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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642242/specific-expression-and-function-of-the-six3-optix-in-drosophila-serially-homologous-organs
#1
Amer Al Khatib, Natalia Siomava, Antonella Iannini, Nico Posnien, Fernando Casares
Organ size and pattern results from the integration of two positional information systems. One global, encoded by the Hox genes, links organ type with position along the main body axis. Within specific organs, local information is conveyed by signaling molecules that regulate organ growth and pattern. The mesothoracic (T2) wing and the metathoracic (T3) haltere of Drosophila represent a paradigmatic example of this coordination. The Hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx), expressed in the developing T3, selects haltere identity by, among other processes, modulating the production and signaling efficiency of Dpp, a BMP2-like molecule that acts as a major regulator of size and pattern...
June 22, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634860/molecular-chaperone-hsp70-and-its-constitutively-active-form-hsc70-play-an-indispensable-role-during-eye-development-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Ajay Kumar, Anand K Tiwari
In the present study, we demonstrate that molecular chaperone Hsp70 and Hsc70 is essential for normal organization and development of ommatidial cells in Drosophila melanogaster eye. An exogenously expressed dominant negative mutant of Hsp70 (K71E) and Hsc70.4 (K71S and D206S) in an eye-specific manner resulted in eye degeneration that includes loss of eye pigment, disorganized ommatidia, abnormality in bristle cell arrangement and reduction in the eye size. The developmental organization of ommatidial cells (cone, photoreceptor, pigment, and bristle cell complex) was disturbed in Hsp70 and Hsc70 mutants...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610217/a-new-genus-and-species-of-neotropical-nemobiinae-insecta-orthoptera-grylloidea-trigonidiidae-nemobiinae
#3
Fabiene Maria DE Jesus, Marcelo Ribeiro Pereira, Geanne Carla Ripani Rodrigues, Carlos Frankl Sperber
A new genus and a new species of Neotropical cricket is described: Pepoapua cariacica n. gen., n. sp., occurring in four Atlantic Forest remnants in the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo, Brazil. This new genus is morphologically similar in external characteristics, both male and female genitalia, with two other Neotropical genera of Nemobiinae: Amanayara and Kevanemobius. The combination of the external morphological characteristics, along with male genitalia, characterize a new genus through combination of the following characters: (i) males and females with morphologically similar tegmina; (ii) tegmina reduced, not reaching half of the second abdominal segment; (iii) dorsal field of the tegmina with parallel veins, without stridulatory vein or any specialized area for sound production; (iv) tibia of the first pair of legs without tympanum; (v) tibia of the third pair of legs with seven dorsal spurs, four inner and three outer, the proximo-dorsal inner spur reduced in size and the disto-dorsal inner spur without glandular aspect; (vi) ovipositor with distal portion of the dorsal and ventral valves serrated; (vii) male genitalia without evident bristles or sensillas; (viii) pseudepiphallic median lobe presenting apical and ventral projections...
June 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577456/dna-decontamination-of-fingerprint-brushes
#4
Bianca Szkuta, Roland A H van Oorschot, Kaye N Ballantyne
Genetic profiling of DNA collected from fingerprints that have been exposed to various enhancement techniques is routine in many forensic laboratories. As a result of direct contact with fingermark residues during treatment, there is concern around the DNA contamination risk of dusting fingermarks with fingerprint brushes. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for cross-contamination between evidentiary items through various mechanisms, highlighting the risk of using the same fingerprint brush to powder multiple surfaces within and between crime-scenes...
May 22, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566850/antiplaque-efficacy-of-tooth-and-gums-tonic-hiora-ga-gel-and-spirogyl-gum-paint-in-comparison-with-chlorhexidine-m-gel-a-double-blind-randomized-control-trial
#5
Jagadeeswara Rao Sukhabogi, B R Chandra Shekar, I Venkata Ramana, Sarjeev Singh Yadav, G Satish Kumar, N Harita
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of three different herbal products (Tooth and Gums Tonic, Hiora-GA gel, and Spirogyl Gum paint) in reducing plaque, gingival inflammation and bacterial count in comparison with chlorhexidine M gel among participants with moderate to severe periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of eighty participants with moderate to severe periodontitis were initially recruited after obtaining their informed consent. All participants were offered scaling and polishing on the first visit to remove visible calculus...
January 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556617/discovery-of-ectosymbiotic-endomicrobium-lineages-associated-with-protists-in-the-gut-of-stolotermitid-termites
#6
Kazuki Izawa, Hirokazu Kuwahara, Kaito Sugaya, Nathan Lo, Moriya Ohkuma, Yuichi Hongoh
The genus Endomicrobium is a dominant bacterial group in the gut of lower termites, and most phylotypes are intracellular symbionts of gut protists. Here we report the discovery of Endomicrobium ectosymbionts of termite gut protists. We found that bristle-like Endomicrobium cells attached to the surface of spirotrichosomid protist cells inhabiting the termite Stolotermes victoriensis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that a putative Endomicrobium cell likely attached to the protist surface via a protrusion from the tip of the bacterium...
