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Jing Qu, Lanyan Zhu, Zijing Zhou, Ping Chen, Shuyan Liu, Morgan L Locy, Victor J Thannickal, Yong Zhou
RATIONALE: Desmoplakin (DSP), the most abundant component of desmosomes which maintain the mechanical integrity of epithelium, is a GWAS-identified genetic risk locus in human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). IPF subjects express a significantly higher level of DSP than control subjects. OBJECTIVES: Determine potential mechanisms by which DSP is regulated in lung fibrosis Methods: Matrigel-coated soft and stiff polyacrylamide gels were made to simulate the stiffness of normal and fibrotic lungs...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Christopher Howell, James R Smith, Janis K Shute
BACKGROUND: Viral infection of the bronchial epithelium disrupts the barrier properties of the epithelium in healthy individuals and those with lung disease. Repair of the bronchial epithelium is dependent of the formation of a provisional fibrin matrix and migration of epithelial cells to cover denuded areas, followed by proliferation and differentiation. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to test the hypothesis that poly I:C, a model of viral infection, limits epithelial repair through the stimulated release of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13)...
June 20, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Marissa K Shoji, Hajirah N Saeed, Larissa A Habib, Suzanne K Freitag
A female neonate presented with a pedunculated left lateral epibulbar mass protruding through the eyelids that originated from the temporal cornea and superolateral bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva. She had a cleft in the ipsilateral central upper eyelid with horizontal kink of the tarsus lateral to the cleft and focal patches of alopecia on the scalp. Histopathology of the epibulbar mass revealed conjunctival epithelium with underlying connective tissue, cartilage, bone, adipose, and lacrimal gland consistent with epibulbar dermoid...
June 18, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Mohammad Javed Ali, Nadimpalli Siva Kumar, Lars Bräuer, Friedrich Paulsen, Martin Schicht
PURPOSE: To investigate the presence and distribution patterns of 6 surfactant proteins (SPs) in the human lacrimal canaliculus. METHODS: The study was performed on fresh frozen cadaveric samples of canaliculi. Immunohistochemical labeling was performed for assessing the presence and distribution of SP: SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D, SP-G/SFTA2, and SP-H/SFTA3. Immunofluorescence double staining was performed using the respective fluorescein-conjugated antibodies and the results were scored as positive or negative and the distribution pattern within the canalicular system was assessed...
June 18, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Marina Bertolin, Claudia Breda, Stefano Ferrari, Sara Ilse Van Acker, Nadia Zakaria, Enzo Di Iorio, Angelo Migliorati, Diego Ponzin, Barbara Ferrari, Zala Lužnik, Vanessa Barbaro
PURPOSE: To develop autologous tissue-engineered conjunctival epithelial sheets to be used as advanced therapy medicinal products for severe ocular surface disorders involving the conjunctiva. METHODS: Methods used aimed at 1) mapping the conjunctiva for identification of the stem cell location, 2) establishing proper cell culturing conditions, 3) identifying the proper scaffold, and 4) characterizing the conjunctival grafts better. For these purposes, immunostaining and PAS staining, serial cultivation of cells, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction ([INCREMENT]Np63α and MUC5AC) were performed...
June 19, 2018: Cornea
Aylin R Rodan
WNK (With No Lysine (K)) kinases regulate renal epithelial ion transport to maintain homeostasis of electrolyte concentrations, extracellular volume and blood pressure. The SLC12 cation-chloride cotransporters, including the sodium-potassium-2-chloride (NKCC) and sodium-chloride (NCC) cotransporters, are targets of WNK regulation via the intermediary kinases SPAK (Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) and OSR1 (oxidative stress response). The pathway is activated by low dietary potassium intake, resulting in increased phosphorylation and activity of NCC...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Aanchal Kakkar, Pirabu Sakthivel, Swati Mahajan, Alok Thakar
Nasopharyngeal adenocarcinomas are rare tumours, and include neoplasms arising from the nasopharyngeal surface epithelium as well as those of minor salivary gland origin, each of which is distinct from the other. The former encompasses nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma (NPAC), also known as low grade NPAC and thyroid-like NPAC, an extremely unusual malignancy bearing histomorphological similarity to papillary thyroid carcinoma, and displaying indolent clinical behaviour. We report the case of a 41-year-old lady who developed NPAC as a second malignancy five-and-a-half years after being diagnosed and treated for a diffuse astrocytoma in the frontal lobe...
