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Airway remodelling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337379/interleukin-17a-and-vascular-remodeling-in-severe-asthma-lack-of-evidence-for-a-direct-role
#1
Alice Panariti, Carolyn J Baglole, Veronica Sanchez, David H Eidelman, Sabah Hussain, Ron Olivenstein, James G Martin, Qutayba Hamid
BACKGROUND: Bronchial vascular remodeling may contribute to the severity of airway narrowing through mucosal congestion. Interleukin (IL)-17A is associated with the most severe asthmatic phenotype but whether it might contribute to vascular remodeling is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To assess vascular remodeling in severe asthma and whether IL-17A directly or indirectly may cause endothelial cell activation and angiogenesis. METHODS: Bronchial vascularization was quantified in asthmatic subjects, COPD and healthy subjects together with the number of IL-17A+ cells as well as the concentration of angiogenic factors in the sputum...
January 16, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324919/synchrotron-fourier-transform-infrared-maps-of-ovalbumin-induced-murine-chronic-allergic-airways-disease-correlation-with-conventional-histology
#2
Nadia Mazarakis, Jitraporn Vongsvivut, Keith R Bambery, Kenneth J Snibson, Simon G Royce, Tom C Karagiannis
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by airway inflammation, remodeling and hyperresponsiveness. The ability to replicate these asthma traits in the well-established ovalbumin induced chronic model of allergic airways disease is an important tool for asthma research and preclinical drug development. Here, spectra derived from focal plane array and Synchrotron-Fourier transform infrared maps were used to analyse biochemical changes in lung tissue from an ovalbumin-induced murine chronic allergic airways disease model...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322408/protocols-to-evaluate-cigarette-smoke-induced-lung-inflammation-and-pathology-in-mice
#3
Ross Vlahos, Steven Bozinovski
Cigarette smoking is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Inhalation of cigarette smoke causes inflammation of the airways, airway wall remodelling, mucus hypersecretion and progressive airflow limitation. Much of the disease burden and health care utilisation in COPD is associated with the management of its comorbidities and infectious (viral and bacterial) exacerbations (AECOPD). Comorbidities, in particular skeletal muscle wasting, cardiovascular disease and lung cancer markedly impact on disease morbidity, progression and mortality...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316647/role-of-polyamines-in-asthma-pathophysiology
#4
REVIEW
Vaibhav Jain
Asthma is a complex disease of airways, where the interactions of immune and structural cells result in disease outcomes with airway remodeling and airway hyper-responsiveness. Polyamines, which are small-sized, natural super-cations, interact with negatively charged intracellular macromolecules, and altered levels of polyamines and their interactions have been associated with different pathological conditions including asthma. Elevated levels of polyamines have been reported in the circulation of asthmatic patients as well as in the lungs of a murine model of asthma...
January 6, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315623/tnf-family-member-light-acts-with-il-1%C3%AE-and-tgf-%C3%AE-to-promote-airway-remodeling-during-rhinovirus-infection
#5
Amit K Mehta, Taylor Doherty, David Broide, Michael Croft
BACKGROUND: Rhinovirus (RV) can exacerbate allergen-driven asthma. However, it has been suggested that serial infections with RV may also lead to asthma-like features in childhood without prior allergen exposure. AIM: We sought to test the effects of RV infection in the absence of allergen challenge on lung tissue remodeling and to understand if RV induced factors in common with allergen that promote remodeling. METHODS: We infected C57BL/6 mice multiple times with RV in the absence or presence of allergen to assess airway remodeling...
January 9, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315274/synthesized-heparan-sulfate-competitors-attenuate-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lung-infection
#6
Nicola Ivan Lorè, Noemi Veraldi, Camilla Riva, Barbara Sipione, Lorenza Spagnuolo, Ida De Fino, Medede Melessike, Elisa Calzi, Alessandra Bragonzi, Annamaria Naggi, Cristina Cigana
Several chronic respiratory diseases are characterized by recurrent and/or persistent infections, chronic inflammatory responses and tissue remodeling, including increased levels of glycosaminoglycans which are known structural components of the airways. Among glycosaminoglycans, heparan sulfate (HS) has been suggested to contribute to excessive inflammatory responses. Here, we aim at (i) investigating whether long-term infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the most worrisome threat in chronic respiratory diseases, may impact HS levels, and (ii) exploring HS competitors as potential anti-inflammatory drugs during P...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314863/bacterial-derived-neutrophilic-inflammation-drives-lung-remodeling-in-a-mouse-model-of-copd
#7
Bradley W Richmond, Rui-Hong Du, Wei Han, John T Benjamin, Riet van der Meer, Linda Gleaves, Marshall Guo, Austin McKissack, Yongqin Zhang, Dong-Sheng Cheng, Vasiliy V Polosukhin, Timothy S Blackwell
Loss of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is common in the small airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Using mice that lack SIgA in the airways due to genetic deficiency of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR-/- mice), we investigated the role of neutrophils in driving the fibrotic small airway wall remodeling and emphysema that develops spontaneously in these mice. By flow cytometry, we found an increase in the percentage of neutrophils among CD45+ cells in the lungs, as well as an increase in total neutrophils, in pIgR-/- mice compared to wild-type (WT) controls...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310796/the-dynamic-actin-cytoskeleton-in-smooth-muscle
