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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332195/histomorphometry-and-cortical-robusticity-of-the-adult-human-femur
#1
Justyna Jolanta Miszkiewicz, Patrick Mahoney
Recent quantitative analyses of human bone microanatomy, as well as theoretical models that propose bone microstructure and gross anatomical associations, have started to reveal insights into biological links that may facilitate remodeling processes. However, relationships between bone size and the underlying cortical bone histology remain largely unexplored. The goal of this study is to determine the extent to which static indicators of bone remodeling and vascularity, measured using histomorphometric techniques, relate to femoral midshaft cortical width and robusticity...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331808/simultaneous-inhibition-of-hedgehog-signaling-and-tumor-proliferation-remodels-stroma-and-enhances-pancreatic-cancer-therapy
#2
Jun Zhao, Huamin Wang, Cheng-Hui Hsiao, Diana S-L Chow, Eugene J Koay, Yaan Kang, Xiaoxia Wen, Qian Huang, Ying Ma, James A Bankson, Stephen E Ullrich, Willem Overwijk, Anirban Maitra, David Piwnica-Worms, Jason B Fleming, Chun Li
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest cancers. It has an excessive desmoplastic stroma that can limit the intratumoral delivery of chemotherapy drugs, and protect tumor cells against radiotherapy. Therefore, both stromal and tumor compartments need to be addressed in order to effectively treat PDAC. We hereby co-deliver a sonic hedgehog inhibitor, cyclopamine (CPA), and a cytotoxic chemotherapy drug paclitaxel (PTX) with a polymeric micelle formulation (M-CPA/PTX). CPA can deplete the stroma-producing cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), while PTX can inhibit tumor proliferation...
January 9, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331415/nogo-b-receptor-promotes-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-through-the-ras-erk-snail1-pathway
#3
Donghua Wu, Baofeng Zhao, Xiaoyu Qi, Fang Peng, Hailu Fu, Xinming Chi, Qing Robert Miao, Shujuan Shao
Nogo-B receptor (NgBR) is a specific receptor of Nogo-B that regulates vascular remodeling and angiogenesis. Previously, we found that NgBR promotes the membrane translocation and activation of Ras in breast cancer cells and enhances the chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells to 5-fluorouracil. However, the role of NgBR in lung cancer has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we found that NgBR knockdown inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vitro and metastasis of NSCLC cells in vivo...
January 10, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331298/spatiotemporal-characterization-of-microdamage-accumulation-in-rat-ulnae-in-response-to-uniaxial-compressive-fatigue-loading
#4
Xuhui Zhang, Xiyu Liu, Zedong Yan, Jing Cai, Fei Kang, Shuai Shan, Pan Wang, Mingming Zhai, X Edward Guo, Erping Luo, Da Jing
Repetitive fatigue loading can induce microdamage accumulation in bone matrix, which results in impaired mechanical properties and increased fracture susceptibility. However, the spatial distribution and time-variant process of microdamage accumulation in fatigue-loaded skeleton, especially for linear microcracks which are known to initiate bone remodeling, remain not fully understood. In this study, the time-varying process of the morphology and distribution of microcracks in rat ulnae subjected to uniaxial compressive fatigue loading was investigated...
January 10, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331291/global-microrna-profiling-in-human-bone-marrow-skeletal-stromal-or-mesenchymal-stem-cells-identified-candidates-for-bone-regeneration
#5
Chi-Chih Chang, Morten T Venø, Li Chen, Nicholas Ditzel, Dang Q S Le, Philipp Dillschneider, Moustapha Kassem, Jørgen Kjems
Bone remodeling and regeneration are highly regulated multistep processes involving posttranscriptional regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we performed a global profiling of differentially expressed miRNAs in bone-marrow-derived skeletal cells (BMSCs; also known as stromal or mesenchymal stem cells) during in vitro osteoblast differentiation. We functionally validated the regulatory effects of several miRNAs on osteoblast differentiation and identified 15 miRNAs, most significantly miR-222 and miR-423, as regulators of osteoblastogenesis...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331057/manifestations-and-mechanisms-of-myocardial-lipotoxicity-in-obesity
#6
Arthur C Sletten, Linda R Peterson, Jean E Schaffer
Environmental and socioeconomic changes over the past thirty years have contributed to a dramatic rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity. Heart disease is among the most serious health risks of obesity, with increases in both atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and heart failure among obese individuals. In this review, we focus on primary myocardial alterations in obesity that include hypertrophic remodeling and diastolic dysfunction. Obesity-associated perturbations in myocardial and systemic lipid metabolism are important contributors to cardiovascular complications of obesity...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330573/tocotrienol-supplementation-suppressed-bone-resorption-and-oxidative-stress-in-postmenopausal-osteopenic-women-a-12-week-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#7
C-L Shen, S Yang, M D Tomison, A W Romero, C K Felton, H Mo
Tocotrienols have shown bone-protective effect in animals. This study showed that a 12-week tocotrienol supplementation decreased concentrations of bone resorption biomarker and bone remodeling regulators via suppressing oxidative stress in postmenopausal osteopenic women. INTRODUCTION: Tocotrienols (TT) have been shown to benefit bone health in ovariectomized animals, a model of postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12-week TT supplementation on bone markers (serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), urine N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), serum soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (sRANKL), and serum osteoprotegerin (OPG)), urine calcium, and an oxidative stress biomarker (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)) in postmenopausal women with osteopenia...
