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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927226/female-clock%C3%AE-19-%C3%AE-19-mice-are-protected-from-the-development-of-age-dependent-cardiomyopathy
#1
Faisal J Alibhai, Cristine J Reitz, Willem T Peppler, Poulami Basu, Paul Sheppard, Elena Choleris, Marica Bakovic, Tami A Martino
Aims: Circadian rhythms are important for healthy cardiovascular physiology and they are regulated by the molecular circadian mechanism. Previously, we showed that disruption of the circadian mechanism factor CLOCK in male Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice led to development of age-dependent cardiomyopathy. Here, we investigate the role of biological sex in protecting against heart disease in aging female Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice. Methods and results: Female Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice are protected from the development of cardiomyopathy with age, as heart structure and function are similar to 18 months of age versus female WT mice...
September 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926760/laminin-%C3%AE-5-substrates-promote-survival-network-formation-and-functional-development-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurons-in-vitro
#2
Anu Hyysalo, Mervi Ristola, Meeri E-L Mäkinen, Sergei Häyrynen, Matti Nykter, Susanna Narkilahti
Laminins are one of the major protein groups in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and specific laminin isoforms are crucial for neuronal functions in the central nervous system in vivo. In the present study, we compared recombinant human laminin isoforms (LN211, LN332, LN411, LN511, and LN521) and laminin isoform fragment (LN511-E8) in in vitro cultures of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neurons. We showed that laminin substrates containing the α5-chain are important for neuronal attachment, viability and network formation, as detected by phase contrast imaging, viability staining, and immunocytochemistry...
September 12, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926607/the-novel-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonist-finerenone-attenuates-neointima-formation-after-vascular-injury
#3
Jochen Dutzmann, Robert-Jonathan Musmann, Marco Haertlé, Jan-Marcus Daniel, Kristina Sonnenschein, Andreas Schäfer, Peter Kolkhof, Johann Bauersachs, Daniel G Sedding
BACKGROUND: The novel nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist finerenone holds promise to be safe and efficient in the treatment of patients with heart failure and/or chronic kidney disease. However, its effects on vascular function remain elusive. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the functional effect of selective MR antagonism by finerenone in vascular cells in vitro and the effect on vascular remodeling following acute vascular injury in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926139/the-synonymous-nucleotide-substitution-rhd-1056c-g-alters-mrna-splicing-associated-with-serologically-weak-d-phenotype
#4
Sejong Chun, Jae Won Yun, Geon Park, Duck Cho
BACKGROUND: D antigen is one of the most clinically significant blood group antigens. Variation of the RHD gene can cause weak D or partial D phenotypes. While most variations are missense substitutions with amino acid changes, those without are called "silent" or "synonymous" substitutions. Synonymous substitutions often have little effect on the protein, not altering the phenotype. However, effect on splicing can affect end-product protein. We report a new synonymous variation, RHD 1056C>G, that resulted in weak D phenotype, and predicted its effect with various in silico methods...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926108/bone-morphogenetic-protein-7-inhibits-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-pulmonary-artery-endothelial-cell-under-hypoxia
#5
Hongyue Zhang, Ying Liu, Lixin Yan, Wei Du, Xiaodan Zhang, Min Zhang, He Chen, Yafeng Zhang, Jianqiu Zhou, Hanliang Sun, Daling Zhu
Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is characterized by structural changes in pulmonary arteries. Increased numbers of cells expressing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) is a nearly universal finding in the remodeled artery. It has been confirmed endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) may be a source of those α-SMA-expressing cells. In addition, the EndoMT is reversible. Here, we show that under hypoxia, the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) was decreased both in vivo and in vitro. We also found that under normoxia, BMP-7 deficiency induced spontaneous EndoMT and cell migration...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926000/the-bdnf-val66met-polymorphism-regulates-glucocorticoid-induced-corticohippocampal-remodeling-and-behavioral-despair
#6
M Notaras, X Du, J Gogos, M van den Buuse, R A Hill
The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has been associated with sensitivity to stress and affective disorders. We therefore sought to model the inter-causality of these relationships under controlled laboratory conditions. We subjected humanized BDNF Val66Met (hBDNF(Val66Met)) transgenic mice to a history of stress, modeled by chronic late-adolescent corticosterone (CORT) exposure, before evaluating affective-related behavior using the forced-swim test (FST) in adulthood. While hBDNF(Met/Met) mice had a depression-like phenotype in the FST irrespective of CORT, hBDNF(Val/Val) wildtype mice had a resilient phenotype but developed an equally robust depressive-like phenotype following CORT...
September 19, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925889/physical-activity-does-it-really-increase-bone-density-in-postmenopausal-women-a-review-of-articles-published-between-2001-2016
#7
Daria Segev, Devora Hellerstein, Ayelet Dunsky
BACKGROUND: Physical activity is known for its many health benefits, among them the positive effect on bone health during the life cycle. During childhood, physical stress stimulates bone remodeling and increases density. However, due to hormonal changes during adulthood, and mainly during postmenopause the rate of bone remodeling is slowed and is less efficient. As a result, argument has arisen in the literature regarding the benefit or harm of physical activity on bone health among postmenopausal women...
