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Paul N Adler
The frizzled pathway regulates the planar polarity of epithelial cells. In insects this is manifested by the polarity of cuticular structures such as hairs (trichomes) and sensory bristles. A variety of evidence has established that this is achieved by regulating the subcellular location for activating the cytoskeleton in the epithelial cells. How this is accomplished is still poorly understood. In the best-studied tissue, the Drosophila pupal wing two important cytoskeletal regulators have been identified...
April 9, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Johnson Truong, Matthew Hansen, Brian Szychowski, Tian Xie, Marie-Christine Daniel, Jong-In Hahm
We demonstrate a straightforward and effective method to synthesize vertically oriented, Cu-doped ZnO nanorods (NRs) using a novel multipurpose platform of copper silicide nanoblocks (Cu₃Si NBs) preformed laterally in well-defined directions on Si. The use of the surface-organized Cu₃Si NBs for ZnO NR growth successfully results in densely assembled Cu-doped ZnO NRs on each NB platform, whose overall structures resemble thick bristles on a brush head. We show that Cu₃Si NBs can uniquely serve as a catalyst for ZnO NRs, a local dopant source of Cu, and a prepatterned guide to aid the local assembly of the NRs on the growth substrate...
April 7, 2018: Nanomaterials
Daniel N Mariappa, Andrew Ferenbach, Daan M F van Aalten
Post-translational modification of serine/threonine residues in nucleocytoplasmic proteins with N-acetylglucosamine (O -GlcNAcylation) is an essential regulatory mechanism in many cellular processes. In Drosophila , null mutants of the polycomb gene O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT, also known as super sex combs [ sxc ]) display homeotic phenotypes. To dissect the requirement for O -GlcNAc signaling in Drosophila development, we used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to generate rationally designed sxc catalytically hypomorphic or null point mutants...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Subhash Kairamkonda, Upendra Nongthomba
LIM domain, constituted by two tandem C2H2 zinc finger motif, proteins regulate several biological processes. They are usually found associated with various functional domains like Homeodomain, kinase domain and other protein binding domains. LIM proteins that are devoid of other domains are called LIM only proteins (LMO). LMO proteins were first identified in humans and are implicated in development and oncogenesis. They regulate various cell specifications by regulating the activity of respective transcriptional complexes...
March 23, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
James B Nardi, Charles Mark Bee, Catherine Lee Wallace
During metamorphosis of insect epithelial monolayers, cells die, divide, and rearrange. In Drosophila undifferentiated diploid cells destined to form the adult cuticle of each abdominal segment segregate early in development from the surrounding polyploid larval epithelial cells of that segment as eight groups of diploid histoblast cells. The larval polyploid cells are programmed to die and be replaced by divisions and rearrangements of histoblast cells. By contrast, abdominal epithelial cells of Manduca larvae form a monolayer of cells representing different ploidy levels with no definitive segregation of diploid cells destined to form adult structures...
March 20, 2018: Developmental Biology
Syeda H Fatima, Sajida Naseem, Sara A Awan, Haider Ghazanfar, Zainab Ali, Najeeb A Khan
Introduction In most healthcare models, the first interaction of a patient is with a general physician. The inspection of the oral cavity is a mandatory component of the general physical examination performed by a physician. This helps detect any oral pathology and make suitable referrals. Therefore, adequate oral health awareness is essential for physicians. Our study aimed at evaluating the oral health practices among physicians working in a private teaching setup in Islamabad, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 144 physicians teaching undergraduate medical students at Shifa College of Medicine and its affiliated hospital, Shifa International Hospital, was conducted...
January 21, 2018: Curēus
Zoya Chowdhary, Ranjana Mohan
Background: Tooth polishing is an integral part of clinical dentistry. The main purpose of polishing is to smoothen the surface of the tooth and minimize the deposition of plaque to allow a healthy periodontal maintenance postscaling. Today, polishing by different methods is available to a clinician. Traditional bristle brush and rubber-cup polishing are being widely practiced and gradually getting replaced by novel air polisher. Pros and cons of each method should be weighed before its clinical applications...
