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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656630/etiopathogenesis-of-traumatic-spinal-epidural-hematoma
#1
Francesco Ciro Tamburrelli, Maria Concetta Meluzio, Giulia Masci, Andrea Perna, Aaron Burrofato, Luca Proietti
Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is a rare cause of nerve root or cord compression; its pathogenesis is not always clearly recognizable. The aim of this paper was to investigate possible etiopathological factors in a consecutive series of patients affected by traumatic SEH treated at our institution. Seven patients with neurologic impairment due to traumatic SEH were retrospectively analyzed after diagnosis and surgical treatment. Thoracic localization was found in 5 cases, and lumbar and cervical localization were found in 1 patient each...
March 2018: Neurospine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656623/superior-and-middle-cluneal-nerve-entrapment-as-a-cause-of-low-back-pain
#2
REVIEW
Toyohiko Isu, Kyongsong Kim, Daijiro Morimoto, Naotaka Iwamoto
Low back pain (LBP) is encountered frequently in clinical practice. The superior and the middle cluneal nerves (SCN and MCN) are cutaneous nerves that are purely sensory. They dominate sensation in the lumbar area and the buttocks, and their entrapment around the iliac crest can elicit LBP. The reported incidence of SCN entrapment (SCN-E) in patients with LBP is 1.6%-14%. SCN-E and MCN entrapment (MCN-E) produce leg symptoms in 47%-84% and 82% of LBP patients, respectively. In such patients, pain is exacerbated by lumbar movements, and the symptoms mimic radiculopathy due to lumbar disorder...
March 2018: Neurospine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656606/a-meta-analysis-on-the-surgical-management-of-paraganglioma-of-the-carotid-body-per-shamblin-class
#3
Thijs T G Jansen, Henri A M Marres, Johannes H A M Kaanders, Henricus P M Kunst
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study is to evaluate the risk associated with different types of surgery for carotid body paraganglioma of different Shamblin class. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate per tumour class, the local control, cranial nerve damage and complication rates of different techniques using internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA) ligation, clamping or bypassing, as well as the cranio-caudal versus caudo-cranial techniques. DESIGN: A meta-analysis is conducted after a systematic search in PubMed and the Cochrane library, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines...
April 15, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656561/advances-in-controlling-differentiation-of-adult-stem-cells-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#4
REVIEW
Metin Uz, Suprem R Das, Shaowei Ding, Donald S Sakaguchi, Jonathan C Claussen, Surya K Mallapragada
Adult stems cells, possessing the ability to grow, migrate, proliferate, and transdifferentiate into various specific phenotypes, constitute a great asset for peripheral nerve regeneration. Adult stem cells' ability to undergo transdifferentiation is sensitive to various cell-to-cell interactions and external stimuli involving interactions with physical, mechanical, and chemical cues within their microenvironment. Various studies have employed different techniques for transdifferentiating adult stem cells from distinct sources into specific lineages (e...
April 14, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656387/a-nationwide-analysis-of-30-day-adverse-events-unplanned-readmission-and-length-of-hospital-stay-after-peripheral-nerve-surgery-in-extremities-and-the-brachial-plexus
#5
Enrico Martin, Ivo S Muskens, Joeky T Senders, David J Cote, Timothy R Smith, Marike L D Broekman
BACKGROUND: Little is known on adverse events and their timing after peripheral nerve surgery in extremities. The aim of this study is to identify predictors and typical timing of complications, unplanned readmission, and length of hospital stay for patients undergoing peripheral nerve surgery in the extremities. METHODS: Data were extracted from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) registry from 2005 to 2015. Adult patients undergoing peripheral nerve surgery in the extremities were included...
April 15, 2018: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656327/analysis-of-regeneration-and-myelination-associated-proteins-in-human-neuroma-in-continuity-and-discontinuity
#6
Patrick Dömer, Bettina Kewitz, Christian P G Heinen, Ulrike Janssen-Bienhold, Thomas Kretschmer
BACKGROUND: Neuromas are pathologic nerve distensions caused by a nerve's response to trauma, resulting in a dysfunctional to non-functional nerve. Depending on the severance of the affected nerve, the resulting neuroma can be differentiated into continuous and stump neuroma. While neuroma formation has been investigated in animal models with enormous regenerative capacity, the search for differences in human response to nerve trauma on a molecular level ultimately seeks to identify reasons for functionally successful versus unsuccessful regeneration after peripheral nerve trauma in man...