January 12, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330560/altered-bone-remodeling-in-psoriatic-disease-new-insights-and-future-directions
#8
REVIEW
Ananta Paine, Christopher Ritchlin
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory rheumatic disorder that occurs in patients with psoriasis and predominantly affects musculoskeletal structures, skin, and nails. The etiology of PsA is not well understood but evidence supports an interplay of genetic, immunologic, and environmental factors which promote pathological bone remodeling and joint damage in PsA. Localized and systemic bone loss due to increased activity of osteoclasts is well established in PsA based on animal models and translational studies...
January 12, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330358/pathogenesis-of-bone-disease-in-multiple-myeloma-from-bench-to-bedside
#9
REVIEW
Evangelos Terpos, Ioannis Ntanasis-Stathopoulos, Maria Gavriatopoulou, Meletios A Dimopoulos
Osteolytic bone disease is the hallmark of multiple myeloma, which deteriorates the quality of life of myeloma patients, and it affects dramatically their morbidity and mortality. The basis of the pathogenesis of myeloma-related bone disease is the uncoupling of the bone-remodeling process. The interaction between myeloma cells and the bone microenvironment ultimately leads to the activation of osteoclasts and suppression of osteoblasts, resulting in bone loss. Several intracellular and intercellular signaling cascades, including RANK/RANKL/OPG, Notch, Wnt, and numerous chemokines and interleukins are implicated in this complex process...
January 12, 2018: Blood Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330353/afadin-and-rhoa-control-pancreatic-endocrine-mass-via-lumen-morphogenesis
#10
D Berfin Azizoglu, Caitlin Braitsch, Denise K Marciano, Ondine Cleaver
Proper lumen morphogenesis during pancreas development is critical to endocrine and exocrine cell fate. Recent studies showed that a central network of lumens (termed core), but not the surrounding terminal branches (termed periphery), produces most islet endocrine cells. To date, it remains unclear how pancreatic lumens form and remodel and which aspects of lumen morphogenesis influence cell fate. Importantly, models testing the function of the central lumen network as an endocrine niche are lacking. Here, we identify mechanisms underlying lumen formation and remodeling and show that central lumen network morphogenesis impacts pancreatic endocrine mass...
January 12, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330306/an-rb-family-independent-e2f3-transcription-factor-variant-impairs-stat5-signaling-and-mammary-gland-remodeling-during-pregnancy-in-mice
#11
Yang Liao, Wei Du
E2F transcription factors are regulated by binding to the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor family of proteins. Previously, we reported an E2FLQ mutation that disrupts the binding with Rb proteins without affecting E2F's transcriptional activity. We also showed that mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with an E2F3LQ mutation exhibit increased E2F activity and more rapid cell proliferation. In this report, we analyzed E2F3LQ mice to further characterize the in vivo consequences of Rb family-independent E2F3 activity...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330263/senescence-associated-chromatin-remodeling-promotes-cancer-stemness
#12
(no author information available yet)
Treatment-induced senescence is associated with stem-cell reprogramming of non-stem cancer cells.
January 12, 2018: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330215/mir-195-regulates-metabolism-in-failing-myocardium-via-alterations-in-sirt3-expression-and-mitochondrial-protein-acetylation
#13
Xiaokan Zhang, Ruiping Ji, Xianghai Liao, Estibaliz Castillero, Peter J Kennel, Danielle L Brunjes, Marcus Franz, Sven Möbius-Winkler, Konstantinos Drosatos, Isaac George, Emily I Chen, Paolo C Colombo, P Christian Schulze
Background -Heart failure (HF) leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities of the failing myocardium coupled with an energy-depleted state and cardiac remodeling. The mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of mitochondrial function through regulating the mitochondrial acetylome. Interestingly, unique cardiac and systemic miRNAs have been shown to play an important role in cardiac remodeling by modulating key signaling elements in the myocardium...
January 12, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330113/runt-related-transcription-factor-1-runx1-deficiency-attenuates-inflammation-induced-pro-inflammatory-and-pro-labour-mediators-in-myometrium
#14
Martha Lappas
Identifying new targets that regulate myometrial activation are required to develop effective treatments to stop preterm labor. Inflammation, which can be induced by sterile or infective insults, plays a role in initiating and maintaining uterine contractions. Several high throughput transcription screening studies have identified an upregulation of runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) mRNA expression in myometrium with labor. The role of RUNX1 in labor, however, is not known. We report increased RUNX1 during late gestation which was further augmented in labor, suggesting that RUNX1 may be involved in the transition of the myometrium from a quiescent into a contractile state in preparation for labor...
