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Airway remodelling

David A Schwartz
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is localized to the lung, is characterized by a pattern of heterogeneous, subpleural patches of fibrotic, remodeled lung, and is associated with a median survival of 3-5 years after diagnosis. A common gain-of-function MUC5B promoter variant, rs35705950, is the strongest risk factor (genetic and otherwise), accounting for at least 30% of the total risk of developing IPF. The MUC5B promoter variant can be used to identify individuals in the preclinical phase of this progressive disease, and, in the IPF lung, we have found that MUC5B is specifically overexpressed in bronchoalveolar epithelium...
November 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Liuzhao Cao, Fen Liu, Yahui Liu, Tian Liu, Jinxiang Wu, Jiping Zhao, Junfei Wang, Shuo Li, Jiawei Xu, Liang Dong
PURPOSE: Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) acts as a critical cytokine involved in asthmatic airway remodeling. Our study aimed to characterize the crosstalk between airway epithelial cells and fibroblasts regulated by TSLP through the signaling pathways of Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human biopsy specimens and lung tissues from mice were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemistry...
November 14, 2018: Experimental Lung Research
Xiaoying Zhou, Tao Wei, Christopher W Cox, Andrew F Walls, Yuan Jiang, William R Roche
BACKGROUND: An increased degree of mast cell (MC) degranulation and damage to the epithelial lining are prominent features of bronchial asthma. In asthmatic airways, it seems likely that epithelial cells will be exposed to increased concentrations of proteases from MC, though their actions on the epithelium are still not very clear. METHODS: Bronchial rings from human lung tissue or 16HBE cell monolayer were incubated with MC-chymase in different doses or various inhibitors...
November 14, 2018: Allergy
Soraia C Abreu, Debora G Xisto, Tainá B de Oliveira, Natalia G Blanco, Lígia Lins de Castro, Jamil Zola Kitoko, Priscilla C Olsen, Miquéias Lopes-Pacheco, Marcelo M Morales, Daniel J Weiss, Patricia R M Rocco
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway inflammation and remodeling, which can lead to progressive decline of lung function. Although mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have shown beneficial immunomodulatory properties in preclinical models of allergic asthma, effects on airway remodeling have been limited. Mounting evidence suggests that prior exposure of MSCs to specific inflammatory stimuli or environments can enhance their immunomodulatory properties. Therefore, we investigated whether stimulating MSCs with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or serum from asthmatic mice could potentiate their therapeutic properties in experimental asthma...
November 13, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Ying Liu, Yi Miao, Xin Gao, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Huan Wang, Ya-Wen Zheng, Zhi-Yuan Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The etiology of asthma, which is a complicated disorder with various symptoms, including wheezing, coughing, and airflow obstruction, remains poorly understood. In addition, the effects of microRNAs (miRs) have not been explored. This study explored the effect of microRNA-200a (miR-200a) on airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) and airway remodeling in asthmatic mice. Furthermore, we speculated that miR-200a achieves its effect by targeting FOXC1 via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway based on differentially expressed gene screening, target miR predictions and a bioinformatics analysis...
November 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Santosh K Yadav, Sushrut D Shah, Raymond B Penn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Hananda A Poggio, Mariana A Antunes, Nazareth N Rocha, Jamil Z Kitoko, Marcelo M Morales, Priscilla C Olsen, Miquéias Lopes-Pacheco, Fernanda F Cruz, Patricia R M Rocco
BACKGROUND: A single administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been shown to reduce lung inflammation in experimental elastase-induced emphysema; however, effects were limited in terms of lung-tissue repair and cardiac function improvement. We hypothesized that two doses of MSCs could induce further lung and cardiovascular repair by mitigating inflammation and remodeling in a model of emphysema induced by multiple elastase instillations. We aimed to comparatively investigate the effects of one versus two doses of MSCs, administered 1 week apart, in a murine model of elastase-induced emphysema...
