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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915452/chronic-enalapril-treatment-increases-transient-outward-potassium-current-in-cardiomyocytes-isolated-from-right-ventricle-of-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#1
Luiz Fernando Rodrigues Junior, Ana Carolina de Azevedo Carvalho, Enildo Broetto Pimentel, José Geraldo Mill, José Hamilton Matheus Nascimento
It has been well established that chronic pressure overload resulting from hypertension leads to ventricular hypertrophy and electrophysiological remodeling. The transient outward potassium current (I to) reduction described in hypertensive animals delays ventricular repolarization, leading to complex ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Antihypertensive drugs, as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), can restore I to and reduce the incidence of arrhythmic events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differential effects of long-term treatment with ACEi or direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant on the I to of left and right ventricle myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...
December 3, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915435/bone-remodeling-and-regulating-biomarkers-in-women-at-the-time-of-breast-cancer-diagnosis
#2
Song Yao, Yali Zhang, Li Tang, Janise M Roh, Cecile A Laurent, Chi-Chen Hong, Theresa Hahn, Joan C Lo, Christine B Ambrosone, Lawrence H Kushi, Marilyn L Kwan
PURPOSE: The majority of breast cancer patients receive endocrine therapy, including aromatase inhibitors known to cause increased bone resorption. Bone-related biomarkers at the time of breast cancer diagnosis may predict future risk of osteoporosis and fracture after endocrine therapy. METHODS: In a large population of 2,401 female breast cancer patients who later underwent endocrine therapy, we measured two bone remodeling biomarkers, TRAP5b and BAP, and two bone regulating biomarkers, RANKL and OPG, in serum samples collected at the time of breast cancer diagnosis...
December 3, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915233/molecular-basis-for-the-autonomous-promotion-of-cell-proliferation-by-angiogenin
#3
Trish T Hoang, Ronald T Raines
Canonical growth factors act indirectly via receptor-mediated signal transduction pathways. Here, we report on an autonomous pathway in which a growth factor is internalized, has its localization regulated by phosphorylation, and ultimately uses intrinsic catalytic activity to effect epigenetic change. Angiogenin (ANG), a secreted vertebrate ribonuclease, is known to promote cell proliferation, leading to neovascularization as well as neuroprotection in mammals. Upon entering cells, ANG encounters the cytosolic ribonuclease inhibitor protein, which binds with femtomolar affinity...
December 2, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915135/primary-stability-and-viscoelastic-displacement-of-mini-implant-system-under-loading
#4
Jim Lee, Yong-Hoon Jeong, Joseph Pittman, Toru Deguchi, William M Johnston, Henry W Fields, Do-Gyoon Kim
BACKGROUND: The objectives of the current study were to examine the effects of mini-implant diameters on 1) primary stability before bone properties are changed by active peri-implant bone remodeling and 2) the time-dependent displacement of mini-implant systems in bone under a functional radial loading and their associations with bone mineral density. METHODS: Twenty one, 8mm length mini-implants (7 each for 1.4mm, 1.6mm, and 2mm diameters) were placed in mandibular sections of human cadavers (4 males and 3 females, average 69...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915039/uterine-immune-profiling-for-increasing-live-birth-rate-a-one-to-one-matched-cohort-study
#5
Nathalie Lédée, Laura Prat-Ellenberg, Lucie Chevrier, Richard Balet, Cynthia Simon, Clarisse Lenoble, Elie El Irani, Dominique Bouret, Guy Cassuto, Dominique Vitoux, Katia Vezmar, Armand Bensussan, Gérard Chaouat, Marie Petitbarat
BACKGROUND: Embryo implantation remains the main limiting factor in IVF/ICSI program. Endometrial immune remodeling events begin before implantation and are a vital process for pregnancy, preparing future maternal immune tolerance and regulating the placentation process. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2014, 193 patients (analyzed group) enrolled in our IVF program benefitted of an endometrial immune profiling to determine if their uterus was immunologically ready to accept an embryo and, if not, the specific immune mechanisms involved...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915024/extracellular-matrix-hydrogels-from-decellularized-tissues-structure-and-function
#6
REVIEW
Lindsey T Saldin, Madeline C Cramer, Sachin S Velankar, Lisa J White, Stephen F Badylak
: Extracellular matrix (ECM) bioscaffolds prepared from decellularized tissues have been used to facilitate constructive and functional tissue remodeling in a variety of clinical applications. The discovery that these ECM materials could be solubilized and subsequently manipulated to form hydrogels expanded their potential in vitro and in vivo utility; i.e. as culture substrates comparable to collagen or Matrigel, and as injectable materials that fill irregularly-shaped defects. The mechanisms by which ECM hydrogels direct cell behavior and influence remodeling outcomes are only partially understood, but likely include structural and biological signals retained from the native source tissue...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914866/co-signaling-molecules-in-maternal-fetal-immunity
#7
REVIEW
Yuan-Yuan Xu, Song-Cun Wang, Da-Jin Li, Mei-Rong Du
Physiologically, a successful pregnancy requires the maternal immune system to recognize and tolerate the semiallogeneic fetus, and allow for normal invasion of trophoblasts. Thus, pregnancy complications are considered to be associated with dysfunctional maternal-fetal crosstalk. Co-signaling molecules are a group of cell surface molecules that positively or negatively modulate the immune response. Well studied in the fields of oncology and transplantation, they are also suggested to be involved in maternal-fetal crosstalk...
