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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679470/molecular-progression-to-cervical-precancer-epigenetic-switch-or-sequential-model
#1
Belinda Nedjai, Caroline Reuter, Amar Ahmad, Rawinder Banwait, Rhian Warman, James Carton, Sabrina Boer, Jack Cuzick, Attila Lorincz
The evolution of precancerous cervical lesions is poorly understood. A widely held model of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) development is sequential progression from normal through CIN1 and CIN2 to CIN3. Another hypothesis, the "molecular switch" model, postulates that CIN3 can evolve directly from human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected normal epithelium without progressing through CIN1 and CIN2. To shed light on this process, we compared DNA methylation of selected human biomarkers and HPV types in two groups of CIN1: CIN1 that were near or adjacent to CIN3 (adjacent-CIN1) and CIN1 that were the principal lesions with no CIN3 detected (principal-CIN1)...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678786/fetal-bovine-serum-induces-sustained-but-reversible-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-the-beas-2b-cell-line
#2
S W Malm, E A Amouzougan, W T Klimecki
BEAS-2B is a non-malignant, immortalized human cell line that has been used extensively as a model of lung epithelium. Despite ATCC recommendations to culture BEAS-2B in defined, serum-free media, many publications describe culturing BEAS-2B in fetal bovine serum (FBS)-containing media. The objective of this study was to define the effects of FBS on BEAS-2B cells. FBS exposure resulted in increased nuclear levels of transcription factors responsible for regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased cell invasiveness and increased anchorage-independent growth...
April 17, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678444/biliary-epithelium-a-neuroendocrine-compartment-in-cholestatic-liver-disease
#3
REVIEW
Laurent Ehrlich, Marinda Scrushy, Fanyin Meng, Terry C Lairmore, Gianfranco Alpini, Shannon Glaser
Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) that can lead to ductopenia, cirrhosis, and even malignant transformation. In this review, we examine cholestatic liver diseases characterized by extensive biliary fibrosis such as primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), polycystic liver disease (PLD), and MDR2-/- and BDL mouse models. Following biliary injury, cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells that line the bile ducts, become reactive and adopt a neuroendocrine phenotype in which they secrete and respond to neurohormones and neuropeptides in an autocrine and paracrine fashion...
April 17, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678179/expression-of-mate1-p-gp-octn1-and-octn2-in-epithelial-and-immune-cells-in-the-lung-of-copd-and-healthy-individuals
#4
Tove Berg, Tove Hegelund-Myrbäck, Johan Öckinger, Xiao-Hong Zhou, Marie Brännström, Michael Hagemann-Jensen, Viktoria Werkström, Janeric Seidegård, Johan Grunewald, Magnus Nord, Lena Gustavsson
BACKGROUND: Several inhaled drugs are dependent on organic cation transporters to cross cell membranes. To further evaluate their potential to impact on inhaled drug disposition, the localization of MATE1, P-gp, OCTN1 and OCTN2 were investigated in human lung. METHODS: Transporter proteins were analysed by immunohistochemistry in lung tissue from healthy subjects and COPD patients. Transporter mRNA was analysed by qPCR in lung tissue and in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from smokers and non-smokers...
April 20, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677537/the-rescue-effect-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-on-sodium-iodate-induced-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cell-death-through-deactivation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-nlrp3-inflammasome
#5
Xiying Mao, Ting Pan, Han Shen, Huiyu Xi, Songtao Yuan, Qinghuai Liu
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease resulting in the gradual loss of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the permanent visual damage. Various risk factors, including oxidative stress, form a complex network at the confluence of inflammation. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) is a well-studied population of adult stem cell with strong neuroprotective and immunoregulatory properties. Here, we reported the protective effect of MSC on sodium iodate (NaIO3)-triggered RPE degeneration. Sodium iodate (NaIO3)-induced RPE cell death was remarkably reduced when cocultured with MSC...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677362/deep-layer-microvasculature-dropout-by-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-and-microstructure-of-parapapillary-atrophy
#6
Min Hee Suh, Linda M Zangwill, Patricia Isabel C Manalastas, Akram Belghith, Adeleh Yarmohammadi, Tadamichi Akagi, Alberto Diniz-Filho, Luke Saunders, Robert N Weinreb
Purpose: To investigate the association between the microstructure of β-zone parapapillary atrophy (βPPA) and parapapillary deep-layer microvasculature dropout assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Methods: Thirty-seven eyes with βPPA devoid of the Bruch's membrane (BM) (γPPA) ranging between completely absent and discontinuous BM were matched by severity of the visual field (VF) damage with 37 eyes with fully intact BM (βPPA+BM) based on the spectral-domain (SD) OCT imaging...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677354/retinoic-acid-maintains-function-of-neural-crest-derived-ocular-and-craniofacial-structures-in-adult-zebrafish
#7
Bahaar Chawla, William Swain, Antionette L Williams, Brenda L Bohnsack
