenesis and fruiting body formation. In the present study, we identified eight homeobox (hbx) genes in the aflatoxin-producing ascomycete, Aspergillus flavus, and determined their respective role in growth, conidiation and sclerotial production. Disruption of seven of the eight genes had little to no effect on fungal growth and development...
October 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020453/small-angle-neutron-scattering-sans-studies-on-r67-dihydrofolate-reductase-a-tetrameric-protein-with-intrinsically-disordered-n-termini
#6
Purva P Bhojane, Michael R Duff, Khushboo Bafna, Pratul K Agarwal, Christopher B Stanley, Elizabeth E Howell
R67 dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a homo-tetramer with a single active site pore and no sequence or structural homology with chromosomal DHFRs. The R67 enzyme provides resistance to trimethoprim, an active site directed inhibitor of E. coli DHFR. 16-20 N-terminal amino acids are intrinsically disordered in the R67 dimer crystal structure. Chymotrypsin cleavage of 16 N-terminal residues results in an active enzyme with lowered stability. The space sampled by the disordered N-termini of R67 DHFR was investigated using small angle neutron scattering...
October 11, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971628/comparative-three-dimensional-morphology-of-baleen-cross-sectional-profiles-and-volume-measurements-using-ct-images
#7
Megan M Jensen, Amalia H Saladrigas, Jeremy A Goldbogen
Baleen whales are obligate filter feeders, straining prey-laden seawater through racks of keratinized baleen plates. Despite the importance of baleen to the ecology and natural history of these animals, relatively little work has been done on baleen morphology, particularly with regard to the three-dimensional morphology and structure of baleen. We used computed tomography (CT) scanning to take 3D images of six baleen specimens representing five species, including three complete racks. With these images, we described the three-dimensional shape of the baleen plates using cross-sectional profiles from within the gum tissue to the tip of the plates...
November 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952192/efficacy-of-a-rubber-bristles-interdental-cleaner-compared-to-an-interdental-brush-on-dental-plaque-gingival-bleeding-and-gingival-abrasion-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
N L Hennequin-Hoenderdos, E van der Sluijs, G A van der Weijden, D E Slot
AIM: To determine the efficacy of a rubber bristles interdental cleaner (RBIC) compared to an interdental brush (IDB) in reducing gingivitis and additionally to evaluate participants' attitudes and possible side effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a 2-treatment, parallel, split-mouth, examiner-blind RCT, evaluating the reversal of experimental gingivitis. In total, 42 systemically healthy volunteers were recruited that were currently non-users of interdental cleaning devices...
September 26, 2017: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930558/dna-replication-machinery-contributes-to-development-of-eye-in-drosophila
#9
Hidetsugu Kohzaki, Yota Murakami
Chromosomal DNA replication machinery is essential for growth of all cells in all organs in multicellular organisms. Its knockdown in several tissues of Drosophila led to rough eye phenotype and the loss of bristles in the eye. These results show that the DNA replication machinery contributes to the body development independent of growth.
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922627/distribution-patterns-and-morphology-of-sensilla-on-the-antennae-of-plutella-xylostella-l-a-scanning-and-transmission-electron-microscopic-study
#10
Xi-Zhong Yan, Cai-Ping Deng, Jiao-Xin Xie, Lan-Jun Wu, Xue-Jun Sun, Chi Hao
The antennal morphology, types of antennal sensilla, fine structures and distributions of the sensilla in Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) were studied by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. The antenna, scape, pedicel and flagellum were all longer in males than in females. A total of seventeen types of sensilla were identified on the antennae: trichodea (two subtypes), basiconica, coeloconica (three subtypes), Böhm's bristles (two subtypes), styloconica (two subtypes), squamiformia, auricillica, furcatea (three subtypes), cupuliform organs and terminal sensory pegs...
September 6, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916162/fluoride-concentration-and-amount-of-dentifrice-influence-enamel-demineralization-in-situ
#11
M F Paiva, A C B Delbem, M Danelon, M E Nagata, F R N Moraes, G E G Coclete, R F Cunha, M A R Buzalaf, J P Pessan
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of conventional (CD, 1100ppm F) and low-fluoride (LFD, 550ppm F) dentifrices, applied in different quantities, on enamel demineralization, and on fluoride (F) concentrations in the dental biofilm formed in situ. METHODS: Five combinations of dentifrices and quantities were tested: placebo (P-F-free) applied on all brush bristles; LFD applied by the transversal technique (0.3g-T1) or on all bristles (0.6g-T2); and CD applied in a pea-sized amount (0...
