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Harshada H Sant, Sanjay P Sane
Insect antennae are sensory organs of great importance because they can sense diverse environmental stimuli. In addition to serving as primary olfactory organs of insects, antennae also sense a wide variety of mechanosensory stimuli, ranging from low-frequency airflow or gravity cues to high-frequency antennal vibrations due to sound, flight or touch. The basal segments of the antennae house multiple types of mechanosensory structures that prominently include the sensory hair plates, or Böhm's bristles, which measure the gross extent of antennal movement, and a ring of highly sensitive scolopidial neurons, collectively called the Johnston's organs, which record subtle flagellar vibrations...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Deborah L Lloyd, Markus Toegel, Tudor A Fulga, Andrew O M Wilkie
Mutations of the gene MEGF8 cause Carpenter syndrome in humans, and the mouse orthologue has been functionally associated with Nodal and Bmp4 signalling. Here, we have investigated the phenotype associated with loss-of-function of CG7466, a gene that encodes the Drosophila homologue of MEGF8. We generated three different frame-shift null mutations in CG7466 using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. Heterozygous flies appeared normal, but homozygous animals had disorganised denticle belts and died as 2nd or 3rd instar larvae...
June 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hidetsugu Kohzaki
Chromosomal DNA replication machinery functions in the growing cells and organs in multicellular organisms. We previously demonstrated that its knockdown in several tissues of Drosophila led to a rough eye phenotype, the loss of bristles in the eye and female sterile. In this paper, I investigated in detail the wing phenotype using RNAi flies, and observed that the knockdown not only of Mcm10 but also of some other prereplicative complex components including Cdt1, Polα-primase, RPA, Psf2 (partner of SLD five 2; a subunit of GINS (Go, Ichi, Nii, and San; five, one, two, and three in Japanese) and Rfc3 (replication factor C 3; a subunit of RFC complex) demonstrated wing phenotypes, using Gal4-driver flies...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Renzo A Ccahuana-Vasquez, Erinn L Conde, Pamela Cunningham, Julie M Grender, C Ram Goyal, Jimmy Qaqish
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of a marketed oscillating-rotating electric rechargeable toothbrush to a marketed sonic toothbrush in the reduction of gingivitis and plaque over an 8-week period. METHODS: This was a randomized, examiner-blind, parallel group, eight-week study. Subjects with presence of mild-to-moderate plaque and gingivitis received an oral examination and were evaluated for baseline gingivitis (Modified Gingival Index; MGI), gingival bleeding (Gingival Bleeding Index; GBI), and plaque (Rustogi Modified Navy Plaque Index)...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
Michael Cannon, Deepa Khambe, Malgorzata Klukowska, David L Ramsey, Melanie Miner, Tom Huggins, Donald J White
OBJECTIVES: The clinical effects of stannous fluoride (SnF2) dentifrice in reducing symptoms of gingivitis and reducing the virulence of subgingival plaque through suppression of activation of gene expression in toll receptor based reporter cells were previously reported. This study expanded analysis of the clinical study to include evaluation of dentifrice effects on salivary metabolites using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) systems biology-based metabonomics. METHODS: The clinical design was reported previously (J Clin Dent2017;28:16-26)...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
K Prudnikova, S E Lightfoot Vidal, S Sarkar, T Yu, R W Yucha, N Ganesh, L S Penn, L Han, C L Schauer, E J Vresilovic, M S Marcolongo
Biomimetic proteoglycans (BPGs) were designed to mimic the three-dimensional (3D) bottlebrush architecture of natural extracellular matrix (ECM) proteoglycans, such as aggrecan. BPGs were synthesized by grafting native chondroitin sulfate bristles onto a synthetic poly(acrylic acid) core to form BPGs at a molecular weight of approximately ∼1.6 MDa. The aggrecan mimics were characterized chemically, physically, and structurally, confirming the 3D bottlebrush architecture as well as a level of water uptake, which is greater than that of the natural proteoglycan, aggrecan...
