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Immunostimulating antiviral

Felipe E Rodríguez, Beatriz Valenzuela, Ana Farías, Ana María Sandino, Mónica Imarai
The diets of farmed salmon are usually supplemented with immunostimulants to improve health status. Because β-glucan is one of the most common immunostimulants used in diets, here we examined the effect of two β-1,3/1,6-glucan-supplemented diets on the expression of immune response genes of Atlantic salmon. The relative abundances of IFN-α1, Mx, IFN-γ, IL-12, TGF-β1, IL-10, and CD4 transcripts were evaluated in head kidney by qRT-PCR. We assessed the effects of the diets under normoxia and acute hypoxia, as salmon are especially sensitive to changes in the concentration of dissolved oxygen, which can also affect immunity...
October 11, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Charline Daguzan, Morgane Moulin, Hanna Kulyk-Barbier, Christian Davrinche, Suzanne Peyrottes, Eric Champagne
Human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are activated through their TCR by neighboring cells producing phosphoantigens. Zoledronate (ZOL) treatment induces intracellular accumulation of the phosphoantigens isopentenyl pyrophosphate and ApppI. Few attempts have been made to use immunomanipulation of Vγ9Vδ2 lymphocytes in chronic viral infections. Although Vγ9Vδ2 T cells seem to ignore human CMV (HCMV)-infected cells, we examined whether they can sense HCMV when a TCR stimulus is provided with ZOL. Fibroblasts treated with ZOL activate Vγ9Vδ2 T cells to produce IFN-γ but not TNF...
March 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
N A Kontarov, A A Ermakova, N S Grebionkina, N V Yuminova, V V Zverev
It is well known that polyelectrolytes (PE) have a damaging effect on the secondary structure of the proteins and enzymes. It is also known that some PEs exert an immunostimulating action on T- and B-lymphocytes. However, currently, almost nothing is known about the impact of the PE of the viral proteins and viral envelope. Therefore, a detailed study of the mechanisms of the antiviral action of various polyelectrolytes would create the scientific-practical base for the construction of the antiviral drugs on the polyelectrolyte basis...
2015: Voprosy Virusologii
María A Vissani, Etienne Thiry, Fabiana Dal Pozzo, María Barrandeguy
Equid herpesvirus infections cause respiratory, neurological and reproductive syndromes. Despite preventive and control measures and the availability of vaccines and immunostimulants, herpesvirus infections still constitute a major threat to equine health and for the equine industry worldwide. Antiviral drugs, particularly nucleoside analogues and foscarnet, are successfully used for the treatment of human alphaherpesvirus infections. In equine medicine, the use of antiviral medications in alphaherpesvirus infections would decrease the excretion of virus and diminish the risk of contagion and the convalescent time in affected horses, and would also improve the clinical outcome of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy...
January 2016: Veterinary Journal
Jurate Staikuniene, Jurate Staneviciute
OBJECTIVE: Erythema multiforme (EM) is an immune-mediated condition characterized by the appearance of target-like lesions on the skin and often accompanied by erosions or bullae involving the oral, genital, and/or ocular mucosae. 70% of recurrent EM cases are associated with HSV reactivation and it is labelled as herpes-associated erythema multiforme (HAE M). Recurrences are seen in approximately 20-25% of EM cases and managing these conditions are challenging for both the patient and the doctor...
2015: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Faseeha Noordeen, Catherine A Scougall, Arend Grosse, Qiao Qiao, Behzad B Ajilian, Georget Reaiche-Miller, John Finnie, Melanie Werner, Ruth Broering, Joerg F Schlaak, Andrew Vaillant, Allison R Jilbert
Previous studies have demonstrated that nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) have both entry and post-entry inhibitory activity against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection. The inhibitory activity exhibited by NAPs prevented DHBV infection of primary duck hepatocytes in vitro and protected ducks from DHBV infection in vivo and did not result from direct activation of the immune response. In the current study treatment of primary human hepatocytes with NAP REP 2055 did not induce expression of the TNF, IL6, IL10, IFNA4 or IFNB1 genes, confirming the lack of direct immunostimulation by REP 2055...
