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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650995/septins-restrict-inflammation-and-protect-zebrafish-larvae-from-shigella-infection
#1
Maria J Mazon-Moya, Alexandra R Willis, Vincenzo Torraca, Laurent Boucontet, Avinash R Shenoy, Emma Colucci-Guyon, Serge Mostowy
Shigella flexneri, a Gram-negative enteroinvasive pathogen, causes inflammatory destruction of the human colonic epithelium. Infection by S. flexneri has been well-studied in vitro and is a paradigm for bacterial interactions with the host immune system. Recent work has revealed that components of the cytoskeleton have important functions in innate immunity and inflammation control. Septins, highly conserved cytoskeletal proteins, have emerged as key players in innate immunity to bacterial infection, yet septin function in vivo is poorly understood...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650927/dexamethasone-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-rat-ileum
#2
Aline Barbosa Ribeiro, Humberto Giusti, Ana Paula Trevelin Souza, Celso Rodrigues Franci, Rafael Simone Saia
Inflammatory mediators have been postulated as elementary inducing factors to the disruption of the intestinal tight junctions (TJ) and consequently, gut permeability and bacterial translocation. Corticosteroids are considered the mainstay in the treatment of septic shock; however the impact of this therapy on the intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction during septic shock remains unknown. Our aims were to demonstrate the role of low dexamethasone (DEX) doses in modulation of the inflammatory response, as well as the expression and the arrangement of TJ proteins in endotoxemic rats...
June 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650274/intranasal-administration-of-whole-inactivated-influenza-virus-vaccine-as-a-promising-influenza-vaccine-candidate
#3
Akira Ainai, Tadaki Suzuki, Shin-Ichi Tamura, Hideki Hasegawa
The effect of the current influenza vaccine, an inactivated virus vaccine administered by subcutaneous/intramuscular injection, is limited to reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with seasonal influenza outbreaks. Intranasal vaccination, by contrast, mimics natural infection and induces not only systemic IgG antibodies but also local secretory IgA (S-IgA) antibodies found on the surface of the mucosal epithelium in the upper respiratory tract. S-IgA antibodies are highly effective at preventing virus infection...
June 26, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649985/attenuation-of-rna-polymerase-ii-pausing-mitigates-brca1-associated-r-loop-accumulation-and-tumorigenesis
#4
Xiaowen Zhang, Huai-Chin Chiang, Yao Wang, Chi Zhang, Sabrina Smith, Xiayan Zhao, Sreejith J Nair, Joel Michalek, Ismail Jatoi, Meeghan Lautner, Boyce Oliver, Howard Wang, Anna Petit, Teresa Soler, Joan Brunet, Francesca Mateo, Miguel Angel Pujana, Elizabeth Poggi, Krysta Chaldekas, Claudine Isaacs, Beth N Peshkin, Oscar Ochoa, Frederic Chedin, Constantine Theoharis, Lu-Zhe Sun, Tyler J Curiel, Richard Elledge, Victor X Jin, Yanfen Hu, Rong Li
Most BRCA1-associated breast tumours are basal-like yet originate from luminal progenitors. BRCA1 is best known for its functions in double-strand break repair and resolution of DNA replication stress. However, it is unclear whether loss of these ubiquitously important functions fully explains the cell lineage-specific tumorigenesis. In vitro studies implicate BRCA1 in elimination of R-loops, DNA-RNA hybrid structures involved in transcription and genetic instability. Here we show that R-loops accumulate preferentially in breast luminal epithelial cells, not in basal epithelial or stromal cells, of BRCA1 mutation carriers...
