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heat acclimation and acclimatization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153170/a-100-year-review-stress-physiology-including-heat-stress
#1
R J Collier, B J Renquist, Y Xiao
Stress is an external event or condition that places a strain on a biological system. The animal response to a stress involves the expenditure of energy to remove or reduce the impact of the stress. This increases maintenance requirements of the animal and results in loss of production. The biological response to stress is divided into acute and chronic phases, with the acute phase lasting hours to a few days and the chronic phase lasting several days to weeks. The acute response is driven by homeostatic regulators of the nervous and endocrine systems and the chronic phase by homeorhetic regulators of the endocrine system...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953909/mass-coral-bleaching-due-to-unprecedented-marine-heatwave-in-papah%C3%A4-naumoku%C3%A4-kea-marine-national-monument-northwestern-hawaiian-islands
#2
Courtney S Couch, John H R Burns, Gang Liu, Kanoelani Steward, Tiffany Nicole Gutlay, Jean Kenyon, C Mark Eakin, Randall K Kosaki
2014 marked the sixth and most widespread mass bleaching event reported in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, home to the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM), the world's second largest marine reserve. This event was associated with an unusual basin-scale warming in the North Pacific Ocean, with an unprecedented peak intensity of around 20°C-weeks of cumulative heat stress at Lisianksi Island. In situ bleaching surveys and satellite data were used to evaluate the relative importance of potential drivers of bleaching patterns in 2014, assess the subsequent morality and its effects on coral communities and 3D complexity, test for signs of regional acclimation, and investigate long-term change in heat stress in PMNM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885962/cold-acclimation-does-not-alter-physiological-or-perceptual-responses-during-subsequent-exercise-in-the-heat
#3
Douglas M Jones, Kaitlyn A Rostomily, Carina M Pautz, Danica W Ito, Stephen P Bailey, Bart Roelands, Michael J Buono, Romain Meeusen
INTRODUCTION: Warfighters often train and conduct operations in cold environments. Specifically, military trainees and divers that are repeatedly exposed to cold water may experience inadvertent cold acclimatization, which results in body heat retention. These same warfighters can quickly switch between environments (cold to hot or hot to cold) given the nature of their work. This may present a risk of early onset of hyperthermia when cold-acclimatized warfighters are subsequently exposed to physiological insults that increase body temperature, such as exercise and heat stress...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872380/optimizing-heat-acclimation-for-endurance-athletes-high-vs-low-intensity-training
#4
Cyril Schmit, Rob Duffield, Christophe Hausswirth, Jeanick Brisswalter, Yann Le Meur
PURPOSE: We sought to determine the effect of high- vs. low-intensity training in the heat and ensuing taper period in the heat on endurance performance. METHODS: Nineteen well-trained triathletes undertook 5 days of normal training and a 1-week taper, including either low- (HA-L, n=10) or high-intensity (HA-H, n=9) training sessions in the heat (30°C, 50% of relative humidity). A control group (n=10) reproduced their usual training in thermoneutral conditions...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747888/the-hsp72-and-hsp90%C3%AE-mrna-responses-to-hot-downhill-running-are-reduced-following-a-prior-bout-of-hot-downhill-running-and-occur-concurrently-within-leukocytes-and-the-vastus-lateralis
#5
James A Tuttle, Bryna C R Chrismas, Oliver R Gibson, James H Barrington, David C Hughes, Paul C Castle, Alan J Metcalfe, Adrian W Midgley, Oliver Pearce, Chindu Kabir, Faizal Rayanmarakar, Sami Al-Ali, Mark P Lewis, Lee Taylor
The leukocyte heat shock response (HSR) is used to determine individual's thermotolerance. The HSR and thermotolerance are enhanced following interventions such as preconditioning and/or acclimation/acclimatization. However, it is unclear whether the leukocyte HSR is an appropriate surrogate for the HSR in other tissues implicated within the pathophysiology of exertional heat illnesses (e.g., skeletal muscle), and whether an acute preconditioning strategy (e.g., downhill running) can improve subsequent thermotolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670460/factors-affecting-heat-related-diseases-in-outdoor-workers-exposed-to-extreme-heat
#6
Jungsun Park, Yangho Kim, Inbo Oh
BACKGROUND: The objectives of the present study are to: (i) evaluate the effect of environmental and metabolic heat on heat-related illnesses in outdoor workers; and (ii) evaluate the effect of personal factors, including heat acclimation, on the risk of heat-related illnesses in outdoor workers. METHODS: We identified 47 cases of illnesses from exposure to environmental heat in outdoor workers in Korea from 2010 to 2014, based on review of workers' compensation data...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670286/short-term-low-volume-training-improves-heat-acclimatization-in-an-operational-context
#7
Keyne Charlot, Pierre-Emmanuel Tardo-Dino, Jean-François Buchet, Nathalie Koulmann, Stéphanie Bourdon, Benoit Lepetit, Martin Roslonski, Loïc Jousseaume, Alexandra Malgoyre
Personnel who travel to areas with a hot climate (WBGT > 27°C) may suffer from the heat (physiological strain, thermal discomfort, increased probability of heat illness), making them partially or fully inoperative. Performing physical activities during heat acclimatization is known to improve this process (i.e., improve measures of acclimatization for the same duration of acclimation). However, it is unknown whether such training would be efficient in an operative context, characterized by a high volume of work-related physical activity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389828/cross-adaptation-heat-and-cold-adaptation-to-improve-physiological-and-cellular-responses-to-hypoxia
#8
REVIEW
Oliver R Gibson, Lee Taylor, Peter W Watt, Neil S Maxwell
To prepare for extremes of heat, cold or low partial pressures of oxygen (O2), humans can undertake a period of acclimation or acclimatization to induce environment-specific adaptations, e.g. heat acclimation (HA), cold acclimation (CA), or altitude training. While these strategies are effective, they are not always feasible due to logistical impracticalities. Cross-adaptation is a term used to describe the phenomenon whereby alternative environmental interventions, e.g. HA or CA, may be a beneficial alternative to altitude interventions, providing physiological stress and inducing adaptations observable at altitude...