January 2018: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Monica Sharma, Isabel Castro-Piedras, Glenn E Simmons, Kevin Pruitt
The Dishevelled gene was first identified in Drosophila mutants with disoriented hair and bristle polarity [1-3]. The Dsh gene (Dsh/Dvl, in Drosophila and vertebrates respectively) gained popularity when it was discovered that it plays a key role in segment polarity during early embryonic development in Drosophila [4]. Subsequently, the vertebrate homolog of Dishevelled genes were identified in Xenopus (Xdsh), mice (Dvl1, Dvl2, Dvl3), and in humans (DVL1, DVL2, DVL3) [5-10]. Dishevelled functions as a principal component of Wnt signaling pathway and governs several cellular processes including cell proliferation, survival, migration, differentiation, polarity and stem cell renewal...
March 17, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Anette Preiss, Anja C Nagel, Heiko Praxenthaler, Dieter Maier
Throughout the animal kingdom, the Notch signalling pathway allows cells to acquire diversified cell fates. Notch signals are translated into activation of Notch target genes by CSL transcription factors. In the absence of Notch signals, CSL together with co-repressors functions as a transcriptional repressor. In Drosophila, repression of Notch target genes involves the CSL homologue Suppressor of Hairless (Su(H)) and the Notch (N) antagonist Hairless (H) that together form a repressor complex. Guided by crystal structure, three mutations Su(H)LL, Su(H)LLF and Su(H)LLL were generated that specifically affect interactions with the repressor H, and were introduced into the endogenous Su(H) locus by gene engineering...
2018: PloS One
Georges Pétavy, Brigitte Moreteau, Jean R David, Patricia Gibert
Thoracic and abdominal pigmentation were measured in Drosophila melanogaster under a cold circadian stress (8-25 °C) and a heat one (18-33 °C) and compared to the phenotypes observed under similar but constant temperatures of 17 or 25 °C respectively. An isofemale line design permitted to submit each line (full sibs) to the four thermal regimes. Under cold stress, the pigmentation was similar to the value observed at constant 25 °C, suggesting a kind of functional dominance of the high temperature phase...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Tao Ning, Guo Jiao-Jiao, Li Chao-Pin
OBJECTIVE: To observe the morphological characteristics of Acarus farris hypopus. METHODS: The breeding mites from stored wheat samples were separated by a shake sieve and direct microscope. The isolations were used for slide preparation, and then the slide was observed under a light microscope for mite identification. RESULTS: The A. farris hypopus was found in the collected wheat samples. Under the microscope the boundary between the propodosoma and hysterosoma of the hypopus was obvious...
May 17, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Laura Kress, Mirko Bristle, Tatjana Aue
Optimism bias and positive attention bias have important highly similar implications for mental health but have only been examined in isolation. Investigating the causal relationships between these biases can improve the understanding of their underlying cognitive mechanisms, leading to new directions in neurocognitive research and revealing important information about normal functioning as well as the development, maintenance, and treatment of psychological diseases. In the current project, we hypothesized that optimistic expectancies can exert causal influences on attention deployment...
2018: PloS One
A H AlShehab, A A AlHazoom, M H Alowa, H A AlAli, A A Abdulmohsen, I Farooq
OBJECTIVE: To compare the brushing abrasion carried out by manual toothbrushes with different bristle types (hard and soft) on normal and demineralized human enamel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty enamel blocks (N = 30) were prepared and were randomly divided into three main groups: A, teeth kept in artificial saliva with no brushing (control, n = 2); B, teeth brushed with toothbrushes with hard bristles (n = 14); and C, teeth brushed with toothbrushes with soft bristles (n = 14)...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
Ramezan Asghari, Ali Eskandari, Zahra Tanha Maafi, Wilfrida Decraemer
Trichodorus zanjanensis n. sp., collected from the rhizosphere of wild almond tree (Amygdalus scoparia Spach) in Zanjan Province, Iran, is described and illustrated based on morphological and molecular data. The new species is characterised by its body length (772-819 μm in males; 704-953 μm in females), and in having medium-sized onchiostyle (60-64 μm in males; 59-65 μm in females) and a short dorsal overlap of the intestine. Males of the new species have two ventromedian cervical papillae posterior to onchiostyle region, ventrally curved spicules, smooth, long and wide manubrium, gradually continuing in a narrower anterior part of the blade provided with bristles and marked from the wider and transversely striated main part of the blade, tapered towards distal end, three ventromedian precloacal supplements, the posterior one (SP1) situated at the level of anterior blade and gubernaculum situated at 24-25 μm from the cloaca...