June 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649632/three-dimensional-organotypic-co-culture-model-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-macrophages-to-study-salmonella-enterica-colonization-patterns
#5
Jennifer Barrila, Jiseon Yang, Aurélie Crabbé, Shameema F Sarker, Yulong Liu, C Mark Ott, Mayra A Nelman-Gonzalez, Simon J Clemett, Seth D Nydam, Rebecca J Forsyth, Richard R Davis, Brian E Crucian, Heather Quiriarte, Kenneth L Roland, Karen Brenneman, Clarence Sams, Christine Loscher, Cheryl A Nickerson
Three-dimensional models of human intestinal epithelium mimic the differentiated form and function of parental tissues often not exhibited by two-dimensional monolayers and respond to Salmonella in key ways that reflect in vivo infections. To further enhance the physiological relevance of three-dimensional models to more closely approximate in vivo intestinal microenvironments encountered by Salmonella, we developed and validated a novel three-dimensional co-culture infection model of colonic epithelial cells and macrophages using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel bioreactor...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649593/colonic-microbiota-encroachment-correlates-with-dysglycemia-in-humans
#6
Benoit Chassaing, Shreya M Raja, James D Lewis, Shanthi Srinivasan, Andrew T Gewirtz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucoid structures that coat the epithelium play an essential role in keeping the intestinal microbiota at a safe distance from host cells. Encroachment of bacteria into the normally almost-sterile inner mucus layer has been observed in inflammatory bowel disease and in mouse models of colitis. Moreover, such microbiota encroachment has also been observed in mouse models of metabolic syndrome, which are associated low-grade intestinal inflammation. Hence, we investigated if microbiota encroachment might correlate with indices of metabolic syndrome in humans...
September 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649419/identification-of-transcription-factors-that-promote-the-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-lacrimal-gland-epithelium-like-cells
#7
Masatoshi Hirayama, Shigeru B H Ko, Tetsuya Kawakita, Tomohiko Akiyama, Sravan K Goparaju, Atsumi Soma, Yuhki Nakatake, Miki Sakota, Nana Chikazawa-Nohtomi, Shigeto Shimmura, Kazuo Tsubota, Minoru S H Ko
Dry eye disease is the most prevalent pathological condition in aging eyes. One potential therapeutic strategy is the transplantation of lacrimal glands, generated in vitro from pluripotent stem cells such as human embryonic stem cells, into patients. One of the preceding requirements is a method to differentiate human embryonic stem cells into lacrimal gland epithelium cells. As the first step for this approach, this study aims to identify a set of transcription factors whose overexpression can promote the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into lacrimal gland epithelium-like cells...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649080/effects-of-oral-administration-of-black-seed-nigella-sativa-oil-on-histomorphometric-dynamics-of-testes-and-testosterone-profile-in-rabbits
#8
Zaima Umar, Anas Sarwar Qureshi, Sarmad Rehan, Misbah Ijaz, Tanzeela Faisal, Saqib Umar
The present study was conducted to evaluate the influence of oral administration of black seed (Nigella sativa) oil on histomorphometrical characteristics of testes and testosterone profile in adult rabbits. Twenty adult male rabbits aged seven months were divided into two groups: control and treated. Black seed oil was administrated orally for 60 days at 5ml/kg body weight/day on daily basis in addition to the food and water ad lib to the treated group. Biometric parameters of the testes were recorded immediately after their removal...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648950/mechanisms-of-cholangiocyte-responses-to-injury
#9
REVIEW
Keisaku Sato, Fanyin Meng, Thao Giang, Shannon Glaser, Gianfranco Alpini
Cholangiocytes, epithelial cells that line the biliary epithelium, are the primary target cells for cholangiopathies including primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cholangitis. Quiescent cholangiocytes respond to biliary damage and acquire an activated neuroendocrine phenotype to maintain the homeostasis of the liver. The typical response of cholangiocytes is proliferation leading to bile duct hyperplasia, which is a characteristic of cholestatic liver diseases. Current studies have identified various signaling pathways that are associated with cholangiocyte proliferation/loss and liver fibrosis in cholangiopathies using human samples and rodent models...
June 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648759/epha2-and-ephrin-a5-are-not-a-receptor-ligand-pair-in-the-ocular-lens
#10
Catherine Cheng, Velia M Fowler, Xiaohua Gong
Eph-ephrin bidirectional signaling is essential for eye lens transparency in humans and mice. Our previous studies in mouse lenses demonstrate that ephrin-A5 is mainly expressed in the anterior epithelium, where it is required for maintaining the anterior epithelial monolayer. In contrast, EphA2 is localized in equatorial epithelial and fiber cells where it is essential for equatorial epithelial and fiber cell organization and hexagonal cell shape. Immunostaining of lens epithelial and fiber cells reveals that EphA2 and ephrin-A5 are also co-expressed in anterior fiber cell tips, equatorial epithelial cells and newly formed lens fibers, although they are not precisely colocalized...
