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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223133/how-stress-contributes-to-autoimmunity-lessons-from-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-ss
#1
REVIEW
Fotini N Skopouli, Stergios Katsiougiannis
A large body of clinical evidence on the association between stressful life events and autoimmune diseases suggests that stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of these disorders. In this article, we discuss the effects of stress, not on the immune system but on specific cell populations against which the autoimmune reactivity is directed. Using Sjögren's syndrome as a model autoimmune disease, we review the role of stress in the initiation and perpetuation of autoimmune reactivity. We present data that reveal the effects of stress on salivary gland epithelial cells, suggesting that stress can become immunogenic through its various effects on salivary gland epithelium...
December 9, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222450/elevation-of-autophagy-markers-in-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome-dry-eye
#2
Yong-Soo Byun, Hyun Jung Lee, Soojung Shin, So-Hyang Chung
Autophagy is known to be implicated in the pathogenesis of Sjögren syndrome (SS), but evidences are limited. We aimed to examine the levels of autophagy markers in tear film and conjunctival epithelial cells from SS dry eye patients, and analyze their correlations with clinical features. Patients with SS dry eye exhibited lower Schirmer values, lower tear breakup time, and higher ocular staining scores. In tears, ATG5 and LC3B-II/I levels were significantly higher in SS dry eye. ATG5 and LC3B-II mRNA in the conjunctiva were also elevated in SS dry eye compared with non-SS dry eye...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221933/intestinal-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-sentinels-of-the-mucosal-barrier
#3
REVIEW
Danyvid Olivares-Villagómez, Luc Van Kaer
Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are a large and diverse population of lymphoid cells that reside between the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that form the intestinal mucosal barrier. Although IEL biology has traditionally focused on T cells, recent studies have identified several subsets of T cell receptor (TCR)-negative IELs with intriguing properties. New insight into the development, homeostasis, and functions of distinct IEL subsets has recently been provided. Additional studies have revealed intricate interactions between different IEL subsets, reciprocal interactions between IELs and IECs, and communication of IELs with immune cells that reside outside the intestinal epithelium...
December 5, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221710/acanthamoeba-keratitis-in-patients-wearing-scleral-contact-lenses
#4
Matheus Porto Sticca, Linda C Carrijo-Carvalho, Isa M B Silva, Luiz A Vieira, Luciene B Souza, Rubens Belfort Junior, Fábio Ramos S Carvalho, Denise Freitas
PURPOSE: To report a series of cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in scleral lens wearers with keratoconus to determine whether this type of contact lens presents a greater risk for development of infection. METHODS: This study reports three patients who wore scleral contact lenses to correct keratoconus and developed AK. The diagnoses of AK were established based on cultures of the cornea, scleral contact lenses, and contact lens paraphernalia. This study investigated the risk factors for infections...
December 5, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221157/high-ptpn13-expression-in-high-grade-serous-ovarian-carcinoma-is-associated-with-a-better-patient-outcome
#5
Véronique D'Hondt, Magalie Lacroix-Triki, Marta Jarlier, Florence Boissiere-Michot, Carole Puech, Peter Coopman, Dionyssios Katsaros, Gilles Freiss
Background: Chromosome 4q loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is frequently observed in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). However, this LOH has not been clearly associated with the inactivation of any tumor suppressor gene(s). As the tumor suppressor gene PTPN13 is located on chromosome 4q21, we investigated its expression in HGSOC. Methods: PTPN13 protein expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in normal ovary epithelium and in 30 HGSOC samples, whereas PTPN13 mRNA expression was quantified by RT-PCR in another independent cohort of 28 HGSOC samples...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220665/mtorc1-activation-during-repeated-regeneration-impairs-somatic-stem-cell-maintenance
#6
Samantha Haller, Subir Kapuria, Rebeccah R Riley, Monique N O'Leary, Katherine H Schreiber, Julie K Andersen, Simon Melov, Jianwen Que, Thomas A Rando, Jason Rock, Brian K Kennedy, Joseph T Rodgers, Heinrich Jasper
The balance between self-renewal and differentiation ensures long-term maintenance of stem cell (SC) pools in regenerating epithelial tissues. This balance is challenged during periods of high regenerative pressure and is often compromised in aged animals. Here, we show that target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling is a key regulator of SC loss during repeated regenerative episodes. In response to regenerative stimuli, SCs in the intestinal epithelium of the fly and in the tracheal epithelium of mice exhibit transient activation of TOR signaling...
December 7, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220660/plasticity-in-olfactory-epithelium-is-it-a-sniffer-or-shape-shifter
#7
Arvind Konkimalla, Purushothama Rao Tata
Precise lineage trajectories and the cellular sources that contribute to regeneration after injury are largely unknown in many tissues. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Gadye et al. (2017) and Lin et al. (2017) show that olfactory epithelial cells transit through unique and unfamiliar paths of differentiation and undergo lineage reversion, respectively, during regeneration.
