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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933249/an-enterogenous-cyst-with-atypical-pathological-findings-and-chemical-meningitis
#1
Lu Wang, Xiaona Chang, Chao Fu, Weidong Yu, Xiaoxuan Fang
INTRODUCTION: Intracranial enterogenous cysts are rare and mainly occur in the posterior fossa. These cysts are usually extra-axial, midline, anterior to the brainstem, or at the cerebellopontine angle. We report a case of an enterogenous cyst in which diagnosis was difficult because the lesion showed atypical pathologic findings. CASE PRESENTATION: A healthy 41-year-old man complained of paroxysmal occipital headaches lasting over a week, with increased severity for 3 days accompanied by slight dizziness and mild nausea...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933220/a-novel-method-for-quantitative-serial-autofluorescence-analysis-in-retinitis-pigmentosa-using-image-characteristics
#2
Jasleen K Jolly, Siegfried K Wagner, Jonathan Moules, Florian Gekeler, Andrew R Webster, Susan M Downes, Robert E MacLaren
PURPOSE: Identifying potential biomarkers for disease progression in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is highly relevant now that gene therapy and other treatments are in clinical trial. Here we report a novel technique for analysis of short-wavelength autofluorescence (AF) imaging to quantify defined regions of AF in RP patients. METHODS: Fifty-five-degree AF images were acquired from 12 participants with RP over a 12-month period. Of these, five were identified as having a hyperfluorescent annulus...
December 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933057/glutamine-induced-secretion-of-intestinal-secretory-immunoglobulin-a-a-mechanistic-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Wenkai Ren, Kai Wang, Jie Yin, Shuai Chen, Gang Liu, Bie Tan, Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer, Yuanyi Peng, Yulong Yin
Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is one important line of defense in the intestinal mucosal surface to protect the intestinal epithelium from enteric toxins and pathogenic microorganisms. Multiple factors, such as intestinal microbiota, intestinal cytokines, and nutrients are highly involved in production of SIgA in the intestine. Recently, glutamine has been shown to affect intestinal SIgA production; however, the underlying mechanism by which glutamine stimulates secretion of intestinal SIgA is unknown. Here, we review current knowledge regarding glutamine in intestinal immunity and show that glutamine-enhanced secretion of SIgA in the intestine may involve intestinal microbiota, intestinal antigen sampling and presentation, induction pathways for SIgA production by plasma cells (both T-dependent and T-independent pathway), and even transport of SIgA...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932987/limits-of-applicability-of-the-voronoi-tessellation-determined-by-centers-of-cell-nuclei-to-epithelium-morphology
#4
Sara Kaliman, Christina Jayachandran, Florian Rehfeldt, Ana-Sunčana Smith
It is well accepted that cells in the tissue can be regarded as tiles tessellating space. A number of approaches were developed to find an appropriate mathematical description of such cell tiling. A particularly useful approach is the so called Voronoi tessellation, built from centers of mass of the cell nuclei (CMVT), which is commonly used for estimating the morphology of cells in epithelial tissues. However, a study providing a statistically sound analysis of this method's accuracy is not available in the literature...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932763/-effect-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-on-defecation-and-vip-camp-pka-aqp3-signaling-pathway-%C3%A2-in-rats-with-constipation
#5
Yongxue Zhou, Yujin Wang, Hong Zhang, Shuguang Yan, Bin Wang, Pei Xie
To observe the effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the metabolism of intestinal fluid and cyclic AMP protein kinase A signaling pathway (cAMP-PKA) and water channel protein 3 (AQP3) in rats with constipation, and to explore the mechanism of VIP in the treatment of constipation.
 Methods: A total of 45 healthy adult rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a model +VIP group. After 4 weeks of VIP treatment, the first black stool time were examined with the ink gastric method; the water content in feces was calculated; the morphological changes in colonic tissues were observed by HE staining...
November 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932500/notch1-and-notch2-regulate-epithelial-cell-proliferation-in-mouse-and-human-gastric-corpus
#6
Elise S Demitrack, Gail B Gifford, Theresa M Keeley, Nobukatsu Horita, Andrea Todisco, D Kim Turgeon, Christian W Siebel, Linda C Samuelson
The Notch signaling pathway is known to regulate stem cells and epithelial cell homeostasis in gastrointestinal tissues; however, Notch function in the corpus region of the stomach is poorly understood. In this study we examined the consequences of Notch inhibition and activation on cellular proliferation and differentiation and defined the specific Notch receptors functioning in the mouse and human corpus. Notch pathway activity was observed in the mouse corpus epithelium, and gene expression analysis revealed NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 to be the predominant Notch receptors in both mouse and human...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932206/detailed-analysis-of-balb-c-mice-challenged-with-wild-type-rotavirus-edim-provide-an-alternative-for-infection-model-of-rotavirus
#7
Jialiang Du, Zhiling Lan, Yueyue Liu, Yan Liu, Yanchao Li, Xiangming Li, Tai Guo
Mouse is one of the infection animal models for rotavirus. Since the optimal age of mouse sensitive to rotavirus infection thus far has not been unified, we elucidated clinical symptoms, immune responses and pathological changes of mice in different ages after challenged by murine rotavirus wild strain EDIM (Epidemic Diarrhea of Infant Mice) to provide data for the estimation. One-week-old, two-week-old, and three-week-old BALB/c mice were inoculated with EDIM in the challenge dose of 235 ID50, 470 ID50 and 705 ID50 respectively and were compared to mock-infected controls...