May 29, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543982/the-rna-binding-protein-caper-is-required-for-sensory-neuron-development-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Eugenia C Olesnicky, Jeremy M Bono, Laura Bell, Logan T Schachtner, Meghan C Lybecker
BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing mediated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) is emerging as a fundamental mechanism for the regulation of gene expression. Alternative splicing has been shown to be a widespread phenomenon that facilitates the diversification of gene products in a tissue specific manner. Although defects in alternative splicing are rooted in many neurological disorders, only a small fraction of splicing factors have been investigated in detail. RESULTS: We find that the splicing factor Caper is required for the development of multiple different mechanosensory neuron subtypes at multiple life stages in Drosophila melanogaster...
May 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510129/ltr-sequence-of-the-mdg4-retrotransposon-contains-the-mad-protein-binding-site-that-affects-the-east-dependent-repression
#8
A K Golovnin, V V Molodina, I S Shapovalov, P G Georgiev, L S Melnikova
Earlier, we showed in a model system of the yellow gene of D. melanogaster that an increase in the EAST protein concentration leads to repression in bristles, the mechanism of which remained obscure. In this study, an inverted repeat was localized by genetic methods in the long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence of the MDG4 retrotransposon. This repeat includes the binding site for the Mad protein-the key component of the of TGF-β/BMP signaling cascade. The results of this work suggest that the Mad protein recruits to chromatin a regulatory complex that functionally interacts with the EAST protein...
March 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486128/a-geometric-model-of-stripe-refinement
#9
Eric D Siggia
Organizing data about patterning and morphogenesis into a coherent framework remains a challenge in developmental biology. Reporting in Science, Corson et al. (2017) apply innovative analysis to an old problem of bristle patterns in Drosophila, reducing the nonlinear interactions among tens of cells to a succinct model with quantitative predictions.
May 8, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435373/comparative-clinical-efficacy-of-three-toothpastes-in-the-control-of-supragingival-calculus-formation
#10
Petcharat Kraivaphan, Cholticha Amornchat
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this double-blind, parallel clinical study was to assess clinical efficacy in supragingival calculus formation reduction using Abhaibhubejhr Herbal Toothpaste compared to Colgate Total and Colgate Cavity Protection toothpastes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 150 subjects participated in the pretest phase. All subjects were given oral soft/hard tissue evaluation, calculus examination using Volpe-Manhold calculus, and whole mouth oral prophylaxis...
January 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429244/fluctuating-asymmetry-of-meristic-traits-an-isofemale-line-analysis-in-an-invasive-drosophilid-zaprionus-indianus
#11
Lilian Madi-Ravazzi, Luis Fernando Segala, Vincent Debat, Jean R David
Metric (e.g., body size) and meristic (e.g., bristle number) traits are of general use in quantitative genetic studies, and the phenotypic variance is subdivided into a genetic and a non-genetic environmental component. The non-genetic variance may have two origins: a common garden effect between individuals and a developmental instability within the same individual. Developmental instability may be studied by considering the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) between the two sides of the body. The isofemale line technique is a convenient method for investigating the architecture of natural populations but has been rarely implemented for investigating FA...
April 20, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411930/marine-envenomation
#12
REVIEW
Kirsten B Hornbeak, Paul S Auerbach
Venomous aquatic animals are hazardous to swimmers, surfers, divers, and fishermen. Exposures include mild stings, bites, abrasions, and lacerations. Severe envenomations can be life threatening. This article reviews common marine envenomations, exploring causative species, clinical presentation, and current treatment recommendations. Recommendations are included for cnidaria, sponges, bristle worms, crown-of-thorns starfish, sea urchins, venomous fish, stingrays, cone snails, stonefish, blue-ringed octopus, and sea snakes...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398752/biomimetic-proteoglycans-mimic-macromolecular-architecture-and-water-uptake-of-natural-proteoglycans
#13
Katsiaryna Prudnikova, Robert W Yucha, Pavan Patel, Alicia S Kriete, Lin Han, Lynn S Penn, Michele S Marcolongo
Aging and degeneration of human tissue come with the loss of tissue water retention and associated changes in physical properties partially due to degradation and subsequent loss of proteoglycans. We demonstrated a novel method of fabrication of biomimetic proteoglycans, which mimic the three-dimensional bottlebrush architecture and physical behavior of natural proteoglycans responsible for tissue hydration and structural integrity. Biomimetic proteoglycans are synthesized by an end-on attachment of natural chondroitin sulfate bristles to a synthetic poly(acryloyl chloride) backbone...