April 7, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277963/uncoupling-basal-and-summit-metabolic-rates-in-white-throated-sparrows-digestive-demand-drives-maintenance-costs-but-changes-in-muscle-mass-are-not-needed-to-improve-thermogenic-capacity
#9
Gonzalo Barceló, Oliver P Love, François Vézina
Avian basal metabolic rate (BMR) and summit metabolic rate (Msum) vary in parallel during cold acclimation and acclimatization, which implies a functional link between these variables. However, evidence suggests that these parameters may reflect different physiological systems acting independently. We tested this hypothesis in white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) acclimated to two temperatures (-8° and 28°C) and two diets (0% and 30% cellulose). We expected to find an uncoupling of Msum and BMR where Msum, a measure of maximal shivering heat production, would reflect muscle and heart mass variation and would respond only to temperature, while BMR would reflect changes in digestive and excretory organs in response to daily food intake, responding to both temperature and diet...
March 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522494/hsp90-and-hsp47-appear-to-play-an-important-role-in-minnow-puntius-sophore-for-surviving-in-the-hot-spring-run-off-aquatic-ecosystem
#10
Arabinda Mahanty, Gopal Krishna Purohit, Ravi Prakash Yadav, Sasmita Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna Mohanty
Changes in the expression of a number of hsp genes in minnow Puntius sophore collected from a hot spring run-off (Atri hot spring in Odisha, India; 20(o)09'N 85(°)18'E, 36-38 °C) were investigated to study the upper thermal acclimation response under heat stress, using same species from aquaculture ponds (water temperature 27 °C) as control. Expression of hsp genes was analyzed in both groups using RT-qPCR, which showed up-regulation of hsp90 (2.1-fold) and hsp47 (2.5-fold) in hot spring run-off fishes, whereas there was no alteration in expression of other hsps...
February 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26924539/human-physiological-responses-to-cold-exposure-acute-responses-and-acclimatization-to-prolonged-exposure
#11
REVIEW
John W Castellani, Andrew J Young
Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat...
April 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26857972/phenotypic-flexibility-in-the-energetic-strategy-of-the-greater-white-toothed-shrew-crocidura-russula
#12
Flávio G Oliveira, Joaquim T Tapisso, Rita I Monarca, Ana M Cerveira, Maria L Mathias
The balance between energetic acquisition and expenditure depends on the amount of energy allocated to biological functions such as thermoregulation, growth, reproduction and behavior. Ambient temperature has a profound effect on this balance, with species inhabiting colder climates often needing to invest more energy in thermoregulation to maintain body temperature. This leads to local behavioral and physiological adaptations that increase energetic efficiency. In this study, we investigated the role of activity, behavior and thermogenic capacity in the ability of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, to cope with seasonal changes...
February 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26803319/phenotypic-flexibility-of-energetics-in-acclimated-siberian-hamsters-has-a-narrower-scope-in-winter-than-in-summer
#13
Jan S Boratyński, Małgorzata Jefimow, Michał S Wojciechowski
As photoperiod shortens with the approach of winter, small mammals should reduce their energy expenditure to survive periods of food limitation. However, within seasons, animals should balance their energy budgets as abiotic conditions change, sometimes unpredictably; cold spells should increase heat production, while warm spells should do the opposite. Therefore, we addressed specific questions about the possible interactions between seasonal acclimatization and the intra-seasonal phenotypic flexibility of metabolic rate...