December 5, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931797/erbb2-is-essential-for-the-growth-of-chemically-induced-skin-tumors-in-mice
#8
Maik Dahlhoff, Sukalp Muzumdar, Matthias Schäfer, Marlon R Schneider
While the epidermal growth factor receptor has established roles in skin carcinogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing, the functions of the structurally related receptor ERBB2 in this tissue remain poorly explored. To assess the functions of ERBB2 in skin homeostasis, tumorigenesis, and wound healing we employed keratin 5-directed, cre recombinase-mediated targeting of Erbb2 alleles in mice. Erbb2(del) mice, lacking ERBB2 specifically in keratinocytes, showed no noticeable spontaneous skin abnormalities...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931509/transplantation-of-human-urine-derived-stem-cells-transfected-with-pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-to-protect-erectile-function-in-a-rat-model-of-cavernous-nerve-injury
#9
Qiyun Yang, Xin Chen, Tao Zheng, Dayu Han, Heng Zhang, Yanan Shi, Jun Bian, Xiangzhou Sun, Kai Xia, Xiaoyan Liang, Guihua Liu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Chunhua Deng
The aim of this study was to investigate whether intracavernous injection of urine-derived stem cells (USCs) or USCs genetically modified with pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) could protect the erectile function and cavernous structure in a bilateral cavernous nerve injury-induced erectile dysfunction (CNIED) rat model. USCs were cultured from the urine of six healthy male donors. Seventy-five rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=15 per group): sham, bilateral cavernous nerve (CN) crush injury (BCNI), USC, USCGFP+, and USCGFP/PEDF+ groups...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930977/eupatilin-prevents-h2o2-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#10
Lei Du, Jia Chen, Yi-Qiao Xing
Eupatilin, a pharmacologically active flavone derived from the Artemisia plant species, is known to possess anti-oxidant activity. However, the effects of eupatilin on oxidative stress-induced retinal damage in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and the potential mechanisms involved have not been explored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eupatilin on oxidative stress-induced retinal damage in RPE cells. Our results showed that eupatilin significantly attenuated H2O2-induced cell injury and ROS production in ARPE-19 cells...
December 5, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930969/rhapontin-ameliorates-colonic-epithelial-dysfunction-in-experimental-colitis-through-sirt1-signaling
#11
Wencheng Wei, Lei Wang, Kai Zhou, Haifeng Xie, Mian Zhang, Chaofeng Zhang
Rhapontin (3, 3', 5-trihydroxy-4'-methoxystilbene-3-O-glucoside) has anti-thrombotic, anti-allergic and anti-diabetic activities. This study aimed to assess the protective effects of rhapontin on intestinal damage in vivo and in vitro. In a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse model, oral administration of rhapontin (100mg/kg) significantly attenuated colonic pathological damage and remarkably inhibited infiltration by inflammatory cells, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, NLRP3 inflammasome activation and SIRT1 expression in the colon...
December 5, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930931/deficiency-in-duox2-activity-alleviates-ileitis-in-gpx1-and-gpx2-knockout-mice-without-affecting-apoptosis-incidence-in-the-crypt-epithelium
#12
Fong-Fong Chu, R Steven Esworthy, James H Doroshow, Helmut Grasberger, Agnes Donko, Thomas L Leto, Qiang Gao, Binghui Shen
Mice deficient in glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-1 and -2 (GPx1(-/-)GPx2(-/-) double knockout or DKO mice) develop very-early-onset (VEO) ileocolitis, suggesting that lack of defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS) renders susceptibility to intestinal inflammation. Two members of ROS-generating NADPH oxidase family, NOX1 and DUOX2, are highly inducible in the intestinal epithelium. Previously, we reported that Nox1 deficiency ameliorated the pathology in DKO mice (Nox1-TKO). The role of Duox2 in ileocolitis of the DKO mice is evaluated here in Duoxa-TKO mice by breeding DKO mice with Duoxa(-/-) mice (Duoxa-TKO), which do not have Duox2 activity...