#8
Dale D Tang
Smooth muscle contraction requires both myosin activation and actin cytoskeletal remodeling. Actin cytoskeletal reorganization facilitates smooth muscle contraction by promoting force transmission between the contractile unit and the extracellular matrix (ECM), and by enhancing intercellular mechanical transduction. Myosin may be viewed to serve as an "engine" for smooth muscle contraction whereas the actin cytoskeleton may function as a "transmission system" in smooth muscle. The actin cytoskeleton in smooth muscle also undergoes restructuring upon activation with growth factors or the ECM, which controls smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304860/role-and-regulation-of-abelson-tyrosine-kinase-in-crk-associated-substrate-profilin-1-interaction-and-airway-smooth-muscle-contraction
#9
Yinna Wang, Alyssa C Rezey, Ruping Wang, Dale D Tang
BACKGROUND: Airway smooth muscle contraction is critical for maintenance of appropriate airway tone, and has been implicated in asthma pathogenesis. Smooth muscle contraction requires an "engine" (myosin activation) and a "transmission system" (actin cytoskeletal remodeling). However, the mechanisms that control actin remodeling in smooth muscle are not fully elucidated. The adapter protein Crk-associated substrate (CAS) regulates actin dynamics and the contraction in smooth muscle. In addition, profilin-1 (Pfn-1) and Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) are also involved in smooth muscle contraction...
January 5, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290750/an-update-on-anti-ige-therapy-in-pediatric-respiratory-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Amelia Licari, Riccardo Castagnoli, Elisa Panfili, Alessia Marseglia, Ilaria Brambilla, Gian Luigi Marseglia
Anti-IgE treatment represents a major breakthrough in the therapeutic management of severe allergic asthma. Omalizumab is the unique biologic treatment registered for asthma therapy in children. The clinical efficacy and safety of omalizumab treatment in the pediatric population has been extensively documented in specific trials and consistently expanded from real-life studies. In addition, new experimental evidence suggests that omalizumab may also interfere with the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying airway remodeling...
March 2017: Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289575/glycopyrronium-bromide-inhibits-lung-inflammation-and-small-airway-remodeling-induced-by-subchronic-cigarette-smoke-exposure-in-mice
#11
Yi-Han Hsiao, Ching-Min Tseng, Kang-Cheng Su, Wen-Chian Chen, Mo-Tzu Wu, Yu-Chung Wu, Shi-Chuan Chang, Yu-Chin Lee, Yu Ru Kou, Diahn-Warng Perng
The effects of long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) have not been evaluated in a model with simultaneous lung inflammation and small airway remodeling induced by cigarette smoke (CS). We exposed the mice to CS for four weeks with daily treatment with a LAMA (glycopyrronium bromide, NVA237) or its vehicle. Human bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) and lung fibroblasts were exposed to CS extract (CSE) or acetylcholine with or without NVA237 treatment. We found that NVA237, but not its vehicle, suppressed elevations in inflammatory score, epithelial thickness, and peribronchial collagen deposition in CS-exposed mice...
December 28, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289553/advanced-aging-causes-diaphragm-functional-abnormalities-global-proteome-remodeling-and-loss-of-mitochondrial-cysteine-redox-flexibility-in-mice
#12
Rachel C Kelley, Brian McDonagh, Leonardo F Ferreira
AIM: Inspiratory muscle (diaphragm) function declines with age, contributing to exercise intolerance and impaired airway clearance. Studies of diaphragm dysfunction in rodents have focused on moderate aging (~24months); thus, the impact of advanced age on the diaphragm and potential mechanisms of dysfunction are less clear. Therefore, we aimed to define the effects of advanced age on the mechanics, morphology, and global and redox proteome of the diaphragm. METHODS: We studied diaphragm from young (6months) and very old male mice (30months)...
December 28, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282706/the-association-of-rar-related-orphan-receptor-a-rora-gene-polymorphisms-with-the-risk-of-asthma
#13
Xulong Cai, Mali Lin, Shan Cao, Yunguang Liu, Na Lin
Asthma is a common, heterogeneous chronic respiratory disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the airway, airway hyperreactivity, and airway remodeling. The RAR-related orphan receptor A (RORA) gene has been identified for the pathogenesis of asthma. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between RORA gene polymorphisms and asthma susceptibility in the Chinese Zhuang population. This was a case-control study including 231 children with asthma and 343 healthy controls. The RORA gene polymorphisms were measured by the polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction genotyping assays and confirmed by sequencing...
December 28, 2017: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273246/asthma
#14
REVIEW
Alberto Papi, Christopher Brightling, Søren E Pedersen, Helen K Reddel
Asthma-one of the most common chronic, non-communicable diseases in children and adults-is characterised by variable respiratory symptoms and variable airflow limitation. Asthma is a consequence of complex gene-environment interactions, with heterogeneity in clinical presentation and the type and intensity of airway inflammation and remodelling. The goal of asthma treatment is to achieve good asthma control-ie, to minimise symptom burden and risk of exacerbations. Anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator treatments are the mainstay of asthma therapy and are used in a stepwise approach...