2015: PloS One
Sib Sankar Giri, Shib Sankar Sen, Cheng Chi, Hyoun Joong Kim, Saekil Yun, Se Chang Park, V Sukumaran
The efficiency of intracellular products (ICPs) of the probiotics Bacillus subtilis VSG1 and Lactobacillus plantarum VSG3 in stimulating cytokine responses in the head kidney (HK) macrophages of Labeo rohita was investigated. The HK macrophages were incubated with ICPs and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the responses of cytokine genes, namely interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-1β, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-18, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), interferon-1 (IFN-1), and IFN-γ were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) at 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h post-stimulation (hps)...
December 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Mauro Melis, Chiara Biagi, Lars Småbrekke, Francesco Nonino, Elena Buccellato, Monia Donati, Alberto Vaccheri, Domenico Motola
OBJECTIVE: To identify safety signals concerning the association between the use of various drug classes and the onset of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). METHODS: All reports containing suspected or interacting PML-related or leukoencephalopathy-related drugs, held in the World Health Organization spontaneous individual case safety reports database as at 1 September 2014, were retrieved. We identified safety signals by analysing the drug-reaction pairs, using the reporting odds ratio as a measure of disproportionality...
2015: CNS Drugs
Tawut Rudtanatip, Boonsirm Withyachumnarnkul, Kanokpan Wongprasert
Previous studies demonstrated that sulfated galactans (SG) from Gracilaria fisheri (G. fisheri) exhibit immunostimulant activity in shrimp. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that SG stimulates signaling molecules of the immune response of shrimp by binding to receptors on the host cell membrane. Accordingly, we evaluated the ability of SG to bind to shrimp haemocytes and showed that SG bound to the shrimp haemocyte membrane (SHM), potentially to specific receptors. Furthermore, this binding was associated with an activation of immune response genes of shrimp...
November 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Nebojša V Kladar, Neda S Gavarić, Biljana N Božin
The genus Ganoderma includes about 80 species growing on cut or rotten trees. The most commonly used species is Ganoderma ludicum. Biomolecules responsible for the health benefits of Ganoderma are polysaccharides with an immunostimulative effect and triterpenes with a cytotoxic action. For more than 2000 years, it has been used traditionally in the treatment of various pathological conditions and recently, its immunoregulatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and anticancer potential has been confirmed...
September 2016: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
B A Nejmark, Ju S Kondrat'eva, V S Zologina, D V Torbik
This study evaluates the effectiveness of immunomodulating drug isoprinosine in a comprehensive treatment of genital warts in men. Most of the patients were aged 20-30 years. The combination therapy was found to have long term effectiveness. In the group of patients undergoing only destructive methods of treatment relapse after 8 month follow-up was diagnosed in 32% and in patients of the combination therapy group (destruction plus isoprinosine) - in 7% of patients. The pharmacological action of the drug (immunostimulating, antiviral) and the effectiveness of its combination with destructive therapies justify the use of inosine pranobex (isoprinosine) both in the complex therapy of genital warts and for the prevention of the disease recurrence...
March 2015: Urologii︠a︡
Jun Li, Futao Zhao
The aim of this review was to take a look at the anti-inflammatory functions of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HCT) that have been illustrated in the literature and to explore new fields in which HCT could be used in the future. The use of HCT has been described in broad inflammatory domains, where it has exhibited a variety of activities, including antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic and immunostimulant activity, with high efficiency, mild features and definite therapeutic effects. The numerous anti-inflammatory functions of HCT have demonstrated that HCT has wide application prospects...
July 2015: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Hulikal Basavarajaiah Pushpalatha, Kumar Pramod, Rajendran Devanathan, Ramachandran Sundaram
BACKGROUND: Bergenin is the principle constituent of the well-known medicinal plant Saxifraga ligulata. Bergenin has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiviral, immunostimulant, antihyperglycemic, and antioxidant properties. In this study, the presence of bergenin in Saxifraga ligulata and the formulations was identified using high performance thin layer chromatograpy fingerprinting technique. OBJECTIVE: To develop a novel quantitative method for the estimation of bergenin using high performance liquid chromatography...