November 8, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Leah R Reznikov, Yan-Shin J Liao, Tongjun Gu, Katelyn M Davis, Shin-Ping Kuan, Kalina R Atanasova, Joshua S Dadural, Emily N Collins, Maria V Guevara, Kevin Vogt
Acute airway acidification is a potent stimulus of sensory nerves and occurs commonly with gastroesophageal reflux disease, cystic fibrosis and asthma. In infants and adults, airway acidification can acutely precipitate asthma-like symptoms, and treatment resistant asthma can be associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Airway protective behaviors, such as mucus secretion and airway smooth muscle contraction, are often exaggerated in asthma. These behaviors are manifested through activation of neural circuits...
November 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Adriana Palmeira Dias Rodrigues, Anelize Sartori Santos Bortolozzo, Fernanda Magalhães Arantes-Costa, Beatriz Mangueira Saraiva-Romanholo, Flávia Castro Ribas de Souza, Thayse Regina Brüggemann, Fernanda Paula Roncon Santana, Marlon Vilela de Brito, Camila Ramalho Bonturi, Natalia Neto Dos Santos Nunes, Carla Máximo Prado, Edna Aparecida Leick, Maria Luiza Vilela Oliva, Milton de Arruda Martins, Renato Fraga Righetti, Iolanda de Fátima Lopes Calvo Tibério
INTRODUCTION: Proteinase inhibitors have been associated with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and may represent a potential therapeutic treatment for asthma. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Enterolobium contortisiliquum trypsin inhibitor (EcTI) on pulmonary mechanical function, eosinophilic recruitment, inflammatory cytokines, remodeling and oxidative stress in an experimental model of chronic allergic pulmonary inflammation...
November 8, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Genfa Wang, Nabijan Mohammadtursun, Yubao Lv, Hongying Zhang, Jing Sun, Jingcheng Dong
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a worldwide epidemic. Current approaches are disappointing due to limited improvement of the disease development. The present study established 36-week side stream cigarette smoke induced rat model of COPD with advanced stage feature and evaluted the effects of baicalin on the model. Fifty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups including room air control, cigarette smoke exposure, baicalin (40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg, and 160 mg/kg), and budesonide used as a positive control...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Corrado Pelaia, Cecilia Calabrese, Rosa Terracciano, Francesco de Blasio, Alessandro Vatrella, Girolamo Pelaia
Omalizumab was the first, and for a long time the only available monoclonal antibody for the add-on treatment of severe allergic asthma. In particular, omalizumab selectively targets human immunoglobulin (Ig)E, forming small-size immune complexes that inhibit IgE binding to its high- and low-affinity receptors. Therefore, omalizumab effectively blunts the immune response in atopic asthmatic patients, thus significantly improving the control of asthma symptoms and successfully preventing disease exacerbations...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
(no author information available yet)
The incidence of allergic asthma has been increasing year by year. It is estimated that there are more than 300 million illnesses. It is associated with increased IgE, mast cell activation, airway hyperreactivity, excessive mucus production, and airway remodeling. The traditional view is that allergic asthma is associated with allergic reactions involving T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. Recent studies have found that different subsets of CD4+ T cells (Th17, Th9) as well as innately immunized cells such as mast cells and innate lymphocyte type 2 (ILC2s) are able to produce cytokine IL-9, leading to asthma...
November 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Jef Serré, Carolien Mathyssen, Tom Tanjeko Ajime, Hannelie Korf, Karen Maes, Nele Heulens, Conny Gysemans, Chantal Mathieu, Bart Vanaudenaerde, Wim Janssens, Ghislaine Gayan-Ramirez
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is characterized by an excessive inflammatory response of the airways, is often complicated by exacerbations. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk for COPD and may predispose COPD patients to a higher exacerbation rate, particularly during smoking. In the current study, we investigated the effect of vitamin D deficiency and cigarette smoke (CS)-exposure on lung inflammation and bacterial clearance after an acute infection with Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi)...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Dan Jiang, Zhimin Wang, Nan Yu, Cong Shen, Lei Deng, Youmin Guo
BACKGROUND: Airway remodeling is a characteristic structural change that occurs extensively in the airways of patients with asthma. The change can be evaluated by measuring airway dimensions by using high-resolution computed tomography. This study aimed to explore the variation trends of airway dimensions from the second- to sixth-generation bronchi in subjects with asthma. METHODS: Sixty subjects with asthma and 40 healthy controls underwent high-resolution computed tomography...