Purpose: Retinoic acid (RA) is required for embryonic formation of the anterior segment of the eye and craniofacial structures. The present study further investigated the role of RA in maintaining the function of these neural crest-derived structures in adult zebrafish. Methods: Morphology and histology were analyzed by using live imaging, methylacrylate sections, and TUNEL assay. Functional analysis of vision and aqueous humor outflow were assayed with real-time imaging...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677345/pharmacokinetics-of-caffeine-in-the-lens-capsule-epithelium-after-peroral-intake-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-study
#8
Martin Kronschläger, Thomas Stimpfl, Manuel Ruiß, Nino Hirnschall, Christoph Leisser, Oliver Findl
Purpose: To determine the pharmacokinetics of perorally administered caffeine, a widely consumed and potent dietary antioxidant, in the anterior lens capsule and lens epithelial cells, a crucial cell monolayer for cataract development. Methods: Bilateral cataract patients were scheduled for cataract surgery with a caffeine abstinence of 1 week before surgery of each eye. At the day of surgery of the second eye patients were administered no drink (0-mg group) or coffee with 60-, 120-, or 180-mg caffeine...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677133/modified-fusarium-mycotoxins-in-cereals-and-their-products-metabolism-occurrence-and-toxicity-an-updated-review
#9
REVIEW
Marcin Bryła, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Edyta Ksieniewicz-Woźniak, Krystyna Szymczyk, Renata Jędrzejczak
Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, toxic to humans, animals and plants. Under the influence of various factors, mycotoxins may undergo modifications of their chemical structure. One of the methods of mycotoxin modification is a transformation occurring in plant cells or under the influence of fungal enzymes. This paper reviews the current knowledge on the natural occurrence of the most important trichothecenes and zearalenone in cereals/cereal products, their metabolism, and the potential toxicity of the metabolites...
April 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676905/quantitative-mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-prostaglandins-as-silver-ion-adducts-with-nanospray-desorption-electrospray-ionization
#10
Kyle D Duncan, Ru Fang, Jia Yuan, Rosalie K Chu, Sudhansu K Dey, Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Ingela Lanekoff
Prostaglandins (PG) are an important class of lipid biomolecules that are essential in many biological processes, including inflammation and successful pregnancy. Despite a high bioactivity, physiological concentrations are typically low, which makes direct mass spectrometric analysis of endogenous PG species challenging. Consequently, there have not been any studies investigating the localization of PG species to specific morphological regions in tissue sections using mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques...
April 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676863/nitrite-stress-disrupts-the-structural-integrity-and-induces-oxidative-stress-response-in-the-intestines-of-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#11
Yafei Duan, Jiasong Zhang, Yun Wang, Qingsong Liu, Dalin Xiong
The acute toxicity of nitrite on the mucosal morphology and oxidative stress response was investigated in the intestines of Litopenaeus vannamei after the exposure of 20 mg/L nitrite for 72 hr. The duration of nitrite stress influenced the shrimp survival, and the cumulative mortality rate was 36.7% at 72 hr. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stain showed that nitrite stress damaged the intestine connective and epithelium tissue. Specifically, nitrite stress increased the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (O2 - generation capacity), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and malondialdehyde (MDA)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676794/classify-epithelium-stroma-in-histopathological-images-based-on-deep-transferable-network
#12
X Yu, H Zheng, C Liu, Y Huang, X Ding
Recently, the deep learning methods have received more attention in histopathological image analysis. However, the traditional deep learning methods assume that training data and test data have the same distributions, which causes certain limitations in real-world histopathological applications. However, it is costly to recollect a large amount of labeled histology data to train a new neural network for each specified image acquisition procedure even for similar tasks. In this paper, an unsupervised domain adaptation is introduced into a typical deep convolutional neural network (CNN) model to mitigate the repeating of the labels...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676620/interleukin-13-stimulation-reveals-the-cellular-and-functional-plasticity-of-the-airway-epithelium
#13
Max A Seibold
About 50% of patients with asthma exhibit chronic airway inflammation driven by the type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13. These patients with type 2-high asthma experience more allergic symptoms, greater airway hyperresponsiveness, and more severe mucus obstruction than patients with type 2-low asthma. Mouse models of asthma have shown that much of the airway dysfunction in these models can be generated by IL-13 stimulation of the airway epithelium alone. Both in vivo mouse model studies and in vitro studies of human mucociliary airway epithelial cultures have shown that IL-13 induces cellular remodeling of the airway epithelium through proliferation-independent transdifferentiation processes...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676583/reticulocalbin-3-deficiency-in-alveolar-epithelium-exacerbated-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis
#14
Jiawei Jin, Xiaoqian Shi, Yongchao Li, Qianyu Zhang, Yu Guo, Chaokun Li, Pingping Tan, Qiuhong Fang, Yingmin Ma, Runlin Z Ma
Reticulocalbin 3 (Rcn3) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen protein localized to the secretory pathway. We have reported that Rcn3 plays critical role for alveolar epithelial cell type II (AECII) maturation during perinatal lung development, but its biological role in the adult lung is largely unknown. Herein, we found marked induction of Rcn3 expression in alveolar epithelium during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, which is most obvious in AECIIs. To further examine Rcn3 in pulmonary injury-remodeling, we generated transgenic mice to selectively delete Rcn3 in AECIIs in adulthood...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676366/pindborg-tumor-pathology-with-special-stains
#15
Swati Shrikant Gotmare, Treville Pereira, Subraj Shetty, Kashmira S Kesarkar
Odontogenic tumors constitute a wide spectrum of lesions ranging from malignant and benign neoplasms to dental hamartomas, all derived from the epithelial and ectomesenchymal remnants of the tooth forming apparatus. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is an uncommon, benign epithelial odontogenic tumor first described by Pindborg in 1956. It is a universally accepted eponym for this neoplasm. Pindborg tumor or CEOT is a locally aggressive neoplasm that accounts for 1% of the total odontogenic tumors, with recurrence in 14% of cases...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676351/evaluation-of-p53-protein-expression-in-barrett-esophagus
#16
Mahathi Krothapalli, Jyoti Ramnath Kini, Hema Kini, Kausalya Kumari Sahu, Suresh Shenoy, Sandeep Gopal Krishna, B V Tantry
Background: Loss of heterozygosity of p53 along with aneuploidy is deemed to be the early molecular steps in Barrett metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. Objective biomarkers need to be used along with microscopy for risk stratification to predict the progression of Barrett esophagus (BE) to carcinoma. Aim: This study aims to study p53 protein expression in dysplasia and correlate the same with morphology in BE. Materials and Methods: A time-bound study was conducted from January 2011 to June 2015...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676177/acetylcholine-induced-ciliary-beat-of-the-human-nasal-mucosa-is-regulated-by-the-pannexin-1-channel-and-purinergic-p2x-receptor
#17
Ba H Do, Toyoaki Ohbuchi, Tetsuro Wakasugi, Hiroki Koizumi, Mitsuru Yokoyama, Nobusuke Hohchi, Hideaki Suzuki
Background Airway mucociliary transport is an important function for the clearance of inhaled foreign particulates in the respiratory tract. The present study aimed at investigating the regulatory mechanism of acetylcholine (Ach)-induced ciliary beat of the human nasal mucosa in ex vivo. Methods The inferior turbinate mucosa was collected from patients with chronic hypertrophic rhinitis during endoscopic surgery. The mucosa was cut into thin strips, and ciliary movement was observed under a phase-contrast light microscope with a high-speed digital video camera...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676013/insemination-intrafollicular-fertilization-and-development-of-the-fertilization-plug-during-gestation-in-heterandria-formosa-poeciliidae
#18
Mari Carmen Uribe, Harry J Grier
The viviparous teleost Heterandria formosa is a remarkable species for its reproductive characters including: (a) the smallest oocyte in viviparous fish species; (b) a high level of matrotrophy with a complex placenta; and (c) the highest level of superfetation. Superfetation involves (d) the continuous development of oocytes and fertilization at the same time with embryos in gestation. The sequential fertilization of oocytes requires (e) storage of spermatozoa in the ovary. Among these characteristics, fertilization is of fundamental interest, specifically the intrafollicular fertilization of poeciliids, species that do not present micropyle, and the consequent formation of the fertilization plug, a structure developed at the periphery of the follicle where the entrance of spermatozoa occurs...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675996/streptococcus-endopeptidases-promote-hpv-infection-in-vitro
#19
Sylvia I Pavlova, Reid V Wilkening, Michael J Federle, Yu Lu, Joel Schwartz, Lin Tao
Both cervical and throat cancers are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV infection requires cleavage of the minor capsid protein L2 by furin. While furin is present in the vaginal epithelium, it is absent in oral epithelial basal cells where HPV infection occurs. The objective of this study was to investigate whether common oral bacteria express furin-like peptidases. By screening strains representing 12 oral Streptococcus and Enterococcus species, we identified that eight Streptococcus strains displayed high levels of furin-like peptidase activity, with S...
April 19, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675844/delivery-of-therapeutics-for-deep-seated-ocular-conditions-status-quo
#20
REVIEW
Hubert Nguyen, Shawn Eng, Thanh Ngo, Crispin R Dass
OBJECTIVES: There is a need for research into designing effective pharmaceutical systems for delivering therapeutic drugs to the posterior of the eye for glaucoma-related pathology, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, macular oedema, retinitis and choroiditis. Conventionally, eye drops have been extensively utilised for topical drug delivery to the anterior segment of the eye, but are less effective for delivery of therapeutics to the back of the eye due to significant barriers hampering drug penetration into the target intraocular tissue...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
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