November 22, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930794/using-donor-lenticules-obtained-through-smile-for-an-epikeratophakia-technique-combined-with-phototherapeutic-keratectomy
#13
Jing Zhao, Ling Sun, Yang Shen, Mi Tian, Peijun Yao, Xingtao Zhou
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of using a donor lenticule created during small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in an epikeratophakia technique combined with phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK). METHODS: Six patients with decreased visual acuity due to a recurrence of corneal dystrophy were included in this prospective pilot study. PTK was performed using the MEL 80 excimer laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany) followed by the transplantation of donor lenticules onto the recipient eyes...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930725/avertin%C3%A2-but-not-volatile-anesthetics-addressing-the-two-pore-domain-k-channel-task-1-slows-down-cilia-driven-particle-transport-in-the-mouse-trachea
#14
Ghulam Murtaza, Petra Mermer, Uwe Pfeil, Wolfgang Kummer
RATIONALE: Volatile anesthetics inhibit mucociliary clearance in the airways. The two-pore domain K+ channel, TASK-1, represents one of their molecular targets in that they increase its open probability. Here, we determine whether particle transport speed (PTS) at the mucosal surface of the mouse trachea, an important factor of the cilia-driven mechanism in mucociliary clearance, is regulated by TASK-1. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: RT-PCR analysis revealed expression of TASK-1 mRNA in the manually dissected and laser-assisted microdissected tracheal epithelium of the mouse...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930457/novel-findings-on-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-patients-with-tubercular-serpiginous-like-choroiditis
#15
Spoorti Krishna Reddy Mandadi, Aniruddha Agarwal, Kanika Aggarwal, Bruttendu Moharana, Ramandeep Singh, Aman Sharma, Reema Bansal, Mangat R Dogra, Vishali Gupta
PURPOSE: To analyze and describe the imaging characteristics of tubercular serpiginous-like choroiditis using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to compare these findings with multimodal imaging. METHODS: In this prospective cross-sectional study, multimodal imaging was performed in subjects with tubercular serpiginous-like choroiditis using OCTA (Optovue RTVue XR Avanti), enhanced-depth imaging OCT (Heidelberg Spectralis), fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography...
December 7, 2016: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930309/sox2-progenitors-in-sharks-link-taste-development-with-the-evolution-of-regenerative-teeth-from-denticles
#16
Kyle J Martin, Liam J Rasch, Rory L Cooper, Brian D Metscher, Zerina Johanson, Gareth J Fraser
Teeth and denticles belong to a specialized class of mineralizing epithelial appendages called odontodes. Although homology of oral teeth in jawed vertebrates is well supported, the evolutionary origin of teeth and their relationship with other odontode types is less clear. We compared the cellular and molecular mechanisms directing development of teeth and skin denticles in sharks, where both odontode types are retained. We show that teeth and denticles are deeply homologous developmental modules with equivalent underlying odontode gene regulatory networks (GRNs)...
December 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930308/epithelial-self-healing-is-recapitulated-by-a-3d-biomimetic-e-cadherin-junction
#17
Daniel J Cohen, Martijn Gloerich, W James Nelson
Epithelial monolayers undergo self-healing when wounded. During healing, cells collectively migrate into the wound site, and the converging tissue fronts collide and form a stable interface. To heal, migrating tissues must form cell-cell adhesions and reorganize from the front-rear polarity characteristic of cell migration to the apical-basal polarity of an epithelium. However, identifying the "stop signal" that induces colliding tissues to cease migrating and heal remains an open question. Epithelial cells form integrin-based adhesions to the basal extracellular matrix (ECM) and E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesions on the orthogonal, lateral surfaces between cells...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929707/systemic-mineralocorticoid-antagonists-in-the-treatment-of-central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#18
Dong Yang, Dean Eliott
Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a challenging disease characterized by subretinal serous fluid accumulation. The complex pathogenesis is still not fully understood, but is thought to be multifactorial and involves exogenous and endogenous factors affecting the choroid and retinal pigment epithelium. The involvement of corticosteroids is undisputed, while the contribution of mineralocorticoid pathways is under investigation. This review addresses the proposed pathogenesis models and the evidence for systemic treatment of CSCR with mineralocorticoid antagonists...
December 8, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928413/a-rare-case-of-unilateral-progressive-vision-loss-and-pachymeningitis
#19
Reuben Mari Valenzuela, Bonnie Keung, John H Pula, Jorge C Kattah
We describe a 32-year-old man with presumed Vogt-Koyanagi Harada (VKH) syndrome, whose presenting symptoms were headache and progressive loss of vision in the right eye. Neuro-ophthalmic examination showed anterior and posterior uveitis, and retinal detachment in the right eye. Ocular coherence tomography (OCT) showed extensive submacular fluid in the right eye, while the fundus fluorescein angiogram (FFA) confirmed perifoveal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) disruption and multifocal fluorescein leakage in the right eye...
October 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927890/massively-increased-caries-susceptibility-in-an-irf6-cleft-lip-palate-model
#20
B Tamasas, T C Cox
Patients with cleft lip/palate (CLP) have been reported, in some studies, to exhibit an increased prevalence of caries, although the underlying cause for this increase is unknown. In genetically defined mouse models, studies of postnatal sequelae associated with CLP have been hampered by neonatal lethality. Using a conditional targeting approach, we ablated the major CLP gene Irf6 only in the late embryonic oral epithelium (Irf6 cKO), bypassing the role of the gene in lip and palate morphogenesis and thus ensuring survival to adulthood...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
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