May 10, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Ahmed Ebrahim, Sasha Still, Gary Schwartz
Foreign body perforations of the esophagus are infrequent events yet have the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality. The clinical consequences of esophageal perforation by a foreign body are dependent upon the severity of infectious sequelae and damage to surrounding structures by the foreign object itself, as detailed in previous published reports. We describe the thoracoscopic management of a mediastinal abscess caused by a foreign body perforation in a patient with an intact esophagus.
April 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
David J Ferguson, David K Yeates
The Apioceridae (Diptera) are relatively large asiloid flies with just over 140 described species worldwide. They are closely related to both Mydidae and Asilidae, and most species are found in Australia and North America, however a handful are found in both southern Africa and southern South America. The immature stages of only one species is known, the Australian beach dune inhabiting species Apiocera maritima Hardy. Like most asiloid larvae, apiocerid larvae are assumed to be predators of other soft-bodied invertebrates in the soil...
February 26, 2018: Zootaxa
Qing-Bo Huo, Yu-Zhou Du
Two species of the peltoperlid genus Cryptoperla Needham, C. dactylina Du, sp. nov. and C. nangongshana Huo Du, sp. nov. are described as new to science from Yunnan and Shaanxi provinces of China. Cryptoperla dactylina is characterized by a finger-like sclerotized projection with small-rounded processes on the first cercal segment and C. nangongshana is characterized by clusters of long bristles on the first six cercal segments. Additionally, a description of the nymph of C. dui Sivec is provided.
January 18, 2018: Zootaxa
Thomas Ayers, Hisao Tsukamoto, Martin Gühmann, Vinoth Babu Veedin Rajan, Kristin Tessmar-Raible
BACKGROUND: The presence of photoreceptive molecules outside the eye is widespread among animals, yet their functions in the periphery are less well understood. Marine organisms, such as annelid worms, exhibit a 'shadow reflex', a defensive withdrawal behaviour triggered by a decrease in illumination. Herein, we examine the cellular and molecular underpinnings of this response, identifying a role for a photoreceptor molecule of the Go -opsin class in the shadow response of the marine bristle worm Platynereis dumerilii...
April 18, 2018: BMC Biology
Paul N Adler
The frizzled pathway regulates the planar polarity of epithelial cells. In insects this is manifested by the polarity of cuticular structures such as hairs (trichomes) and sensory bristles. A variety of evidence has established that this is achieved by regulating the subcellular location for activating the cytoskeleton in the epithelial cells. How this is accomplished is still poorly understood. In the best-studied tissue, the Drosophila pupal wing two important cytoskeletal regulators have been identified...
April 10, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Johnson Truong, Matthew Hansen, Brian Szychowski, Tian Xie, Marie-Christine Daniel, Jong-In Hahm
We demonstrate a straightforward and effective method to synthesize vertically oriented, Cu-doped ZnO nanorods (NRs) using a novel multipurpose platform of copper silicide nanoblocks (Cu₃Si NBs) preformed laterally in well-defined directions on Si. The use of the surface-organized Cu₃Si NBs for ZnO NR growth successfully results in densely assembled Cu-doped ZnO NRs on each NB platform, whose overall structures resemble thick bristles on a brush head. We show that Cu₃Si NBs can uniquely serve as a catalyst for ZnO NRs, a local dopant source of Cu, and a prepatterned guide to aid the local assembly of the NRs on the growth substrate...
April 7, 2018: Nanomaterials
Daniel Mariappa, Andrew T Ferenbach, Daan M F van Aalten
Post-translational modification of serine/threonine residues in nucleocytoplasmic proteins with GlcNAc ( O -GlcNAcylation) is an essential regulatory mechanism in many cellular processes. In Drosophila , null mutants of the Polycomb gene O -GlcNAc transferase ( OGT ; also known as super sex combs ( sxc )) display homeotic phenotypes. To dissect the requirement for O -GlcNAc signaling in Drosophila development, we used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to generate rationally designed sxc catalytically hypomorphic or null point mutants...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Subhash Kairamkonda, Upendra Nongthomba
LIM domain, constituted by two tandem C2H2 zinc finger motif, proteins regulate several biological processes. They are usually found associated with various functional domains like Homeodomain, kinase domain and other protein binding domains. LIM proteins that are devoid of other domains are called LIM only proteins (LMO). LMO proteins were first identified in humans and are implicated in development and oncogenesis. They regulate various cell specifications by regulating the activity of respective transcriptional complexes...