April 14, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656325/dosing-of-the-second-generation-cryoballoon-using-acute-time-to-pulmonary-vein-isolation-as-an-indicator-of-durable-ablation-in-a-canine-model
#7
Wilber Su, Nicolas Coulombe, Nicole Kirchhof, Erin Grassl, Dan Wittenberger
BACKGROUND: Rigid time-based dosing protocol(s) currently used in the clinic for cryoballoon ablation of atrial fibrillation may be inadequate to guide the circumferential and transmural cryothermal energy transfer across the pulmonary vein (PV) and may result in injury to collateral tissues or electrical gaps between the PV and left atrium (LA). OBJECTIVE: A physiologic endpoint (e.g., acute time-to-PV isolation a.k.a. time-to-effect; TTE) may be effective in the determination of a transmural lesion formation and may allow for individualized ablation dosing across each PV...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656234/intramasseteric-schwanoma-mimicking-an-isolated-cheek-mass-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#8
Nazir El Khatib, Antoine Nehme, Selim Nasser, Nabil Moukarzel, Houssam Khodor Abtar
INTRODUCTION: Schwannoma is a benign well circumscribed tumor of the nerve sheath and it is mostly localized in the head and neck. Intramasseteric schwannoma represents a very rare entity and a few cases have been described in the literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present a case of an isolated, asymptomatic and slowly progressive right cheek tumor in a middle aged man. Although multiple investigations, including neck scanner and fine needle aspiration, were done, the diagnosis was obscure and difficult before definite surgical resection...
April 7, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656154/acute-recanalization-of-a-partially-thrombosed-large-intracranial-aneurysm
#9
E Atallah, E Valle-Giler, T Elarjani, N Chalouhi, S Tjoumakaris, R H Rosenwasser, N Herial, M R Gooch, H Zarzour, P Jabbour
BACKGROUND: Thrombosed large intracranial aneurysms(TLIAs) are not continuously contemplated as stable lesions. Completely occluded large IAs' spontaneous recanalization has been previously described. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of a middle-aged patient presenting with agitation, acute headache, visual field defects and left hemiparesis. A large thrombosed Posterior Communicating (PCom) artery aneurysm was identified with an infarct at the same arterial territory on neuroimaging studies...
April 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656149/total-laparoscopic-ureteroneocystostomy-for-ureteral-endometriosis-a-single-center-experience-of-160-consecutive-patients
#10
Marcello Ceccaroni, Matteo Ceccarello, Giuseppe Caleffi, Roberto Clarizia, Stefano Scarperi, Mauro Pastorello, Alberto Molinari, Giacomo Ruffo, Stefano Cavalleri
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of laparoscopic ureteroneocystostomy in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) with ureteral, parametrial, and bowel involvement. DESIGN: Prospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). SETTING: Tertiary referral center for endometriosis care. PATIENTS: One hundred and sixty patients with DIE underwent laparoscopic radical eradication and ureteroneocystostomy between January 2009 and December 2016...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655645/proton-beam-irradiation-a-safe-procedure-in-post-equatorial-extraocular-extension-from-uveal-melanoma
#11
Ira Seibel, Aline I Riechardt, Katharina Erb-Eigner, Alexander Böker, Dino Cordini, Jens Heufelder, Antonia M Joussen
PURPOSE: This study was performed to show long-term outcomes concerning metastasis rates and local recurrence rates after primary proton beam therapy in uveal melanoma with posterior extraocular extension (EOE) with the main focus on optic nerve invasion. DESIGN: Retrospective case series METHODS: All patients treated with primary proton beam therapy for choroidal or ciliary body melanoma with posterior EOE between July 1998 and August 2010 were included. EOE was either detected upon sonography at primary examination or during the surgical application of tantalum clips onto the sclera...
April 12, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655456/lambert-eaton-myasthenic-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Vita G Kesner, Shin J Oh, Mazen M Dimachkie, Richard J Barohn
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome is a paraneoplastic or primary autoimmune neuromuscular junction disorder characterized by proximal weakness, autonomic dysfunction and ariflexia. The characteristic symptoms are thought to be caused by antibodies generated against the P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels present on presynaptic nerve terminals and by diminished release of acetylcholine. More than half of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome cases are associated with small cell lung carcinoma. Diagnosis is confirmed by serologic testing and electrophysiologic studies...
May 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655455/congenital-myasthenic-syndromes
#13
REVIEW
Perry B Shieh, Shin J Oh
The congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a group of rare genetic conditions characterized by abnormal neuromuscular transmission. Typically, these conditions have been the result of a dysfunctional protein that is present in the presynaptic terminal, the synaptic cleft, or the postsynaptic terminal. Many of these syndromes present within the first few years of life with fluctuating and fatiguable weakness in a distribution similar to myasthenia gravis, although a limb-girdle distribution and late onset are also seen in certain specific types of CMS...