May 2015: Pharmacognosy Magazine
N K Chernikova, V V Mikhailov, S V Borisevich
Tubosan, a new Russian immunostimulator is a derivative of sulfopyrimidine. It stimulated the humoral antiviral immunity in mice, provoked increasing the number of the antibody forming cells in the spleen of mice, immunized by sheep's erythrocytes, and increased the titers of the virus-neutralizing antibodies after immunization by inactivated and live vaccines VEE. The Tubosan ability to lower the reactogenicity of the live VEE vaccine provided new perspectives for using such immunomodulators in medical practice...
2014: Antibiotiki i Khimioterapii︠a︡, Antibiotics and Chemoterapy [sic]
Katarzyna Komosinska-Vassev, Pawel Olczyk, Justyna Kaźmierczak, Lukasz Mencner, Krystyna Olczyk
Bee pollen is a valuable apitherapeutic product greatly appreciated by the natural medicine because of its potential medical and nutritional applications. It demonstrates a series of actions such as antifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anticancer immunostimulating, and local analgesic. Its radical scavenging potential has also been reported. Beneficial properties of bee pollen and the validity for their therapeutic use in various pathological condition have been discussed in this study and with the currently known mechanisms, by which bee pollen modulates burn wound healing process...
2015: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Wilsy Wilson, Douglas Lowman, Swapna P Antony, Jayesh Puthumana, I S Bright Singh, Rosamma Philip
Immunostimulant potential of eight marine yeast glucans (YG) from Candida parapsilosis R20, Hortaea werneckii R23, Candida spencermartinsiae R28, Candida haemulonii R63, Candida oceani R89, Debaryomyces fabryi R100, Debaryomyces nepalensis R305 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii R340 were tested against WSSV challenge in Penaeus monodon post larvae (PL). Structural characterization of these marine yeast glucans by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) indicated structures containing (1-6)-branched (1-3)-β-D-glucan...
April 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Zhi-Xia Zhou, Li Sun
The imidazoquinoline compound R848 is a specific agonist of toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/TLR8 that has been used as an immunostimulant in humans against viral diseases. Although R848-induced immune response has been reported in teleost fish, the relevant mechanism is not clear. In this study, we investigated the antiviral potential and the signaling pathway of R848 in a model of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). We found that R848 was able to inhibit the replication of megalocytivirus, stimulated the proliferation of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), enhanced the expression of immune genes, and reduced apoptosis of PBL...
March 2015: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jung-Bum Lee, Tatsuya Tanikawa, Kyoko Hayashi, Mariko Asagi, Yoshimasa Kasahara, Toshimitsu Hayashi
Two polysaccharides abbreviated ANP and AAP were isolated from the young buds of Acanthopanax sciadophylloides. ANP consisted of L-arabinose, D-mannose, D-glucose and D-galactose in a ratio of ca 1.0:2.6:2.5:1.4 and its weight average molecular weight (Mw) was 1.07×10(4). AAP consisted of L-arabinose, D-galactose and 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid in a ratio of ca 5:10:1, and its Mw was estimated to be 8.40×10(4). ANP was suggested to be an acetylated heteropolysaccharide, whereas AAP was speculated to be a type II arabinogalactan on the basis of structural analysis data...
February 13, 2015: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xiaoxia Li, Lu Qu, Yongzhe Dong, Lifeng Han, Erwei Liu, Shiming Fang, Yi Zhang, Tao Wang
Astragalus L., is one of the largest genuses of flowering plants in the Leguminosae family. Roots of A. membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, A. membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. and its processed products are listed in the China Pharmacopeia for "qi deficiency" syndrome treatment. However, more and more researches on other species of Astragalus have been conducted recently. We summarize the recent researches of Astragalus species in phytochemistry and pharmacology. More than 200 constituents, including saponins and flavonoids, obtained from 46 species of Astragalus genus were collected for this article...
2014: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Zhi-xia Zhou, Bao-cun Zhang, Li Sun
Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) is a ligand of toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 that has been used as an immunostimulant in humans and mice against viral diseases based on its ability to enhance innate and adapt immunity. Antiviral effect of poly(I:C) has also been observed in teleost, however, the underling mechanism is not clear. In this study, we investigated the potential and signaling mechanism of poly(I:C) as an antiviral agent in a model of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) infected with megalocytivirus...
2014: PloS One
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