September 18, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925871/biomarkers-associated-with-atrial-fibrosis-and-remodeling
#8
Polychronis Dilaveris, Christos-Konstantinos Antoniou, Panagiota Manolakou, Eleftherios Tsiamis, Konstantinos Gatzoulis, Dimitris Tousoulis
Atrial fibrillation is the most common rhythm disturbance encountered in clinical practice. Although often considered as solely arrhythmic in nature, current evidence has established that atrial myopathy constitutes both the substrate and the outcome of atrial fibrillation, thus initiating a vicious, self-perpetuating cycle. This myopathy is triggered by stress-induced (including pressure/volume overload, inflammation, oxidative stress) responses of atrial tissue, which in the long term become maladaptive, and combines elements of both structural, especially fibrosis, and electrical remodeling, with contemporary approaches yielding potentially useful biomarkers of these processes...
September 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925811/it-s-fun-to-transcribe-with-fun30-a-model-for-nucleosome-dynamics-during-rna-polymerase-ii-mediated-elongation
#9
Junwoo Lee, Eun Shik Choi, Daeyoup Lee
The ability of elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) to regulate the nucleosome barrier is poorly understood because we do not know enough about the involved factors and we lack a conceptual framework to model this process. Our group recently identified the conserved Fun30/SMARCAD1 family chromatin-remodeling factor, Fun30(Fft3), as being critical for relieving the nucleosome barrier during RNAPII-mediated elongation, and proposed a model illustrating how Fun30(Fft3) may contribute to nucleosome disassembly during RNAPII-mediated elongation...
September 19, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925362/generation-of-a-klf15-homozygous-knockout-human-embryonic-stem-cell-line-using-paired-crispr-cas9n-and-human-cardiomyocytes-derivation
#10
Claudia Noack, Luis Peter Haupt, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Katrin Streckfuss-Bömeke, Laura Cecilia Zelarayán
Krueppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) is abundantly expressed in liver, kidney, and muscle, including myocardium. In the adult heart KLF15 is important to maintain homeostasis and to repress hypertrophic remodeling. We generated a homozygous hESC KLF15 knockout (KO) line using paired CRISPR/Cas9n. KLF15-KO cells maintained full pluripotency and differentiation potential as well as genomic integrity. We demonstrated that KLF15-KO cells can be differentiated into morphologically normal cardiomyocytes turning them into a valuable tool for studying human KLF15-mediated mechanisms resulting in human cardiac dysfunction...
August 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925069/myelin-plasticity-neural-activity-and-traumatic-neural-injury
#11
REVIEW
Bethany R Kondiles, Philip J Horner
The possibility that adult organisms exhibit myelin plasticity has recently become a topic of great interest. Many researchers are exploring the role of myelin growth and adaptation in daily functions such as memory and motor learning. Here we consider evidence for three different potential categories of myelin plasticity: the myelination of previously bare axons, remodeling of existing sheaths, and the removal of a sheath with replacement by a new internode. We also review evidence that points to the importance of neural activity as a mechanism by which oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are cued to differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes, which may potentially be an important component of myelin plasticity...
September 19, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924548/remodeling-the-blood-brain-barrier-microenvironment-by-natural-products-for-brain-tumor-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Xiao Zhao, Rujing Chen, Mei Liu, Jianfang Feng, Jun Chen, Kaili Hu
Brain tumor incidence shows an upward trend in recent years; brain tumors account for 5% of adult tumors, while in children, this figure has increased to 70%. Moreover, 20%-30% of malignant tumors will eventually metastasize into the brain. Both benign and malignant tumors can cause an increase in intracranial pressure and brain tissue compression, leading to central nervous system (CNS) damage which endangers the patients' lives. Despite the many approaches to treating brain tumors and the progress that has been made, only modest gains in survival time of brain tumor patients have been achieved...