May 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655450/nature-and-action-of-antibodies-in-myasthenia-gravis
#14
REVIEW
Robert L Ruff, Robert P Lisak
This article discusses antibodies associated with immune-mediated myasthenia gravis and the pathologic action of these antibodies at the neuromuscular junctions of skeletal muscle. To explain how these antibodies act, we consider the physiology of neuromuscular transmission with emphasis on 4 features: the structure of the neuromuscular junction; the roles of postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors and voltage-gated Na+ channels and in converting the chemical signal from the nerve terminal into a propagated action potential on the muscle fiber that triggers muscle contraction; the safety factor for neuromuscular transmission; and how the safety factor is reduced in different forms of autoimmune myasthenia gravis...
May 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655449/diagnosis-of-myasthenia-gravis
#15
REVIEW
Mamatha Pasnoor, Mazen M Dimachkie, Constantine Farmakidis, Richard J Barohn
Myasthenia gravis (MG) diagnosis is primarily clinically based. By the end of the clinical evaluation, clinicians have a sense as to whether presenting symptoms and elicited signs are weakly or strongly supportive of MG. Diagnostic tests can reaffirm the clinicians' impression. Edrophonium testing is rarely used but helpful in cases of measurable ptosis. Decremental response on slow-frequency repetitive nerve stimulation has a modest diagnostic yield in ocular MG but is helpful in generalized MG cases. The most sensitive test is single-fiber electromyography...
May 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655447/ocular-myasthenia
#16
REVIEW
Mohammed Al-Haidar, Michael Benatar, Henry J Kaminski
Ocular myasthenia is a form of myasthenia gravis in which weakness is restricted to the ocular muscles and may produce significant visual disability. Patients present with fluctuating ptosis, diplopia, or a combination of both. Examination may show any type of ocular motility deficit ranging from isolated muscle palsy to complete ophthalmoplegia. Cogan lid twitch, enhanced ptosis, peek sign, and saccadic fatigue are specific examination findings that support the clinical diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. Confirmation of the diagnosis is challenging with autoantibody serology, and repetitive nerve stimulation studies are often negative...
May 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655446/practical-anatomy-of-the-neuromuscular-junction-in-health-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Hiroshi Nishimune, Kazuhiro Shigemoto
Neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) form between nerve terminals of spinal cord motor neurons and skeletal muscles, and perisynaptic Schwann cells and kranocytes cap NMJs. One muscle fiber has one NMJ, which is innervated by one motor nerve terminal. NMJs are excitatory synapses that use P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels to release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine receptors accumulate at the postsynaptic specialization called the end plate on the muscle fiber membrane, the sarcolemma. Proteins essential for the organization of end plates include agrin secreted from nerve terminals, Lrp4 and MuSK receptors for agrin, and Dok-7 and rapsyn cytosolic proteins in the muscle...
May 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653412/sensorimotor-gating-deficits-and-effects-of-antipsychotics-on-the-hyperactivity-in-vgf-overexpressing-mice
#18
Takahiro Mizoguchi, Hiroko Minakuchi, Miyu Tanaka, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara
BACKGROUND: VGF nerve growth factor inducible (VGF) is a neuropeptide which is expressed in neuronal cells and endocrine cells. VGF is induced by several neurotrophic factors. The expression level of VGF in patients with schizophrenia is increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and prefrontal cortex. In our previous study, we generated mice in which the expression level of VGF in the brain was increased. VGF-overexpressing mice exhibited abnormal behaviors including hyperactivity. However, it remains unknown whether VGF-overexpressing mice exhibit the endophenotype of schizophrenia and whether abnormal behaviors in these mice can be improved by antipsychotics...
November 22, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653151/selective-decline-in-the-prevalence-of-slowly-adapting-type-i-mechanoreceptors-during-development
#19
Peter M B Cahusac, Solomon Senok
Merkel nerve endings are identified physiologically as slowly adapting type I mechanoreceptor units. They are important for fine acuity tactile perception. We examined the effect of age on the electrophysiological availability of different types of slowly adapting mechanoreceptor units. Using 6 - 50 week old rats, we observed an obvious decline with age in the probability of recording from St I units of the deep vibrissal nerve. The precipitous decline occurred between ages 6 - 14 weeks and then stabilized...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652892/the-effects-of-electrical-field-spatial-spread-and-some-cognitive-factors-on-speech-in-noise-performance-of-individual-cochlear-implant-users-a-computer-model-study
#20
Tim Jürgens, Volker Hohmann, Andreas Büchner, Waldo Nogueira
The relation of the individual speech-in-noise performance differences in cochlear implant (CI) users to underlying physiological factors is currently poorly understood. This study approached this research question by a step-wise individualization of a computer model of speech intelligibility mimicking the details of CI signal processing and some details of the physiology present in CI users. Two factors, the electrical field spatial spread and internal noise (as a coarse model of the individual cognitive performance) were incorporated...
2018: PloS One
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