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Giacomo Rizzolatti, Maddalena Fabbri-Destro, Fausto Caruana, Pietro Avanzini
In this review, we discuss first the anatomical and lesion studies that allowed the localization of fundamental functions in the cerebral cortex of primates including humans. Subsequently, we argue that the years from the end of the Second World War until the end of the last century represented the "golden age" of system neuroscience. In this period, the mechanisms-not only the localization-underlying sensory, and in particular visual functions were described, followed by those underlying cognitive functions and housed in temporal, parietal, and premotor areas...
June 20, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Hongmin Chu, Seongsu Joo, Jinyoung Kim, Jae Kyoun Kim, Cheolhyun Kim, Jihye Seo, Dae Gill Kang, Ho Sub Lee, Kang-Keyng Sung, Sangkwan Lee
INTRODUCTION: Assessments of the range of motion (ROM) in human joints have been widely used to evaluate the joint condition. Although maker based motion capture system is the most popular and practical method in the clinical field, there have been limitations such as the relatively long time required in procedure or influence of attached markers on natural movement. Recently, markerless motion capture systems have been actively developed due to their relatively lower cost and convenience for installation...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Keigo Kobayashi, Katsuhiko Naoki, Tadashi Manabe, Keita Masuzawa, Hanako Hasegawa, Hiroyuki Yasuda, Ichiro Kawada, Kenzo Soejima, Tomoko Betsuyaku
Background: Osimertinib, a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, exerts remarkable effects against EGFR T790M resistance mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer. Identifying T790M mutation by re-biopsy is essential before prescribing osimertinib. Tissue biopsy is the golden standard for this purpose, but several factors limit its success rate. The liquid biopsy with blood, using circulating tumor DNA, has been an alternative method. However, the true biological meaning and equivalence of liquid biopsy and tumor biopsy are still under investigation...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Daniel R Calabrese, Rebecca Florez, Katherine Dewey, Christine Hui, Dara Torgerson, Tiffany Chong, Hilary Faust, Raja Rajalingam, Steven R Hays, Jeff A Golden, Jasleen Kukreja, Jonathan P Singer, John R Greenland
Most lung transplantation immunosuppression regimens include tacrolimus. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes important to tacrolimus bioavailability and clearance (ABCB1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) are associated with differences in tacrolimus pharmacokinetics. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in these genes would impact immunosuppression-related outcomes. We categorized ABCB1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 SNPs for 321 lung allograft recipients. Genotype effects on time to therapeutic tacrolimus level, interactions with antifungal medications, concentration to dose (C0 /D), acute kidney injury, and rejection were assessed using linear models adjusted for subject characteristics and repeat measures...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
C A Netto, E F Sanches, F Odorcyk, L E Duran-Carabali, S V Sizonenko
Neonatal brain Hypoxia-Ischemia (HI) is one of the major causes of infant mortality and lifelong neurological disabilities. The knowledge about the physiopathological mechanisms involved in HI lesion have increased in recent years, however these findings have not been translated into clinical practice. Current therapeutic approaches remain limited; hypothermia, used only in term or near-term infants, is the golden standard. Epidemiological evidence shows a link between adverse prenatal conditions and increased risk for diseases, health problems, and psychological outcomes later in life, what makes pregnancy a relevant period for preventing future brain injury...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Jing Yuan, Luxin Wang
Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) is a high-acidity fruit, with two varieties available on the market. One is the green-fleshed, fuzzy, sweet but tangy-tasting kiwifruit, and the other is the yellow-fleshed variety called "golden" kiwifruit. While the whole kiwifruit is sold at room temperature at grocery stores, sliced kiwifruit is usually sold as a part of fruit salad in the refrigerated section. The survival of a five-strain Escherichia coli O157:H7 cocktail, a five-strain Salmonella cocktail, and a five-strain Listeria monocytogenes cocktail was evaluated on whole and sliced green and golden kiwifruit...