June 19, 2018: Head and Neck Pathology
Gersende Maugars, Marie-Chanteuse Manirafasha, Evelyse Grousset, Viviane Boulo, Jehan-Hervé Lignot
Gene expression of key ion transporters (the Na+ /K+ -ATPase NKA, the Na+ , K+ -2Cl- cotransporter NKCC1, and CFTR) in the gills, opercular inner epithelium, and pseudobranch of European seabass juveniles (Dicentrarchus labrax) were studied after acute transfer up to 4 days from seawater (SW) to freshwater (FW). The functional remodeling of these organs was also studied. Handling stress (SW to SW transfer) rapidly induced a transcript level decrease for the three ion transporters in the gills and operculum...
June 19, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Cédric Girerd, Thomas Lihoreau, Kanty Rabenorosoa, Brahim Tamadazte, Mourad Benassarou, Laurent Tavernier, Lionel Pazart, Emmanuel Haffen, Nicolas Andreff, Pierre Renaud
Inspecting the olfactory cleft can be of high interest, as it is an open access to neurons, and thus an opportunity to collect in situ related data in a non-invasive way. Also, recent studies show a strong link between olfactory deficiency and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. However, no inspection of this area is possible today, as it is very difficult to access. Only robot-assisted interventions seem viable to provide the required dexterity. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated in this article, which shows that the path complexity to the olfactory cleft can be managed with a concentric tube robot (CTR), a particular type of continuum robot...
June 19, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Darren Rom, Migie Lee, Edward Chandraratnam, Ronald Chin, Niranjan Sritharan
Background Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartomas (REAH) are rare, glandular proliferations of the aerodigestive tract lined by ciliated respiratory epithelium. We report nine cases of REAH and devised a histopathological guide to differentiate these lesions from its main differentials. Methods Patients with biopsy-proven REAH were included in the series. Lesions were removed endoscopically and sent for histopathological analysis. The macroscopic and microscopic features were reviewed. Results Nine patients (age 59 ± 15...
April 17, 2018: Curēus
Gholamreza Jahanshahi, Elham Arzhang, Soheila Derisavy, Laleh Davoodi, Salman Shakeri
Ameloblastoma is a locally invasive tumor derived from odontogenic epithelium. An uncommon variant of ameloblastoma is granular cell type, which cannot distinguish from other ameloblastoma subtypes by clinical and radiographic findings alone. Only review of it's microscopic features allows distinction from other subtypes. The purpose of this article is to present a case of granular cell ameloblastoma. This subtype should be distinguished from the other histopathologic subtypes because of it's higher recurrence rate and more aggressive biological behavior...
May 2018: Dental Research Journal
Caroline Andrews, Mairi H McLean, Scott K Durum
The intestine serves as both our largest single barrier to the external environment and the host of more immune cells than any other location in our bodies. Separating these potential combatants is a single layer of dynamic epithelium composed of heterogeneous epithelial subtypes, each uniquely adapted to carry out a subset of the intestine's diverse functions. In addition to its obvious role in digestion, the intestinal epithelium is responsible for a wide array of critical tasks, including maintaining barrier integrity, preventing invasion by microbial commensals and pathogens, and modulating the intestinal immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Danial Mohabati, Thomas J van Rijssen, Elon Hc van Dijk, Gregorius Pm Luyten, Tom O Missotten, Carel B Hoyng, Suzanne Yzer, Camiel Jf Boon
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate disease onset and disease progression in patients with severe chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (cCSC). Patients and methods: The medical records of 143 cCSC patients (199 eyes) were reviewed. All cases had visual complaints for >6 months and showed signs of a severe disease phenotype on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography (FA). Clinical presentation at onset was evaluated, together with disease progression on multimodal imaging and final treatment outcome...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Anna Lundmark, Natalija Gerasimcik, Tove Båge, Anders Jemt, Annelie Mollbrink, Fredrik Salmén, Joakim Lundeberg, Tülay Yucel-Lindberg
Periodontitis is a highly prevalent chronic inflammatory disease of the periodontium, leading ultimately to tooth loss. In order to characterize the gene expression of periodontitis-affected gingival tissue, we have here simultaneously quantified and localized gene expression in periodontal tissue using spatial transcriptomics, combining RNA sequencing with histological analysis. Our analyses revealed distinct clusters of gene expression, which were identified to correspond to epithelium, inflamed areas of connective tissue, and non-inflamed areas of connective tissue...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Isabella W Martin, Aaron E Atkinson, Xiaoying Liu, Arief A Suriawinata, Joel A Lefferts, Mikhail Lisovsky
The diagnosis of Candida esophagitis can be challenging when the epithelium containing Candida filamentous forms is not readily seen or is entirely sloughed away. Mucosal inflammation could be helpful diagnostically, if distinctive. However it is thought to be nonspecific in Candida esophagitis. The goal of this retrospective study was to identify features of mucosal inflammation helpful in alerting a pathologist to the possibility of Candida esophagitis when Candida mycelia are not readily observed. The study group consisted of 99 consecutive cases of Candida esophagitis and a control group of 64 consecutive cases of reflux esophagitis diagnosed at our institution from 2008-2016...