May 1, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394901/chromosomal-localization-of-genes-conferring-desirable-agronomic-traits-from-agropyron-cristatum-chromosome-1p
#14
Cuili Pan, Qingfeng Li, Yuqing Lu, Jinpeng Zhang, Xinming Yang, Xiuquan Li, Lihui Li, Weihua Liu
Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n = 4x = 28, PPPP), a wild relative of common wheat, possesses many potentially valuable genes for wheat breeding. To transfer these genes into wheat, a series of wheat-A. cristatum derivatives have been obtained in our laboratory. In this study, a wheat-A. cristatum derivative II-3-1 was obtained, which was proven to contain a 1P (1A) disomic substitution and 2P disomic addition line with 40 wheat chromosomes and two pairs of A. cristatum chromosomes by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and molecular markers analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394891/xylosylation-of-the-notch-receptor-preserves-the-balance-between-its-activation-by-trans-delta-and-inhibition-by-cis-ligands-in-drosophila
#15
Tom V Lee, Ashutosh Pandey, Hamed Jafar-Nejad
The Drosophila glucoside xylosyltransferase Shams xylosylates Notch and inhibits Notch signaling in specific contexts including wing vein development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying context-specificity of the shams phenotype is not known. Considering the role of Delta-Notch signaling in wing vein formation, we hypothesized that Shams might affect Delta-mediated Notch signaling in Drosophila. Using genetic interaction studies, we find that altering the gene dosage of Delta affects the wing vein and head bristle phenotypes caused by loss of Shams or by mutations in the Notch xylosylation sites...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390206/comparative-efficacy-of-a-soft-toothbrush-with-tapered-tip-bristles-to-an-ada-reference-toothbrush-on-gingival-abrasion-over-a-12-week-period
#16
John Gallob, Dolores M Petrone, Luis R Mateo, Patricia Chaknis, Boyce M Morrison, Foti Panagakos, Malcolm Williams
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the impact of a soft toothbrush with tapered-tip (Test Toothbrush) bristles and an ADA reference toothbrush (ADA Toothbrush) on gingival abrasion over a 12-week period. METHODS: This was a randomized, single-center, examiner-blind, two-cell, parallel clinical research study and used the Danser Gingival Abrasion Index to assess the level of gingival abrasion after a single brushing, as well as after six weeks and 12 weeks of twice-daily brushing...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390205/comparative-efficacy-of-a-soft-toothbrush-with-tapered-tip-bristles-and-an-ada-reference-toothbrush-on-established-gingivitis-and-supragingival-plaque-over-a-12-week-period
#17
John Gallob, Dolores M Petrone, Luis R Mateo, Patricia Chaknis, Boyce M Morrison, Malcolm Williams, Foti Panagakos
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the efficacy of a soft toothbrush with tapered-tip bristles (Test Toothbrush) and an ADA reference soft toothbrush (ADA Toothbrush) on established gingivitis and supragingival plaque over a 12-week period. METHODS: This randomized, single-center, examiner-blind, two-cell, parallel clinical research study assessed plaque removal by the comparison of pre- to- post-brushing after a single use, and again after six- and 12-weeks' use, using the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index, Turesky Modification...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386027/self-organized-notch-dynamics-generate-stereotyped-sensory-organ-patterns-in-drosophila
#18
Francis Corson, Lydie Couturier, Hervé Rouault, Khalil Mazouni, François Schweisguth
The emergence of spatial patterns in developing multicellular organisms relies on positional cues and cell-cell communication. Drosophila sensory organs have informed a paradigm in which these operate in two distinct steps: Prepattern factors drive localized proneural activity, then Notch-mediated lateral inhibition singles out neural precursors. Here we show that self-organization through Notch signaling also establishes the proneural stripes that resolve into rows of sensory bristles on the fly thorax. Patterning, initiated by a gradient of Delta ligand expression, progresses through inhibitory signaling between and within stripes...
May 5, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385241/synthesis-of-macromolecular-mimics-of-small-leucine-rich-proteoglycans-with-a-poly-ethylene-glycol-core-and-chondroitin-sulphate-bristles
#19
Sumona Sarkar, Carli Moorehead, Katsiaryna Prudnikova, Caroline L Schauer, Lynn S Penn, Michele Marcolongo
Small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) are a class of molecules prevalent in almost all tissues types and are thought to be responsible for collagen organization and macro-scale biological properties. However, when they are dysfunctional or degraded, severe pathological phenotypes are observed. Here we investigate macromolecular mimics to SLRPs using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a core (replacing the protein core of natural SLRPs) and chondroitin sulphate (CS) bristle(s) in an end-on attachment (via epoxide-amine reactions), mimicking the physical structure of the natural SLRPs...
June 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327855/-hemorrhagic-erucism-due-to-lonomia-spp-in-a-girl
#20
Walter Peña-Vásquez, Héctor Vásquez-Paz, Rubén Vásquez-Becerra, Alfredo Chiappe-Gonzalez, Marcos Ñavincopa-Flores, Eduardo Ticona-Chávez
Accidents caused by urticating or poisonous setae from lepidoptera caterpillars are known as erucism. These accidents are produced by accidental contact, especially in children, with bristles on the insect's body surface, connected to venom glands. Symptoms may be local or systemic, with deadly clinical presentations. The accident caused by Lonomia spp. caterpillars can trigger bleeding disorders, which is considered the most severe type of erucism. The case of a 5-year-old girl is reported. She was from the town of Villarondos, in the Peruvian Amazon, department of Huánuco, who accidentally knelt down on caterpillar bristles, and subsequently experienced hemolytic anemia, plateletopenia, and coagulation disorder...
October 2016: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
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