December 7, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220632/immunohistochemical-localization-of-fibrinogen-c-domain-containing-1-on-epithelial-and-mucosal-surfaces-in-human-tissues
#8
Sebastian von Huth, Jesper B Moeller, Anders Schlosser, Niels Marcussen, Ole Nielsen, Vicki Nielsen, Grith L Sorensen, Uffe Holmskov
Fibrinogen C domain containing 1 (FIBCD1) is a transmembrane receptor that binds chitin and other acetylated compounds with high affinity. FIBCD1 has previously been shown to be present in the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we performed a detailed analysis of normally structured human tissues for the expression of FIBCD1 by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. We find that FIBCD1 is expressed in epithelial cells derived from all three germ layers. Endodermal-derived epithelial cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract and the respiratory system showed high expression of FIBCD1 and also mesodermal-derived cells in the genitourinary system and ectodermal-derived epidermis and sebaceous glands cells expressed FIBCD1...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220112/multispectral-image-analysis-in-vogt-koyanagi-harada-disease
#9
Guo Huang, Junchao Peng, Zi Ye, Aize Kijlstra, Donglei Zhang, Peizeng Yang
PURPOSE: To investigate fundus abnormalities in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease by a noninvasive tool, multispectral imaging (MSI). METHODS: A total of 77 patients with VKH and 163 healthy controls were enrolled between January and April 2015. The MSI findings were evaluated in combination with fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), optical coherent tomography (OCT) and fundus photography (FP). Additionally, we compared extent of exposure of choroidal blood vessels between patients with VKH and healthy controls to evaluate retinal transmission function...
December 8, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220096/hepatic-progenitor-cells-in-metastatic-liver-carcinomas
#10
Ioanna Delladetsima, Stratigoula Sakellariou, Olivier Govaere, Elpida Poulaki, Evangelos Felekouras, Dina Tiniakos
AIMS: Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are activated in various liver diseases but their role in carcinomatous environment remains unknown. We aimed to identify the possible presence and topography of HPCs in liver metastases. METHODS: We examined 14 liver resection specimens for colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) (n=13) and anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (n=1) metastases. Immunohistochemical markers of colonic (keratin 20-K20, CDX2) and squamous cell origin (p63), HPC (K19, CD56) and stem cell (CD44) markers, and the biliary marker K7 which may also highlight HPCs were applied on routinely processed tissue sections...
December 8, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219961/measurement-of-full-thickness-macular-hole-size-using-en-face-optical-coherence-tomography
#11
E Philippakis, M Legrand, M El Sanharawi, A Erginay, A Couturier, R Tadayoni
PurposeTo assess the feasibility and interest of measuring macular hole (MH) size using en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) compared with manual diameter measurements on B-scans.MethodsAmong our previously published series of 100 patients operated for primary MH, patients whose images were acquired with Cirrus 5000 HD-OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec) with a quality signal strength >5/10 were included. Three segmentations (internal limiting membrane, horizontal, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)) were compared for obtaining the most appropriate en face image...
December 8, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219953/specific-retinal-phenotype-in-early-iqcb1-related-disease
#12
A Vincent, A AlAli, H MacDonald, C VandenHoven, E Héon
PurposeTo describe the ocular and systemic phenotype in IQCB1-related disease.MethodsFour cases (3 males, 1 female) with molecularly confirmed IQCB1-related disease underwent ophthalmological examination including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement, fundus evaluation, electroretinography (ERG), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Systemic evaluation including abdominal ultrasound was performed in all cases.ResultsBCVA ranged from perception of light (Case-2; 1 year) to 20/125 (Case-1; 9 years)...
December 8, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219059/inhibition-of-intercellular-communication-between-prostate-cancer-cells-by-a-specific-anti-steap-1-single-chain-antibody
#13
Seyed-Alireza Esmaeili, Foroogh Nejatollahi, Amirhossein Sahebkar
BACKGROUND: Six-Transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate-1 (STEAP-1) is present at the intercellular junctions of the secretory epithelium of prostate and is overexpressed in all steps of prostate cancer. STEAP-1 acts as a transporter protein or a putative channel between cancer cells while it has limited expression in normal human tissues. This protein has been suggested as an attractive target for prostate cancer immunotherapy. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at the development of a specific single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibody against STEAP-1 epitope and testing the inhibitory effect of the selected scFv antibody in blocking gap junctions between tumor cells...
December 7, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219039/morphogenesis-and-mucus-production-of-epithelial-tissues-of-three-major-salivary-glands-of-embryonic-mouse-in-3d-culture
#14
Azusa Nakao, Takumi Inaba, Akiko Murakami-Sekimata, Hiroyuki Nogawa
Embryonic mouse submandibular epithelia initiate branching morphogenesis within two days when embedded in Matrigel and stimulated by members of the epidermal growth factor family. However, it is unknown whether the end buds further branch over longer culture periods, and whether saliva-producing cells differentiate there. In the present study, we cultivated three major (submandibular, sublingual and parotid) salivary epithelia from 13-day embryos for 14 days in mesenchyme-free cultures. All epithelia continued to grow and branch to form numerous acinus-like structures in medium supplemented with neuregulin 1, fibroblast growth factor 1, and insulintransferrin-sodium selenite...