November 2018: Respiratory Care
Ran Wei, Puneet Dhawan, Robert A Baiocchi, Ki-Yoon Kim, Sylvia Christakos
LL-37, the only known human cathelicidin which is encoded by the human antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene, plays a critical role in protection against bacterial infection. We previously demonstrated that cathelicidin is induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ) in human airway epithelial cells with a resultant increase in bactericidal activity. In this study we identify key factors that co-operate with 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 in the regulation of CAMP. Our results show for the first time that PU.1, the myeloid transcription factor (which has also been identified in lung epithelial cells), co-operates with the vitamin D receptor and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (CEBPα) to enhance the induction of CAMP in lung epithelial cells...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Li Wang, Xiaoqian Feng, Bing Hu, Qingqing Xia, Xiuqin Ni, Yinli Song
The P2X4 receptor (P2X4R) contributes to airway inflammation and airway remodeling in mice with allergic asthma. However, the molecular mechanism by which P2X4R affects the airway remodeling in allergic asthma remains largely unknown. We established an allergic asthma model by ovalbumin (OVA) inhalation in BALB/c mice. Compared with the mice in the control group, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) increased and that of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) decreased in the OVA-challenged mice...
November 1, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Koen Van Crombruggen, Sylvie Taveirne, Gabriele Holtappels, Georges Leclercq, Claus Bachert
Although innate lymphoid cells (ILC)1s, ILC2s and ILC3s are emerging as important cell populations regulating tissue homeostasis, remodelling and inflammation, a vast majority of our knowledge stems from in vitro and murine experiments, and requires thorough confirmation in human diseases.Relative levels of ILCs were evaluated by means of flow cytometry in freshly resected human upper airways mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) without nasal polyps (NP) (CRSsNP) and with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), taking into account the patient's clinical parameters and disease comorbidities...
November 1, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Kielan D McAlinden, Deepak A Deshpande, Saeid Ghavami, Dia Xenaki, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal, Brian G Oliver, Mehra Haghi, Pawan Sharma
Current asthma therapies fail to target airway remodeling which correlates with asthma severity driving disease progression that ultimately leads to loss of lung function. Macroautophagy (here after autophagy) is a fundamental cell recycling mechanism in all eukaryotic cells; emerging evidence suggests that it is dysregulated in asthma. We investigated the interrelationship between autophagy and airway remodeling and assessed preclinical efficacy of a known autophagy inhibitor in murine models of asthma. Human asthmatic and non-asthmatic lung tissues were histologically evaluated and were immuno-stained for key autophagy markers...
November 1, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Miranda Sin-Man Tsang, Sau-Wan Cheng, Jing Zhu, Karam Atli, Ben Chung-Lap Chan, Dehua Liu, Helen Yau-Tsz Chan, Xiaoyu Sun, Ida Miu-Ting Chu, Kam-Lun Hon, Christopher Wai-Kei Lam, Pang-Chui Shaw, Ping-Chung Leung, Chun-Kwok Wong
Allergic asthma is a highly prevalent airway inflammatory disease, which involves the interaction between the immune system, environmental and genetic factors. Co-relation between allergic asthma and gut microbiota upon the change of diet have been widely reported, implicating that oral intake of alternative medicines possess a potential in the management of allergic asthma. Previous clinical, in vivo, and in vitro studies have shown that the Pentaherbs formula (PHF) comprising five traditional Chinese herbal medicines Lonicerae Flos, Menthae Herba, Phellodendri Cortex, Moutan Cortex, and Atractylodis Rhizoma possesses an anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory potential through suppressing various immune effector cells...
October 26, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Eleanor M Dunican
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is extremely heterogenous in its effects on airway remodeling. Parsing the complex and interrelated morphologic changes and understanding their contribution to disease severity has posed a significant challenge to the field. In the current issue of the JCI, Bodduluri et al. measured the complex effects of COPD on the airway tree using airway fractal dimension (AFD) on computerized tomography in a large cohort of smokers with and without COPD. They found that lower AFD was independently associated with disease severity and mortality in COPD...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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