April 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26694885/pacing-adjustments-associated-with-familiarization-heat-versus-temperate-environments
#14
Cyril Schmit, Rob Duffield, Christophe Hausswirth, Aaron J Coutts, Yann Le Meur
PURPOSE: To describe the effect of the initial perceptual experience from heat familiarization on the pacing profile during a freepaced endurance time trial (TT) compared with temperate conditions. METHODS: Two groups of well-trained triathletes performed two 20-km TTs in either hot (35°C and 50% relative humidity [RH], n = 12) or temperate (21°C and 50% RH, n = 22) conditions, after standardization of training for each group before both trials. To ensure no physiological acclimation differences between conditions, the TTs for both groups were separated by 11 ± 4 d...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26661992/post-exercise-hot-water-immersion-induces-heat-acclimation-and-improves-endurance-exercise-performance-in-the-heat
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
M J Zurawlew, N P Walsh, M B Fortes, C Potter
We examined whether daily hot water immersion (HWI) after exercise in temperate conditions induces heat acclimation and improves endurance performance in temperate and hot conditions. Seventeen non-heat-acclimatized males performed a 6-day intervention involving a daily treadmill run for 40 min at 65% V̇O2max in temperate conditions (18 °C) followed immediately by either HWI (N = 10; 40 °C) or thermoneutral (CON, N = 7; 34 °C) immersion for 40 min. Before and after the 6-day intervention, participants performed a treadmill run for 40 min at 65% V̇O2max followed by a 5-km treadmill time trial (TT) in temperate (18 °C, 40% humidity) and hot (33 °C, 40% humidity) conditions...
July 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26589126/mitochondrial-coupling-and-capacity-of-oxidative-phosphorylation-in-skeletal-muscle-of-inuit-and-caucasians-in-the-arctic-winter
#16
E Gnaiger, R Boushel, H Søndergaard, T Munch-Andersen, R Damsgaard, C Hagen, C Díez-Sánchez, I Ara, C Wright-Paradis, P Schrauwen, M Hesselink, J A L Calbet, M Christiansen, J W Helge, B Saltin
During evolution, mitochondrial DNA haplogroups of arctic populations may have been selected for lower coupling of mitochondrial respiration to ATP production in favor of higher heat production. We show that mitochondrial coupling in skeletal muscle of traditional and westernized Inuit habituating northern Greenland is identical to Danes of western Europe haplogroups. Biochemical coupling efficiency was preserved across variations in diet, muscle fiber type, and uncoupling protein-3 content. Mitochondrial phenotype displayed plasticity in relation to lifestyle and environment...
December 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26551744/plasma-volume-after-heat-acclimation-variations-due-to-season-fitness-and-methods-of-measurement
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
J A Loeppky
PURPOSE: The reported magnitude of plasma volume increase (Δ%PV) following heat acclimation (HA) varies widely. Variations may result from differences in measurement techniques, season and subjects' fitness. This report compares direct and indirect measurements of Δ%PV after 10 days of HA from studies in winter (WIN, n = 8) and summer (SUM, n = 10) in men, age 21-43 yr, at two fitness levels (VO(2)max: 35 and 51 ml/min/kg). Direct measurements were made before and after HA (cycling at 30% of VO(2)max at 50 °C, for 100 min/day) by carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing and compared with indirect estimates from changes in hematocrit, hemoglobin and plasma protein concentration...
September 2015: Acta Physiologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26472869/epigenetics-and-cytoprotection-with-heat-acclimation
#18
REVIEW
Michal Horowitz
Studying "phenotypic plasticity" involves comparison of traits expressed in response to environmental fluctuations and aims to understand tolerance and survival in new settings. Reversible phenotypic changes that enable individuals to match their phenotype to environmental demands throughout life can be artificially induced, i.e., acclimation or occur naturally, i.e., acclimatization. The onset and achievement of acclimatory homeostasis are determined by molecular programs that induce the acclimated transcriptome...
March 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26390816/modulatory-effect-of-betaine-on-expression-dynamics-of-hsps-during-heat-stress-acclimation-in-goat-capra-hircus
#19
Satyaveer Singh Dangi, Saroj K Dangi, V S Chouhan, M R Verma, Puneet Kumar, Gyanendra Singh, Mihir Sarkar
Changing climatic scenario with expected global rise in surface temperature compelled more focus of research over decoding heat stress response mechanism of animals and mitigation of heat stress. Recently betaine, a trimethyl form of glycine has been found to ameliorate heat stress in some species of animals. To overcome deleterious effect of heat stress, an attempt was taken to investigate the effect of betaine supplementation on heat stress mitigation in goats. Eighteen female Barbari goats were taken and randomly divided into 3 groups (n=6) such as control, HS (Heat stressed), HS+B (Heat stressed administered with betaine)...
January 10, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26339983/linking-transcriptional-responses-to-organismal-tolerance%C3%A2-reveals-mechanisms-of-thermal-sensitivity-in%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-mesothermal-endangered-fish
#20
Lisa M Komoroske, Richard E Connon, Ken M Jeffries, Nann A Fangue
Forecasting species' responses to climate change requires understanding the underlying mechanisms governing environmental stress tolerance, including acclimation capacity and acute stress responses. Current knowledge of these physiological processes in aquatic ectotherms is largely drawn from eurythermal or extreme stenothermal species. Yet many species of conservation concern exhibit tolerance windows and acclimation capacities in between these extremes. We linked transcriptome profiles to organismal tolerance in a mesothermal endangered fish, the delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus), to quantify the cellular processes, sublethal thresholds and effects of thermal acclimation on acute stress responses...
October 2015: Molecular Ecology
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