December 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219024/excess-maternal-thyroxine-alters-the-proliferative-activity-and-angiogenic-profile-of-growth-cartilage-of-rats-at-birth-and-weaning
#15
Lorena Gabriela Rocha Ribeiro, Juneo Freitas Silva, Natália de Melo Ocarino, Cíntia Almeida de Souza, Eliane Gonçalves de Melo, Rogéria Serakides
Objective The aim of this study was to unravel the mechanisms by which thyroxine affects skeletal growth by evaluating proliferative activity and angiogenic profile of growth cartilage of neonatal and weanling rats. Methods Sixteen adult Wistar rats were equally divided into 2 groups: control and treated with thyroxine during pregnancy and lactation. The weight, measurement of plasma free T4 and thyroids, femurs' histomorphometric analysis, and proliferative activity and angiogenic profile by immunohistochemical or real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in growth cartilage was performed...
January 2018: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218825/in-vivo-evidence-supporting-a-metastasis-suppressor-role-for-stard13-dlc2-in-erbb2-neu-oncogene-induced-mouse-mammary-tumours
#16
Pratima Basak, Heather Leslie, Rachelle L Dillon, William J Muller, Afshin Raouf, Michael Ra Mowat
Overexpression of dominant oncogenes and the loss of tumor suppressor genes are basic genetic events in the acquisition of the malignant phenotype. The erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB-2) proto-oncogene is overexpressed in 20-30% of human breast cancers. The StAR related lipid transfer domain containing 13 gene (STARD13), also known as Deleted in Liver Cancer-2 (DLC-2), maps to chromosome band 13q12.3 and is frequently downregulated in human cancers, including 72% of breast cancers. It encodes a RhoGAP protein with sterile α motif (SAM) and StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domains...
December 8, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218032/surface-proteins-of-lactococcus-lactis-bacterial-resources-for-muco-adhesion-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#17
REVIEW
Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Marie-Pierre Chapot-Chartier
Food and probiotic bacteria, in particular lactic acid bacteria, are ingested in large amounts by humans and are part of the transient microbiota which is increasingly considered to be able to impact the resident microbiota and thus possibly the host health. The lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis is extensively used in starter cultures to produce dairy fermented food. Also because of a generally recognized as safe status, L. lactis has been considered as a possible vehicle to deliver in vivo therapeutic molecules with anti-inflammatory properties in the gastrointestinal tract...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218017/six2-plays-an-intrinsic-role-in-regulating-proliferation-of-mesenchymal-cells-in-the-developing-palate
#18
Dennis O Okello, Paul P R Iyyanar, William M Kulyk, Tara M Smith, Scott Lozanoff, Shaoping Ji, Adil J Nazarali
Cleft palate is a common congenital abnormality that results from defective secondary palate (SP) formation. The Sine oculis-related homeobox 2 (Six2) gene has been linked to abnormalities of craniofacial and kidney development. Our current study examined, for the first time, the specific role of Six2 in embryonic mouse SP development. Six2 mRNA and protein expression were identified in the palatal shelves from embryonic days (E)12.5 to E15.5, with peak levels during early stages of palatal shelf outgrowth...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217908/a-novel-method-for-pain-relief-in-chronic-pancreatitis-an-old-drug-in-a-new-pack-a-controlled-study
#19
Aswini Kumar Pujahari
Most of pain-relieving agents in chronic pancreatitis are nonspecific and unpredictable. Omeprazole induces hypergastrinemia due to reduced gastric acidity. Raised serum gastrin, in turn, modulates to reduce secretin level. Secretin is responsible for secretion of almost 80 % bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice from the ductular epithelium without affecting enzyme output. It is a prospective randomized study in patients with CT-confirmed chronic pancreatitis. The control group got the standard care and 60 mg of omeprazole twice daily was added to the test group...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217752/mapping-the-distribution-of-stem-progenitor-cells-across-the-middle-ear-during-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#20
Abigail S Tucker, Carlene J Dyer, Juan M Fons Romero, Tathyane H N Teshima, Jennifer C Fuchs, Hannah Thompson
The middle ear epithelium is derived from neural crest and endoderm, which line distinct regions of the middle ear cavity. Here we investigate the distribution of putative stem cell markers in the middle ear combined with an analysis of the location of label retaining cells (LRCs) to create a map of the middle ear mucosa. We show that proliferating cells and LRCs were associated with specific regions of the ear epithelium, concentrated in the hypotympanum at the base of the auditory bulla and around the ear drum...
December 7, 2017: Development
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