November 30, 2016: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914010/recruitment-by-the-repressor-freud-1-of-histone-deacetylase-brg1-chromatin-remodeling-complexes-to-strengthen-htr1a-gene-repression
#8
Tatiana Souslova, Kim Mirédin, Anne M Millar, Paul R Albert
Five-prime repressor element under dual repression binding protein-1 (Freud-1)/CC2D1A is genetically linked to intellectual disability and implicated in neuronal development. Freud-1 represses the serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor gene HTR1A by histone deacetylase (HDAC)-dependent or HDAC-independent mechanisms in 5-HT1A-negative (e.g., HEK-293) or 5-HT1A-expressing cells (SK-N-SH), respectively. To identify the underlying mechanisms, Freud-1-associated proteins were affinity-purified from HEK-293 nuclear extracts and members of the Brg1/SMARCCA chromatin remodeling and Sin3A-HDAC corepressor complexes were identified...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914007/evaluation-of-68-ga-labeled-peptide-tracer-for-detection-of-gelatinase-expression-after-myocardial-infarction-in-rat
#9
Max Kiugel, Ville Kytö, Tiina Saanijoki, Heidi Liljenbäck, Olli Metsälä, Mia Ståhle, Johanna Tuomela, Xiang-Guo Li, Pekka Saukko, Juhani Knuuti, Anne Roivainen, Antti Saraste
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2/9) play a role in extracellular matrix remodeling after an ischemic myocardial injury. We evaluated (68)Ga-DOTA-peptide targeting MMP-2/9 for the detection of gelatinase expression after myocardial infarction (MI) in rat. METHODS: Rats were injected with 43 ± 7.7 MBq of (68)Ga-DOTA-peptide targeting MMP-2/9 at 7 days (n = 7) or 4 weeks (n = 8) after permanent coronary ligation or sham operation (n = 5 at both time points) followed by positron emission tomography (PET)...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913949/epigenetic-cpg-methylation-of-the-promoter-and-reactivation-of-the-expression-of-gstp1-by-astaxanthin-in-human-prostate-lncap-cells
#10
Yuqing Yang, Francisco Fuentes, Limin Shu, Chao Wang, Doug Pung, Wenji Li, Chengyue Zhang, Yue Guo, Ah-Ng Kong
Astaxanthin (AST), a red dietary carotenoid, has synergistic antioxidant effects with polyunsaturated fatty acids at low concentrations via Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2 or Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling. In addition, chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation-based gene silencing represent a common mechanism in prostate carcinogenesis and tumor progression from normal cells to pre-initiated cells and ultimately to invasive carcinoma. Therefore, the control of epigenetic modification and the transcriptional/translational control of the activation of Nrf2 and Nrf2-target genes, including glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), appear to be an important mechanism that protects cells against injuries from oxidative stress and cancer development...
December 2, 2016: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913938/cardiotoxic-and-dyslipidemic-effects-of-doxorubicin-and-betulinic-acid-amide
#11
M G Klinnikova, E L Lushnikova, E V Koldysheva, T G Tolstikova, I V Sorokina, E I Yuzhik, M M Mzhelskaya
Changes in the blood lipid spectrum and structural reorganization of the rat myocardium in response to injection of a single sublethal dose of doxorubicin (7 mg/kg) alone and in combination with course administration of betulonic acid amide (100 mg/kg/day for 14 days) were studied. Betulinic acid amide in the specified dose exhibited less pronounced cardiotoxic (necrobiotic impairment of cardiomyocytes) and dyslipidemic (increase of cholesterol and triglyceride levels) effects in comparison with doxorubicin...