June 19, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Evan S Haworth, Michael J Cunningham, Kathleen M Calf Tjorve
Sugarbirds are a family of two socially-monogamous passerine species endemic to southern Africa. Cape and Gurney's Sugarbird ( Promerops cafer and P. gurneyi ) differ in abundance, dispersion across their range and in the degree of sexual dimorphism in tail length, factors that affect breeding systems and potentially genetic diversity. According to recent data, P. gurneyi are in decline and revision of the species' IUCN conservation status to a threatened category may be warranted. It is therefore necessary to understand genetic diversity and risk of inbreeding in this species...
2018: PeerJ
Marcus Vinicius Candido, Pernilla Syrjä, Susanne Kilpinen, Thomas Spillmann
BACKGROUND: Gastric carcinoma (GC) is a rather rare pathological finding in dogs, with the exception of some breeds which seem predisposed. The etiopathogenesis is largely unknown in dogs, whereas in humans GC often develops from gastric mucosal metaplasia and dysplasia. This study investigates whether dogs of certain breeds are more often subject to gastroduodenoscopy (GDS), and diagnosed with GC, mucosal metaplasia or dysplasia. A retrospective clinical database search was performed at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the University of Helsinki, Finland...
June 18, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Elena Ioana Iconaru, Luminita Georgescu, Constantin Ciucurel
OBJECTIVE: According to Golden ratio (GR) and Fibonacci sequence, models of the organisation of various structures can be encountered in biology, medicine, architecture and engineering. Recent studies indicate that GR can be highlighted in the organisation and physiological functioning of the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular homeostasis during rest and exercise testing by determining the GR validity at the dynamic level of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and heart rate (HR) values...
June 18, 2018: Acta Cardiologica
Matthew Yates, Sarah Strycharz-Glaven, Joel Golden, Jared Roy, Stanislav Tsoi, Jeffrey Erickson, Mohamed El-Naggar, Scott Calabrese Barton, Leonard Tender
Here we demonstrate the method of electrochemical gating used to characterize electrical conductivity of electrode-grown microbial biofilms under physiologically relevant conditions.1 These measurements are performed on living biofilms in aqueous medium using source and drain electrodes patterned on a glass surface in a specialized configuration referred to as an interdigitated electrode (IDA) array. A biofilm is grown that extends across the gap connecting the source and drain. Potentials are applied to the electrodes (ES and ED) generating a source-drain current (ISD) through the biofilm between the electrodes...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Svetlana Savić-Šević, Dejan Pantelić, Branislav Jelenković, Branislav Salatić, Dejan V Stojanović
We describe a new type of photonic material inspired by a Diachrysia chrysitis moth, whose nano-structured wings exhibit a prominent golden color. This is a layered photonic structure with a large refractive index contrast, whose alternating layers are rough at the nanoscale level. Theoretical analysis shows that the scattering and interference interact to enhance the local field within the layers and increase the absorption of the material, particularly in the UV-blue part of the spectrum. Theory is experimentally verified using holographically manufactured Bragg gratings in the dichromated-pullulan (DCP)...
June 18, 2018: Soft Matter
You-Yu Gu, Ping Huang, Quan Li, Yu-Ying Liu, George Liu, Yu-Hui Wang, Ming Yi, Li Yan, Xiao-Hong Wei, Lei Yang, Bai-He Hu, Xin-Rong Zhao, Xin Chang, Kai Sun, Chun-Shui Pan, Yuan-Chen Cui, Qing-Fang Chen, Chuan-She Wang, Jing-Yu Fan, Zhi-Zhong Ma, Jing-Yan Han
The purpose of the study was to explore the effect and the underlying mechanism of YangXue QingNao Wan (YXQNW) and Silibinin Capsules (SC), the two Chinese medicines, on cognitive impairment in older people with familial hyperlipidaemia. Fourteen month-old female LDLR (+/-) golden Syrian hamsters were used with their wild type as control. YXQNW (0.5 g/kg/day), SC (0.1 g/kg/day), or YXQNW (0.5 g/kg/day) + SC (0.1 g/kg/day) were administrated orally for 30 days. To assess the effects of the two drugs on plasma lipid content and cognitive ability, plasma TC, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C were measured, and Y maze task was carried out both before and after administration...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Zhenhong Wei, Wei-Qiang Liao, Yuan-Yuan Tang, Peng-Fei Li, Ping-Ping Shi, Hu Cai, Ren-Gen Xiong
It is known that perovskites with the general chemical formula of ABX3 (A, B = cations, X = anion) have been intensively studied over the last half century because of their diverse functional properties, such as ferroelectricity in BaTiO3 , piezoelectricity in PZT (lead zirconate titanate), and recently developed photovoltaic properties in CH3 NH3 PbI3 . However, rather less attention has been paid to their "inverse" analogs, antiperovskites, which have a chemical formula X3 BA, where A and B are anions and X is a cation...