November 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895014/the-responses-of-two-native-plant-species-to-soil-petroleum-contamination-in-the-yellow-river-delta-china
#12
Wenjun Xie, Yanpeng Zhang, Rui Li, Hongjun Yang, Tao Wu, Liping Zhao, Zhaohua Lu
Petroleum contamination is a significant environmental problem in the Yellow River Delta. The responses of two native salt-tolerant plant species, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and bristle grass (Setaria uiridis Beauv), to soil petroleum contamination were investigated at five levels between 0 and 2.0% (w/w). Results showed that the total, aboveground and underground plant biomasses of both species were significantly reduced by petroleum contamination (p < 0.05), with the inhibition enhanced with increased petroleum levels...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854252/molecular-markers-in-keratins-from-mysticeti-whales-for-species-identification-of-baleen-in-museum-and-archaeological-collections
#13
Caroline Solazzo, William Fitzhugh, Susan Kaplan, Charles Potter, Jolon M Dyer
Baleen has been harvested by indigenous people for thousands of years, as well as collected by whalers as an additional product of commercial whaling in modern times. Baleen refers to the food-filtering system of Mysticeti whales; a full baleen rack consists of dozens of plates of a tough and flexible keratinous material that terminate in bristles. Due to its properties, baleen was a valuable raw material used in a wide range of artefacts, from implements to clothing. Baleen is not widely used today, however, analyses of this biomolecular tissue have the potential to contribute to conservation efforts, studies of genetic diversity and a better understanding of the exploitation and use of Mysticeti whales in past and recent times...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833941/ultrastructure-and-distribution-of-antennal-sensilla-of-the-chilli-thrips-scirtothrips-dorsalis-hood-thysanoptera-thripidae
#14
Wenjing Zhu, Shihao Zhou, Shijie Wang, Dongyin Han, Junyu Chen, Yueguan Fu
The chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, is a serious pest of numerous important vegetable and ornamental crops. Various signals, especially phytochemical cues, determine the behavior of the phytophagous thrips at host selection. The sensory abilities of S. dorsalis are poorly understood although the antennae of adult are known to possess important sensory structures in orther insects. In this study, the morphology, distribution, and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla of the S. dorsalis were examined by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy...
August 21, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753024/thiocarbonyl-ylide-chemistry-enables-a-concise-synthesis-of-%C3%A2-hippolachnin-a
#15
Nils Winter, Dirk Trauner
Hippolachnin A (1) is an antifungal polyketide that bristles with ethyl groups mounted onto a caged heterotricyclic core. It has shown potent activity against Cryptococcus neoformans, a yeast that can affect immunocompromised patients as an opportunistic pathogen. Herein we describe a concise, diversifiable, and scalable synthesis of (±)-hippolachnin A (1). It features a powerful photochemical opening step, a diastereoselective addition of an ethyl cuprate and an unusual strategy to install two additional ethyl groups that makes use of a thiocarbonyl ylide generated in situ...
August 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733162/patterning-the-eye-a-role-for-the-cell-cycle
#16
Nicholas E Baker
Although highly regulated cell cycle behavior accompanies specification of cell types in the Drosophila retina, no evidence has previously existed that cell cycle phase influences cell fate choice. Meserve and Duronio have now used genetic techniques to trace the fate of a sub-population of cells that accumulate in G2-phase of the cell cycle, discovering that they contribute to a particular fate, the precursor of the sensory inter-ommatidial bristles. Meserve and Duronio further show that G2 cells have an advantage acquiring inter-ommatidial bristle fate...
October 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701658/drosophila-dock-family-protein-zizimin-involves-in-pigment-cell-differentiation-in-pupal-retinae
#17
Fumito Ozasa, Kazushige Morishita, Ngoc Anh Suong Dang, Seiji Miyata, Hideki Yoshida, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
The dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family proteins are known as one of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), that contribute to cellular signaling processes by activating small G proteins. Although mammalian Zizimin is known to be a GEF for Cdc42 of Rho family small GTPase, its role in vivo is not well understood. Here we studied in vivo function of Drosophila Zizimin (Ziz). Knockdown of Ziz in eye imaginal discs induced the rough eye phenotype accompanied with fusion of ommatidia, loss of bristles and loss of pigments...
July 13, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684466/pharyngeal-stimulation-with-sugar-triggers-local-searching-behavior-in-drosophila
#18
Satoshi Murata, Axel Brockmann, Teiichi Tanimura
Foraging behavior is essential for all organisms to find food containing nutritional chemicals. A hungry fly of Drosophila melanogaster performs local searching behavior after drinking a small amount of sugar solution. Using video tracking we examined how the searching behavior is regulated in D. melanogaster We found that a small amount of highly concentrated sugar solution induced a long-lasting searching behavior. After the intake of sugar solution, a fly moved around in circles and repeatedly returned to the position where the sugar droplet had been placed...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657701/clinical-effects-of-stabilized-stannous-fluoride-dentifrice-in-reducing-plaque-microbial-virulence-i-microbiological-and-receptor-cell-findings
#19
Malgorzata Klukowska, John Christian Haught, Sancai Xie, Ben Circello, Cheryl S Tansky, Deepa Khambe, Tom Huggins, Donald J White
OBJECTIVES: Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and lipoteichoic acids (LTAs), or bacterial endotoxins, bind with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that are expressed on host cells of the periodontium, thereby contributing to the periodontal pathogenicity of oral bacteria. Stannous fluoride (SnF2), an antibacterial fluoride that treats and controls gingivitis, has been shown to react with lipophilic domains/anionic charges in LPS and LTA. The effects of bacterial species and dental plaque on toll receptors can be studied using genetically engineered cell lines containing linked toll receptors on their surfaces...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645749/a-population-of-g2-arrested-cells-are-selected-as-sensory-organ-precursors-for-the-interommatidial-bristles-of-the-drosophila-eye
#20
Joy H Meserve, Robert J Duronio
Cell cycle progression and differentiation are highly coordinated during the development of multicellular organisms. The mechanisms by which these processes are coordinated and how their coordination contributes to normal development are not fully understood. Here, we determine the developmental fate of a population of precursor cells in the developing Drosophila melanogaster retina that arrest in G2 phase of the cell cycle and investigate whether cell cycle phase-specific arrest influences the fate of these cells...
October 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
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