December 19, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262264/pde8-is-expressed-in-human-airway-smooth-muscle-and-selectively-regulates-camp-signaling-by-%C3%AE-2ar-ac6
#15
Timothy B Johnstone, Kaitlyn H Smith, Cynthia J Koziol-White, Fengying Li, Austin G Kazarian, Maia L Corpuz, Maya Shumyatcher, Frederick J Ehlert, Blanca E Himes, Reynold A Panettieri, Rennolds S Ostrom
Two cAMP signaling compartments centering around adenylyl cyclase (AC) exist in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells, one containing ß2AR-AC6 and another containing E prostanoid receptors (EPR)-AC2. We hypothesized that different phosphodiesterase (PDE) isozymes selectively regulate cAMP signaling in each compartment. According to RNA-seq data, 18 of 24 PDE genes were expressed in primary HASM cells derived from age- and gender-matched donors with and without asthma. PDE8A was the third most abundant of the cAMP-degrading PDE genes, after PDE4A and PDE1A...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245068/overexpression-of-microrna-375-impedes-platelet-derived-growth-factor-induced-proliferation-and-migration-of-human-fetal-airway-smooth-muscle-cells-by-targeting-janus-kinase-2
#16
Yamei Ji, Xin Yang, Huixia Su
The abnormal proliferation and migration of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells play a critical role in airway remodeling during the development of asthma. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators of ASM cell proliferation and migration in airway remodeling. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential role of miR-375 in the regulation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced fetal ASM cell proliferation and migration. Our results showed that miR-375 expression was significantly decreased in fetal ASM cells that were treated with PDGF...
December 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242170/a-shift-in-the-il-6-stat3-signalling-pathway-imbalance-towards-the-shp2-pathway-in-severe-asthma-results-in-reduced-proliferation-process
#17
Ikhlass Haj Salem, Sophie Plante, Abdelilah S Gounni, Mahmoud Rouabhia, Jamila Chakir
BACKGROUND: Bronchial fibroblasts are the main structural cells responsible for extracellular matrix production and turnover in lung tissue. They play a key role in airway remodelling in asthma through different cytokines including interleukin (IL-6). OBJECTIVE: To decipher IL-6 signalling in bronchial fibroblasts obtained from severe eosinophilic asthmatics compared to mild asthmatics and healthy controls. METHODS: Human bronchial fibroblasts were isolated from bronchial biopsies of mild and severe eosinophilic asthmatics and non-atopic healthy controls...
December 11, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242144/recent-advances-in-understanding-the-roles-of-blood-platelets-in-the-pathogenesis-of-allergic-inflammation-and-bronchial-asthma
#18
REVIEW
Tomohiro Takeda, Hideaki Morita, Hirohisa Saito, Kenji Matsumoto, Akio Matsuda
Platelets play an essential role in hemostasis to minimize blood loss due to traumatic injury. In addition, they contain various immune-associated molecules and contribute to immunological barrier formation at sites of vascular injury, thereby protecting against invading pathogens. Platelets are also crucially involved in development of allergic diseases, including bronchial asthma. Platelets in asthmatics are more activated than those in healthy individuals. By using a murine asthma model, platelets were shown to be actively involved in progression of the disease, including in airway eosinophilia and airway remodeling...
December 11, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237530/-mechanism-of-action-of-bet-bromodomain-inhibitor-jq1-in-treating-airway-remodeling-in-asthmatic-mice
#19
Xiao-Hua Zhu, Qiu-Gen Li, Jun Wang, Guo-Zhu Hu, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Qing-Hua Hu, Gang Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the molecular mechanism of action of BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 in treating airway remodeling in asthmatic mice. METHODS: A total of 24 mice were randomly divided into control group, ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma group (OVA group), and JQ1 intervention group (JQ1+OVA group), with 8 mice in each group. OVA sensitization/challenge was performed to establish a mouse model of asthma. At 1 hour before challenge, the mice in the JQ1+OVA group were given intraperitoneal injection of JQ1 solution (50 μg/g)...
December 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237464/tlr3-promotes-mmp-9-production-in-primary-human-airway-epithelial-cells-through-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#20
P-J Royer, K Henrio, M Pain, J Loy, A Roux, A Tissot, P Lacoste, C Pison, S Brouard, A Magnan
BACKGROUND: Airway epithelial cells (AEC) act as the first line of defence in case of lung infections. They constitute a physical barrier against pathogens and they participate in the initiation of the immune response. Yet, the modalities of pathogen recognition by AEC and the consequences on the epithelial barrier remain poorly documented. METHOD: We investigated the response of primary human AEC to viral (polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, poly(I:C)) and bacterial (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) stimulations in combination with the lung remodeling factor Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β)...
December 13, 2017: Respiratory Research
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