February 15, 2018: Systematic Parasitology
Jun Aruga
Lophotrochozoa is a sister taxon of Ecdysozoa in the Protostomia that includes mollusks, annelids, brachiopods, and platyhelminths. Recent studies have clarified the structure, expression, and roles of lophotrochozoan Zic family genes. Zic genes in oligochaete annelid Tubifex tubifex (freshwater sludge worm) and polychaete annelid Capitella teleta (bristle worm) are commonly expressed in a subset of developing brain and mesoderm derivatives. The latter includes the naïve mesoderm and the associated chaetal sacs in each body segment, although the segmentation processes differ between the two species...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sandhya P Naik, Sameer Punathil, Praveena Shetty, Ipsita Jayanti, Md Jalaluddin, Anisha Avijeeta
AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different bristle designs of toothbrushes and the periodontal status among patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) consisted of 45 adolescents (comprising 20 males and 25 females) undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. The study participants were randomly allocated to three groups, each group being assigned a locally available toothbrush with a particular design of toothbrush bristle...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Yan-Ru Zhang, Li-Li Ren, Lu Zhang, Rong Wang, Yang Yu, Peng-Fei Lu, You-Qing Luo
Chlorophorus caragana is a species of long-horned beetle that damages Caragana davazamcii Sancz. (Fabales: Papilionaceae) bushes in desert areas in China. The beetles cause substantial damage to local forestry plantations and the environment. Sensilla on the maxillary and labial palps of coleopterans a allow the insects to recognize their host plants. We used scanning and transmission electron microscopy to study the ultrastructure, distribution, and abundance of various sensilla on the maxillary and labial palps of C...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Morphology
C Selvakumar, Kailash Chandra, K G Sivaramakrishnan, E Eyarin Jehamalar
A new species of Thalerosphyrus Eaton 1881 is described based on larvae collected from East Khasi Hills district and East Jaintia Hills district of Meghalaya. Thalerosphyrus meghalayensis Selvakumar & Chandra  n. sp. can be distinguished from other known species of the genus by the following combination of characters: (i) posterolateral expansions of segment VIII always shorter than those of segment VII; (ii) pronotum moderately enlarged laterally; (iii) bristles on the dorsal face of hind femora truncate or round at apex; (iv) hind tibia with a row of thin setae; (v) outer margin of superlinguae evenly covered with long setae ending at apex by minute setae and (vi) posterior margin of tergites with regularly pointed teeth, and numerous microdenticles...
November 16, 2017: Zootaxa
Andreas Müller, Terry Griswold
Haetosmia is a species-poor genus of osmiine bees (Megachilidae) containing six species, which inhabit deserts and semideserts from the Canary Islands to Central Asia. Formerly considered to be restricted to the southern Palaearctic region, the genus is shown here to occur also in the northern Afrotropical region. The females of all six Haetosmia species collect pollen from the narrow-tubed flowers of Heliotropium (Boraginaceae) with the aid of specialized pollen-harvesting bristles on the proboscis. Current knowledge suggests that Haetosmia species are restricted to sandy habitats, excavate their nests in the ground and use chewed leaves to construct their urn-shaped brood cells, which are placed side by side in an enlarged chamber at the end of the nesting burrow...
November 29, 2017: Zootaxa
Andre Wagner, Laurent Vuataz, Michel Sartori
A new species belonging to the speciose genus Electrogena Zurwerra & Tomka, 1985 is described based on all stages from material collected in Switzerland, northern Italy and Slovenia. Electrogena brulini Wagner sp. nov. is closely related to E. gridellii (Grandi, 1953). A genetic analysis based on the mitochondrial gene CO1, including 9 specimens from 5 populations, reveals a K2P distance of 22% between both species. Our investigations demonstrate that the description of the nymph of E. gridellii sensu Belfiore (1996) refers in fact to both species...
December 5, 2017: Zootaxa
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