June 22, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648739/g-protein-coupled-receptor-35-contributes-to-mucosal-repair-in-mice-via-migration-of-colonic-epithelial-cells
#11
Takuya Tsukahara, Nahla Hamouda, Daichi Utsumi, Kenjiro Matsumoto, Kikuko Amagase, Shinichi Kato
G protein-coupled receptor 35 (GPR35), a receptor for lysophosphatidic acid, is highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, GPR35 has been implicated in the onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but its role in physiological and pathological processes in the colon remains undefined. In this study, we investigated the contribution of GPR35-mediated signalling to mucosal repair of colonic epithelium in IBD. GPR35 function was examined in a wound healing model, using young adult mouse colon epithelium (YAMC) cells, and in a dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model of colitis...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648659/enterochromaffin-cells-are-gut-chemosensors-that-couple-to-sensory-neural-pathways
#12
Nicholas W Bellono, James R Bayrer, Duncan B Leitch, Joel Castro, Chuchu Zhang, Tracey A O'Donnell, Stuart M Brierley, Holly A Ingraham, David Julius
Dietary, microbial, and inflammatory factors modulate the gut-brain axis and influence physiological processes ranging from metabolism to cognition. The gut epithelium is a principal site for detecting such agents, but precisely how it communicates with neural elements is poorly understood. Serotonergic enterochromaffin (EC) cells are proposed to fulfill this role by acting as chemosensors, but understanding how these rare and unique cell types transduce chemosensory information to the nervous system has been hampered by their paucity and inaccessibility to single-cell measurements...
June 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648614/the-effects-of-retinoic-acid-on-mmp-2-production-proliferation-and-ultrastructural-morphology-in-rat-uterus
#13
Tuğba Kotil, Şengül Şentürk, Türkan Sarioğlu, Leyla Tapul
AIMS: Retinoic acid (RA) has a vital importance in order to ensure continuity and morphology in many tissues. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have significant roles in proliferation, the formation of cancers, and metastasis. In this study the effects of RA on MMP-2 production in cells of rat uterus were investigated. METHODS: Twenty-four adult Spraque Dawley rats were divided into two groups, the experimental group was treated with 40mg/kg/day 13-cis RA for 5days by gavage...
June 22, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648555/comparison-of-plasma-pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-pedf-retinol-binding-protein-4-rbp-4-chitinase-3-like-protein-1-ykl-40-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-for-the-identification-of-insulin-resistance
#14
F J K Toloza, M C Pérez-Matos, M L Ricardo-Silgado, M C Morales-Álvarez, J O Mantilla-Rivas, J A Pinzón-Cortés, M Pérez-Mayorga, M L Arévalo-García, G Tolosa-González, C O Mendivil
AIMS: To evaluate and compare the association of four potential insulin resistance (IR) biomarkers (pigment-epithelium-derived factor [PEDF], retinol-binding-protein-4 [RBP-4], chitinase-3-like protein 1 [YKL-40] and brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF]) with objective measures of IR. METHODS: We studied 81 subjects with different metabolic profiles. All participants underwent a 5-point OGTT with calculation of multiple IR indexes. A subgroup of 21 participants additionally underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648364/differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-colonic-organoids-via-transient-activation-of-bmp-signaling
#15
Jorge O Múnera, Nambirajan Sundaram, Scott A Rankin, David Hill, Carey Watson, Maxime Mahe, Jefferson E Vallance, Noah F Shroyer, Katie L Sinagoga, Adrian Zarzoso-Lacoste, Jonathan R Hudson, Jonathan C Howell, Praneet Chatuvedi, Jason R Spence, John M Shannon, Aaron M Zorn, Michael A Helmrath, James M Wells
Gastric and small intestinal organoids differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have revolutionized the study of gastrointestinal development and disease. Distal gut tissues such as cecum and colon, however, have proved considerably more challenging to derive in vitro. Here we report the differentiation of human colonic organoids (HCOs) from hPSCs. We found that BMP signaling is required to establish a posterior SATB2+ domain in developing and postnatal intestinal epithelium. Brief activation of BMP signaling is sufficient to activate a posterior HOX code and direct hPSC-derived gut tube cultures into HCOs...