September 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924387/activation-of-nrf2-attenuates-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-via-inhibiting-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-an-insight-from-a-plant-polyphenol
#13
Yucai Chen, Tianyi Yuan, Huifang Zhang, Yu Yan, Danshu Wang, Lianhua Fang, Yang Lu, Guanhua Du
The endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) has been demonstrated to be involved in pulmonary vascular remodeling. It is partly attributed to oxidative and inflammatory stresses in endothelial cells. In current study, we conducted a series of experiments to clarify the effect of salvianolic acid A (SAA), a kind of polyphenol compound, in the process of EndMT in human pulmonary arterial endothelial cells and in vivo therapeutic efficacy on vascular remodeling in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced EndMT. EndMT was induced by TGFβ1 in human pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (HPAECs)...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924190/microbiome-of-pacific-whiteleg-shrimp-reveals-differential-bacterial-community-composition-between-wild-aquacultured-and-ahpnd-ems-outbreak-conditions
#14
Fernanda Cornejo-Granados, Alonso A Lopez-Zavala, Luigui Gallardo-Becerra, Alfredo Mendoza-Vargas, Filiberto Sánchez, Rodrigo Vichido, Luis G Brieba, Maria Teresa Viana, Rogerio R Sotelo-Mundo, Adrián Ochoa-Leyva
Crustaceans form the second largest subphylum on Earth, which includes Litopeneaus vannamei (Pacific whiteleg shrimp), one of the most cultured shrimp worldwide. Despite efforts to study the shrimp microbiota, little is known about it from shrimp obtained from the open sea and the role that aquaculture plays in microbiota remodeling. Here, the microbiota from the hepatopancreas and intestine of wild type (wt) and aquacultured whiteleg shrimp and pond sediment from hatcheries were characterized using sequencing of seven hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924015/no-mediates-nitrite-sensing-and-adaptation-and-triggers-a-remodeling-of-lipids
#15
Lina J Dolch, Josselin Lupette, Guillaume Tourcier, Mariette Bedhomme, Séverine Collin, Leonardo Magneschi, Melissa Conte, Khawla Seddiki, Christelle Richard, Erwan Corre, Laurent Fourage, Frédéric Laeuffer, Robert Richards, Michael Reith, Fabrice Rébeillé, Juliette Jouhet, Patrick McGinn, Eric Marechal
Nitric oxide (NO) is an intermediate of the nitrogen cycle, an industrial pollutant and a marker of climate change. NO also acts as a gaseous transmitter in a variety of biological processes. The impact of environmental NO needs to be addressed. In diatoms, a dominant phylum in phytoplankton, NO was reported to mediate programmed cell death (PCD) in response to diatom derived polyunsaturated aldehydes. Here, using the Phaeodactylum Pt1 strain, 2E,4E-decadienal supplied in the micromolar concentration range led to a non-specific cell toxicity...
September 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923977/prepatterning-by-rhogefs-governs-rho-gtpase-spatiotemporal-dynamics-during-wound-repair
#16
Mitsutoshi Nakamura, Jeffrey M Verboon, Susan M Parkhurst
Like tissues, single cells are subjected to continual stresses and damage. As such, cells have a robust wound repair mechanism comprised of dynamic membrane resealing and cortical cytoskeletal remodeling. One group of proteins, the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases), is critical for this actin and myosin cytoskeletal response in which they form distinct dynamic spatial and temporal patterns/arrays surrounding the wound. A key mechanistic question, then, is how these GTPase arrays are formed...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923883/microtubules-associated-rac-regulation-of-endothelial-barrier-a-role-of-asef-in-acute-lung-injury
#17
Pratap Karki, Anna A Birukova
The endothelial barrier function regulated by the cytoskeletal reorganizations has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple lung diseases including asthma, sepsis, edema, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The extensive studies have established that activation of small GTPase Rac is a key mechanism in endothelial barrier protection but the role of microtubules-associated Rac in the endothelial functions remains poorly understood. With the emerging evidences that microtubules disassembly also plays a critical role in actin cytoskeleton remodeling leading to endothelial permeability, the knowledge on microtubules-mediated regulation of endothelial barrier is imperative to better understand the etiology of lung injuries as well as to develop novel therapeutics against these disorders...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923829/estrogen-deprivation-aggravates-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-non-obese-type-2-diabetic-goto-kakizaki-gk-rats
#18
Nattayaporn Apaijai, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu, Jitjiroj Ittichaichareon, Panan Suntornsaratoon, Nateetip Krishnamra, Ratchaneevan Aeimlapa, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
Both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and estrogen deprivation have been shown to be associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and adverse cardiac remodeling.  However, the role of estrogen deprivation on adverse cardiac remodeling in non-obese T2DM rats has not been clearly elucidated.  We hypothesized that estrogen-deprivation aggravates adverse cardiac remodeling in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats.  Wild-type (WT) and GK rats at the age of 9 months old were divided into 2 subgroups to have either a sham operation (WTS, GKS) or a bilateral ovariectomy (WTO, GKO) (n=6/subgroup)...
September 18, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923586/genetic-code-asymmetry-supports-diversity-through-experimentation-with-posttranslational-modifications
#19
REVIEW
James W Dennis
Protein N-glycosylation has been identified in all three domains of life presumably conserved for its early role in glycoprotein folding. However, the N-glycans added to proteins in the secretory pathway of multicellular organisms are remodeling in the Golgi, increasing structural diversity exponentially and adding new layers of functionality in immunity, metabolism and other systems. The branching and elongation of N-glycan chains found on cell surface receptors generates a gradation of affinities for carbohydrate-binding proteins, the galectin, selectin and siglec families...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923538/three-dimensional-nano-architected-scaffolds-with-tunable-stiffness-for-efficient-bone-tissue-growth
#20
Alessandro Maggi, Hanqing Li, Julia R Greer
The precise mechanisms that lead to orthopedic implant failure are not well understood; it is believed that the micromechanical environment at the bone-implant interface regulates structural stability of an implant. In this work, we seek to understand how the 3D mechanical environment of an implant affects bone formation during early osteointegration. We employed two-photon lithography (TPL) direct laser writing to fabricate 3-dimensional rigid polymer scaffolds with tetrakaidecahedral periodic geometry, herewith referred to as nanolattices, whose strut dimensions were on the same order as osteoblasts' focal adhesions (∼2μm) and pore sizes on the order of cell size, ∼10μm...
September 15, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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