June 19, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Yunfeng Gao, Christoph Spahn, Mike Heilemann, Linda J Kenney
Bacterial pathogens exploit eukaryotic pathways for their own end. Upon ingestion, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium passes through the stomach and then catalyzes its uptake across the intestinal epithelium. It survives and replicates in an acidic vacuole through the action of virulence factors secreted by a type three secretion system located on Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2). Two secreted effectors, SifA and SseJ, are sufficient for endosomal tubule formation, which modifies the vacuole and enables Salmonella to replicate within it...
June 19, 2018: MBio
Alison E Casey, Ankit Sinha, Rajat Singhania, Julie Livingstone, Paul Waterhouse, Pirashaanthy Tharmapalan, Jennifer Cruickshank, Mona Shehata, Erik Drysdale, Hui Fang, Hyeyeon Kim, Ruth Isserlin, Swneke Bailey, Tiago Medina, Genevieve Deblois, Yu-Jia Shiah, Dalia Barsyte-Lovejoy, Stefan Hofer, Gary Bader, Mathieu Lupien, Cheryl Arrowsmith, Stefan Knapp, Daniel De Carvalho, Hal Berman, Paul C Boutros, Thomas Kislinger, Rama Khokha
The mammary epithelium depends on specific lineages and their stem and progenitor function to accommodate hormone-triggered physiological demands in the adult female. Perturbations of these lineages underpin breast cancer risk, yet our understanding of normal mammary cell composition is incomplete. Here, we build a multimodal resource for the adult gland through comprehensive profiling of primary cell epigenomes, transcriptomes, and proteomes. We define systems-level relationships between chromatin-DNA-RNA-protein states, identify lineage-specific DNA methylation of transcription factor binding sites, and pinpoint proteins underlying progesterone responsiveness...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Z Y Song, X M Yu, C F Wang, N Wang, Y Fu, Y Q Song
Objective: To explore the operation treatments and their outcomes of external auditory canal cholesteatomas involving the tympanic cavity and mastoid process. Method: Forty-two patients (45 ears) with external auditory canal cholesteatomas were included in this study who were operated. All lesions invaded the tympanic cavity and mastoid process. Excision of cholesteatoma, external auditory canal angioplasty and concha formation were performed. Ossicular chain reconstruction was performed in 3 ears. Mastoidectomy with close technique were performed in 4 ears...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Toshihiko Fukuzawa
The periodic albino mutant of Xenopus laevis has been used to study the development of pigment cells because both the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and melanophores are affected. In this mutant, "white pigment cells" containing both melanophore-specific and iridophore-specific pigment organelles appear. The present experiments were designed to investigate the structural organization and expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) in the mutant since Mitf is known to regulate the development of melanocytes and RPE...
June 19, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Sangly P Srinivas, Arushi Goyal, Deepti P Talele, Sanjay Mahadik, Rachapalle Reddi Sudhir, P Pavani Murthy, Sudhir Ranganath, Uday B Kompella, Prema Padmanabhan
PURPOSE: The permeability of the corneal epithelium to fluorescein Pdc is an indicator of the health of the ocular surface. It can be measured in a clinical setting by determining the accumulation of fluorescein in the stroma following administration of the dye on the ocular surface. Here we demonstrate a new multi-drop method for the measurement of Pdc by a spot fluorometer. METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy participants were recruited for this study. First, a probe-drop of fluorescein (0...
2018: PloS One
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