June 20, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648015/-therapeutic-effects-of-tubastatin-a-hcl-on-airway-inflammation-in-acute-mice-asthma-model
#16
X M Su, Y Ren, M L Li, X Zhao, J Kang
Objective: To investigated the therapeutic effects of Tubastatin A Hcl, a selective HDAC6 inhibitor, on airway inflammation in acute mice bronchial asthma (asthma) model. Methods: A total of 48 BALB/C mice were randomly divided into control group, asthma group, dexamethasone group and Tubastatin A Hcl group with 12 mice in each group. Then the airway hyperresponsiveness was assessed in each group; total cell number, different cell number, levels of Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected; the lung tissues of each group were stained with HE to observe the inflammatory cells infiltration...
June 27, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647731/recovery-of-vocal-fold-epithelium-after-acute-phonotrauma
#17
Bernard Rousseau, Tsuyoshi Kojima, Carolyn K Novaleski, Emily E Kimball, Carla V Valenzuela, Masanobu Mizuta, James J Daniero, C Gaelyn Garrett, M Preeti Sivasankar
We investigated the timeline of tissue repair of vocal fold epithelium after acute vibration exposure using an in vivo rabbit model. Sixty-five New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomized to 120 min of modal- or raised-intensity phonation. After the larynges were harvested at 0, 4, 8, and 24 h, and at 3 and 7 days, the vocal fold tissue was evaluated using electron microscopy and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. There was an immediate decrease in the microprojection depth and height following raised-intensity phonation, paired with upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2...
June 24, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646191/prednisolone-induces-apoptosis-in-corneal-epithelial-cells-through-the-intrinsic-pathway
#18
Jin Suk Ryu, Jung Hwa Ko, Mee Kum Kim, Won Ryang Wee, Joo Youn Oh
Glucocorticoid eye drops are one of the most widely used medications in ophthalmology. However, little is known about the effects of glucocorticoids on corneal epithelial cells that are directly exposed to topically-administered glucocorticoids. Here we investigated the effects of prednisolone, a synthetic glucocorticoid analogue frequently used in the clinic, on corneal epithelial cells. Results showed that prednisolone decreased survival of corneal epithelial cells by inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646079/identification-of-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-5-fmo5-as-a-regulator-of-glucose-homeostasis-and-a-potential-sensor-of-gut-bacteria
#19
Flora Scott, Sandra G Gonzalez Malagon, Brett A O'Brien, Diede Fennema, Sunil Veeravalli, Clarissa R Coveney, Ian R Phillips, Elizabeth A Shephard
We have previously identified flavin-containing monooxygenase 5 (FMO5) as a regulator of metabolic ageing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of FMO5 in glucose homeostasis and the impact of diet and gut flora on the phenotype of mice in which the Fmo5 gene has been disrupted (Fmo5(-/-) mice). In comparison with wild-type (WT) counterparts, Fmo5(-/-) mice are resistant to age-related changes in glucose homeostasis and maintain the higher glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity characteristic of young animals...
June 23, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645102/expression-of-p63-and-cd44-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-correlation-with-clinicopathological-parameters
#20
Nasrollah Saghravanian, Kazem Anvari, Narges Ghazi, Bahram Memar, Maryam Shahsavari, Monavar Afzal Aghaee
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the sixth most frequent malignant tumor of the head and neck region. Despite advances in therapeutic options over the last decades, the rate of mortality and morbidity has not been improved markedly. A small subset of cells, cancer stem cells (CSCs), with self-renewal properties have become a major focus of current cancer research. CD44 and p63 are identified as candidate stem cell markers in normal squamous epithelium and SCC. The role of these markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still debatable...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
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