January 9, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330095/crosstalk-between-rac1-mediated-actin-regulation-and-ros-production
#15
REVIEW
Alejandro Acevedo, Christian González-Billault
The small RhoGTPase Rac1 is implicated in a variety of events related to actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. Remarkably, another event that is completely different from those related to actin regulation has the same relevance; the Rac1-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NADPH oxidases (NOX). Each outcome involves different Rac1 downstream effectors; on one hand, events related to the actin cytoskeleton require Rac1 to bind to WAVEs proteins and PAKs that ultimately promote actin branching and turnover, on the other, NOX-derived ROS production demands active Rac1 to be bound to a cytosolic activator of NOX...
January 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330085/inflammation-following-acute-myocardial-infarction-multiple-players-dynamic-roles-and-novel-therapeutic-opportunities
#16
REVIEW
Sang-Bing Ong, Sauri Hernández-Reséndiz, Gustavo E Crespo-Avilan, Regina T Mukhametshina, Xiu-Yi Kwek, Hector A Cabrera-Fuentes, Derek J Hausenloy
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the heart failure that often follows, are major causes of death and disability worldwide. As such, new therapies are required to limit myocardial infarct (MI) size, prevent adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling, and reduce the onset of heart failure following AMI. The inflammatory response to AMI, plays a critical role in determining MI size, and a persistent pro-inflammatory reaction can contribute to adverse post-MI LV remodeling, making inflammation an important therapeutic target for improving outcomes following AMI...
January 9, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330042/differences-in-the-ct-findings-between-vulnerable-plaque-and-culprit-lesions-in-acute-coronary-syndrome
#17
Eun Ju Chun, Jin Hee Han, Seung Min Yoo, Hwa Yeon Lee, In Sup Song, Charles S White
BACKGROUND: The CT finding of "vulnerable plaque" is widely regarded as similar to that of a culprit lesion in an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, this hypothesis may not be accurate, since "vulnerable plaques" may substantially change their morphology when they rupture to cause an ACS. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated coronary CT angiography data sets of 25 patients with ACS who had vulnerable (n = 10) or culprit plaques (n = 15). We analyzed CT features including positive remodeling (PR), low attenuation plaque (LAP), the napkin ring sign (NRS), degree of stenosis (normal, <50%, 50-99%, 100%), and myocardial hypoperfusion in the left ventricle...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330022/extracellular-matrix-contribution-to-skin-wounds-re-epithelialization
#18
REVIEW
Patricia Rousselle, Marine Montmasson, Cécile Garnier
The ability of skin to act as a barrier is primarily determined by cells that maintain the continuity and integrity of skin and restore it after injury. Cutaneous wound healing in adult mammals is a complex multi-step process that involves overlapping stages of blood clot formation, inflammation, re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, neovascularization, and remodeling. Under favorable conditions, epidermal regeneration begins within hours after injury and takes several days until the epithelial surface is intact due to reorganization of the basement membrane...
January 9, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329380/circulating-micrornas-as-potential-biomarkers-of-disease-activity-and-structural-damage-in-ankylosing-spondylitis-patients
#19
Carlos Perez-Sanchez, Pilar Font-Ugalde, Patricia Ruiz-Limon, Chary Lopez-Pedrera, Maria C Castro-Villegas, Maria C Abalos-Aguilera, Nuria Barbarroja, Ivan Arias-de la Rosa, Maria D Lopez-Montilla, Alejandro Escudero-Contreras, Clementina Lopez-Medina, Eduardo Collantes-Estevez, Yolanda Jimenez-Gomez
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) remains difficult to diagnose before irreversible damage to sacroiliac joint is noticeable. Circulating microRNAs have demonstrated to serve as diagnostic tools for several human diseases. Here, we analyzed plasma microRNAs to identify potential AS biomarkers. Higher expression levels of microRNA (miR)-146a-5p, miR-125a-5p, miR-151-3p, and miR-22-3p, and lower of miR-150-5p, and miR-451a were found in AS versus healthy donors. Interestingly, higher miR-146a-5p, miR-125a-5p, miR-151-3p, miR-22-3p, and miR-451a expression was also observed in AS than psoriatic arthritis patients...
January 10, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329290/morc2b-is-essential-for-meiotic-progression-and-fertility
#20
Baolu Shi, Jiangyang Xue, Jian Zhou, Seth D Kasowitz, Yuanwei Zhang, Guanxiang Liang, Yongjuan Guan, Qinghua Shi, Mingxi Liu, Jiahao Sha, Xiaoyan Huang, P Jeremy Wang
The microrchidia (MORC) family proteins are chromatin-remodelling factors and function in diverse biological processes such as DNA damage response and transposon silencing. Here, we report that mouse Morc2b encodes a functional germ cell-specific member of the MORC protein family. Morc2b arose specifically in the rodent lineage through retrotransposition of Morc2a during evolution. Inactivation of Morc2b leads to meiotic arrest and sterility in both sexes. Morc2b-deficient spermatocytes and oocytes exhibit failures in chromosomal synapsis, blockades in meiotic recombination, and increased apoptosis...
January 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
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