June 1, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
James B Nardi, Charles Mark Bee, Catherine Lee Wallace
During metamorphosis of insect epithelial monolayers, cells die, divide, and rearrange. In Drosophila undifferentiated diploid cells destined to form the adult cuticle of each abdominal segment segregate early in development from the surrounding polyploid larval epithelial cells of that segment as eight groups of diploid histoblast cells. The larval polyploid cells are programmed to die and be replaced by divisions and rearrangements of histoblast cells. By contrast, abdominal epithelial cells of Manduca larvae form a monolayer of cells representing different ploidy levels with no definitive segregation of diploid cells destined to form adult structures...
June 1, 2018: Developmental Biology
Syeda H Fatima, Sajida Naseem, Sara A Awan, Haider Ghazanfar, Zainab Ali, Najeeb A Khan
Introduction In most healthcare models, the first interaction of a patient is with a general physician. The inspection of the oral cavity is a mandatory component of the general physical examination performed by a physician. This helps detect any oral pathology and make suitable referrals. Therefore, adequate oral health awareness is essential for physicians. Our study aimed at evaluating the oral health practices among physicians working in a private teaching setup in Islamabad, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 144 physicians teaching undergraduate medical students at Shifa College of Medicine and its affiliated hospital, Shifa International Hospital, was conducted...
January 21, 2018: Curēus
Zoya Chowdhary, Ranjana Mohan
Background: Tooth polishing is an integral part of clinical dentistry. The main purpose of polishing is to smoothen the surface of the tooth and minimize the deposition of plaque to allow a healthy periodontal maintenance postscaling. Today, polishing by different methods is available to a clinician. Traditional bristle brush and rubber-cup polishing are being widely practiced and gradually getting replaced by novel air polisher. Pros and cons of each method should be weighed before its clinical applications...
January 2018: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Monica Sharma, Isabel Castro-Piedras, Glenn E Simmons, Kevin Pruitt
The Dishevelled gene was first identified in Drosophila mutants with disoriented hair and bristle polarity [1-3]. The Dsh gene (Dsh/Dvl, in Drosophila and vertebrates respectively) gained popularity when it was discovered that it plays a key role in segment polarity during early embryonic development in Drosophila [4]. Subsequently, the vertebrate homolog of Dishevelled genes were identified in Xenopus (Xdsh), mice (Dvl1, Dvl2, Dvl3), and in humans (DVL1, DVL2, DVL3) [5-10]. Dishevelled functions as a principal component of Wnt signaling pathway and governs several cellular processes including cell proliferation, survival, migration, differentiation, polarity and stem cell renewal...
July 2018: Cellular Signalling
Anette Preiss, Anja C Nagel, Heiko Praxenthaler, Dieter Maier
Throughout the animal kingdom, the Notch signalling pathway allows cells to acquire diversified cell fates. Notch signals are translated into activation of Notch target genes by CSL transcription factors. In the absence of Notch signals, CSL together with co-repressors functions as a transcriptional repressor. In Drosophila, repression of Notch target genes involves the CSL homologue Suppressor of Hairless (Su(H)) and the Notch (N) antagonist Hairless (H) that together form a repressor complex. Guided by crystal structure, three mutations Su(H)LL, Su(H)LLF and Su(H)LLL were generated that specifically affect interactions with the repressor H, and were introduced into the endogenous Su(H) locus by gene engineering...
2018: PloS One
Georges Pétavy, Brigitte Moreteau, Jean R David, Patricia Gibert
Thoracic and abdominal pigmentation were measured in Drosophila melanogaster under a cold circadian stress (8-25 °C) and a heat one (18-33 °C) and compared to the phenotypes observed under similar but constant temperatures of 17 or 25 °C respectively. An isofemale line design permitted to submit each line (full sibs) to the four thermal regimes. Under cold stress, the pigmentation was similar to the value observed at constant 25 °C, suggesting a kind of functional dominance of the high temperature phase...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
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