June 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Leena Krogerus, Ivana Kholová
OBJECTIVE: The cell block (CB) technique refers to the processing of sediments, blood clots, or grossly visible tissue fragments from cytological specimens into paraffin blocks that can be cut and stained by the same methods used for histopathology. The technique brings additional tissue architectural information. CB can be used for ancillary techniques such as immunocytochemistry and molecular techniques. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed the literature on the various preparatory techniques of CBs...
June 15, 2018: Acta Cytologica
John Oppenheimer Md, David Bk Golden Md
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Daniel W Golden, Gregory E Kauffmann, Ryan P McKillip, Jeanne M Farnan, Yoon Soo Park, Alan Schwartz
PURPOSE: A structured didactic radiation oncology clerkship curriculum for medical students is in use at multiple academic medical centers. Objective evidence supporting this educational approach over the traditional clerkship model is lacking. This study evaluated the curriculum efficacy using an objective knowledge assessment. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Medical students received the Radiation Oncology Education Collaborative Study Group (ROECSG) curriculum consisting of 3 lectures (Overview of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Biology/Physics, and Practical Aspects of Simulation/Radiation Emergencies) and a radiation oncology treatment-planning workshop...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Jamie Golden, Jessica A Zagory, Michael Fenlon, Catherine J Goodhue, Yi Xiao, Xiaowei Fu, Kasper S Wang, Christopher P Gayer
BACKGROUND: Biliary atresia (BA) is difficult to distinguish from other causes of cholestasis. We evaluated the use of liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) and bile acid profiles in the rapid, noninvasive diagnosis of BA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and Institutional Review Board approval, we used LC-MS to measure 26 bile acids in serum and stool samples from experimental models of BA and in urine, stool, and serum samples from non-cholestatic and cholestatic human infants...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Kenneth I Golden
A recent approach that led to compact frequency domain formulations of the cubic and quartic fluctuation-dissipation theorems (FDTs) for the classical one-component plasma (OCP) [Golden and Heath, J. Stat. Phys. 162, 199 (2016)10.1007/s10955-015-1395-6] is generalized to accommodate binary ionic mixtures. Paralleling the procedure followed for the OCP, the basic premise underlying the present approach is that a (k,ω) 4-vector rotational symmetry, known to be a pivotal feature in the frequency domain architectures of the linear and quadratic fluctuation-dissipation relations for a variety of Coulomb plasmas [Golden et al...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Austin Lammers, Timur Mitin, Drew Moghanaki, Charles R Thomas, Robert Timmerman, Sara E Golden, Sujata Thakurta, Rafal Dziadziuszko, Christopher G Slatore
Purpose: The current standard of care for surgically eligible stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is surgical resection, but emerging data suggest that stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is potentially as effective as surgery. However, specialist views of the current evidence about SBRT and how they would incorporate a randomized controlled trial (RCT) into practice is unclear. We sought to understand specialist opinions about evidence regarding treatment of stage I NSCLC and how this translates into practice and clinical trial implementation...
April 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Zhenjie Cao, Lu Wang, Yajing Xiang, Xiaocen Liu, Zhigang Tu, Yun Sun, Yongcan Zhou
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays an important role in the vertebrate immune response to antigenic peptides, and it is essential for recognizing foreign pathogens in organisms. In this study, MHC class IIα (Trov-MHC IIα) from the golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) was first cloned and identified. The gene structure of Trov-MHC IIα was contained four exons and three introns. High levels of polymorphism were found in the exon 2 of Trov-MHC IIα. A total of 29 different MHC class IIα alleles with high polymorphism were identified from 80 individuals...
June 11, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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