December 3, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913683/mitochondrial-fission-and-fusion
#12
REVIEW
Hakjoo Lee, Yisang Yoon
Mitochondrial fission and fusion have been recognized as critical processes in the health of mitochondria and cells. Two decades of studies have generated a great deal of information about mitochondrial fission and fusion; however, still much needs to be understood for the basic molecular mechanisms of these important cellular processes. The core protein factors for mitochondrial fission and fusion are dynamin proteins that possess membrane-remodeling properties. This short review covers a recent development and understanding of the mechanisms by which these mechanochemical enzymes mediate mitochondrial fission and fusion...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913681/the-borg-family-of-cdc42-effector-proteins-cdc42ep1-5
#13
REVIEW
Aaron J Farrugia, Fernando Calvo
Despite being discovered more than 15 years ago, the Borg (binder of Rho GTPases) family of Cdc42 effector proteins (Cdc42EP1-5) remains largely uncharacterised and relatively little is known about their structure, regulation and role in development and disease. Recent studies are starting to unravel some of the key functional and mechanistic aspects of the Borg proteins, including their role in cytoskeletal remodelling and signalling. In addition, the participation of Borg proteins in important cellular processes such as cell shape, directed migration and differentiation is slowly emerging, directly linking Borgs with important physiological and pathological processes such as angiogenesis, neurotransmission and cancer-associated desmoplasia...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913271/histone-deacetylases-hdac-in-physiological-and-pathological-bone-remodelling
#14
REVIEW
M D Cantley, A C W Zannettino, P M Bartold, D P Fairlie, D R Haynes
Histone deacetylases (HDACs)(2) play important roles in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression in cells and are emerging therapeutic targets for treating a wide range of diseases. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi)(3) that act on multiple HDAC enzymes have been used clinically to treat a number of solid and hematological malignancies. HDACi are currently being studied also for their efficacy in non-malignant diseases, including pathologic bone loss, but this has necessitated a better understanding of the roles of individual HDAC enzymes, particularly the eleven zinc-containing isozymes...
November 29, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913195/breast-cancer-derived-extracellular-vesicles-stimulate-myofibroblast-differentiation-and-pro-angiogenic-behavior-of-adipose-stem-cells
#15
REVIEW
Young Hye Song, Christine Warncke, Sung Jin Choi, Siyoung Choi, Aaron E Chiou, Lu Ling, Han-Yuan Liu, Susan Daniel, Marc A Antonyak, Richard A Cerione, Claudia Fischbach
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are abundantly present in the mammary microenvironment and can promote breast cancer malignancy by differentiating into myofibroblasts. However, it remains largely unclear which role tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (TEVs) play in this process. Here, we used microfabricated, type I collagen-based 3-D tissue culture platforms to investigate the effect of breast cancer cell-derived TEVs on ASCs myofibroblast differentiation and consequential changes in extracellular matrix remodeling and vascular sprouting...
November 29, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913118/forces-controlling-organ-growth-and-size
#16
REVIEW
Dominik Eder, Christof Aegerter, Konrad Basler
One of the fundamental questions in developmental biology is what determines the final size and shape of an organ. Recent research strongly emphasizes that besides cell-cell communication, biophysical principals govern organ development. The architecture and mechanics of a tissue guide cellular processes such as movement, growth or differentiation. Furthermore, mechanical cues do not only regulate processes at a cellular level but also provide constant feedback about size and shape on a tissue scale. Here we review several models and experimental systems which are contributing to our understanding of the roles mechanical forces play during organ development...
November 29, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912316/th2-cells-in-health-and-disease
#17
Toshinori Nakayama, Kiyoshi Hirahara, Atsushi Onodera, Yusuke Endo, Hiroyuki Hosokawa, Kenta Shinoda, Damon J Tumes, Yoshitaka Okamoto
Helper T (Th) cell subsets direct immune responses by producing signature cytokines. Th2 cells produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which are important in humoral immunity and protection from helminth infection and are central to the pathogenesis of many allergic inflammatory diseases. Molecular analysis of Th2 cell differentiation and maintenance of function has led to recent discoveries that have refined our understanding of Th2 cell biology. Epigenetic regulation of Gata3 expression by chromatin remodeling complexes such as Polycomb and Trithorax is crucial for maintaining Th2 cell identity...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912147/inhibition-of-endocan-attenuates-monocrotaline-induced-connective-tissue-disease-related-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#18
Haiyan Zhao, Yunxin Xue, Yun Guo, Yue Sun, Dongmei Liu, Xiaofei Wang
Connective tissue disease related pulmonary arterial hypertension (CTD-PAH) is characterized by vascular remodeling, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. Endocan is a novel endothelial dysfunction marker. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of endocan in CTD-PAH. Monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rats were used as the CTD-PAH model. Short hairpin RNA packed in a lentiviral vector used to inhibit endocan expression was intratracheally instilled in rats prior to the MCT injection. Endocan was found to be increased in the serum and lung of MCT-induced PAH rats...
November 29, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911945/correction-hmgb1-rage-axis-makes-no-contribution-to-cardiac-remodeling-induced-by-pressure-overload
#19
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158514.].
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911794/activation-of-mutant-tert-promoter-by-ras-erk-signaling-is-a-key-step-in-malignant-progression-of-braf-mutant-human-melanomas
#20
Yinghui Li, Hui Shan Cheng, Wee Joo Chng, Vinay Tergaonkar
Although activating BRAF/NRAS mutations are frequently seen in melanomas, they are not sufficient to drive malignant transformation and require additional events. Frequent co-occurrence of mutations in the promoter for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), along with BRAF alterations, has recently been noted and correlated with poorer prognosis, implicating a functional link between BRAF signaling and telomerase reactivation in melanomas. Here, we report that RAS-ERK signaling in BRAF mutant melanomas is critical for regulating active chromatin state and recruitment of RNA polymerase II at mutant TERT promoters...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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